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Prepared By:

Christopher L.
Devera

PHILOSOPHICAL MOVEMENTS IN EDUCATION


Components

Humanism
Italian / Individualistic Humanism
Northern or Social Humanism

Aims

Developing individual personality as patterned


after the Greek ideal of liberal education,
the harmonious development of mind and morals.

Education aimed at social reform and improvement


of human relationships;
democratic type of education

Types

Literary, aesthetic and physical education

Religious, moral and social education;


religious instruction aimed at attacking moral evils
in the church;
Literary education as means for social end

Classical art and literature; nature, physical


training, grammar rhetoric and mathematics
Court schools for nobility;
establishment of classical secondary schools
gymnasium in Germany, Lycess of France, Latin
Grammar School in England

Classical and biblical literature

Text replacing oral discourse;


developing balance between mental and physical
activity

Individualized instruction for children;


games and exercise in education;
education in touch with social times, value of
repetition and mastery of work by small units;
Motivation and use of rewards; use of vernacular for
instruction.

Content
Curriculum
Agencies

Method

Components

Literary Realism

Court schools for nobility, Universities were


encouraged by nobility to introduce humanistic
studies

Realism
Sense Realism

Rationalism

Complete
knowledge
and
understanding
of
human
society
to
fit
in
the
environment where he lives.

Develop
a
harmonious
society,
working in accordance with natural
and universal laws.

Types

Literary type of education,


practical and liberal kind.

Practical and
education

Content/

Encyclopedic

Comprehensive

curricula

Preservation of the natural goodness and virtue of the


individual and the formation of a society based upon the
recognition of the natural individual rights; free man from
the artificialities and restraints of human society.
Emphasized physical and health training;
Moral training through natural punishment via natural
consequences of acts;
Intellectual development was made through natural
discrimination.
Informal exercise of the senses, muscles and tongue
instead of traditional 3Rs.
This emphasized the duty of parents in the education of a
child by protecting him from the artificialities of society.
Parents should help develop the childs inherent qualities
as it follows the natural stages of the child. (infancy,
childhood, boyhood and adolescence)
Child as the center of education process;
Modern principles of teaching which are principle of
growth, principle of pupil activity and principle of
individualization.

Social Realism

Aims

democratic

Naturalism

Education of the individual should attend to the


development of the physical, moral, and
intellectual aspects of his life through use of
reason/deduction.

of

Aims to prepare the aristocratic youth


for the life of a gentleman in the world of
affairs.
Practical
judgement
and
social
disposition were means of life.
Practical type to prepare the youth for
life; physical education for the hardening
process, moral training for social customs
befitting
a
gentleman,
intellectual
training to develop judgement and social
disposition.

with

Travel proved to be suitable than schools

Education must enable man to know, to say

type

curriculum

Development the total personality of the


individual with special stress on his intellectual
growth.

Curriculum

Agencies

Method

containing
vernacular
language; physical exercises,
games, bible study, intellectual
readings of the classics.
Parents as first teachers;
existence of public schools
having
schoolmasters
as
teachers paid from public
funds.
Vives: The teacher should
study the children thoroughly;
hold conferences for progress
monitoring.
Rabelais: reasoning instead of
rote learning; make use of
reference books
Milton: reading for content not
syntax; use of resource persons
in the classroom.

Components

stress on scientific training;


Use of vernacular language; content
focus rather than the method.

and experience was more important than


books

. Elementary school for both boys and


girls who are taught to write and read
in vernacular.

Private tutors were prevalent in the


nobility.

Knowledge comes through the sense


and the order of learning must be
things, thoughts and words

Understanding and judgement were


emphasized rather than memorization;
Information was learned better from
social
contacts;
he
encouraged
competition, independent thinking, and
learning application.

Children must be studied individually;


use of games and exercise for
learning;
Experimentation
and
Inductive method of learning; Use of
vernacular as medium; Learning
without compulsion and not by rote.

and do all things. Because of this its ultimate


goal is the development of its capacity to think
rationally, reason out logically and act
prudently.
The individuals from birth should be given
basic education at home in preparation for
formal schooling.

Reformation

Counter-Reformation

Aims

The reformation education was intended for religious moralism-living a


worthy life providing adequate trainings in the duties of the home,
occupation, the church and the state.

The catholic education aimed to develop unquestioning obedience to the authority of the
church. Different orders have different aims - The Jesuit schools were designated to train
leaders; the Christian brothers to teach the poor; the Jansenists to emphasize spiritual
salvation; convent schools was to prepare young women to perform their duties as
Christian members of the society, establish and maintain chastity and piety, to refine
taste and gentle manners.

Types

Character education was emphasized; advocated universal, compulsory


and free education.
Study of bible and skills to understand it; continuation of humanistic
subjects.
Home as the basic educational agency; school system divided into three
types vernacular classical secondary and the university.
Routine pronunciation of words, memorization of answers to gospels,
psalms.
Methods of teaching were rigid, discipline was strict and religious
indoctrination became the chief method.

Religious and moral education

Content/
Curriculum
Agencies
Method

4rs with emphasis of religion; Latin classics; textbooks were prescribed and adopted for
Christian education; moral training, exercises geared towards worship.
Elementary, secondary and higher education schools that are church supported and
controlled.
From the Jesuits:
1. Doing a small amount of work at a time and doing it well; 2. Two steps in the teaching
method: pre selection and repetition; 3. Adapting the lesson to the abilities and interests
of the children;
4. Student participation through the question and answer method; 5. Review; 6.

Motivation by rivalry and emulation.


From the Christian Brothers:
1. Grade pupils according to ability;2. Adopt the method in which the pupil recited not to
the teacher but to the class.
From the Jansenites:
1. Teaching of the vernacular by the phonetic method; 2. Nothing is to be memorized
unless understood; use of textbooks
REFERENCES:
Ornstein, A. C., Levine, D. U., Gutek, G. L., & Vocke, D. E. (2011). Chapter II. World Roots of American Education . In Foundations of Education (p. 523). Wadsworth .
Sam Mateo, R. A., & Tangco, M. G. (1997). Chapter III. Renaissance to Naturalism . In Foundations of Education II (Historical, Philosophical and Legal Foundations of Education) (p. 111).
Quezon City : Katha Publishing Co., Inc.