Sie sind auf Seite 1von 62

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

What is ovality of auxiliary engine crank pin?

Combined effect of reduced effectiveness of L.O and directional thrust of the con rod.
This is maximum at around 45 degree ATDC
Uneven loading of units and overloading
Max Allowed: 1/4th of the bearing clearance
Removed By: Insitu Grinding and polishing
Reference: Fillet of crank web
Max. Allowed Grinding: 2mm, because after grinding 2mm or more surface hardness reduces
drastically. Due to this maximum allowable grinding is 2mm.
Bottom bearing damage reason is the ovality, bearing clearance and condition of L.O supply

Why are concentric springs fitted for A/E cylinder head valves?

If the frequency of the natural vibration of air or exhaust valve springs is a harmonic of the
camshaft speed, then the spring may vibrate axially and are said to surge. Surge can be
avoided by modifying the sizes of springs by arranging the springs in pairs and fitting one
inside the other.
If one spring fails the valve is held up and is not damaged by striking the piston.
The thickness of individual springs can be reduced as against original thickness.
Normally two springs of different vibration characteristics are chosen.
Moreover, the stiffness requirements and the space congestion at this place warrants a
concentric springs arrangement. The net stiffness is equal to the sum of individual stiffness.

What is SQUAT Phenomenon?

It is a venturi effect while vessel is moving on shallow water. A vacuum is created due to
which the draught of the vessel is increased there by increasing the engine load.
Steering ability of the ship is reduced as a result.

What is a thermostatic expansion valve?

This is a regulator through which the refrigerant is metered from the high pressure side to
the low pressure side of the system. The pressure drop causes the evaporating temperature
(saturation temp.) of the refrigerant to fall below that of the evaporator.
a. Avoids liquid refrigerant return to the compressor suction.
b. Automatic expansion control and maintain 6 ~ 7 degree superheat.

What is the function of an L.P controller?

The LP controller stops the compressor at low suction pressure caused by the closure of all
compartmental solenoids. When the pressure in the compressor suction rises due to solenoid
opening, the LP controller restarts the compressor.

What is the function of an L.P cutout?

This is used to protect the compressor against the low suction pressure due to loss of
refrigerant or blockage. If the a/c compressor suction pressure is allowed to fall below
atmospheric pressure then there exists a risk of moisture and air ingress into the system.

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

What is a Coalescer?

A device consisting of a material whose surface provokes coalescence.

The process of combining of larger droplets of a liquid like oil into larger droplets is called

Why is there a starting air overlap provided in a diesel engine?

a. To give a positive starting in correct direction.
b. Starting ability from any position.
c. If any one of the valve is malfunctioning. Engine can still be started.


What is the significance of firing order?



Balancing of primary and secondary inertia forces.

To assist the exhaust grouping.
For distribution of stress over the length of crankshaft and optimum bearing loading.
A firing interval for even turning moment.
What are the reasons for foaming in refrigeration compressor crankcase?

Due to rapid boiling out of the refrigerant dissolved in the oil when the pressure is suddenly
When the compressor starts operating, if a large quantity of refrigerant has been dissolved,
larger quantity of refrigerant boils out and can be carried through the refrigeration lines.
a. Liquid in the suction line (viz. TEV stuck open, incorrect super heat setting, sensing
bulb not closing, overcharge etc.,)
b. Crankcase heater not working.
c. Compressor capacity too high at the start.
d. Expansion valve giving too small superheat
e. Oil charge is less.

Explain the functions of lube oil in refrigeration system



Seal the clearance spaces between the discharge and suction sides of the compressor.
Act as a coolant.
Actuate capacity control.
Dampen the noise generated by the compressor.
What are the various windlass safeties?

a. Electromagnetic brake.
b. Motor overload protection.
c. Short circuit protection.
d. Restart delay timer.
e. A Restart stop.
a. Manual brake / mech. Brake.
b. Cable stopper.
c. Slipping clutch (torque limiter).

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
d. Relief valve.
What are the steering gear motor safeties?


a. Overload alarm.
b. 200% insulation in motor.
c. High temperature alarm.
d. Self-starting after power failure.
e. Short circuit trip.
f. Phase failure alarm.
g. One of the steering motor is fed from the emergency bus.
Hydraulic side there is two trips
a. Low level cutout
b. High lube oil temperature cutout.

What are the overhead crane safeties?

Current to motors field coils passes through solenoid coil of a brake which is magnetized and
holds a brake against spring and releases the rotor. Incase of power failure the solenoid is
demagnetized and brake is applied.
a. Limit switch on the fwd, aft, port, stbd, hoisting and lowering prevents movements
more than the allowed limits.
b. Overload trip.
c. Dead mans handle.
d. Guards over the pulley.
e. Locking device on the lifting hook.
f. Mechanical locking (to avoid crane movement during heavy weather)

What is a critical pressure?

It is the pressure at which gas will just liquefy at its critical temperature.

What is a critical temperature?

It is the temperature above which the gas cannot be liquefied under isothermal compression.

What are the air bottle safeties?



Relief valve
Fusible plug
Low pressure alarm
What happens if fuel pump leaks?


Fuel quantity is reduced loss of power, cylinder liner lubrication is affected.

Loss of cylinder power.
Late injection.
After burning.
High exhaust temperatures, smoky exhaust.
Power imbalance among units.

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

What are the constant tension winches?

It is a variation of the constant pressure and constant horsepower control for variable
capacity pumps. It is used to achieve constant tension winch system. In this case the pump
control is automatically operative across the neutral such that constant system pressure and
hence a constant motor torque is maintained whilst both drawing in and paying out.

What are the causes of turbocharger surging?



Rapid variation (reduction) in load.

Chocked exhaust and air passage like scavenge ports, valve or air cooler etc.,
Abnormal fuel system like a unit misfiring.
Chocked air suction filter, fouling of the turbocharger, unbalanced output from the
engine, damaged exhaust valve, scavenge fire.
What are the causes of cylinder head cracking?


Scale deposits
Inefficient cooling water
Uneven tightening of bolts and fuel valves
Fluctuating cooling water temperature (excessive temperature gradient)
Overloading or racing of engine
Faulty relief valve
Mechanical failure due to gas corrosion, acidic corrosion due to leaky exhaust valves
Water side corrosion
What is the normal relief valve setting of cylinder head in a diesel engine?

10 ~ 14.5% more than the working pressure about 120 bar (some what higher than
maximum pressure)

State the advantages of uniflow scavenging



Simple liner construction

Long skirt (for piston) not required
Stroke length can be increased
High scavenging efficiency
High thermal efficiency
Low grade of fuel can be burnt
Uniform wear of piston rings and liner
Less thermal stresses
Less intermixing of scavenging air with the exhaust gas
Exhaust valve can be made to open late more work, close early scavenge air is
more utilized.
Why cylinder liner wear is more at the top?


High temperature exposure due to the combustion gases

Loss of liner lubrication in low speed diesels
Corrosion, predominantly acidic due to combustion products
Fuel impingement, deposits
Change of direction of the piston, which causes to a step like formation at the reversal

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

What actions do you take incase of stern tube of the ship starts leaking?


Maintain low head.

Use higher viscous oil.
Replenish periodically to counter for the oil loss.
Drain off the water periodically.
Try to remove foreign particles by changing direction of shaft.
How do you test a fresh water generator plant for leaks?

a. Close the outlet of the distillate pump, vacuum breaker valve, bottom blow off valve
and feed water valve
b. Inject air into the evaporator shell
c. Keep the shell pressed up to about 1.0bar gauge
d. Sprinkle soap solution on to the jointings, packings, and suspected areas of the shell

What are the reasons for a piston crown to crack?


Casting defect
Thermal stresses due to cold starting air and scavenging air
Scavenge fire
Overheated piston(cooling failure, cooling side deposits due to oxidation of the cooling
e. After burning
f. Faulty fuel injection system (more penetration or loss of atomization)

What are the reasons for black smoke from a diesel engine?


Poor combustion due to faulty injection system

Low compression
Insufficient scavenging air
Fouled exhaust system
Broken piston rings
Ineffective lube oil seal
After burning, bad fuel and other fuel assisted faults
Faulty cylinder lubrication
During starting, it is inevitable as the engine maker sets the starting fuel index to a
fixed value. At this index there is insufficient air, low piston speed, cold combustion
chamber, low fuel injection pressure etc., each compounding the cause for black
What are the critical speed effects?

Resonance, torsional vibration, fatigue failure of components

Can be remedied by:
a. Detuners
b. Vibration dampers
c. Electric vibration compensator unit

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
What are the types of vibration in a diesel engine and which is the most

of vibration:
Linear vibration
Torsional vibration
Resonant vibrations involving any two of the above or may be combinational

Most damaging form of vibration is the torsional vibration mode, affecting crankshaft and
propeller shafting.

What is a node?

A node is found where the deflection is zero and the amplitude changes its sign in a vibrating
medium. The more the nodes in a given length the higher the corresponding natural

What is a forcing frequency?

W.r.t the crank shafts, the forcing frequencies are caused by the firing impulses in the
Firing impulses superimpose on one another and appear as a complex waveform represented
by harmonics
1x cycle frequency: first order harmonics of firing
2x cycle frequency: second order harmonics
3x cycle frequency: third order harmonics and so on
How can the frequency of resonance, the forcing impulses and the resultant
stresses adjusted?

By adjusting shaft sizes

Number of propeller blades
Firing order
Using viscous or other dampers
Using balancing weights
Detuning coupling
What is balancing?

Balancing is a way of controlling vibrations by arranging that the overall summation of the
out of balance forces and couples cancels out, or is reduced to a more acceptable amount.

Explain the vibration characteristics of low speed 2-S engines



External unbalanced moments

Guide force moments
Axial vibrations in the shafting system
Torsional vibrations in the shafting system
What is 1st order moment?

These moments acts in both vertical and horizontal directions. For engines with 5 cylinders
or more, the 1st order moments are of rare significance to the ship but it could be of a

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
disturbing magnitude in the 4 cylinder engines. Resonance with a 1st order moment may
occur for hull vibrations with two and/or three nodes. 1st order compensator can be
introduced in the chain tightener wheel. It comprises of two counter rotating masses
rotating at the same speed as the crankshaft.

What is a second order moment?

The second order moment acts only in the vertical direction and precaution needs only be
considered for 4, 5 and 6 cylinder engines. Resonance with the 2nd order moment may only
occur at hull vibrations with more than 3 nodes. A 2nd order moment compensator
comprises two counter rotating masses running at twice the engine speed.

What are the methods to cope up with the second order moments?
a. A compensator mounted on the aft end of the engine driven by the main engine chain
drive mechanism.
b. A compensator mounted on the fore end driven from the crankshaft thus a separate
chain drive.
c. A compensator on both aft and fore end completely eliminating the external 2nd order


What is an electric compensator?

It is electrically driven compensator preferably located in the steering gear compartment,

where deflections are the maximum and the effect of the compensator is maximum. Such a
compensator is synchronized to the correct phase relative to the external force or moment
and can neutralize the excitation. The compensator requires an extra seating to be fitted.

What are guide force moments and their types?

The origin of the guide force moment is the angularity of the connecting rod. It is the
vibration of the engine about the foundation bolts.
Guide force moments are caused by the transverse reaction forces acting on the cross head
due to the con rod crankshaft mechanism.
Guide force moments may excite engine vibrations moving the engine top arthwartships
causing a rocking (excited by the H moment) or twisting (excited by X moment) movement
of the engine.
Guide force moments are harmless except when the resonance occurs in the engine double
bottom system. As a precaution, top bracing is installed between the engines upper platform
brackets and the casing side for all its 2S models.

What are different types of the top bracing for a diesel engine?
a. It comprises of the stiff connections (links) either with friction plates which allows
adjustment to the loading conditions of the ship
b. A hydraulic top bracing by using the top bracing natural frequency will increase to a
level where resonance will occur above the normal engine speed.

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
How are the axial vibrations caused in the crankshaft? How are they
When the crank throw is loaded by the gas pressure through the conrod mechanism, the
arms of the crank throw deflect in the axial direction of the crankshaft, exciting axial
vibrations. These vibrations may be transferred to the ships hull through the thrust bearing.
Its remedy is to axially dampen the crankshaft vibrations.

How is torsional vibrations generated?

The varying gas pressure in the cylinders during the working cycle and the crankshaft /
conrod mechanism create a varying torque in the crankshaft. It is these variations that cause
the excitation of torsional vibration of the shafting system.
The torsional excitation also comes from the propeller through its interaction with the nonuniform wake field.
Remedy: modify crankshaft natural frequency by adjusting the diameter. Use a torsional

What is under critical running?

The natural frequency of the one node vibration is so adjusted that the resonance with the
main critical order occurs about 35~45% above the engine speed at specified maximum
continuous rating (MCR). The characteristics of an under critical system:
a. Relatively short shafting system
b. Probably no turning wheel
c. Turning wheel with low inertia
d. Large diameter of the shafting
e. Without barred speed range

What is overcritical running?

The natural frequency of the one node vibration is so adjusted that the resonance with the
main critical order occurs about 30~70% below the engine speed at the specified MCR. The
characteristics of the system are:
a. Turning wheel may be necessary on the crankshaft
b. Turning wheel with a relatively high inertia
c. Shaft with relatively small diameter (shaft material has to be of high UTS)
d. With a barred speed range of about +/- 10% w.r.t the critical engine speed

If resonance occurs, what is the solution?

The following modification(s) have to be carried:

a. Lanchester balancers, either on the engine or electrically driven units usually located
in the steering flat, compensated for ships vibration caused by the 2nd order vertical
b. Counter balancing weights on the crankshaft to be adjusted for compensating the first
order vibrations
c. Combined primary and secondary balancers
d. Adjusting the side stays

How to prepare a DB fuel oil tank for a survey/inspection?

a. Empty the oil, strip with portable pumps if required

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
b. Clean the tank with sea water and pump it through the oily water separator
c. Ventilate the tank(s) with a blower specially provided for the purpose, always cross
ventilate i.e. there should be at least two openings, each for entry and exit for the air
d. Check the space for explosive gases at various points suitably, more sampling should
be carried out at the corners at the bottom most part of the tank
e. Obtain the necessary certificates and get the checklist completed
Why are the CO2 bottles provided with dip tubes?


It is to ensure that only liquid is drawn during release. The liquid expands after the nozzles
and assumes the gaseous state. This will prevent co2 freezing and blocking the nozzle
Also it achieves the 85% discharge in 2 Minutes as liquid part represents a large volume of
The materials used in its construction are copper, stainless steel
Why a crankcase relief door is not fitted in the refrigeration compressor

Possibility of the contamination of the refrigeration system by air by leaks

Oxygen is not available in the compressor crankcase
The incoming refrigerant temperature is low and chances of hot spots is low
Crankcase forms the suction chamber of the compressor and chances exist that the
compressor may draw in air and moisture
Why heaters are provided in the crankcase of a refrigeration compressor?

a. To avoid carry over of the lube oil because at low temperature, the separation of the
refrigerant and the oil is difficult
b. To condition the lube oil, by maintaining the viscosity so that the lubrication is
effectively carried out.
c. This prevents the lube oil achieving its floc point which may cause narrowing or
chocking of the passages (flocculation)

What are the causes of a centrifugal pump reduced output?

a. Friction and leakage losses, loss of suction head, chocked suction filter, worn out wear
ring, air ingress in the suction side
b. Low voltage is applied to the pump motor
c. Cavitations on the impeller
d. Bad maintenance, incorrect fixing up of the parts after overhaul


What are the causes of vibration in the vertical centrifugal pump?

Misalignment of the shaft, worn out bearing, foundation bolts loose, hydraulic clearances not proper on the impeller, coupling bolts / seating damaged, bottom bush worn out, heavy
objects/debris deposits, and corrosion/erosion on the rotating parts

What is volumetric efficiency of air compressors?

Actual volume of air drawn in / swept volume

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

What is compression ratio?

(Swept volume + clearance volume)/clearance volume


What is brake thermal efficiency?

Ratio of the energy developed at the brake to the energy supplied. Amount of heat liberated
during the combustion to the heat equivalent at the brake

What is the function of a Solenoid valve in the refrigeration system?

There is an electric signal actuated valve in the liquid line of the refrigeration system just
before the thermostatic expansion valve. This is being actuated by the thermostat in the
refer compartment. The solenoid shuts off the refrigerant supply if the compartment is
sufficiently cooled to the lower set point of the thermostat. Also it connects the supply when
the temperature of the compartment goes high i.e. above the thermostat higher set point

What is the function of the back pressure valve in the refrigeration system?

Back pressure valve is fitted just at the exit of the refrigerant from the evaporator coil in a
multi temperature rooms system. This being fitted at the exit of the compartments whose
temperature is set higher (usually at about 4~5 degrees centigrade). The function of the
valve is to maintain equilibrium of the system as the pressure of the gas at the exit of each
compartment differs. More over the back pressure valve creates a back pressure on the
evaporator coil and ensures that most of the liquid refrigerant is made available to the lesser
temperature requirement compartments as their demand for the refrigerant is higher than
the compartments being maintained at a higher temperature. It is spring loaded non return

What is the function of a H.P cut out in a refrigeration system?

This is a safety device (trip) provided in the discharge of the compressor. It functions to trip
the compressor if the pressure in the HP side goes high above the working level

What is the function of the driers in the refrigeration system?

The filter/drier is installed in the main liquid line of the system to absorb any moisture
present in the refrigerant. It consists of activated alumina or silica gel in a renewable
cartridge. It also accommodates the charging connection

What are the usual stern tube bearing clearances?

a. Water cooled stern bearing clearance: 8.0mm (8~12mm)
b. Oil cooled stern tube bearing: 1.87~2.0mm


What is a usual volumetric efficiency of a diesel engine?

a. Naturally aspirated engine: 0.85~0.95
b. Supercharged engine: up to 4.0
c. For 2S engine: 0.85~2.5

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

What is a usual propeller drop usual value?

1mm/160mm of the shaft diameter


What are the advantages of a thin shell bearing?



What are the typical bearing failures?



Increased fatigue resistant properties

High load carrying capacities
Embed ability
Bedding not required
Easy storage, easy fitting, light in weight
Increased (enhanced) mechanical properties
Better heat transfer due to reduced thickness and uniformity of the contact with the
bearing housing

Fatigue failure (cracks)

Tin oxide encrustation (black SnO2 )
Wiping damage of the bearing surface
Tearing of the overlay
Acidic corrosion
Cavitations, erosion
Dross inclusion
Spark erosion
Bacterial attack damage (honey colored deposits on the bearing surface)
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the synthetic lube oils?

a. Better low temperature fluidity and pump ability, due to nil wax content
b. Better oil retention at high temperatures
c. Lower friction losses
d. Reduced thickening of the oil in service due to oxidation
e. Lower deposits at higher temperature due to resistance to oxidation properties and
thermal stability
a. Increased cost of the lube oil (about 6~12 times)
b. Poor availability
a. Air compressors
b. Purifiers
c. Hydraulic units

What is the purpose of the lube oil analysis?

a. To determine any deterioration in lube oil properties or additives levels and assess its
suitability for further service
b. To determine the type and level of the contaminants held within the oil which indicate
the rate of contamination and effectiveness of the purification process
c. To predict the internal wear rate on the machinery components
d. To lengthen the time between overhauls or surveys

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

When is the lube oil said have deteriorated?



What are the problems in cast iron welding?



TBN reduces
Viscosity reduces
Flash point reduces
Oxidation increases
Water content high
Insolubles increase
Dispersancy increases

Brittleness (cracks easily)

High carbon content in the form of graphite
Close grain structure
Poor thermal conductivity and differential cooling
Possibility of stresses and distortion
How is a propeller drop measured?

a. Turn the engine to coincide with the mark on the liner and the stern tube or normal
reference is taken to be that the engines unit 1 will be in TDC prior measuring the
propeller drop
This could be also arranged as with a designated blade of the propeller up wards while
measuring this drop. Blades are assigned alphabets A, B, C, D and so on.
b. Take the poker gauge reading and the compare with the previous reading
c. Bearing clearance : 2mm (oil sealed)
: 8mm (sea water lubricated)
Bearing length is about 2xdia of the shaft for oil cooled stern tube bearing
4xdia of the shaft for sea water lubricated stern tube bearing

Compare an engine flywheel and its governor

a. A governor maintains the speed of the engine
b. A flywheel controls the cyclic fluctuations of the engine RPM
c. Flywheel works on the virtue of the inertia alone and the governor uses the inertia
principle to actuate the fuel linkages to counter the changes in the engine RPM


Why are tie rods provided?

Tie rods are provided to keep the whole engine structure in compression which:
a. Increases the fatigue strength of the engine structure as it is the tensile stress which
causes fatigue
b. Maintain running gear alignment to avoid fretting
The firing forces that press down the bearing saddle also attempt to push up the cylinder
covers, the net effect being to put the whole engine structure into tensile loading. So the tie
rods are tightened such that the engine structure is maintained in compression even during
the peak firing conditions and that the engine is not subjected to the tensile loading.

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

Why tie rods are placed close to the centerline of the crankshaft?

During firing, the transverse girders are subjected to a bending moment as the saddle is
pushed down by the crankshaft acting on the cylinder head. To limit this bending effect and
consequent distortion of the bearing housing the tie rods are positioned as close as possible
to the centerline of the crankshaft.

Where is a thrust bearing installed in an auxiliary engine? And why?

Axial location of the crankshaft may be required if the coupling does not incorporate a thrust
housing. This is achieved by forming white metal rings on the sides of one main bearing shell
that allows the shaft to run with a small clearance between running faces on the two
adjacent webs.
In some engines a small collar may be provided at one side of the bearing. It is important to
appreciate that only one such locating bearing should be fitted to any one shaft, otherwise
the differential thermal expansions of frame and the crankshaft may cause problems.

What are the environmental problems with the use of CFCs?

a. CFC released into the atmosphere are broken down by pyrolysis to release chlorine
atoms which catalytically destroy ozone layer.(this layer in the stratosphere acts as a
filter to the UV radiation from the sun)
b. Furthermore CFCs along with other greenhouse gases inhibit radiation from the
earths surface thereby contributing to the global warming.


What is a pH value?

It is the logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration expressed in gram ion
per liter.
Pure water at 25 degree centigrade consists of equal concentration of the hydrogen and the
hydroxyl ions and equal to 10-14 gram ion per liter. If the hydroxyl ion concentration exceeds
the hydrogen ion concentration then the solution is basic and vice versa is acidic in nature.
pH value = log [1/H+]
If the water temperature is increased, the concentration of the hydrogen ion increases and
hence acidity.

Why is a man hole door elliptical in shape?

Any opening in a pressure vessel is kept to a minimum and for a man entry an elliptical hole
is lesser in size than the corresponding circular hole. More over it is prime concern to have a
smoothed generous radius at the corners to eliminate stress concentration. Hence other
geometrical shapes like rectangle and square are ruled out.
To compensate for the loss of material in the shell due to opening, a doubler ring has to be
provided around the opening. The thickness of the ring depends on the axis length along the
direction in which the stresses are maximum and the thickness of the shell. It is important to
align the minor axis along the length of the vessel, as the stress in this direction is
Longitudinal stress: Pd/2t where P= pressure inside the vessel, d= diameter of the arc, t=
thickness of the shell plating
Circumferential stress: Pd/4t
More over a considerable material and weight saving is achieved as minor is along the
direction of maximum stress.

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

Why is the fridge compressor belt driven?

a. A slight misalignment is a problem or vibration of the electric motor may lead to shaft
seal leakage, leading to loss of the refrigerant. So minimize these the fridge
compressor is belt driven.
b. In case of the liquid entry into the refrigeration compressor, the belt drive gives a
limitation of the damage owing to the slip in the belt and flexibility of the belt

Why intercooling is provided in an air compressor? And why is the
compression distributed into stages?
a. By employing the interstage cooling we are trying to achieve an isothermal
compression cycle. So least work is expended in the process.
b. The air outlet temperature after compression is lowered by intercooling. So oxidation
of the lube oil is prevented. Also good lubrication is achieved.
c. Lesser deposits in the air system.
d. Intercooling increases the air density and hence reduced volume of the HP
compression chambers is possible.
e. It facilitates removal of moisture by condensation at the intercoolers.
f. To facilitate intercooling the compression is distributed into stages. Also even load
distribution is achieved over the cycle.

What if the compressor motor connections are reversed after overhauling?

a. The lube oil pressure will not be sufficient for lubrication so the compressor may trip
on low lube oil pressure. The moving parts may get damaged due to the failure of the
b. The cooling water pump which is also shafted driven usually does not build up enough
flow/pressure hence the compressor may trip of the cool water non flow or high air

If viscotherm is absent or damaged how do you maintain the fuel oil
The required viscosity prior injection and the viscosity of the fuel oil at 50C are provided by
the fuel oil analysis report. Basing on the viscosity nomogram the required fuel oil heating is
determined. The steam inlet to the fuel oil heater is manually adjusted to maintain the
temperature and a close observation has to be maintained on the steam pressure and
temperature of the fuel oil at the outlet of the heater.
What are the reasons for the error between the helm order and the angle
shown locally on the steering gear unit?

Air in the hydraulic telemotor system

Buffer spring too weak or stiff, faulty hunting gear
Instrument error/defective
Worn out linkages

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
Why are the accumulators used in the hydraulic systems?


a. To absorb shock due to load variation or sudden change in the direction of flow,
impact loading
b. To maintain the circuit pressure by compensating for the loss due to leaks or pressure
increase due to rising temperature
c. To supplement the pump delivery where multiple circuit operations have wide flow
variations with a short term peak demand in excess of the pump capacity.
Accumulator charge can take place during low demand periods to meet maximum
demand later

Explain the cross head slipper lubrication

a. The lubricating oil is fed to the guide shoes by a pipe from the main lube oil system
b. The lubricating oil may also be fed from the drilled passages in the pin to the slipper
What is the material of the CO2 bottle and its accessories?


CO2 bottle: solid drawn seamless manganese steel

Cable: phosphor bronze
Seal/bursting disc: thickness 0.3mm, phosphor bronze
Pipeline: solid drawn MS galvanized
Siphon tube: copper tube
Cutter: 120 /travel 19mm

How will you decide for reentry into the engine room after flooding it with

Re-entry is determined by
a. Heat build up due to the scale of the fire and the elapsed time after release
b. Has the fire been extinguished or chances of a smoldering fire exists
c. Ships position, condition and the prevailing weather (ship may be listing to the angle
of progressive flooding etc.,)
d. The location of the entry point
e. Risk analysis outcome
What is the quality of the vapor coming back to the compressor suction in
the refer system? In addition, how will you ensure that the vapor has adequate
degree of superheat?
a. The condition of the vapor coming to the compressor suction line should have
adequate degree of superheat
b. The condition is checked by reading the pressure of the returning vapor and its
corresponding temperature from the P-T chart provided for the specific refrigerant.
This temperature is compared with that of the evaporator outlet and the degree of
super heat is expressed as the difference in the temperature.

What is the length of the crank web?

Length of the crank web = stroke length/2

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

What is lignum vita?

In the traditional sea water lubricated stern tubes the bearing material consisted of the
staves of the wood called lignum vitae. This has a property of lubrication in the presence of
sea water. They are fitted with the grains in the axial direction for economy and are shaped
with V or U grooves between them at the surface to allow for access to water. They also act
as a debris collector points. The staves are held in place in the bronze boss by bronze keys
attached to the bush by counter sunk screws. Bearing length is equal to 4times the shaft

What are the safeties in the fridge system?


HP cut out
Differential lube oil pressure cutout
LP cutout
Relief valve in the condenser
Belt driven
Cylinder head relief valve
Cooling water low flow/high temperature alarm
Motor overload
Oil separator
Mech. Seal
Unloaders /capacity controllers
Non return shut off valves
Sensors temperature, pressure

How will you know the presence of air in the refrigeration system? Explain
the procedure for purging air
a. High condenser pressure
b. Small bubbles in the sight glass
c. Compressor discharge pressure high/running hot
d. More superheat
e. Pressure fluctuations
f. Inefficient working
a. In the normal operation of the system, measure the liquid refrigerant pressure,
temperature at the outlet of the condenser/reservoir
b. Check the corresponding saturation temperature for the recorded pressure of the
liquid refrigerant from the P-T chart for the same refrigerant
c. Compare the measured temperature with the determined saturation temperature for
any sub-cooling and adjust the flow of the cooling water through the condenser to
achieve near saturation condition inside the condenser,
d. With the condenser liquid refrigerant outlet valve closed, circulate cooling water, start
the compressor and pump down the liquid to the condenser/reservoir, checking the
pressure in the suction line. If this pressure is allowed to drop down below the
atmospheric pressure then there could be chances of air ingress into the system
e. Circulate the cooling water till the cooling water outlet and the inlet temperatures
equal, a check to ensure complete pump down operation
f. Check the condenser sea water out let temperature, check the refrigerant pressure
corresponding to its temperature from the P-T chart of same refrigerant

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
g. Due to the presence of air they dont agree
h. Release air from the condenser, through the vent cock until the pressure of the
refrigerant in the condenser corresponds to the saturation pressure at the sea water
outlet temperature

What is the material of the boiler gauge glass?

The material used in the gauge glass is a special toughened glass containing
a. Silicon oxide or magnesium oxide
b. Borosilicate or lime soda glass

What is the material of a boiler tube?

Low carbon alloy steels containing chromium, nickel, molybdenum


What is the material of the ship side valve?

BODY: Nickel-Aluminium bronze / cast steel

Stem/Seat/Disc: Monel metal (cupro nickels of varying proportions are used popular being a
Cu:Ni = 2:1)
The cupronickels are known for their great resistance to the sea water corrosion, erosion by
the particles in the sea water, and strength.

What is the material of the propeller material?

a. Nickel aluminium bronze (nickalium)
Copper: 55~62%, Aluminium: 0.5~2.2%, Nickel: 0.5%, Manganese:
0.5~1.0%, Iron: 0.4~1.5%, balance is Zinc
b. Manganese bronze
Copper: 58%, Iron: 1%, Aluminium: 1%, Manganese: 1%, Nickel: 0.5%, Zinc:
38%, Tin: 0.5%


What is the general composition of the stainless steels?

Chromium: 18%, Nickel: 8%, Carbon: 0.12%


What is the material of the 4S engine conrod?

a. Forged steel: Open hearth plain carbon steel

UTS: 432~494 MN/m2
% Elongation: 25~30%
Fatigue limit: 208 MN/m2 (push pull)
b. Nickel steel, 3%Ni
UTS: 695 MN/m2
%Elongation: 20%
Fatigue limit: 309 MN/m2 (push pull)
a. Measuring the extension of the bolts
b. Use of the calibrated torque wrenches
c. Hydraulic tensioning
d. Angle tightening

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

What is the material of the foundation bolts?

High tensile steel


What is the material of the tie rod?

High tensile steel


What is the material of the double bottom plug?

Silicon steels

What is the material of the crankshaft?

Forged low carbon alloy steel. Carbon: 0.12% and less

101. What are the materials used for the diesel engines liner and piston rings?
State their principle differences
Generally the materials used for the piston rings are harder than the liner material. This is
due to the fact that the rings are subjected to wear always during their operation but only
the portion of the liner in contact with the rings wears.
Material used for the liner is generally the nodular cast iron, which is tailored to have
expansion along the length and negligible expansion circumferentially. Alloying materials are
added to improve certain characteristics like vanadium and titanium.
Piston rings are cast and machined from graphite grey cast iron. This ring may include
chromium, nickel & copper as alloying substances.
The prime property which distinguishes it from the liner material is that it has to flex
This is of primary concern for running in and to match the contour of the wearing liner
surface. Also they have to form an effective sealing of the combustion gases.

What are the liner wear rates? And how is it achieved?

This is

Old engines: 0.1mm/1000hrs

Modern engines(2S): 0.03mm/1000hrs
Modern engines(4S): 0.12mm/1000hrs
achieved by:
Highly alkaline lube oil
Load dependant jacket cooling water temperature control
Good quality of cast iron with a hard face
Careful design of the piston ring profile
Improvement in lube oil
Multilevel cylinder lubrication
Condensate separation from the scavenging air
By use of the anti-polishing ring or the piston cleaning


Explain why stainless steel is resistant to corrosion?

Stainless steel depends on the formation of a protective oxide film, tenacious chromium
oxide for resisting corrosion. This film is formed spontaneously on exposure to air or well
aerated water.

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
Without this oxide film, their corrosion resistance is only slightly better than other
engineering steels.

What is the material of the fuel valve needle and body?

Needle: high speed steel
Body: case hardened steel


What is the material of the chain and its tightener arrangement?

High tensile steels


Quote some important clearances in the rudder system

Jumping clearance: 6mm
Clearance at raphson slide mechanism: 16~19mm
Propeller drop: 1mm/160mm diameter of the tail shaft
Pintle clearance: 1.1mm~3.3mm


What are the usual pressures to which the boilers are tested?
New boilers, if > 6.9bar working pressure, 1.5xdesign pressure
If < 6.9bar working pressure, 2.0xdesign pressure
After major repair, 1.25~1.5x working pressure, duration of the testing: 30Min.


Explain the purpose of the hunting gear

To put the pump on stroke gradually
To stop the pump at the end of the stroke gradually
To lock the rudder at desired position till further movement is given at helm
To transmit movement of telemotor to pump
Spring in the hunting gear store extra control movement to ensure that the pump
operates at the maximum capacity for major part of the turning operation

109. Differentiate between the terms priming and foaming with reference to their
occurrence in a steam boiler
Both refer to the carry over of water into the steam outlet. Priming is due to the
mechanical/physical aspects and the foaming refers to certain insouble/solubles in the boiler
water, which by the principle of increased surface tension cause priming.
The various reasons for priming:
a. High water level in the boiler
b. Rapid changes in the steam demand
c. Safety valve lifting frequently due to its malfunction
d. Rough weather causing heavy rolling/pitching
e. Rapidly raising steam
f. High salinity of the boiler water
Foaming is the formation of unbroken chain of bubbles on the surface of boiler water. A
common cause of the same is the oil contamination.

Mention some important mechanical properties of metals

a. Elasticity:

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

Hardness: Resistance to abrasion
Toughness: Ability to absorb maximum energy before fracture
Ductility: Ability of the metals to deform plastically under tensile force
Stiffness: Ability to withstand deformation
Malleability: Ability of the materials to deform plastically under compressive force as
in forging or rolling
Resilience: Resist shock and impact
Brittleness: Tendency of the material towards brittle fracture. Brittle fracture is the
failure of the material without plastic deformation
Creep: Plastic flow under constant load application or heat
Weld ability:
Endurance: Ability to withstand alternating stresses
Cast ability:
Strength: Ability to withstand rupture
What is a tie rod bolt pinch screw? And what is its purpose?

Pinch screw is normally provided at the foot of the engine cylinder jacket to stop the tie rod
from vibrating during the normal service of the engine.
The pinch screw is fitted at the antinodal point of the tie rod to limit its transverse vibration
amplitude, thereby preventing its fracture due to vibrations. These can be arranged as a
group of three screws positioned equilaterally at the antinodal point. Each screw consists of a
stud, which is hand tightened by screwing the outer sleeve and held in place by a lock nut
which is tightened to a torque specified by the manufacturer.
112. What is the course of action after finding that a bottom end bolt is

Check the length of the bolt

Check whether it is within the limits
Check for cracks / surface finish. Check the threads
The tie rod can be rolled over a flat surface coated with Prussian blue. Any twists in
the rod are revealed by the Prussian blue lines on the tie rod which get adhered along
the twisted plane
e. If found alright, tighten the bolt and check the remaining bolts

Define higher calorific value and the lower calorific value

[H2O formed by the hydrogen in the fuel oil cannot exist as water at the high temperatures
in an internal combustion engines. The water formed by the combination of hydrogen and
oxygen absorb the heat from the combustion and forms steam. Therefore, some amount of
available energy is lost in converting water into steam. This energy is not available to the
Therefore, the calorific value of the fuel reduced by this amount presents the actual calorific
value available to the engine.] - This definition is given by reeds and I feel this has
to be altered after looking into the MANBW manual, which provides a graph to
calculate the Lower calorific value based on the Specific Gravity and Sulfur content.
Therefore, the amount of heat loss due to the inclusion of sulfur, which cannot be separated
by normal fuel oil treatment and its subsequent oxidation to SOx warrants the entire calorific
value to include correction for corresponding fuel content in a specific mass of fuel sample

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
and the energy loss due to sulfur oxidation. Corrections should also include for ash & water
Therefore, to get the practical scenario two specific calorific values are mentioned Lower
calorific value and the higher calorific value.
Lower calorific value = higher calorific value the energy loss in converting the mass of the
[water into steam] + sulfur to sulfur oxides + Loss of specific enthalpy due to ash content
present in unit mass of fuel.

Explain gear pumps w.r.t the materials used and the clearances

Rotors and shafts are integrally forged of Nitraalloy steel.

Gears are case hardened, medium carbon steel. They are hardened all over and ground
finished after hardening
Casing and bearing housing are close grained grey cast iron
Shafts are supported by white metal bearing or roller bearings or bronze bushes on the free
Liquid being pumped is forced out after being carried around the gear teeth between the
gear teeth and the casing.
Backflow is limited by:
a. Minimizing the radial clearances between the teeth of the gears and the housing
b. Increasing the number of teeth
c. Optimizing the side tolerances /play
Gear pump suitable for operating up to 25bar and can achieve displacement volume of
0.35~1.0 liters/revolution
Clearances between the gear teeth and the housing are of the order 0.02~0.03mm

What are the advantages and disadvantages of resin chocks?

a. 100% contact on uneven surfaces
b. Cheaper to install as no hand fitting is required
c. Dont corrode and are resistant to most of the chemicals
d. As they achieve good contact, there is little chance of fretting, thus cheaper, shorter,
non resilient bolts can be used. These permit a reduction in the bolt tension by a
factor of 4
e. Avoid vibrations
a. Overstressing of the bolts causes the resin to shatter and break
b. Maximum temperature is limited to about 80C

Explain the cavitation in the bearings

Vaporization due to oil pressure falling locally below vapor pressure causes bubbles in the oil,
which when goes to higher pressure region, collapses and shock wave is generated causing
heavy impingement. The causes:
a. High oil temperature
b. Low oil pressure
c. Vibration
d. Oil contamination

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

What are the Nimonic and Stellite coatings?

These are considered to be the hardened materials by the process of metallic cementation
Nimonic: carbon, chromium, Titanium, Aluminium, Cobalt, Molybdenum, Iron, Nickel
There could be other constituents such as Manganese, copper, silicon
Stellite: They are alloys of Cobalt, and Chromium, with the addition of varying amounts of
tungsten and other elements
They are very resistant to corrosion and abrasion. Retain their hardness at a red heat
Since they cannot be forged, they must be cast direct to shape or deposited by welding

Why is an equalizing line provided in the refrigeration system?

It is used in the installations where a large drop in pressure occurs in the evaporator. In the
expansion valve, the pressure acting outside (top) of the bellow corresponds to the
saturation pressure plus the degree of superheat of the refrigerant leaving the evaporator.
This pressure is trying to open the valve against the spring force from below the diaphragm.
The external equalizer connection has a saturation pressure of the refrigerant leaving
evaporator, to act below the diaphragm. Therefore the saturation pressure from the external
equalizer connection balances the saturation pressure of the sensing bulb leaving only the
pressure due to degree of super heat only to oppose the spring force. Therefore, this degree
of superheat is supposed to open the expansion valve.
By this method, we are getting a control over only the degree of superheat of the refrigerant
leaving the evaporator coil. This is important to ensure proper utilization of the refrigerant
and that no liquid refrigerant reaches the suction of the compressor.

What are the reasons for short cycling of a refrigerant compressor?

Refrigerant charge is too low
Frosting or clogging of the evaporator
Dirty suction strainer
Low pressure control differential too small
Wrongly adjusted capacity regulator
Refrigerant vapor in the liquid line
Too much cooling water
TEV faulty
Too high compressor capacity

120. What is viscosity? Differentiate between the kinematic viscosity and the
dynamic viscosity
Defined as the resistance of fluids to change of shape, being due to the internal molecular
friction of molecule with molecule of the fluid producing the frictional drag effect.
Absolute (Dynamic) viscosity is numerically equal to the force to shear a plane of fluid
surface of area of a unit square meter, over another plane surface at the rate of one meter
per sec, when the distance between the surfaces is one meter.
Kinematic viscosity is the ratio of the absolute viscosity to the density at the temperature of
viscosity measurement.
Viscosity index is a numerical value which measures the ability of the oil to resist the change
in viscosity with the change in temperature. A high viscosity index shows a good resistance
to the change in viscosity with change in temperature.

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

What is an Otto cycle or the constant volume cycle?

This is the constant volume cycle. Although no actual engine cycle operates strictly following
this ideal cycle, the analysis of this cycle provides a tool for comparison of performances of
actual engines under different operating conditions.
The most important noted difference between this ideal cycle and the normal cycle is that
this is a non-flow cycle involving an ideal gas whereas the actual cycle is a flow process and
the gases are real.
This cycle is explained as follows:
At the beginning of the process the cylinder is assumed to be full with a charge of fresh air.

The air is compressed isentropically following the law PV = constant. Heat is then added to
the same mass of air at constant volume. This point represents the maximum pressure and
temperature in the cycle. From here the air is expanded isentropically to the initial volume
and then the heat is rejected at the constant volume.

What is a Diesel cycle?

This thermodynamic cycle is first analyzed by Rudolph Diesel. This is a slight variation of the
above constant volume cycle, the difference being that the heat addition in the cycle takes
place at constant pressure. The other processes during compression, expansion, and heat
rejection remain same as with the constant volume cycle.

What actions do you take incase of an EGB Soot fire?

The oxygen levels in the EG Boiler/Economizer is about 14~16%, so this can support
The nature of combustible deposits include soot from the combustion of fuel in the plant as
well as some amount of unburnt oil (fuel and lube oil), particularly at low loads.
Ignition of soot may arise at sufficient high temperature of the layer of the soot whose
surface temperature may go up to 300~400C, but presence of unburnt oil may lower this
temperature to about 150C and under favorable conditions to about 120C.
SMALL SOOT FIRES: Mainly occurs during maneuvering with the engine being operated at
prolonged low loads. The situation may arise even at short low load running if the fuel is bad.
a. High economizer exhaust gas outlet temperature
b. Sparks from the funnel
c. Engine running parameters showing deviations due to increased exhaust back
d. High steam pressure or outlet temperature from the super heater section if fitted
How to deal with this situation:
a. Stop the main engine so that the oxygen levels can be brought well below the fire
sustenance levels
b. Carry out the boundary cooling
c. Fire watch to be kept on deck due to the risk of the funnel sparks, fire hoses to be
kept charged
d. Continue running the circulating water pump
e. Never use the soot blowers for fire fighting
f. Stop the auxiliary blowers
g. Ensure that all the exhaust valves are positively closed (check the spring air pressure)

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
If the soot fire has now turned into metal fire (identified immediately by the loss of the
circulating water of the economizer), stop the circulating water pump. Carry out the
boundary cooling.
If means are provided, deluging the economizer fires with copious amounts of water should
be carried out to the seat of the fire. This is essential because, if lesser amount of water used
the fire is additionally supported by the production of steam sourcing hydrogen for the
situation to get worse.
Hydrogen fire: Occurs because of dissociation of water (steam) into hydrogen and oxygen or
carbon in connection with carbon monoxide and hydrogen
This occurs only above 1000C
Iron fire: Oxidation of the iron at high temperature occurs at a rate sufficiently high to make
the amount of hest release from the reactions sustain the process. These reactions may take
place at a temperature in excess of 1100C
124. How do you identify the symptoms of a crank case explosion? What action
would you take to minimize the hazard?

Engine noise
Oil mist detector alarm
High bearing temperature (alarm if fitted)
In case of minor explosions the crank case relief door releases the pressure

a. Slow down the engine, inform the bridge
b. Take permission from the bridge for stopping the engine
c. Continue running the engine lube oil pumps
d. In severe cases, it is prudent to open the engine room skylights and other vents and
abandoning the engine room. The doors from the engine room to the accommodation
should be kept shut. Return to the engine room only after carrying out risk
e. Turn the engine by turning gear with the indicator cock opened to prevent seizure of
the hot spots
f. Stay clear of the crank case specially in the region of the relief door to the
turbocharger suction
g. Dont open the crank case door until sufficient time has elapsed

What are the various IG plant alarms and trips?

a. O2 content high
b. Scrubber tower water level low
c. Deck seal water level high
d. Deck seal water level low
e. IG pressure low
f. IG pressure high
g. IG temperature high
h. Boiler uptake soot level high (Ringlemann)
a. Scrubber tower water level high
b. Venturi water pressure low
c. Low IG cool sea water pressure

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

Scrubber cool sea water pump abnormal stop

Power failure
Incorrect mode of the boiler (mode set to NAV, GF.. etc)
IG temperature high high (more than alarm level)
IG blower abnormal stop
Deck seal water low flow
IG deck main extreme high pressure
Reciprocating pump is getting over heated, what checks should be carried
Inlet and outlet valves are to be examined
Inspect the seat and lapping should be done if required
Valve lift should be checked
Inspect piston and piston rings
Spring (valves should be checked for tension and springing action)
Liner wear down should be checked
Driving belt should be checked for wear down or damage
Explain the various rudder inspections and testing in the dry dock

a. Visual examination of the rudder plating for cracks and distortion

b. Air plugs and drain plugs are to be opened in the presence of the class surveyor,
repair superintendent and chief officer. Water draining out indicates a breached
rudder and the breach to be located by air pressure testing and applying soap
solution, repairs to be planned
c. Check the rudder drop in the steering gear compartment (trammel gauge)
d. Check the pintle clearances, jumping bar clearance and the palm coupling bolts
tightness to be checked
e. Check the rudder stock for corrosion, erosion and any damage
f. The inspection plates in the way of the upper, the lower pintle to be cut open, and the
pintle nuts checked for proper securing. Later the plates to be welded and tested.
g. Hydraulic test the rudder for a static head of about 2.45m of sea water
h. After draining and re oiling the internals, plug the drain and check the effectiveness
by a vacuum check and cement the plug
i. The rudder stock gland packing has to be checked and renewed
128. What is caustic cracking or embrittlement? What is its cause? Suggest
This is a form of intercrystalline/intergrannular cracking and occurs when a specific corrodent
and sufficient tensile stress exists. Iron consists of ferritic granules bonded by iron carbide so
this gives a scope of the intergrannular corrosion. This can be found in water tubes, super
heater, reheat tubes, and in stressed components of the water drum. The stress may be due
to thermal, bending or residual stress (due to welding). This usually occurs as a localized
attack in the combination of NaOH, some soluble silica and a tensile stress. The mechanism
begins with the accumulation of the corrodent NaOH due to
a. DNB (departure from nucleate boiling)
b. Deposition
c. Evaporation at the water line
d. Small leakage
e. High heat flux (rapid evaporation)
f. High pressure

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
This corrosion below 149C or with NaOH concentration below 5% is rare. Increased
susceptibility occurs at about 20~40%. This corrosion is difficult to identify in the beginning
and ND testing has to be carried out at the suspected areas. At some time after the initial
start of the corrosion, this manifests as a whitish highly alkaline deposits or sparkling
a. Applying heat treatment process to relieve stresses after fabrication/repairs (welding
b. Correct and accurate boiler water treatment
c. Avoid DNB
d. Avoid accumulation of the deposits
e. Prevent leakage of corrodents
f. Prevent carryover
g. Use of rifling in the water tubes
129. A shell & tube type cooler tubes are leaking, what is the procedure to rectify
the leaks?
Before jumping to any conclusions it is prudent to check where the leaks are from. It could
be from the breach on the tube (a hole etc) or from the origination of small gaps between
the tube plate and the expanded portion of the tube. The procedure should to be based on
the findings.
A holed tube should be plugged from both the sides; the plugs can be of cork, wood, rubber,
brass, or copper as supplied by the manufacturer. Care should be taken when plugging with
the metal plugs, not to damage the tube plate.
If the leaks are from the gaps between the tube plate and the tubes, slight flaring of the tube
may help preventing the leaks however this flaring, if excessive will damage the tube plate
and also the tube itself. Alternative methods are available by carrying out surface
preparation and applying metal repair putty, like Devcons brush able ceramic repair putty.
In the above process, if the plugging of the tubes is about 10% the tubes have to be

Explain a tube renewal process

To remove the tube, first remove the flare on the tube by chiseling off the flare flush with the
tube plate and then split the tube taking care not to damage the tube plate. The tube can
then be cut by a tube cutter to drop the tube inside the shell. Fitting of a new tube is carried
out by first positioning the tube in place between the end tube plates and flaring to the
correct amount by a flaring tool after fixing the other end by a brass wedge. It could by
either hand operated, pneumatic or motor operated. The tube should have a protruding part
about 1/4~1/8 and the flaring should be to about 1/8 + tube diameter at the tip.

What is a phosphate reserve? Why is it important in high-pressure boilers?

A reserve of phosphate should be present in the boiler water to neutralize any hardness
salts, which may enter. These salts would deposit as a scale on the heating surface if reserve
were too low while, too high a reserve leads to foaming and possible excess production of
sludge. It also gives alkalinity.

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
3CaCO3 + 2Na3PO4

---- Ca3 (PO4)2 + Na2CO3

3CaSO4 + 2Na3PO4 ---- Ca3 (PO4)2 + Na2SO4

3CaCl2 + 2Na3PO4

---- Ca3 (PO4)2 + 6NaCl

MgSO4 + 2Na3PO4

---- Mg (PO4)2 + 3Na2SO4

Precipitates as Sludge
At high pressure and temperature, reaction from left to right will be more. Therefore, it is
very important in high pressure boilers to keep the reserve level up to required concentration
to avoid excessive caustic alkalinity and thus caustic cracking.
Na2CO3 + H2O --- 2NaOH + CO2
In high pressure boilers where there is a risk of caustic concentration and subsequent caustic
attack it is common to apply a coordinated or congruent phosphate control programme.
These control methods are based on the hydrolysis of tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) and
disodium Phosphate (DSP) in the boiler water.
Na3PO4 + H2O ----- Na2HPO4 + NaOH
Na2HPO4 + NaOH ---- Na3PO4 + H2O
The objective is to maintain a desirable pH without the presence of free OH alkalinity. The
desired conditions are obtained by maintaining the relationship of the pH to phosphate
concentration in the boiler water at less than that of the equivalent stochiometric solution of
Na3PO4 (<3:1). This is achieved by the equilibrium reaction above. The congruent phosphate
approach utilizes mixtures of TSP and DSP to further ensure the absence of free OH alkalinity
and usually run with a Na:PO4 ratio of <2.8.

What is the routine anchor windlass maintenance?

a. Brake drum should be free of oil, grease and other deposits. The brake drum should
be cleaned periodically with a solvent prescribed by the maker
b. The brake drum and the disk should be checked for wearing out or damage
c. Gear oil should be checked for contaminants and level
d. The direction of tensioning should correspond to the correct operation of the brake. As
the reverse direction for tensioning would render the brake ineffective, check should
be carried out to ensure the same
e. Brake test of the windlass is to be carried out to the pressure mentioned by the
maker on the jack tool. If necessary, the spring tension adjusted. It should be done in
guidance of the instructions and in the tensioning direction. The number of turns on
the drum should also be checked and should be same as to the makers quote
f. The securing device of the tension spring adjust should be checked periodically for
any tamper

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
g. Anchor windlass testing should be carried out to check the efficiency of the windlass.
The windlass should raise the anchor with chain from 82.5m to 27.5m at a mean
speed of 9m/min
h. The foundation of the windlass should be checked
i. Other routines of the prime mover should also be carried out like for the windlass
electric motor or the hydraulic motor as the case may be

What are the cylinder lube oil properties?

SAE 50 or higher range oils
TBN about 70 for heavy oil burning engines with sulfur content of about 3%
Ability to burn completely and leave no deposits
Good detergency
Good load bearing property
Good spread ability
Incompressibility for accurate metering and timing the injection
High flash point

134. What is a pressure-vacuum valve and why cant it be used to vent the cargo
vapors during loading?
PV valve is designed to compensate for the variations in the tank pressure conditions due to
variation of temperatures and the vapor quantity. A drop towards vacuum condition because
of condensation of steam will also be handled by this valve. Usual set point of the valve is
about +700mmHg and -350mmHg on the vacuum side.
This valve cannot cope up with the requirements of cargo loading, as its capacity of pressure
venting is small. Moreover it is not designed for this purpose.
The valves displace a weight that vents the tank in case of an overpressure or vacuum
condition. The valves are fitted with velocity vents that make sure that the inert gas is
ejected out of the tank with such a velocity that it clears the deck sufficiently rendering the
deck surface safe.

What is a high velocity vent?

Tank vapors can be sent clear of the deck in case of excess pressure or during cargo loading
operation by a high velocity vent. The usual construction of such a valve is incorporated in a
mast riser, which is a long tower for safely venting the excess pressure of the inert gas in the
tanks to the atmosphere. The control is affected through a valve. The height of the mast
riser is arranged to vent outside the hazardous zone, generally 9m or more. The valve
consists of a variable moving orifice held by a counter weight to seal around the batten of a
fixed cone. Pressure build up in the tank causes the moving orifice to lift. The small gap
between the orifice lip and the fixed cone gives high velocity. The escaping gases are made
to pass through a flame arrestor and a flame screen. The valve has a cover that is normally
closed during sailing.

Air bottle maintenance and inspection

Regularly drain the bottle of water and oil

Regular inspection to ensure that the internal condition of the bottle is good
Check for corrosion both externally and internally
Inside coating, COPAL varnish condition to be checked to ensure that it is unbroken
and no peeling is taking place
e. Welding seam to be checked, carry out dye-penetrant test at suspected areas

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

The tell tale hole between the lap welding seams of the doubler plate / ring to be
checked for leaks in service to ensure that the internal welding is intact
Face of the man hole is to be checked for pitting marks
Drain should be clear
All points of high stress and corrosion are to be thoroughly checked viz. welds,
supports braces, the bottom of the bottle where water/oil is collected. Pay attention
to the zone of water line.
Check for leaks at the mounted valve glands/flanges, carry out inspection of the valve
face and seat for wire drawing effect
A timing check with the air bottle completely charged and isolated will give a good
idea of the intactness of the pressure vessel
The safety/relief valve setting to be inspected as per the class requirement
Regularly check the alarms and monitoring equipment for proper functioning
Explain the air bottle entry procedure

a. Inspection is to be carried out when the receiver capacity is not required for
b. Receiver properly isolated, depressurized and notice pasted
c. The internal pressure is to be checked by the pressure gauge and by opening the
drain valve
d. Open the manhole door carefully and ventilate the air bottle
e. Obtain an enclosed space permit and comply with it
f. Ventilation is to be maintained during the entire time of enclosed space entry
138. What action should be taken in case of corrosion/wasting observed on air
MINOR: clean the site of corrosion, observe the varnish manufacturer instructions for surface
finishing prior applying the coat. Apply new coat of the varnish.
MAJOR: The site has to be cleaned and revarnished as above. The air bottle has to be
Incase of excessive the entire bottle has to be replaced.
The derating procedure should be carried out as follows:
a. The extent of the derating is determined by the class surveyor to a value which
ensures the safe limit of the hoop stress at this reduced thickness of the shell plating
b. The derating should not violate the starting air requirements for consecutive starts of
the main propulsion engine
c. The setting of the safety/relief valve, should be set not exceeding 10% of the
maximum working pressure after derating
d. The cut in and cut out pressure switches for compressor automation should be
For these reasons the air pressure vessels on board ship are fabricated to allow for derating
in future still complying with the consecutive start requirements of the propulsion engine

What is a PV breaker? Why is it fitted?

This is a U tube manometer filled with an ethylene glycol solution (as a measure against
freezing). The height of the manometer is manipulated such that the pressure on either side
may displace the solution, into tanks incase of vacuum inside cargo tanks and outside on to
the deck incase of over pressurization inside cargo tanks. Usual set values of PV breaker are
+1800mmHg on high pressure and -700mmHg on vacuum side.

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
Pressure-Vacuum breaker is fitted to the IG main line on the deck to protect cargo tanks
from the following:
a. Abnormal rise of pressure in the cargo tanks which occurs when cargo is loaded with
specified rate and that all gas outlets are closed
b. Abnormal drop of pressure in cargo tanks which occurs when cargo is unloaded with
the rated capacity of the cargo pumps and the inert gas blower fails
c. Abnormal rise or drop of pressure in cargo tanks which occurs, when the breather
valves fails to operate properly for the fluctuation of the pressure in cargo tanks, due
to variation in atmospheric and sea water temperatures, altering the vapor pressure
inside tanks

What is the routine maintenance, checks on the PV breaker?

a. Check the seal liquid periodically and replenish the liquid in case
Liquid levels of inner and outer pipes do not coincide
0 points of inner and outer pipes do not coincide when the pressure inside
the cargo tanks is atmospheric pressure
b. Clean the flame screen in the cover at the top when the ships makes a dock-in
a. Checking the liquid level of the inner pipe (open the vent cock located at most top of
the gauge, close the upper gauge cock and open the lower gauge cock) this is also
termed as bigger range
b. Checking the liquid level of the outer pipe (close the vent cock, open the upper gauge
cock also open the lower gauge cock) this is also termed as smaller range
Two distinct scales are provided for the liquid gauge one higher and other lower the
respective readings (as in a and b) should match numerically
Disconnect and remove top cover with attached internal stand pipe. Disconnect and remove
Flame Arrestor Assembly. Remove flame screen. Thoroughly clean internal of flame arrestor.
Renew flame screen with shipyard supplied equivalent type mesh. Drain breaker liquid,
thoroughly clean internal breaker body, and stand pipe. Apply two coats of shipyard supplied
tar epoxy by hand brushing to all internal surfaces. Level gauges, cocks and protective
housing to be removed and transported to workshop for cleaning and overhaul. Dismantle
sight glass tubes and cocks for overhauling and cleaning. Upon completion, re-assemble and
re-install onboard with new shipyard supplied approved type jointings, studs, and nuts.
Prove filling and level cocks clear and free. Disconnect and remove PV Breaker valve.
Dismantle and clean surfaces. Lap valve and disc. Set valve to +0.21kg/cm2 and
0.07kg/cm2 in the presence of the attending superintendent. Record and submit calibration
of valve settings. Close on completion with new shipyard supplied approved type jointings
and sealing compound and bolts and nuts.

Explain the mounting arrangement of boiler feet

The alignment of boiler should incorporate provisions for thermal expansion at the boiler feet
(saddles) when the boiler is in hot operating condition. Expansion may be in the order of
10mm. Assuming a four-point support; one foot will be bolted down hard to the foundation,
while the other three feet will be bolted down so as to permit the feet to slide.
Holes for the fixed bolts will be reamed in place. The foundation bolts in way of the sliding
feet must be accurately located with respect to the elongated holes in the boiler feet to
enable the feet to slide clear of the bolts. The pipe sleeves prevent the bolts from tightening
down on the sliding feet. A brass liner or a lubricant such as molybdenum disulfide is

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
normally used to facilitate the sliding action. In some cases, the pipe sleeves are not used.
Instead, the bolts are tightened only slightly so that the boiler foot can slide.




Lock Nut
Boiler Feet

Steel Liner

Interference body bolt or fitted bolt


Foundation Bolt

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore


What is a fitted bolt?

The answer lies above. This is a closely fitted bolt. The holes are initially drilled to undersize
and are reamed in the assembling place before the bolts are tightened in place. Accuracy is
required in the machining. These bolts could be of two types one having a slight taper of
about 1:100 on diameter and the other having a large taper of about 1:15 on diameter.
However, the holes in either case are reamed in final place.
Some times an oversized bolt is stretched hydraulically reducing the bolt diameter. When
tightened down and the hydraulic pressure is released the final exact fit in the bolt hole is
achieved, like a pilgrim nut on coupling shafts.
These bolts find place in engine / boiler mountings, coupling shafts etc. and form a rigid
fixture. On main engine mounting these are situated aft of the engine in the way of thrust
block. The foundation bolts towards the fore end (either side of the engine P S) are
generally simple foundation bolts which are not fitted bolts. This system of foundation bolts
offers the rigid seating with provision for thermal expansion towards fore end.

What is the material of main steam piping and explain how it is supported?

Main steam piping is usually made of seamless low alloy steel. Where temperatures are
above 455C, the most widely used alloy contains 0.5% molybdenum, 1.25% chromium.
Gaskets between the flanges are made of thin stainless steel strips spiral wound with
insulating filler between successive layers.
There are three types of supporting to carry the weight of main steam piping.
a. Rod hangers
b. Variable spring hangers
c. Constant force spring hangers
Horizontal sway braces are often used to resist dynamic forces applied to the piping due to
rolling and pitching or due to vibrations transmitted to pipe anchor points. Sway braces could
be of the turnbuckle-rod type, the preloaded spring type or the hydraulically damped type.
At fixed anchor points, the pipe anchor brackets are separated from the anchor foundation
by insulating material to reduce the heat transfer from the steam piping to the hull structure.
144. Soon after complete overhauling a generator engine, its lube oil consumption
increases. What checks do you carry out in this regard?
a. Check that the lube oil system valves are set back to normal, and that the concerned
valves are correctly holding
b. Verify dip stick bottom for any blockage which can give erroneous results

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
c. Check for normal operation of the purifier
d. Ensure that the piston scraper ring is set correctly, if this ring is boxed back upside
down, the oil scraping action of the ring is lost and uncontrolled lube oil enters the
combustion chamber. This presents a significant oil loss
e. Ensure that the cylinder head valves are correctly boxed back. Misalignment of the
valve spindle with their guide also causes lube oil to enter the combustion chamber
causing oil loss
Generator lube oil sump level increases, what are the checks you would
carry out?
a. Check that the generator lube oil systems valves are correctly positioned and that the
sump filling valve is holding
b. Ask the personnel for if they have carried out any transfers just before, related to the
sump oil of the generator
c. Check the purifier for correct operation and that no water is being discharged with the
purified oil
d. Change over the generator concerned, isolate it and check the sump for any
contamination like water. Basing on the findings further inspections can be carried
out, like checking the cylinder liner jacket cooling water sealing O-ring etc.,

How do you prepare a boiler for survey?

Before a survey, the boiler must be prepared. The preparation process involves:
Water side preparation prior entry into the steam drum for internal inspection
Gas side preparation for external tubes inspection also the refractory condition can
be inspected
Electrical isolation
Electrical side isolation:
The power supply to the boiler control panel should be isolated. The power supply breakers
for the FD fan; burner pilot fuel oil pump should be switched off and caution tags put.
Gas side/Exhaust side:
a. If the boiler is an exhaust gas boiler, then the main engine should be isolated from
starting positively. The composite boiler should be isolated on the fuel side in addition
by manual isolation of the fuel line by a shut off valve and isolating the power of the
boiler control panel.
b. Oil fired boiler should be isolated on the fuel side by a manual shut off valve and
isolating the power of the boiler control panel
Waterside isolation:
a. The boiler should be taken out of service. With the boiler shut, isolate the boiler on
fuel/exhaust side electrical side and water side by isolating valves, power supply
breakers as the case may be
b. Empty the boiler of water by blowing down, after allowing sufficient time for the boiler
to cool gradually to prevent excessive thermal shock
c. When blowing down to sea, open the overboard valve first then the boiler valve to be
opened gradually. The nearing completion of the blowing down operation can be felt
by falling noise, pressure. At this point, care must be taken not to let the cold
seawater into the boiler. Start closing the boiler blow down valve when the boiler
pressure is low enough, and when it is down to the desired value, the valve must be
closed down tightly and the ships side cock closed. This is to be done to keep out the
seawater ingress positively even though the valves are usually of non-return type.

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
d. Allow the boiler to cool down further and loose all its pressure, and when the boiler
pressure is at atmospheric pressure open the air cock and gauge glass drains to
ensure the pressure is atmospheric inside the boiler
e. Either the top door or the bottom door can be opened at this stage but not both,
while removing bottom door care must be taken against any hot water if present can
cause injury to the personnel near it
After the boiler has sufficiently cooled the access points can be opened, the spaces well
ventilated, enclosed space entry/steam drum entry procedures should be followed.
The fire/exhaust side should be cleaned after initial examination
a. Open access doors in way of the uptake and front and rear walls and the burner
register and all hand holes
b. Hydro-jet all soot deposits on tubes. Allow for collection and disposal of fresh water
c. Mop up the fireside to dry. Neutralizing chemical can be added in order to avoid
corrosion. Heating lamps can be used to dry out the furnace
d. Scrape hard deposits on all generating and water wall tubes, sweep and remove all
carbon, soot and debris on the furnace floor
The waterside requires a similar approach for cleaning
a. Remove for access to steam drum and water drum manholes and headers
b. Allow for header blanks for water side survey
c. Remove all steam baffle plates in the steam drum
d. Hydro-jet cleaning of the internals of drums and tubes may be required to remove
mill scale and sediments

What are oxygen scavengers?

Oxygen scavengers are chemical compounds, which are added to the boiler feed water to
eliminate oxygen residuals and to assist in the passivation of metal surfaces.
There are a number of these chemicals available, and a selection is a function of the amount
of oxygen present, risk, feed system design, economics and any particular limitations
required by the process using the steam.
Some widely used oxygen scavengers are:
a. Sodium sulfite (Na2SO3)
Method of dosage: Dose the feed water continuously to maintain a desired
concentration. Where corrosion in the feed system is experienced, it is used as a
catalyzed form of sodium sulfite. The catalyst (usually a salt of cobalt) is to speed up
the following reaction, so that this is complete before the water gets into the boiler.
How is O2 Scavenged? : 2Na2SO3 + O2 --------- 2Na2SO4
Limitations: The speed of the reaction is influenced by the pH of the feed water
which should be between 8.0~9.5. Sodium sulfite adds some solids to the feed water,
so it should not be overdosed or applied to the cold feed water. Otherwise, this may
lead to increased blow down requirement.
Sodium sulfite can be used in the boilers of pressures up to 62 bars. Above these
pressures, decomposition products such as H2S and SO2 can affect steam purity
b. Hydrazine (N2H4)
Method of dosage: Liquid hydrazine is injected at the earliest possible point in the
feed water system.
How is O2 Scavenged? : N2H4 + O2 -------- N2 + 2H2O
Limitations: Excess hydrazine should be controlled to avoid an undue rise in the
ammonia level in the steam; there is a danger of copper corrosion in the condensing
plant. (Ammonia is produced by the decomposition of excess of hydrazine can provide
a suitable alkaline condition in the steam and in the condensate system,

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
3N2H4 -------- 4NH3 + N2). Hydrazine is not permitted in the systems where steam
is in contact with the foodstuffs.
c. Carbohydrazide (Eliminox) (N2H3)2CO)
Carbohydrazide is a combined form of hydrazine. It is superior in performance and is
designed to minimize exposure to hydrazine vapors during handling. Carbohydrazide
reaction products will add no dissolved solids to water. This can be used as an oxygen
scavenger and a metal passivator at both high (230oC) and low (60oC) temperatures.
Carbohydrazide can be applied to boilers up to 170 bars.
How is O2 Scavenged? : (N2H3)2CO + 2O2 -------- 2N2 + 3H2O + CO2
Limitations: in boiler, Carbohydrazide decomposes to hydrazine as one of the
products, so it cannot be used in systems where the steam is used for humidification.
(FDA rules)
d. Tannins
Certain alkaline tannin solutions have good oxygen absorbing capability. A 6ppm of
certain tannins extracts can remove 1ppm of oxygen at a pH of 12. The oxygen
scavenging efficiency is better than that of sodium sulfite.
e. Erythorbic Acid (Sur-Gard) (R1-C(OH)=C(OH)-R2)
This is an effective oxygen scavenger and a metal passivator. This is the only nonvolatile scavenger, which can be used for spray attemperation. This does not add
measurable solids to the boiler water; is non-volatile and will not hamper the steam
purity. Erythorbic acid can be used in boilers up to 122 bars. This is considered as a
safe substance by FDA.
How is O2 Scavenged? : R1-C(OH)=C(OH)-R2 + O2 -------- R1-(C=O)2-R2 + H2O
Limitations: Ammonia is produced in the boiler as a by-product. This is not
recommended for use for boiler lay-up. Good corrosion control requires a high boiler
water pH value since the magnetite film is at its most stable condition when the pH is

What are the various control actions?

The basic controller actions can be grouped as

a. Two position or on-off controllers
b. Proportional controllers: It is also called corresponding control. The corrective action
of controller, C, bears a constant ratio to the error = (Measured Value Desired
Value), Thus C = -K (where K= constant of proportionality)
c. Integral controllers: It is also called the reset action control. The rate of change of
corrective action is proportional to the error. Mathematically, dC/dt = -K or
C= -Kdt + k (where K= constant of proportionality, k= constant of integration, C=
control action)
d. Derivative controllers: It is also called the rate action control. The amount of
corrective action is proportional to the rate of change of error. It is never used alone
and is always used in conjunction with the integral and or proportional controllers. As
with a constant error, the control action being derivate becomes zero. C = -K d/dt,
(K= constant, C= control action)
e. Proportional-plus-Integral controllers
f. Proportional-plus-Derivative controllers
g. Proportional-plus-Integral-pus-Derivative controllers

How is the chain drive of a main engine inspected?

inspection is to be carried out as follows:
Make a general inspection for loose screws and bolts
Inspect lube oil pipes for damage, and check oil jet nozzles for possible stoppages or

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
c. Examine the rubber track of the guideways for cracks or other damage, replace the
guideway bits if they have started to be plucked out of the rubber stack
d. Check the teeth of the chain wheels. If abnormal wear is found, take a measurement
by placing a straight edge over the wear edges and measure the length of the wear
along the straight edge and the gap between the straight edge and the wear trough
e. Check the chains for cracks on possibly defective rollers and side plates
f. Check that for each chain link, chain rollers can run freely and that the chain links can
freely move on the pin and bushing
g. Check the chain wear by measuring the length of 10 chain links and compare the
result with the value in the data provided by the maker. If the parameter shows
abnormality then adjust the chain tightener

Explain the procedure of chain tightening

[Courtesy MANBW]

a. Loosen the nuts A, B, C and D to free the

chain tightener bolt
b. Turn the engine so that the slack part of the
chain is on the same side as the tightener
wheel. If balance weights are mounted, turn
the engine so that the weights hang vertically
c. With the balance weights in this position,
tighten the nut B on the chain tightener bolt
until there is a clearance of 0.1mm between
the shaft and the nut. then tighten the nut B
to a tightening angle of about 720o
d. Tighten the nut C hard against the contact face of the shaft. Tighten the nut D, lock
nuts A and B with the tab washer
e. Measure the distance X, if the chain is worn (i.e. X>165mm) repeat the procedure
from a, but tighten the nut B only to a reduced tightening angle 600o.
f. If the distance exceeds the maximum distance 265mm, find and eliminate the cause
of this abnormal chain elongation, like a defective chain, damaged chain wheels or
bearings etc., repeat the procedure from a.
g. Repeated tightening of the chain will gradually alter the cam angle in relation to the
crankshaft. It is therefore necessary to readjust the camshaft to its initial angular

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
position after the lead angle has been increased by 2o. The camshaft is adjusted by
turning both halves at the coupling joint with the chain wheel

Why is a copper gasket annealed?

The essential qualities of a copper gasket are softness and toughness (provision for cold
working without fracture). In its place the copper gasket is subjected to considerable
mechanical stress, resulting from elastic strains internally balanced. These elastic strains are
due to jamming of dislocations, which occurred during cold deformation (during service). If
this cold worked gasket is heated to a sufficiently high temperature the total energy available
to the distorted regions will make possible the movement of atoms into positions of
equilibrium so that the elastic strains diminish and the locked-up energy associated with
them escapes. Tensile strength and hardness will fall to approximately their original values
and capacity for cold work will have returned.

What is the difference between a safety valve and a relief valve?

A safety valve is a pressure relief valve actuated by inlet static pressure and characterized by
rapid opening or pop action.
A relief valve is a pressure-relieving valve actuated by inlet static pressure and opens in
proportion to the increase in pressure over the opening pressure.
The terms safety and relief are synonymous; the safety valve is generally applied to valves
protecting any vessel, which could explode and endanger life whereas the relief valve is more
appropriate to the valve protecting system containing non-expansible liquid a burst causing
no violent explosion.
Another notable difference between these valves is that the vent of a safety valve is led to a
safe place (harmless to the working personnel) whereas a relief valve vents just outside the

What are the parameters of a lube oil analysis?

The parameters of a two stroke, heavy fuel oil engine circulating/system lube oil are
a. Specific gravity: Range 0.90~0.98. This is used for identification of the oil. Limits: 5%
of initial value
b. Viscosity: Viscosity increases with oxidation, contamination with cylinder oil, heavy
fuel or water. Diesel fuel contamination decreases viscosity. Limits: Max 40%, Min 15% of initial value
c. Flash point: Gives an indication of possible dilution with diesel oil. Limits: Minimum:
d. TAN (total acid number): Expresses the total content of organic and inorganic acids in
the oil. Organic acids are due to oxidation products. TAN = SAN + weak acid number.
Limits: TAN 2
e. SAN (strong acid number): This expresses the amount of inorganic acids in the lube
oil. Inorganic acids are usually sulfuric acid from the combustion chamber or
hydrochloric acid arising from seawater. This will be stated. SAN makes lube oil
corrosive (especially together with water) and should be zero. Limits: SAN = 0
f. Alkalinity/TBN (total base number): Gives the alkalinity levels in the lube oil
containing acid neutralizing additives. Limits: High = 100%, Low = -30% of initial
g. Water: Could be fresh water or sea water, will be stated. Limits: Fresh water: 0.2%
(0.5% for short period), saline water: Traces
h. Conradsen carbon: Residue from incomplete combustion, or cracked lubricating and
cylinder oil. Limits: Max 3%

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

Ash: May be used to indicate the amount of additives in the lube oil. It can also
consist of wear particles, sand and rust. It should always be evaluated by comparison
with the ash content of the unused oil. Limits: Max 2%
Insolubles: Stated as pentane/heptane and benzene insolubles. Equal parts of the oil
sample are diluted with benzene and normal pentane or heptane. As oxidized oil
(lacquer and varnish like constituents) is only soluble in benzene, and not in pentane
or heptane, the difference in the amount of insolubles is indicative of the degree of oil
oxidation. Benzene insolubles are the solid contaminants. Limits: Pentane insolubles
Max 2%, Benzene insolubles Max 1%

Apart from the primary parameters as stated above, the insolubles are usually stated as
percentage/ppm of individual constituents such as Vanadium, Sodium, Aluminium, Iron,
Silicon, Tin etc., which shows the engine wear and tear empirically.

Explain hot gas defrosting in a/c fridge system

R e-eva p orato r

R ed u cin g v/v

E vapo rato r
S en sin g Lin e

S u ction sole n o id v /v
E xp an sio n v /v

D rain

D rain

From oth e r E vap orators

H ot G as S o len o id v/v

Liq u id S ole n o id v /v

A /C C om p re sso r

E le ctric M o to r

C on d en ser

D e fro stin g C ircu it

T o O th e r E v a p ora to rs

Two kinds of hot gas defrosting systems by pass line are shown here.
A by pass line hot gas defrosting system as above. This can be carried out for one
evaporator coil when others are in use.
Below is another type of hot gas defrosting system which is also called reverse cycle
defrosting system and is used when all the evaporator coils have to be defrosted.

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

Defrost circuit


Check v/v

Expansion v/v

Electric Motor

way v/v

A/C Com pressor



Check v/v

Expansion v/v


What is the difference between coagulation and coalescing?

A Coalescer filter element consists of some pre-filter for particulate removal followed by
compressed inorganic fiber coalescing unit in which water is collected into larger globules
Coalescing action is relatively complex and simply it can be said to be due to the molecular
attraction between the water droplets and the inorganic fibers is greater than that between
the oil and the fibers. When the water globules are large, enough they will move with the
stream out of the coalescing unit.
Coagulation is the process of agglomeration of smaller particles into larger particle due to
intermolecular attraction between similar molecules in preference

Why do we carry out boiler water treatment?

The objects of boiler water treatment are:

a. Prevention of scale formation and feed system by
Using distilled water
Precipitating all scale forming salts into the form of a non-adherent sludge
b. Prevention of corrosion in the boiler and feed system by maintaining the boiler water
in an alkaline condition and free from dissolved gases
c. Control of the sludge formation and prevention of carry over with the steam
d. Prevention of entry into the boiler of foreign matter such as oil, waste, mill-scale,
iron oxides, copper particles, sand, weld spatter, etc., by careful use of oil heating
arrangements (close watch on the drains), effective pre-commission cleaning and
maintaining the steam and condensate systems in a non-corrosive condition

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

How do you indent a drill bit?

a. Order the drills in consultation with the personnel routinely working with the tools
b. Take the inventory of the drills, estimate the consumption of each drill, analyze to
ensure that excess inventory is not kept
d. Regarding the technical specifications follow the instructions as per the ordering book
e. Some aspects should be looked into before arriving at a conclusion, these are:
a. Material of the tool and the intended nature of its work, like for light or heavy
b. Industry specification like DIN, JIS, BIS etc.,
b. Length of the drill, normal or extra length
c. Cutting angle, standard angles are 118 & 135 degrees
d. Nature of twist, right handed, left handed, spiral etc.,
e. The shank shape, tapered, straight or S cut
f. Number of flutes
g. Drills and counter sinks
h. Reputation of the company and cost
i. Any previous experience with the companys tools
Most commonly used drills on board are jobber drills (drills without a shank, which are
gripped in the vice) for light duty, tapered shank drills for medium to heavy duty

What checks do you make if a compressor trips on low lube oil pressure?

Incase of reciprocating compressor

a. Direction of rotation, in case the motor is overhauled or some maintenance carried on
the motor
b. Suction filter should be cleaned
c. Check the pressure switch
d. Inspect the lube oil pump
e. Check if any lube oil pipe is holed
f. Check for excessive foaming
Incase of rotary compressor,
a. Check whether the lube oil pump is rotating with the compressor
b. Check the condition of vanes and the elliptical casing for scoring damage
c. Check the compressor is free to turn, no seizure of rotor, no wear on the vanes and
the casing

What are the reasons of piston seizure in a reciprocating air compressor?

Failure of lubrication
Failure of cooling water
Valve part broken and fell into the chamber
Piston ring breakage

159. What are the instructions you would give to the watchkeepers regarding

Check the water level by gauge glass

Keep an eye on the steam pressure
Watch the flame pattern
Check the vicinity of the oil burning equipment for any traces of oil

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

Maintain the hot well temperature about 85C
Check the hot well level and maintain it
Atomizing steam pressure should be monitored
Fuel oil pressure, temperature, the fuel oil pump its suction pressure
Amperage drawn by the related motors like FD fan
What is the procedure of conrod removal from a main engine?
[Courtesy MANBW]
a. Turn the engine to BDC.
Dismount the nuts from the
crosshead bearing studs
b. Mount the shackles in the top
of the crankcase in the lifting
brackets, in the athwart ship
direction, and suspend two
c. Turn the crank to TDC.
Dismount the crankpin
bearing cap, and remove the
bearing cap from the engine
d. Mount the four supports
for guides shoes on the
crosshead guides, turn
the crank towards the
camshaft side, until the
guide shoes rest on the
supports. Adjust the
supports brackets to the
guide so that the weight
of the crosshead is evenly
distributed on the four
e. Mount the lifting


attachments for securing the

connecting rod on the head of the
connecting rod. Fasten tackles to
the lifting brackets A and B on the
box wall, and attach the tackle
hooks to the mentioned lifting
attachments on the connecting rod
head. Haul the tackles tight. Also
mount a lifting attachment on the
lower end of the conrod, on the
exhaust side
Turn the crankthrow carefully
towards BDC while following with
the tackles, thus continuously
supporting the connecting rod.
The crosshead now rests on the

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
four supports. Turn the crankthrow to 90 before BDC
g. Shift tackle B from the lifting attachment on one
side of the connecting rod to the lifting attachment
on the other side. Dismount the lifting attachment
on the camshaft side of the connecting rod. Attach
a tackle to the lifting bracket C on the frame box
wall box and connect the tackle hook to the lifting
attachment on the lower end of the connecting rod.
Mount the wire guide on the doorframe. Turn the
crankthrow towards TDC while following with the
tackles thus continuously supporting and guiding
the connecting rod towards the doorway
h. Attach a tackle to the gallery-mounted lifting
bracket E, and hook on to the lifting attachment on
the connecting rod. Shift tackle A from the lifting
attachment on the head of the connecting rod to
the lifting attachment on the head of the connecting
rod to the lifting attachment at the bottom of the
connecting rod. Turn the crank upwards while
following with tackles A, B, C and E, guiding the
head of the connecting rod out of the doorway. Shift
the tackles from one lifting attachment to the other
as necessary
i. Mount a strap around the connecting rod and
suspend the connecting rod from the engine room
crane. Shift tackle B, from the lifting attachment on
the head of the connecting rod to the lifting
attachment at the bottom of the connecting rod.
Remove tackles A and E. continue turning upwards
till about 30 after TDC while following with the
tackles and the engine room crane
j. Shift tackle from lifting bracket C to A. lift the
connecting rod out of the engine, using the tackles
and the engine room crane. Remove the tackles by
means of the engine room crane.
161. What is the importance of starting air overlap? What should be the minimum
number of cylinders for a two-stroke engine for air starting? What is the
corresponding number for four-stroke engine?
Some overlap of the timing of starting air valves must be provided so that one cylinder airstart v/v opens as another closes. It is essential that there is no angular position of the
engine crankshaft with insufficient air turning moment to give a positive air start. The usual
minimum overlap provided is 15. Starting air is admitted in the working stroke of the
engine and the period of opening is governed by
a. The firing interval of the engine = No. of degrees in engine cycle/No. of cylinders
b. The valves must close before the exhaust commences. It is dangerous and a waste
blowing air to exhaust manifold.
c. The cylinder starting air valve should open after TDC to give a positive turning
moment in the correct direction.
The minimum number of cylinders for a two stroke engines is FOUR and that for a four
stroke engine it is SIX.

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
This can be concluded as follows:
For a two-stroke engine the air starting valve timing is
Air on 15ATDC, Air off 50BBDC (exhaust opens at about 40BBDC) therefore a net
starting angle of 115. At the end of this angle of a unit in power stroke, another unit of the
engine should be 15ATDC in the power stroke, for continuity of starting. For this to happen,
the maximum possible crank angle difference can be 115 between units.
A two-stroke engine has a complete cycle angle of 360, therefore the minimum number of
units (360/115) = 3.13.
Minimum possible number of units in a two-stroke engine is therefore FOUR.
Similar approach to four-stroke engines gives the following inference.
Air on 15ATDC, Air off 40BBDC (exhaust valve opens at 30BBDC) therefore a net starting
angle of 125. Therefore, maximum possible crank angle difference between units is 125.
A four-stroke engine has a complete cycle of 720
Therefore, the minimum number of units in a four-stroke engine (720/125) = 5.76
Minimum possible number of units in a four-stroke engine is therefore SIX
162. Show how the requirement of carbon dioxide in a ships installation is
calculated. How is the number of bottles required calculated?
Regulation stipulates the requirements of CO2 onboard ships as follows
a. For cargo space, 30% of gross volume of largest cargo space
b. CO2 of sufficient amount to give minimum value of free gas equal to larger of
following volumes
40% of gross volume of largest machinery space excluding casing
35% of gross volume of largest machinery space protected including casing
Regulation also states that, for machinery space, piping arrangement should be such that
85% of the gas can be discharged into the space protected including the casing with in 2min.
The following information about CO2 is important
Volume of free CO2 should be taken as 0.56m3/Kg (inverse of density)
CO2 content in a bottle is 45.4Kg (standard)
Water capacity of the bottle = 65.1 liters (standard)
For example, consider a ship in which
a. Engine room gross volume (to upper deck) = 4658m3
b. Engine room gross volume to top casing = 5358m3
c. Volume of the largest cargo hold = 6849m3
Calculation of the CO2 cylinder required as per the regulations for the volume of the air
reservoir = 375m3
Therefore, for engine room the CO2 bottle requirement is calculated as
For gross volume excluding casing,
(4658+375)*0.4/ (45.4x0.56) = 80 cylinders
For gross volume of engine room including casing,
(5358+375)*0.35/ (45.4*0.56) = 79 cylinders
For cargo hold, requirement is calculated as
(6849*0.30)/(45.4*0.56) = 81 cylinders
The requirement is the largest of the above values, which is 81 cylinders

What is a compensating ring in a boiler?

If any hole drilled in the boiler shell exceeds the value 2.5t + 75mm, where t = thickness of
boiler shell, the vessel should be compensated for the loss of strength (due to lost material)
by a stiffening ring around the hole (circumferentially). This is called a compensating ring.

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

What is BOD?

In sewage system, the effectiveness of the biological treatment of raw sewage is measured
by BOD, biochemical oxygen demand.
In a biological sewage treatment plant certain bacteria feeds on the raw sewage aerobically
there by rendering the sewage harmless and with reduced suspended solids. After complete
treatment the bacteria has no or little action.
Therefore, by measuring, the amount of oxygen consumed from a sample of treated sewage
the activity of these aerobic bacteria and hence the completeness of the treatment can be
In actual check, 1Litre of the sample is collected in a measuring container and stored at
about 20C in water, which is well oxygenated and in a container and the amount of oxygen
consumed in a period of five days is measured and is expressed in mg/L or ppm as BOD.

What is the difference between a filter and a strainer?

A filter is a fine mesh insert in the pipeline of a fluid for the prime purpose of filtration. It is
normally positioned in the discharge line before the utility (equipment) or in the return line in
some hydraulic systems. The usual size of the mesh is mentioned in microns, which is the
smallest particle that can be filtered by the filter.
A strainer is a coarse mesh inserted usually in the pump suction. It is positioned for the
prime purpose of safeguarding pumps from ingress of heavy debris. In addition, this strainer
helps in preventing chocking of the pipeline in the upstream especially near sharp bends or
narrow passages like coolers. Its objective is not filtration. It is usually mentioned as mesh
and is the size of the holes of the mesh.

What is principle of viscotherm?

The principle of viscotherm is that a drop in pressure of a fluid of laminar flow, across a tube
is directly proportional to its viscosity.
In a viscotherm, a sample of the fuel is pumped at a constant rate through a fine capillary
tube. As the flow through the tube is laminar, pressure drop across the tube is proportional
to its viscosity. Tapping points are provided to enable the pressure difference to be
measured by means of a differential pressure gauge. The gauge is calibrated directly in
terms of viscosity. A differential pressure transmitter provides an analogue of viscosity to a
pneumatic controller, which regulates the supply of fuel heating.

What is a bore relief in a bearing?

The bearing sliding surface is machined at the mating faces of the upper and the lower shells
to create bore reliefs. Their main objective is to compensate for the misalignments, which
could result in a protruding edge (step) of the lower shells mating face to that of the upper
shell. Such a protruding edge can act as an oil scraper and cause oil starvation

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
168. What is microbial infestation of lube oil? What are its causes, effects?
Suggest remedies.
Microbial infestation of lube oil is the undesirable growth of bacteria, yeasts and/or moulds in
the oil.
Infestation of the oil can be due to contaminated seawater, hydrocarbon source already
onboard or due to poor housekeeping practices.
The problems are like tank washing with contaminated seawater, water ingress from leaks of
seals (as in a stern tube, CPP etc.,), leaking cooling water, microbe infested fuel oil
contamination, onboard contamination due badly maintained or stagnant tanks (long lay off),
bilge water etc.,
The effects of such microbial infestation can be
a. Slimy appearance of the oil; the slime tends to cling to the crankcase doors
b. Rust films
c. Honey-colored films on the journals, later associated with corrosion pitting
d. Black stains on white metal bearings, pins and journals
e. Brown or grey/black deposits on metallic parts
f. Corrosion of the purifier bowl and newly machined surface
g. Sludge accumulation in crankcase and excessive sludge at the purifier discharge
h. Paint stripping in the crankcase
i. Additive depletion
j. Rancid or sulfitic smells
k. Increase in oil acidity or sudden loss of alkalinity. (BN)
l. Stable water content in the oil, which is not resolved by the purifier
m. Filter plugging in heavy weather
n. Persistent demulsification problems
o. Reduction of heat transfer in coolers
To counter the problems of the microbial infestation, it is necessary to take steps to prevent
such infestation.
The microbial infestation is not possible without the presence of water. Some water in the oil
in inevitable due to leaks, condensation, etc., so it is necessary to constantly purify the oil.
Tanks should be provided with drain cocks at the bottom most part to regularly drain the
tank of water. The tanks should be designed to prevent any pockets where the flow is
minimal or stagnant. The oil should be stored outside the 15~35C range. This temperature
zone is very conducive for bacterial growth. Preferably, the tank should be kept at a higher
temperature to facilitate sterilization. Lube oils have a maximum risk of infestation in the
water-cooled pistons engine. Therefore, care must be taken not to allow any scope for water
leakage from the cooling system and the coolers should be kept leak free.
Once the oil is infested, it is necessary to kill the bacteria by physical, chemical or other
a. Settling: microbes settle the as they have a higher specific gravity ( 1.05)
b. Centrifuges: they can be separated by centrifuging
c. Filtration: microbes can be filtered by suitably staging filters
d. Heat: This is a function of both temperature and time at that temperature. A
temperature of over 70'C for 20 minutes is effective in killing the microbes. However
this is difficult to achieve at the plate surfaces and it may be necessary to sterilize the
tank first say by the use of steam lances before filling with oil for heat treatment
Killing microbes using microbes is easy and effective, however the selection of chemicals
appropriate for the system application and should be done with care. Such things as
compatibility and hazards should be taken into account. However, if the infestation is acute,

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
higher concentration of dosage of the chemical is required. This may render the oil unusable
and has to be discharged to shore facilities.
Other means of combating the microbes are available like
a. Irradiation (UV Rays, Gamma Rays or X Rays)
b. By ultrasonic treatment of the infested oil
c. Using microwaves
d. Continuous pasteurization of the infested oil and heat control

What are the properties of gear oil?

Properties required for gear case oil:

a. High viscosity. This gives high film strength to prevent metal-to-metal contact. Also a
adhesive of the film to the metal is required to counter the sliding and centrifugal
b. It should prevent corrosion
c. It should have high specific heat to be a good coolant
d. High viscosity index
e. Antifoaming
f. Sound damping with good cushioning property to prevent pitting on the gear teeth
g. Oil should be suitable for elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication

What is Osmosis? What is Osmotic head?

Osmosis describes the process whereby a fluid will pass from a more dense to a less dense
solution through a semi-permeable membrane. It is very important to the water absorption
processes of plants. Reverse Osmosis is a process, which uses a semi permeable membrane
that retains both salt and impurities from seawater while allowing water molecules to pass.
Filtration of up to 90% is possible thus making the produced water unsuitable for boiler feed
without further conditioning. Improved quality is possible using a two or more pass system.
The fig. shows an experiment to show the effect of Osmosis
(Osmotic head). When the jar is immersed in the
concentrated solution the liquid inside jar increases due to
diffusion of liquid from the concentrated solution to the clean
water inside the jar, which is reflected as an increase in the
water column. This increment in the water column is the
Osmotic head.

What are Detergency and Dispersancy properties of lube oil?

Detergency of lube oil is the property of the lubricant to keep engine parts clean. In motor oil
formulations, the most commonly used detergents are metallic soaps, usually of calcium
(metalloid-organic compounds) with a reserve of basicity to neutralize acids formed during
Dispersancy of lube oil is the property of the lubricant to keep solid contaminants in a
colloidal suspension, preventing sludge and varnish deposits on engine parts. Usually the
additives used to impart this property are nonmetallic ("achless"), and used in combination
with detergents.

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
172. Why are air compressors and diesel generator engines not provided with
crankcase oil mist detectors?
Crankcase oil mist monitoring for engine protection are to be provided when:
a. When arrangements are provided to override the automatic stop for excessive
reduction of lubricating oil supply or pressure
b. Power rating is 2250 Kw or more
c. Having cylinders of more than 300mm bore
Air compressors and generator engines in a ship usually do not meet any of the above
criteria and hence are not provided with crankcase oil mist detectors.

What is the purpose of steam traps?

Steam traps are automatic valves that release condensed steam (condensate) from a steam
space while preventing the loss of live steam. They also remove air and non-condensable
gases from the steam space. Steam traps are designed to maintain steam energy efficiency
by performing specific tasks such as maintaining heat for process.
Once steam has transferred its energy, it becomes hot water and is removed by the trap
from the steam side as condensate and either returned to the boiler via condensate return
lines or discharged to atmosphere (a wasteful practice).

What is the importance of Lip clearance in a boiler safety valve?

The boiler safety valves make

use of a special shaped valve
seat and a lip on the valve
which gives increased lift
against the increasing
downward force of the spring.
The action is as shown above.
And this lip value is of
importance and should be
checked during inspection.
Damage to this region can lead
to malfunctioning of the valve.

175. What are the reasons for a lot of deposits in the scavenge space of a marine
The usual reasons for a lot deposits in the scavenge space of a marine engine are
a. Chocking of the scavenge drains
b. Blow-by due to broken or sticking piston rings
c. Excessive liner wear
d. Faulty injection due to altered timing, bad fuel or incorrect atomization
e. Blow back of exhaust due to increased exhaust back pressure
f. Leaking piston stuffing box
g. Excessive cylinder liner lubrication

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

How does a leaky piston manifests as in an indicator diagram?

As shown above the loss of intactness of the combustion chamber due to leakages, increased
volume or fouling causes the compression pressure and peak pressure to drop.

What is the thermal efficiency of the main engine?

Thermal efficiency of a plant = Heat energy converted to work/Heat input

In a main engine heat input = (Fuel consumed x Calorific Value x reference time)
Heat energy converted to work = Brake power x Reference time

What is composition of thin shell bearings?

Thin shell bearings are broadly of

a. Tin based White Metal: Tin-based white metal is an alloy with minimum 88% tin (Sn),
the rest of the alloy composition is antimony (Sb), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and
small amounts of other elements that are added to improve the fineness of the grain
structure and homogeneity during the solidification process.
b. Tin-Aluminium (AlSn40): Tin aluminium is a composition of aluminium (Al) and tin
(Sn) where the tin is trapped in a 3-dimensional mesh of aluminium. AlSn40 is a
composition with 40% tin.

How do you operate the main engine after a Turbocharger breakdown?

Some points are to be taken into consideration for engine operation with turbocharger out of

Air supply for amount of fuel injected

Adequate flow path of the exhaust gas produced
Cooling of the turbocharger casing, rotor or bearings
Isolation of air/gas/lubricating spaces in the event of no sealing air available
Securing damaged parts

The method of turbocharger isolation may be done in a number of ways depending on the
nature of damage.
Bypass arrangement: Turbocharger is bypassed of exhaust gases by a suitable bypass pipe.
Turbine inlet and outlet are isolated by fitting blanks and by pass pipe is fitted to give a

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
suitable gas path. The compressor side also requires isolation to prevent loss of scavenge air
due to back flow from the receiver. Cooling water and lubricating oil systems may also
require isolation if casing and or seal is damaged.
Rotor removal: If the rotor is damaged it should be removed for repairs. The openings of the
casings should be blanked to prevent internal and external leaks of exhaust gas or air.
Cooling of the casing should be effected as exhaust gases still pass through the casing.
Locking of rotor: If requirement of propulsion is of concern and time is limited, rotor is
locked into position by attaching the appropriate fixtures provided by the maker. An orifice
plate should be inserted on the compressor side to allow a controlled amount of scavenge air
to effect cooling. Cooling water to the casing should also be continued since exhaust gases
pass through the casing. Isolation of the lubrication system may be necessary due to lack of
sealing air.
The limits of engine load depend on the actual configuration of the system and how many
turbochargers remain in operation.
A broad consideration of the following points should be made:
a. The actual operating temperatures should be taken into account and limits should not
be exceeded
b. Condition of the exhaust should be monitored to ensure acceptable combustion inside
the cylinder
c. Allowance should be given for rate of change of air supply during acceleration of the
d. Remaining turbochargers should be also monitored for abnormal operation due to
altered gas flow
e. Auxiliary air supply should be provided where possible, but this may be effected by
remaining turbochargers in operation
Internal water leaks: In the event of a holed water jacket it is possible to operate the
turbocharger as an air cooled unit by supplying compressed air as the coolant after isolating
the water supply. Attention must be paid to the operating temperatures of the casing, and
bearings especially turbine end.
Four stroke engines with turbochargers out of service and no alternative air supply may be
operated as a naturally aspirated engine with suitable attention being paid to the operating
In any case the engine load is to be limited a value specified by the engine maker for the
conditions of operation and usually for a two-stroke engine its value is about 15%MCR

What is the procedure of plugging boiler of boiler tubes?

Procedure of plugging water tubes

a. Clean the face of leaky tube remove all the scales and dirt both in steam and water
b. Plug with brass plug, hammer tight and weld
c. Cover this tube on the furnace side with heat resisting material
Procedure of plugging smoke tubes
a. Brass plug with stud and tightened by nut at both the ends

What is the difference between a purifier and a clarifier?

A centrifuge for separation two liquids of
different densities
Sealing water is added to a purifier to
establish a seal

A centrifuge for separation of solid particles
from a liquid
No sealing water is added

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

Gravity disc needs to altered with the
changing density of the liquid to be purified
Interface is to be maintained and depends on
process variables viz. density, flow, viscosity
or temperature
Water outlet is normally open
Provided water seal is maintained particle
separation is also good
A smallest of the gravity discs provided,
called a clarifier disc is fitted and requires no
Interface is not required but is established if
water is present and moves inwards
Water outlet is normally closed by the
clarifier ring
Provided no water, particle separation is

How do you detect a leakage in a bilge pump suction line?

With the main suction of the pump closed, start the pump with discharge open. Monitor the
vacuum in the pump suction, if the vacuum is maintained for sometime the pump is in good
Proceed for checking the integrity of the suction lines as follows:
With the discharge of the pump opened for delivery,
a. Set the pump to draw bilge from each particular well closing other suction lines valves
b. Start the pump and note the build up of vacuum
c. Repeat the operation for all other suction lines individually, closing other remaining
Now conclusion can be drawn with above observations.
The pump does not achieve good vacuum for any well, in this case
The manifold intactness by opening the sea water valve on the suction side and check it for
the seawater leaking. Repair the line after identifying the location
Identify for the leaks on the suction lines for which the pump does not achieve good vacuum
This can be done by pressure testing the line by opening the seawater valve on the pump
suction. The non-return valve on the line has to be dismantled and the valve put back after
removing the valve disc.
The sealings on the strainers have to be checked, like renewing gaskets.

How is an engine lube oil sample collected?

Sampling points for an engine lube oil are clearly mentioned by the maker of the engine. In
any case, the following points are to be adhered to
a. Sample of lube oil should be drawn from the inlet to the engine
b. Before collecting a sample some amount of oil is to be drained from the sampling
point. Later sufficient amount of oil should be collected into a clean container,
decanted and collected in a clean sampling bottle
c. Engine should be in operation as close as possible to the MCR for some time before
collecting a sample
d. The sampling container should be unused one specially produced for lube oil sampling
e. After collecting a sample in the bottle, it should be stored in a cool dry place to let the
oil cool down before securing it with cap/seal. This is essential to prevent slight
condensation in the bottle
f. The sample should be fully identified with the date, vessel name, running hours of the
engine, lube oil running hours, sampling point identification
g. Each time the sample should be drawn from the same point

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

Explain onboard testing of lube oil

Some or all of the testing explained below is done onboard ship.

1. FLASH POINT (Pensky Martin Apparatus)
This method determines the flash point of the lube oil sample in a closed cup. This gives
the lowest possible ignition point of the oil.
A portion of the lube oil sample is slowly heated at a constant rate, whilst continual
stirring is provided. A small flame is directed through an open shutter at regular
temperature intervals, with simultaneous interruption of stirring.
The flash point is the lowest point at which the application of the test flame causes the
vapor above the test point to ignite. For a new oil the flash point should be above 220C,
and any reduction would indicate fuel oil contamination.
BN tester kits are provided onboard to determine the alkaline properties of the lube oil.
These testers use the chemical reaction of a reagent with the alkaline lube oil additive
(calcium) to produce a pressure rise. 10ml of oil is mixed with equal volume of a reagent.
10ml of another reactive reagent is placed in a plastic cup, which is floated on top of the
oil and reagent. The testing unit is sealed and thoroughly mixed. The resultant pressure
rise is directly read on an calibrated pressure gauge against base number.
Onboard testing lube oil for viscosity is by the use of a comparative flow stick. This
measures the relative flow between two oils, usually a sample of the in-use lube oil is
measured against a fresh unused sample of the same grade of lube oil.
The flow stick is filled with 3ml of each oil in each reservoir, once both the oils are at the
same temperature, the flow stick is tilted to cause both oil grades to flow down the
channels. Once the new oil has reached the reference mark, the position of used oil in the
channel is checked. The following inferences can be drawn
a. If the used oil has a low viscosity, due to light fuel dilution. Then oil will have
traveled further down the channel than the new oil.
b. If the used oil has a higher viscosity, due to oxidation or heavy fuel oil
contamination it would not have traveled as far as the new oil.
This method uses hydrometer to test the sample oil density. It is important to keep the
oil and the hydrometer at the same temperature and maintained throughout the
Onboard water content is tested by using a calcium carbide. The tested is carried out by
mixing 5ml of oil with 15ml of a petroleum reagent (paraffin, toluene). The two liquors
are thoroughly mixed and then a measured amount of reagent (calcium carbide) is placed
on floating on the oil/reagent surface. The test unit is sealed and thoroughly mixed to
bring all liquids together. If water is present the carbide will produce acetylene gas, and
the resultant pressure rise will indicate the level of water contamination.

What is the material of a boiler valve?

Valve body: Cast Steel

Spindle, valve seat, valve disc and other parts: Monel Metal, Bronze or stainless steel

What will be the effect of water in fuel oil?

The effects of water content on fuel oil are

a. Loss of calorific value of the fuel oil
b. Corrosion in the lines, fuel pump (plunger/barrel), injectors

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
c. Water in oil can lead to vapor lock in the line leading to fluctuating engine RPM,
seizure of fuel pumps
d. In case of seawater contamination, it would lead to high temperature corrosion in the
exhaust system
e. Results in increased cylinder liner wear
f. Cause increased fouling of the exhaust gas ways and turbocharger blades

What are actions you would take if a purifier starts overflowing?

or all of the following should be checked for in case the purifier overflowing:
Sealing water low
Excessive fuel back pressure
Low pressure, chocked water line (check the water filter)
Gravity disc oversized for the density of the fuel oil in question
Oil temperature high
Excessive sludge deposition inside the purifier bowl
Excessive feed rate
Sealing ring damaged (between the Bowl and Hood)
Check RPM and direction of rotation of bowl
Leaking three-way valve
How do you calculate the specific fuel oil consumption?

a. Take the fuel oil flow meter readings for a specific time interval usually for an hour
b. Calculate the volume (difference between the above readings)
c. Using the fuel oil sample test results provided by the shore facility, calculate the
density of the fuel oil at the temperature near the flow meter
d. Calculate the mass of the fuel consumed by multiplying the results in b and c
e. Calculate the shaft power of the engine during this interval of time, take an average
f. Specific fuel consumption is calculated by mass of fuel consumed/Avg.shaft power
developed by the engine in the time interval.
Express the result in the Units of specific fuel oil consumption: g/Kw-h

How do you calculate the shaft power of main engine?

[Procedure for MANBW Engines]
During an interval of time, 1Hour measure engine
a. Fuel index of each unit
b. Engine RPM
c. Scavenge Air temperature
d. Ambient air temperature (Engine Room Temp.)
e. Fuel oil preheating temperature
f. Obtain the specific gravity of the fuel oil at 15C, its sulfur content & Lower calorific
g. Obtain the cylinder constant (engine data)
Calculate the average fuel pump index, P = sum of all individual fuel index/total number of
Corrected fuel index, P = average fuel index x K
Where K = Correction factor for fuel pump index

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
= K1 X K2 X specific gravity of fuel @ 15C

An example of calculation is shown with the following data to calculate K, Hence P

Lower calorific value of fuel: 9700Kcal/Kg, Specific Gravity @ 15C: 0.947, Preheated
Temperature: 104C, Engine room temperature: 30C, Scavenge air temperature: 32C
K1 = 0.953, K2 = 0.926
K = K1 x K2 x Sp.Gr. @ 15C = 0.836. Hence P = P x K

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

Mean Effective Pressure Pe = Horizontal coordinate in the above graph

Brake Horse Power (BHP) = C x Pe x Ne
Where C = Cylinder coefficient = 8.811 for 6S60MC MANBW engine
Pe = Mean Effective Pressure
Ne = Engine RPM
OUT PUT OF THE ENGINE (Shaft Power in Kw) = BHP x 0.7355

What is P-Alkalinity and T-Alkalinity?

P-Alkalinity: phenolphthalein is less alkaline than hydroxides or carbonates, and when it is

added to a sample containing hydroxides and or carbonates it will first neutralize the
hydroxides forming salts, it will turn pink in color. The acid used after this coloration will first
neutralize the hydroxides forming salts, it will then react with the carbonate molecules
present forming bicarbonate molecules. Bicarbonate molecules are less alkaline than
phenolphthalein, hence, the pink coloration disappears once all the hydroxides and
carbonates have been dealt with by the acid. One bicarbonate molecule is formed from two
carbonate molecules, hence in the test the quantity of acid used is a measure of the
alkalinity due to the hydroxides (caustic) present and half the carbonates.
T-Alkalinity: Methyl-orange indicator is less alkaline than phenolphthalein and bicarbonates.
It can be used initially in place of phenolphthalein or in continuation after the alkalinity to
phenolphthalein test. If no yellow coloration results when the methyl-orange is added to the
alkalinity to phenolphthalein sample no bicarbonates are present. Hence no carbonates are
present. Therefore, the alkalinity as determined in the alkalinity to phenolphthalein test has
been due to hydroxides alone.
191. What is the difference between an over speed governor and a constant speed
If within a governor, an over speed detection/actuation mechanism is provided to trip the
engine in case of over speeding and or rapid increase of speed then the governor is called an
over speed governor. These were the obsolete governors and commonly had fly or bob
weights restrained by spring. When the engine exceeds a predetermined speed, the weight
moves out to strike some form of fuel cutoff.
Governors designed to maintain the engine speed at the set point are called constant speed
governors. These are also referred to as isochronous governors like the ones usually installed
on COPT and main engine.

What are the properties of steering gear lube oil?

Satisfactory flow properties
High viscosity index
Low compressibility
Good lubricating properties
Low vapor pressure
Compatibility with system materials
Chemical stability
Protection against corrosion
Rapid air-release and water separation
Good thermal conductivity
Fire resistance (desirable)

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
193. What is the material of connecting rod bolt? What is the importance of
elongation? What is the nature of stresses in this component and why should these
bolts be replaced after some time in service?
The connecting rod bolt in service is subjected to:
a. A dynamic tension loading due to centrifugal force of the mass of connecting rod
rotating with the crank pin
b. A dynamic tension loading owing to inertial forces of the reciprocating mass of the
piston which is fluctuating with angular displacement of the crank and having the
peak value at an instant of 360 after the firing TDC in a cycle of operation
c. A dynamic shear stress at the parting of the two halves of the bearing housing
Dowel pins with fitted bolts or serrations at the face or both are used to reduce shear loading
on bolts and possibility of fretting.
Bolts should be constructed of materials having high resilience and should not be stiffer w.r.t
bearing housing.
Pretension of the bolts should be regarded as the single most important factor which
contributes towards the fatigue life of the material of the bolt. Pretension must be kept high
enough, so that the increase in stress owing to dynamic loading remains within the range of
stress already given by pretension.
Some routine checks on this part are (rejection criteria of the bolt)
a. Check for corrosion by acidic lube oil, discard if any present on shanks
b. Check the length of the bolt against a new or bolt tolerances. If longer, yielding of
the material should have taken place. Renew the bolt in this circumstance
c. Check for mechanical damage, especially on shanks
d. Check for fractures by NDT
e. Check the landing faces for uneven tightening
f. Discard the bolt when either designated life, over speed failure or piston seizure has
194. What are the bunker specifications? What changes would you make in the
event of a bad bunker?
In 1982 the working group responsible for the development of the international standard
issued a draft proposal which became ISO 8217 Petroleum products Fuels (Class F)
Specification of marine fuels. Another draft proposal was issued at the same time which
became ISO 8216 Petroleum products Fuels (Class F) Classification Part 1 Marine
Fuels. In 1987 the first edition of the international standard was published followed by the
publication of BS MA 100 in 1989, which was identical to the International Standard. The
second edition of ISO 8217 was issued in 1996 and this is denoted as ISO 8217 : 1996.
Table 1 from ISO 8217
Density at 15C, kg/m3


Category ISO - F


Viscosity at 40C, mm2/s*




Flash point, C






Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
Pour Point (upper, C)
Winter quality
Summer quality
Cloud Point, C
Sulfur, % (m/m)
Cetane Number
Carbon residue, (micro method,
10% (v/v)
Distillation bottoms), % (m/m)
Carbon residue, (micro method,
10% (m/m)
Ash, % (m/m)
Sediment, % (m/m)

















Total existent sediment, % (m/m)

Water, % (v/v)
Vanadium, mg/kg
Aluminium & silicon, mg/kg
* mm / s = cst
Distillate Fuels
There are four grades of marine distillate fuels DMX, DMA, DMB AND DMC. The DM
denotes Distillate Marine and the third letter distinguishes the different grades.
Grade DMX is a pure distillate used for emergency equipment external to the machinery
space. Grade DMA is the equivalent of a gas oil and is also a pure distillate. Grade DMB is
equivalent of a clean diesel, although it may contain some residue giving it a black color.
This means that an appearance test cannot be used on DMB as it is for grades DMX and
DMA. Grade DMC relates to a blended diesel oil which contains a residual component,
normally up to 10 %
Grades DMX and DMA have a specified minimum viscosity to ensure the fuel has sufficient
Flash Point
The flash points for marine fuels is determined by the closed cup method corresponding to
the opening of a previously closed vessel. The minimum flash point is 60C for all fuels
within the machinery space of a merchant ship classed for unrestricted service, as laid
down by SOLAS national and classification regulations. Grade DMX, used for emergency
equipment external to the machinery space, must have a flash point greater than 43C. It
should be noted in some countries gas oil and diesel oil are produced for local land based
market to a national specification. A minimum flash point is usually included in such a
specification, however, this value may be below that required by international legislation for
normal marine use.
Pour and Cloud Point
The pour point parameter specifies a winter and summer quality temperature. Normally
vessels burning DMA, DMB, and DMC do not have tank heating. Purchasers should ensure
the pour point is suitable for the equipment on board, particularly if a vessel is operating in
both Northern and Southern hemispheres.
The cloud point is the temperature at which wax begins to crystallize from a clear distillate
fuel. These wax crystals will cause rapid filter blockage. This parameter is only applicable to

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
grade DMX and is a technical limitation so that emergency equipment can start and operate
at an ambient temperature of 15C.
Ignition Quality
The Cetane number is the measure of the ease of ignition of a distillate fuel determined by
a special engine test with a variable compression ratio. The higher the number the easier it
is for fuel to ignite in the engine.
The Cetane index is an empirical measure of ignition quality for distillate grades of fuel.
This index is calculated in a number of ways, such as from the mid-boiling point and
density. Bear in mind, these empirical equations do not take account of any cetane index
improver which may have been added in the manufacture of the fuel.
The sediment test for the DMB is sediment by extraction which defines the insoluble
residues remaining after extraction of the fuel by toluene. For the blended diesel grade
DMC, the sediment test specified is the Total Existent Sediment. This is the combination of
inorganic and hydrocarbon sediments existing in fuel when delivered. This test is aimed at
limiting the maximum amount of sludge present that could be separated by the filters or
Catalyst Fines
In distillate fuels the elements vanadium and aluminium, plus silicon for grade DMC, relate
to he residual component of the blend.
From table 2, ISO 8217 : 1996, there are fifteen grades of residual fuel which are
distinguished by three letters and two numbers. The first two letters are common to all
residual grades, RM denotes Residual Marine, and the third letter refers to the
characteristic of the fuel. The two numbers are the viscosity of the fuel at 100C. Grade
RMA relates to a residual fuel which normally does not require tank heating because of the
defined low pour point. Other residual grades require tank heating as they may have a
considerably higher pour point as defined in the specification.





mm2/S Max


APPROX VISC. @ 50C * mm2/s

45 55
55 55
10 10
15 25 25 35 35 35 45

981 981 985 991 991 991 991 1010 991 1010 15







991 1010 -






50 100 225 225 390 390 390 585 585 585 810 810 810

45 45


55 55













60 60


60 60












30 30


30 30












30 30


30 30


%m/m Max











22 --


22 --


%m/m Max




0.1 0.1 0.15 0.15




0.2 0.2


0.2 0.2


% V/V Max






%m/m Max





mg/kg Max


150 300 350 200 500 300 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600


mg/kg Max





%m/m Max











80 80


80 80

0.1 0.1 0.1





0.1 0.1


0.1 0.1

Grades RMA 10 to RMA 15 have a restricted density so as to give acceptable ignition quality
characteristics when empirically determined from either the Calculated Carbon Aromaticity

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
Index (CCAI) or Calculated Ignition Index (CII). The density limit of 991 kg/m at 15C is
the technical limit for the efficient removal of water by a centrifuge set up as a purifier
operating with a water seal. Three grades (RMK 35, 45, 55) have a density limit of 1010
kg/m which are suitable for vessels with fuel treatment plant capable of receiving such
densities. The two grades with no density limit (RML 45, 55) are intended for machinery
installations where the fuel treatment plant does not include centrifuges, namely a steam
The below table shows the approximate equivalent viscosities at 50C to those shown in
table 2. The data in the below table.
Kinematic viscosity @
Kinematic viscosity @













Carbon residue
The carbon residue of a fuel depends on the refining processes used in the manufacture.
Two grades have no defined carbon residue or density limit (RML 45 and RML 55), a
maximum of 22 per cent m / m applies to Rmh, RMK, 35, 45, and 55, while a limit of 18
per cent m / m applies to RMG 25. The lower limits for viscosity grades 10, 15 and 25
reflect the use of diluents to cut back heavy residual fuel to produce light intermediate fuel.
In general there is a relationship between the specified ash level in a residual fuel and that
for vanadium. This is because vanadium is the major ash forming component in residual
The specification limit for water in residual fuel is based on traditional limits. Excessive
water represents a loss of energy to the fuel purchaser, potential engine operational
problems and possible waste disposable problems.
Sulfur limits in residual fuel provides guidance to lubricant suppliers as to the level of
alkalinity required to neutralize corrosive compounds originating from the combustion of
The level of vanadium in residual fuel depends on the source of crude oil and the refining
process used in manufacture. On a global basis this varies considerably, from 50-100mg /
kg to over 500mg / kg, and the specification differentiates between low and high vanadium
fuels, such as RME 25 and RMF 25.
Catalyst Fines
The purpose of a control for aluminium and silicon is to limit the amount of catalyst fines
delivered with the fuel. Globally, the composition of catalyst fines varies considerably and
can be controlled using limits for aluminium and silicon, considered better than the
historical method of just controlling the level of aluminium.
Total Sediment Potential (TSP) provides a measure of the stability of a fuel.
Following are the points to be looked at when using new bunker
a. Start consuming the fuel only after the fuel analysis report from a shore lab with
recommendations is available
b. Bunkers should be stored in the bunker tanks above the minimum transferable
temperature mentioned by the shore lab

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
c. A watch should be kept on the line filters/strainers soon after changing over. Clean
the filters and ensure no excessive debris
d. Ensure that fuel oil transfer pump is in good operating condition
e. Monitor the purifier / clarifier operation and make adjustments if problems arise like
considering another gravity disc if the purifier starts overflowing
f. Make adjustments like decreasing purifier throughput, preheating temperatures or
operating the purifiers in parallel / series inline with the analysis report
g. Frequently drain the settling and service tanks to asses the amount of water in the
fuel and take further steps in line with the findings like increasing / decreasing
desludging intervals
h. Monitor the line filters/strainers before pumps viz. purifier feed p/p, booster pump
and circulating pump
i. Adjust the back flushing interval of the automatic fuel oil filter based on the findings
j. Adjust the viscotherm to attain the recommended viscosity prior engine inlet
(altered preheating temperature)
k. Adjust VIT/FQS if required
l. Cylinder lubrication, sometimes the scavenge air and JCFW out let temperatures
may be required to be altered if the sulfur content warrants the changes
m. Low load operation of the engine should be limited incase the fuel report shows high
CCAI value
n. Exhaust gas economizer soot blowing & cleaning interval may have to be reduced if
the Conradsen number, CCAI, ash, water content is high. Boiler water circulating
temperature should be monitored so as to ensure that economizer operates above
pinch point
o. Fuel injectors/exhaust valve overhaul intervals may also be altered basing on high
ash, sodium/vanadium, Conradsen number, asphaltenes and CCAI values
p. Soon after the engine is put to consume new bunkers take the performance of the
engine with draw cards to ensure good health of the engine. Further changes in fuel
injection settings may have to be effected if the indicator card diagrams show

How do you select a gravity disc of a purifier?

Makers nomogram is an aid to select a tentative gravity disc in purification, when the
density of the oil at a temperature of 15C is known.
The hole diameter of the first gravity disc to be tried appears directly from the nomogram.
However, in practical operation the best result is obtained by using the gravity disc with the
largest hole diameter that will not cause a break of the liquid seal in the bowl or an
emulsification in the water outlet.
The presence of seawater may demand the use of a gravity disc with larger hole than
indicated in the nomogram. (the nomogram is based on the properties of fresh water)
The nomogram consists of two graphs arranged in series, one consists of density of fuel at
15C Vs Separating temperature and the other graph is divided into different zones of disc
hole diameters against through put of the purifier.

Explain running direction interlock

Running direction interlock is provided to withhold the fuel supply during maneuvering if
the running direction of the engine is not coincident with the setting of the engine telegraph
At the camshaft, forward end the shaft is coupled to the camshaft and carries round with it,
due to the key, a flanged bush and spring plates which cause an adjustable friction
pressure axially due to the springs and nut. This pressure acts on the coupling disc which

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore
rotates through an angular travel until the stop pin prevents further rotation. This causes
angular rotation of a fork lever and the re-positioning of a control valve plug in a new
position within the sleeve. Oil pressure from the reversing valve can only pass to the valve
block valve (air) and unlock the air start lever and the fuel control if the rotation of the
direction interlock is correct. If the stop pin were to break, the fork lever would swing to
position M and the fuel supply would be blocked.

Explain capacity control in a refrigeration system

Automation provided to effect refrigerating compressor operation to meet to the varying

refrigerating load is called capacity control in a refrigeration system. The nature of
automation is dependant on the size, capacity of the refrigeration system.
Capacity control in refrigeration can be achieved by any of the following methods
a. On/off control: if the refrigeration load is absent, capacity control may be effected
by cutting out the compressor motor
b. Variable motor speed: during reduced load, capacity control may be effected by
reducing the throughput of the refrigerant by reducing compressor motor speed.
c. Cylinder unloading: during reduced load condition in a multi cylinder unit
compressor, capacity control may be effected by successively cutting in or out
cylinders or cylinder groups
d. Hot gas bypass: involves passing a portion of the discharge gas from the
compressor directly to the evaporator, bypassing the condenser
e. Hot gas injection to evaporator
f. Evaporator pressure control

Explain unloader of a refrigerating compressor, reciprocating type

Large reciprocating compressors are provided with an unloading system which enables the
compressor to start easily with no vapor pressure load in the cylinder, permitting the use of
electric motors with low starting torques. Unloading is effected by holding the suction
valves open, or by opening a by pass valve between the discharge and suction sides during
starting. The unloading mechanism is actuated hydraulically, mechanically or by solenoid

What are the reasons for engine running on air but failing to run on fuel?

a. Fuel pump valves are leaking: valve cages leaking, dirt in fuel, governor gear
jammed and holding valves off seats, faces require grinding
b. Fuel system not properly primed: water in fuel, air left in system, leaky valves,
priming connections left open
c. Fuel oil supply restricted: suction strainers dirty, gravity tank empty, vacuum in
gravity tank, valve in suction line not fully open
d. Fuel injection pressure too low: spill valve jammed, priming valves left open
e. Rotational speed on air too low: starting air pressure too low, starting air restricted,
cylinder head valve leaking, tight bearings
f. Compression pressure too low: piston rings leaking, indicator cocks open, cylinder
head valve leaking
g. Timing of fuel pumps incorrect: fuel pump plungers not functioning properly(spring
return type), incorrect spill valve timing
h. Speed governor jammed: inertial weight jammed, trip pawl not engaging,
connecting mechanism not properly adjusted

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

What are the lube oil properties of a diesel generator engine?


Dispersivity or capacity to the cold parts of an engine clean

Detergency or capacity to keep hot parts of an engine clean
Thermal strength or capacity to withstand temperature changes
Anti-oxidant or capacity to resist the action of oxygen
Anti-wear or capacity to contain wear
Anti-scuffing or capacity to preserve oil film even in the presence of high pressures
Alkalinity reserve or capacity to neutralize acids formed during combustion or other
sources thereby preventing corrosive wear
h. Demulsibility or capacity to separate contaminants
i. Resistance to hydrolysis or capacity to withstand the action of water which can affect
j. Pump ability
k. Centrifugibility and filterability or capacity to separate insoluble elements
l. Anti-rust, corrosive and anti-foam are just some of the other properties required
201. Explain a torsion meter on a main engine shafting. How is engine power
calculated from the torsion meter?
Torsion meter is an instrument provided on the engine shafting to measure the torque
developed by the engine.
Torsion meter uses the principle that when a torque is applied to a shaft an angular twist is
produced which is dependant on the shaft material torsional rigidity. It is given by
T/r = G/L where r= radius of the shaft, G= torsional rigidity, L= reference length of
the shaft. Where radius, length, and material of the shaft are constant, is directly
proportional to the angular twist.
A modern instrument is a contact less all electric instrument. It is as described below:
It based on the magnetic stress sensitivity principle, some ferromagnetic materials
reluctance is less along the plane of stress than across it. Magnetic fields are induced in a
shaft; the distortion of these fields gives an indication of the torque being transmitted.
It consists of three rings fitted on to the shaft each of which carries four electromagnetic
poles. The centre ring acts as a transformer primary with two outer rings acting as secondary
coils arranged at a phase of 45 to the primary but are in line with each other.
Poles for inducing currents in the shaft coils are held in a stator frame so that there exists no
contact between this stator and the shaft. A gap of about 3mm is usually maintained
between this stator and the shaft.
An alternating current is fed to the central ring (primary) generating a magnetic field. This
causes an induced currents in the outer secondary coils, which are connected in series such
that when there exists no twist (no torque condition, rpm=0) in the shaft, the induced
currents oppose each other and neutralize. When torque is applied to the shaft stress lines
are inclined to the axis. This distortion causes the induced current in the secondary coils to
increase on one side and decrease on the other side. Thus a resulting induced voltage is
developed in the secondary which is sensed by the secondary poles in the stator. The
magnitude of this induced voltage is proportional to the torque applied.

Compiled by Eswara Arun Kishore

The signal out put from the instrument is directly calibrated in terms of torque developed by
the engine and read on the display.
Now as torque T is known, power developed by the engine can be calculated from the
following relation,
Shaft Power, P = 2 NT/60 where N= RPM, = 22/7 (PI)

Explain the procedure of setting a boiler safety valve

The safety valve is the sole safety device, which relieves the boiler of a dangerous excess
pressure. In the majority of designs the oil fired boiler and the exhaust gas boiler have a
common steam circuit, though separate heat input and flue gas paths. The oil fired section of
the oil fired boiler has a fuel cut out which is operated by the steam pressure limiting device,
whereas the exhaust gas boiler has to depend solely on its safety valve to protect it.
In a composite boiler as mentioned above the pair of safety valves can serve to protect the
common steam circuit. An additional pair of safety valves is provided in the outlet header of
the exhaust gas boiler, which has to be set separately.
The setting of the safety valve has to be done when the heat input and the rate of pressure
rise is maximum. The setting of the exhaust gas boiler safety valve to comply with the
above, shall be carried out as follows:
While at sea, with the main engine running at normal service speed and when all systems
are steady, the oil-fired section of the boiler can be fired to augment steam production (all
precautions such as adequate water level in the boiler, operator standing by the burner quick
shut off valve etc. are to be followed). With the safety valve on the steam receiver of the
boiler lightly gagged. The safety valve of the exhaust gas boiler section is set at slightly
higher pressure. In order to ensure that the economizer (or the exhaust gas boiler) operates
under flooded conditions at all times, it is customary to adjust the safety valves of the
economizer to a slightly higher pressure than the safety valves of the boiler steam receiver
of which they are connected.
After setting the safety valve as above to satisfaction locking it to make it tamper proof, the
oil-fired boiler firing is stopped, the steam receiver safety valves gags removed and all the
easing gear properly connected.
The exact lifting pressures are recorded in the logbook authenticated by the CEO and a copy
of the above is to be forwarded to the classification society upon arrival next port.
In the setting of the safety valve of a boiler, three items are of great importance. They are:
1. Setting pressure at which the valve should lift.
2. The accumulation of pressure, which will be above the former due to the valve spring
3. Blow down which is a drop in pressure below the setting
pressure after the valve has
lifted and reseated.
4. For example the following values are relevant:
a. Boiler working pressure: 7 bar.
b. Safety valve setting pressure: 9 bar.
c. Accumulation of pressure: Maximum of 10% of the setting pressure = 9.9 bar.
d. Blow down at 3% of lifting pressure.