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Lab Manual Book

PLAIN AND REINFORCED CONCRETE


(PART-1)

Name:
Registration No:
Section:

Prepared by:
Engr.Abubakar-Saddiq
Lecturer
The University of Lahore

Arsalan Hameed Khan


BSCE Student
The University of Lahore

CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPT


THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE

Plain and Reinforced Concrete-1

Lab Manual

TABLE OF CONTENTS
S. No.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

Description/Jobs

Preface
Important Note
Acknowledgement
List of Figures
List of Graphs
List of Tables

Page No.
4
5
6
7
7
8

List of Jobs
1. Layout of concrete technology lab

2. Brief overview of Portland cement and concrete technology.


(Code: ASTM C125-03)

10

3. Standard test method for the determination of the normal consistency of the hydraulic cement.
(Code: ASTM C 187-04)
17
4. Standard test method for the determination of the initial and final setting time of the hydraulic
cement by VICAT Needle Apparatus.
21
(Code: ASTM C191-04b)
5. Determination of the fineness modulus of the coarse and fine aggregate from different sources.
[Code: ASTM C-316-05, for coarse materials (i.e.>15m)]
25
[Code: ASTM C-117-05, for fine materials (i.e. <15m)]
6. Standard test method for the determination of bulk density (i.e. unit weight and the voids in
aggregates).
35
(Code: ASTM C-29/C-29M)
7. Standard test method for the determination of relative density (specific gravity) and water
absorption of different aggregates.
38
(Code: ASTM C-127 & 128)
8. Determination of the aggregate impact value of different coarse aggregate samples.

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9. Preparing a concrete-mix and casting various samples required for different test.
(Code: ACI 211.1-91)

47

10. Standard Test Method for the Slump of Hydraulic Cement Concrete.
(Code: ASTM C-143/C-143M-03)

63

11. To Perform The Compacting Factor Test

66

12. Compressive strength of cylindrical concrete specimens.


(Code: ASTM C 39, only for cylinder)

68

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Preface
This Laboratory Manual is intended to provide undergraduate engineering students an understanding of
the basic principles of PRC-1 and its machinery covering all experiments related to the third year level
of the B.Sc. Civil Engineering.
In this text, related theory is discussed with help of the photographs of apparatuses and machines to
quickly grasp the basic concepts .To further elaborate the theory, blank spaces are provided for
observations. It also contains brief procedure for the experiment, precautions, self explanatory table of
observations and calculations, blanks spaces for writing results and finally comments on the results. As
practiced university, SI units are also used in this manual .However, wherever felt necessary, values in
alternate units are also provided to facilitate students.
In this Laboratory manually, totally twelve jobs are covered. Job number 1 is the layout of concrete
technology lab .Job number 2 refers to the basic plain reinforced concrete concept development i.e.
Portland cement and concrete Technology, job number 3 is the determination of normal consistency,
job number 4 is the determination of initial and final setting time of hydraulic cement, and Job number
5 is the determination of the fineness modulus of the coarse and fine aggregate from different sources.
Job number 6 is the determination of bulk density, job number 7 is the determination of relative density
(specific gravity) and water absorption of different aggregates. Job number 8 is the determination of the
aggregate impact value of different coarse aggregate samples. Job number 9 is the preparation of a
concrete-mix and casting various samples required for different test, job number 10 standard test
methods for the slump of hydraulic cement concrete. Job number 11 is to perform the Compacting
Factor test and job number 12 is the determination of compressive strength of cylindrical concrete
specimens.
Any comments/ suggestions by the teachers / students will be highly appreciated.

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Important Note
All rights are reserved with Engr.Abubakar-Saddiq, lecturer civil engineering department ,The
university of Lahore and Arsalan Hameed khan, student civil engineering department ,The university
of Lahore and no part of this manual should be reproduced and used by any person ,without exception,
in any possible from without the written permission from the authors.

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Acknowledgement
We would like to thank Professor Dr. M. Zulfquar, Head of Department of Civil Engineering, The
University of Lahore, Lahore for reviewing the manuscript and offering many helpful suggestions for
the manual in particular and many other colleagues and students in general.

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List of Figures
Figure 3.1
Figure 4.1
Figure 5.1
Figure 6.1
Figure 6.2
Figure 7.1
Figure 7.2
Figure 7.3
Figure 8.1
Figure 10.1
Figure 11.1

18
21
25
35
36
39
39
39
45
64
66

List of Graphs
Graph 5.1: Gradation Curve of Fine Aggregate

32

Graph 5.2: Gradation Curve of Coarse Aggregate

33

Graph 12.1: Curve showing rate of gain of strength (Strength Vs Days) of cylinders

70

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List of Tables
Table 2.1: Grading Requirements for Coarse Aggregates From ASTM Designation: C 33

10

Table 2.2: Grading Requirement for Fine Aggregates from ASTM Designation: C 33

11

Table 2.3: Measurement of Workability

15

Table 5.1: Standard Sieves for Coarse Aggregates

26

Table 5.2: Standard Sieves for Fine Aggregates

27

Table 5.3: ASTM grading requirements for fine aggregates

28

Table 5.4: ASTM grading requirements for coarse aggregates

28

Table 9.1: shows typical and extreme state DOT slump ranges.

55

Table 9.2: Typical State DOT Slump Specifications (data taken from ACPA, 2001)

55

Table 9.3: Approximate Mixing Water and Air Content Requirements for Different Slumps and
Maximum Aggregate Sizes (adapted from ACI, 2000)

57

Table 9.4: Water-Cement Ratio and Compressive Strength Relationship (after ACI, 2000)

58

Table9.5: shows ACI recommended values.

59

Table 10.1: Relation between workability and slump

64

Table 11.1: Relation Between workability and Compacting factor

66

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JOB NO 1
Layout of Concrete Technology Lab

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JOB NO. 2
Brief Overview of Portland cement and Concrete Technology
(Code: ASTM C125-03)
Concrete:
Concrete is the most commonly used construction material these days. This is a plastic material that
possesses transit properties (properties that change with time) i.e. Strength, hardness, ductility, fluidity
etc.

1. Definition:
Concrete is a mixture of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate/fillers, cement and water.
Let us discuss the individual items,
1.1 Coarse Aggregates:
Coarse aggregates constitute the largest portion of the concrete. The main purpose of coarse
aggregates is to provide strength. In normal strength concrete compressive strength is mainly
contributed by the coarse aggregates. These are the particles retained on sieve # 4 (with an opening
of 5mm). There is no set upper limit on the size of particles but usually an upper limit of 50mm
(2in) is considered.
(ATSM C125-03)

Table 2.1: Grading Requirements for Coarse Aggregates from ASTM Designation: C 33

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1.2 Fine Aggregates:


Fine aggregates are those aggregates which pass from sieve # 4 (whose dia is less than 5mm) and
retained on the sieve # 200.
(ASTM C 125-03)

Table 2.2: Grading Requirement for Fine Aggregates from ASTM Designation: C 33

1.3 Matrix
In simple words we can say that matrix is a mixture of all constituents of concrete other than the
coarse aggregates. This contains the binding material, fillers, water, admixtures and additives
etc.
Each of these have been explained below
1.3.1

Binding Material:
This is the component that holds primarily the coarse aggregate particles together. All the
particles in concrete are held together by this component. The function of binding material can
be defined as it provides confinement to coarse and fine aggregate particles. The most
commonly used binding material in concrete is Portland cement (ordinary cement) and the
resulting concrete is called, ordinary Portland cement (OPC).
There are different types of cement,

Type-I (Normal strength cement)

Type-II (Moderate sulfate resistant cement)

Type-III (High early strength cement)

Type-IV (Low heat of hydration cement)

Type-V (Sulfate resistant cement)

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Fillers:
Fillers are mainly used to fill the gaps between the coarse aggregate particles. These provide
better packing and economize the concrete production by reducing the amount of cement
required. The most commonly used filler is sand/fine aggregate. In road construction stone
dust is also used. In high strength concrete, where binders and fillers are equally important in
achieving strength as the coarse aggregates, some other types of filler material like quartz sand
is used to fill in the gaps between the fine aggregate particles.

1.3.3

Water:
Water is a very important constituent of concrete. It is provided for two main reasons, first one
is the hydration process and second one is the workability of concrete. Water is required for the
hydration process. It reacts with cement and forms calcium hydrate silicate gel that provides
the binding property. Further it acts as a lubricant between different particles present in
concrete and allows them to move while in fresh state. This makes it possible to pour concrete
in the form work.

1.3.4

Admixtures:
Admixtures are the ingredients that are used to change properties like workability, flow, setting
time etc. These are mostly mixed with water and added to concrete at a later stage of mixing (in
high strength concrete these are usually added in the second step to form a paste with
powdered substances)
Some common types of admixtures are,

1.3.4.1 Water Reducing Admixtures (plasticizers and super plasticizers):


These are used for increasing workability with constant amount of water. The excessive
amount of water can render the concrete weak as after the evaporation of extra water
voids are left behind that cause serious reduction in strength by two main processes. First one
is the direct effect on compressive strength due to reduction in area of concrete available at a
section. Secondly the voids allow the entrance of harmful chemicals that can either affect the
cement or aggregates or cause corrosion of steel present in form of tensile reinforcement.
1.3.4.2 Retarding admixtures:
Retarding admixtures are used to delay the setting time of cement. This provides extra time to
use concrete especially in those construction projects where concrete batching plants are
installed at a large distance from the site. In such projects transportation takes a lot of time.
Concrete cannot be used after the initial setting time of cement. So in order to delay this initial
setting time of cement retarders are used.
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1.3.4.3 Accelerating Admixtures:


Accelerators are used to reduce the setting time of cement. This type of admixtures is usually
used while concreting in cold regions where the setting of cement occurs at a slow rate.
This may also be used to speed up the construction process in order to use the same
formwork on upper stories or to open a project earlier for public (e.g. repair or new
construction of a bridge)
1.3.4.4 Corrosion inhibiting admixtures:
Corrosion inhibiting admixtures are added to avoid the corrosion of steel. Corrosion of steel
affects the strength of reinforced cement concrete in two ways. By reducing the area of steel
required to resist the applied tensile stresses and by reducing the grip of concrete over steel
that ensures the transfer of tensile stresses from concrete to steel.

1.3.5 Additives:
These are the substances used to increase the strength of concrete. These can be pozzolanic
materials like silica fumes, fly ash or other materials like matakaolin or even powdered fillers
like quartz powder that fill in the gaps between binder particles. These are usually added in
dry state along with the other binding materials like cement.
1.4

Interfacial transition zone:


This is the boundary zone between the matrix and coarse aggregates. The study of this
boundary is very important especially in high strength concrete where the function of matrix is
equally important as that of coarse aggregates.

2. Proportioning of concrete materials:


Proportioning of different materials is very important to achieve a material with desired
strength and properties. For example a concrete with less amount of coarse aggregate particles will
provide less strength. Similarly a concrete with less amount of matrix will not be able to move in
the form work and settle properly.

3. Hydration of cement:
Hydration process is the one in which cement reacts with water to form a paste known as
calcium hydrate silicate gel responsible for providing the binding property. The hydration process
begins as soon as the water is added to cement.

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4. Workability of concrete:
That property of freshly mixed concrete or mortar which determines the ease and homogeneity, with
which it can be mixed, placed, consolidated and finished. (ACI, 1990)
4.1 Measurement of Workability:
Workability can be by different techniques such as,
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.1.4
4.1.5
4.1.6

Slump Test.
Compacting Factor Test.
VB Test.
Flow Table Test.
Slump Flow Test.
Degree of compactability test.

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5. Placing and Finishing concrete:


By placing and finishing we mean how to put concrete in the mold and how to get the final shape
and finish. The basic process is that concrete is poured in the form work by concrete pump of
buckets. Then it is consolidated (vibrations are provided by external or internal vibraters i.e.
vibrating table & pokers/niddle vibraters)
There are a few things to be considered while working with concrete,
The concrete should be discharged as close as possible to its final position, preferably straight into
the formwork. A substantial free-fall distance will encourage segregation and should therefore be
avoided with deep pours, the rate of placing should be such that the layer of concrete below that
being placed should not have set; this will ensure full continuity between layers, and avoid cold
joints and planes of weakness in the hardened concrete. Once the concrete is in place, vibration,
either internal or external, should be applied to mold the concrete around embedment e.g.
reinforcement, and to eliminate pockets of entrapped air, but the vibration should not be used to
move the concrete into place High-workability mixes should not be over vibrated this may cause
segregation.

6. Curing of concrete:
As we know that water is added for workability and hydration. So if water is not available for
Hydration, strength will be compromised. We also studied that water is lost (loss of workability) is
due to water absorption and evaporation. This loss of water is to be compensated by either adding
extra amount of water or preventing the already present amount of water from evaporating. This
process is called curing.
Different techniques used in curing are,

Adding extra water by spraying and covering the concrete by gunny bags etc.
By allowing water to stand on the roofs
By covering concrete by polythene sheets in order to prevent water from escaping by
evaporation.

7. Comments:

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JOB NO. 3
Standard Test Method for the Determination of the Normal
Consistency of the Hydraulic Cement.
(Code: ASTM C 187-04)
1. Scope and Significance:
It is used to find out the percentage of water at which the standard consistency is achieved.
This Known amount of water is then used in making the cement paste for other tests like,
1.1 Initial setting time
1.2 Final setting time
1.3 Soundness test
(ASTM C 187 -04)

2. Apparatus:
2.1 Weighing Balance
2.2 VICAT Apparatus (contains)
2.2.1 Plunger with end of 10mmdiameter and 50mmlength
2.2.2 Conical ring with lower diameter of 70mm, upper diameter of 60mmand
2.3 40mm height.
2.4 Glass graduates (200mL or 250mL capacity)
2.5 Scraper
2.6 Spatula
2.7 Glass plate trowel

3. Related theory:
3.1 Consistency
The thickness or the viscosity of the cement paste is called consistency.
3.2 Cement paste
The viscous mass obtained by mixing cement with water is known as cement paste.
3.3 Standard paste
It is the cement paste for which the 10mmdiameter plunger in a standard VICA Test
penetrates by around 10mm.

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3.4 Standard/Normal consistency


It is the thickness or the viscosity of the standard paste and is expressed as the percentage of
weight of water.
3.5 VICAT Apparatus
The VICAT apparatus consists of a frame A (Fig.)
bearing a movable rod B, weighing 300 g, one end
C, the plunger end, being 10 mm in diameter for a
distance of at least 50mm, and the other end have a
removable needle D, 1 mm in diameter and 50 mm
in length. The rod B is reversible, and can be held in
any desired position by a set screw E, and has an
adjustable indicator F, which moves over a scale
(graduated in millimeters) attached to the frame A.
The paste is held in a rigid conical ring G, resting on
a plane non-absorptive square base plate H, about
100 mm on each side. The rod B is made of stainless
steel having a hardness of not less than 35 HRC, and
shall be straight with the plunger end which is
perpendicular to the rod axis.
The ring is made of a non-corroding, nonabsorbent
material, and have an inside diameter of 70 mm at the base and 60 mm at the top, and a
height of 40 mm. In addition to the above, the VICAT apparatus shall conform to the
following requirements:
Weight of moveable rod = 3005 gm
Diameter of the plunger end of the rod = 100.05 mm
Diameter of the needle = 10.05mm
Inside diameter of the ring at the bottom = 703 mm
Inside diameter of the ring at the top = 603 mm
Height of the ring = 403 mm

4. Test specifications:
4.1 Temperature & humidity
The temperature of the air in the vicinity should be between 20-27.5 C. The temperature of
the mixing water should be 232 C.
The relative humidity of the laboratory should not be less than 50%.

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4.2 Amount of cement


Amount of cement required for the test according to various specifications are mentioned
below.
ASTM = 650gm
4.3 Mixing time
The cement paste must be properly mixed and placed in the test specimen within a maximum
time of 41/4 min from the instant when cement and water were initially brought in contact.

5. Procedure:
Mix 650gm of cement with a measured quantity of water and make a cement paste as per the
Standard procedure. Put the cement paste in the ring of the VICAT apparatus and remove the
excess paste with the help of a trowel. Center the paste confined in the ring, resting on the
plate, under the rod B and bring the plunger end C of in contact with the surface of the paste,
and tighten the set-screw E. Then set the movable indicator F to the upper zero mark of the
scale, or take an initial reading, and release the rod immediately. This must not exceed 30
seconds after completion of mixing. The apparatus shall be free of all vibrations during the
test.
The paste of normal consistency is achieved when the rod settles to a point such that it is
10mm from the top surface in 30 seconds after being released. Make trial pastes with varying
percentages of water until the normal consistency is obtained. Make each trial with fresh
cement.
(ASTM C187- 04)
6. Observations& Calculations:
Type of cement
=_______________
Source of cement
=_______________
Manufacturer of cement:
=_______________
Sampling Person:
=_______________
Quantity of cement (W1) gm =_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Observation No

Weight of water added (W2) gm

Penetration of plunger (mm)

% water by weight = W2/W1 100

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7. Comments:

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JOB NO. 4
Standard Test Method for the Determination of the Initial and Final
Setting Time of the Hydraulic Cement by VICAT needle
Apparatus.
(Code: ASTM C 191-04b)
1. Scope & significance:
This test method is used to determine the time of setting of the hydraulic cement by VICAT
needle apparatus.
The knowledge of the setting time of the cement is always helpful in deciding the time
duration to mix, transport, place and compact the concrete effectively.
We always prefer a larger initial setting time so that we can mix, transport and place the
concrete easily. According to ASTM specifications, the initial setting time shall not be less
than 45 minutes and not more than 375 minutes.
A smaller value of the final setting time is always preferred in order to avoid large
expenditures on the formwork. According to most of the specifications, the final setting time
shall not be greater than 10hrs and shall not be less than (90 + 1.2 (initial setting time))
min.
(ASTM C191-04b)
i.e. (90 + 1.2 (initial setting time) ) min < final setting time < 10hrs

2. Apparatus:
2.1 VICAT apparatus
2.2 Needle of 1mm2 cross-section and 50mmlength (forinitial setting time)
2.3 Flat trowel
2.4 Reference Masses and Devices for Determining Mass
2.5 Spatula
2.7 Graduated cylinders

Figure 4.1

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3. Related theory:
3.1 Setting
In the setting process very little chemical reaction takes place. It only includes the shape
acquisition due to evaporation of water. During the setting process the cement remains in the
fluid or the semi-fluid state and there is very little or no gain in strength. Finer the cement
particles more will be the hydration and therefore it will lead to quick settlement.
3.2 Hardening
Hardening is the rate of gain of strength due to the chemical reaction. It also refers to the
Strength of the concrete after a specified interval of time.
3.3 Initial setting time
The time elapsed between the initial contact of cement and water and the time when a 1 mm
cross-section needles gives a penetration of 25mm in a standard VICAT apparatus is known
as initial setting time of that particular cement paste.

3.4 Final setting time


It is the time elapsed between the initial contact of cement and water and the time when the
needle does not show considerable penetration.
According to specifications;
Maximum final setting time = 10hrs
Minimum final setting time = [90 + 1.2 (initial setting time)] min

4. Test specifications:
4.1 Needle sizes
For Initial Setting Time and Final Setting Time
1mm x 1mm cross-section (1mm2 cross section required)
50mmlength
4.2 Mixing water
Potable water is satisfactory for the routine tests.
4.3 Temperature & humidity
The temperature of the air in the vicinity should be between 233 C. The temperature of the
mixing water should be 232 C.
The relative humidity of the laboratory should not be less than 50%.

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4.4 Amount of cement


Amount of cement required for the test according to various specifications are mentioned
below.
ASTM = 650gm

5. Procedure:
Prepare a cement paste of standard consistency and put it in the ring of the VICAT apparatus
Within the allowable time of 41/4 min. Clear and level any extra paste by means of a
trowel.
5.1 Initial Setting Time
Determine the penetration of the 1-mm needle at the start. If a penetration reading of 10mm
is obtained then note down the time as the initial setting time otherwise keep checking the
penetration reading after every 15min thereafter until a penetration reading of 25 mm is
obtained which will be the initial setting time of the cement. Make each penetration test at
least inches away from any previous penetration and at least 25mm away from the inner
side of the mold.
5.2 Final Setting Time
Keep on performing the same experiment until there is no considerable penetration shown by
the needle. Note down the time as final setting time.

6. Observations & Calculations:


Type of cement
Source of cement
Manufacturer of cement
Sampling Person
Observation In minutes In Hours
Initial setting time
Final setting time

= -------------------------------------= -------------------------------------= -------------------------------------= -------------------------------------= -------------------------------------= -------------------------------------= --------------------------------------

Observation
Initial setting Time
Final setting Time

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In minutes

In hours

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7. Comments:

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JOB NO. 5
Determination of the Fineness Modulus of the Coarse and Fine
Aggregate From Different
Code: ASTM C-316-05, for coarse materials (i.e. > 15m)
ASTM C-117-05, for fine materials (i.e. < 15m)

1. Scope & significance:


This test method is used to determine the fineness modulus of the given fine grained
specimen.
The information obtained from fineness modulus is helpful in the following ways;
1.1
1.2
1.3

Fineness modulus tells us directly whether the material is well-graded or gap-graded.


Fineness modulus gives us an overall idea whether the material is fine or coarse.
It also indicates the surface area of the particles.

Surface Area

Fineness Modulus

Lower the surface area of the aggregate, the required amount of fresh cement paste to
cover the aggregate particles will be less and thus less water is required.
1.4

Larger value of FM is preferred for fine aggregates. For a good fine aggregate, the FM
should be between 2.3 and 3.1.
(ASTM Range for fine aggregates)

2. Apparatus:
2.1 Standard set of sieves
2.2 Sieve shaker
2.3 Aggregate samples

3. Related theory:
3.1 Fineness modulus
Figure 5.1
It is the cumulative percentage retained on standard sieve 150m and above divided by
100.
It is a single factor or an empirical number which we get from the results of sieve
analysis. The value of FM will not change if we add sieves above.

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3.2 Sieve analysis


It is the operation of dividing the aggregate into various fractions, each consisting of
particles of same size.
OR
It is the operation of determining the particle size distribution of the given specimen.
The standard approach is to designate the sieve sizes by nominal aperture sizes in mm or
m (micron).
1 mm = 1000 m(micron)
Notes:
1. 5 mm is the dividing line between coarse and fine aggregate.
2. Well graded coarse aggregates of large size will reduce shrinkage of concrete by
50%.
3.3 Functions of sieve analysis
Sieve analysis is performed on coarse and fine aggregates in order to check their
gradation. This gradation gives an indirect measure if the workability and average
particle size.
3.4 Set of sieves
The set of sieves used for the process of sieve analysis can be categorized as;
3.4.1 Coarse Aggregates:

Table 5.1

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3.4.2 Fine Aggregates:

Table 5.2
3.5 Quality of a good sample
There are some limiting values for every sieve provided by ASTM or BS, we use these
limiting values to get our final answer by the method explained below.
Take the minimum and the maximum values provided by ASTM and plot them on the
grading curve. Now take these minimum and maximum value lines as your reference and
if the curve of our own data lies inside these two lines then the quality of our sample is
OK but if your curve lies outside these two lines of maximum and minimum range then
the sample is not according to specifications.

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Table 5.3: ASTM grading requirements for fine aggregates

Table 5.4: ASTM grading requirements for coarse aggregates

4. Procedure:
Take 2 kg of the oven-dried sample. The sample should be perfectly dry because if there
is some moisture content present then the particles will stick together and will not pass
through the sieves.
Temperature of the oven = 1105 C
Place the set of standard and non-standard sieves one above another with the smallest
aperture opening at the bottom. The pan is placed at the bottom-most position. This
experiment can be performed manually or with the aid of a machine called sieve
shaker.

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The manual method should be performed in a proper sequence which is as follows;


4.1 Forward and backward motion
4.2 Left and right motion
4.3 Clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW) motion
4.4 Frequent jolting.
Time elapsed for the sieving process is 3-5minutes.
Weigh the mass retained on each sieve and calculate the percentage passing through each
sieve.
Then the FM can be calculated by using the relation;
FM =

(Cumulative %Retained on Standard Sieves of 150m or above)


100

Following points must be kept in mind while calculating the FM;


Only sum up the values of standard sieves and do not include the values of the nonstandard sieves.
Only add the sieves of 150m and above sizes.
If any standard sieve is missing, we may use the value of next higher sieve.
Adding extra sieves does not change the result of FM.

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5. Observations& Calculations:
Source of sample = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Sampling Person = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Fineness Modulus =

Sum of commulative %age weight retained on sieve #100


1oo

= --------------------------------

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Source of sample = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Sampling Person =_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Fineness Modulus =

Sum of commulative %age weight retained on sieve #100


1oo

= -----------------------------------------------------------

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Graph 5.1: Gradation Curve of Fine Aggregate

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Graph 5.2: Gradation Curve of Coarse Aggregate

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6. Comments:

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JOB NO. 6
Standard Test Method for the Determination of Bulk Density
(i.e. Unit Weight and the Voids in Aggregates)
(Code: ASTM C-29/C-29M)
1. Scope & significance:
This test method is used to determine the bulk density of the given fine grained specimen.
During the concrete mix design, when the aggregate is to be batched by volume or by
weight, then it becomes necessary to know the mass of the aggregates that will fill the
container of unit volume. If we know the bulk density of the aggregate material then we
can easily determine the mass required to fill a unit volume container.
Bulk density also indicates the percentage of voids present in the aggregate material. This
percentage of voids affects the grading of the aggregates which is important in high
strength concrete.
Bulk density also indicates the compactive effort required to compact the concrete.

2. Apparatus:
2.1 Balance
2.2 Temping rod
2.3 Measuring Cylinder
2.4 Shovel or Scoop

3. Related theory:
3.1 Bulk density

Figure 6.1

It is the mass of the unit volume of bulk aggregate material.


The term volume includes the volume of the individual particles and the volume of
the voids between the particles.
Bulk density is used in weight and volume batching.
(ASTM C-29/C-29M)
3.2 Voids
It is the space between the individual particles in a unit volume of the aggregate mass
and is not occupied by the solid mineral matter.

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Voids within the particles, either permeable or impermeable are not included in the
voids for the determination of bulk density by this method.
3.3 Absolute density
It is the mass per unit volume of the individual particles only.
3.4 Facts about bulk density
Bulk density depends upon how densely the aggregate is packed. It also depends upon
the size, distribution and shape of the particles. If the particles are of the same size,
then it can be packed to a limited extent but when the smaller particles are added, the
voids get filled with them and thus the bulk density increases.
For a coarse aggregate, a higher bulk density means that there are few voids which
are to be filled by the fine aggregate and cement. Thus bulk density also depends
upon the degree of packing.

4. Procedure:
Note down the dimensions and empty weight of the measuring container and compute its
volume. For the determination of the loose bulk density, fill the container with the
aggregate material by means of a shovel and level its top surface. Weigh the container
filled with the aggregate and note down its reading. Then the loose bulk density of the
aggregate material can be computed by using the relation;
(Weight of container + Loose aggregate) (Weight of empty container)

Loose Bulk Density (Mloose ) =

volume of the conainer

Now for the determination of the


compacted bulk density, the only difference
is in filling the container. In this case, the
container is filled in three equal layers. Fill
the container about one-third full and level
the surface with the fingers. Rod the layer of
the aggregate with 25 strokes of the temping
rod evenly distributed over the surface. Next
fill the container two-third full and again rod
it with 25 strokes of the temping rod.
Finally, fill the container to overflowing and
rod again in the manner previously mentioned.

Figure 6.2

Now level the top surface and weigh the container. Calculate the compacted bulk density
by using the relation;

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Compacted Bulk Density (Mcomp ) =

Lab Manual
( + ) ( )

5. Observations& Calculations:

6. Comments:

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JOB NO. 7
Standard Test Method for the Determination of Relative Density
(Specific Gravity) and Water Absorption of Different Aggregates.
(Code: ASTM C-127/128)
1. Scope & significance:
In this test method we determine the relative density (i.e. specific gravity) and the water
absorption of the coarse aggregates.
The information obtained from specific gravity is helpful in the following ways;
1.1 The knowledge of the specific gravity is important for the concrete technologist to
determine the properties of concrete made from such aggregates.
1.2 It is used for the calculation of the volume occupied by the aggregates in various
mixtures.
1.3 The pores at the surface of the particles affect the bond between the aggregate and
the cement paste and thus influence the concrete strength.
1.4

Normally it is assumed that at the time of setting of concrete, the aggregate is in the
saturated and surface dry condition. If the aggregate is to be batched in the dry
condition, then it is assumed that sufficient amount of water will be absorbed from
the mix to bring the aggregate in the saturated condition. If an additional amount of
water is not added as a cover for the absorbed water, the loss of workability is
resulted.
(ASTM C-127/128)
Limitation
The limitation of the test is that, it cannot be used for the light weight aggregates.

2. Apparatus:
2.1 Balance
2.2 Sample container
2.3 Water tank
2.4 Sieves
2.5 Oven

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3. Related theory:
3.1 Aggregates
Aggregates may be classified as;
3.1.1 Coarse Aggregates
3.1.2 Fine Aggregates
3.1.1

Coarse aggregates

Any material which is retained on ASTM sieve 4.75mm is known as coarse


aggregate.
3.1.2

Fine aggregates

Any material which is passing ASTM sieve 4.75mm is known as fine aggregate.
3.2 Types of crush available in Pakistan
3.2.1

SARGODHA CRUSH
Sargodha crush possess the following properties;
Greener in color
High strength
Usually elongated particles

3.2.2

Figure 7.1

MARGHALLA CRUSH
Marghalla crush possess the following properties;
Grayish in color
Low in strength
Figure 7.2

3.2.3

SAKHI SARWAR CRUSH


Sakhi Sarwar crush possess the following properties;
Whitish in color

Figure 7.3

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3.3 Absorption
It is the increase in the mass of the aggregate due to the penetration of water into the
pores of the particles during a prescribed period of time.
The term absorption does not include the amount of water adhering to the surface of
the particles. Water absorption is expressed as percentage of the dry mass.
(ASTM C-128)
3.4 Saturated surface dry (s.s.d.) condition
It is the condition related with the aggregate particles in which the permeable pores of
the aggregate particles are filled with water but without free water on the surface of
the particles.
(ASTM C-128)
3.5 Oven dry density
It is the mass of the oven dried aggregate per unit volume of the aggregate particles.
The term volume includes the volume of the permeable and the impermeable pores
and does not include the volume of the voids between the particles.
3.6 Saturated surface dry (s.s.d) density
It is the mass of the saturated surface dry aggregate per unit volume of the aggregate
particles. The term volume includes the volume of the permeable and the
impermeable pores which are filled with water and does not include the volume of the
voids between the particles.
3.7 Apparent density
It is the mass per unit volume of the impermeable portion of the aggregate particles.
OR
It is the mass per unit volume of the solid portion of the particles excluding the voids.
3.8 Specific gravity/relative density
It is the ratio of the density of the aggregate material to the density of the gas free
distilled water at a standard temperature (i.e. 4 oC).
The relative density is a dimensionless quantity and is expressed as oven dried,
saturated surface dry and apparent.
(ASTM C-128)
3.9 Oven dried specific gravity
It is the ratio of the oven dried density of the aggregate to the density of the gas free
distilled water at a standard temperature (i.e. 4 oC).
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3.10 Saturated surface dry specific gravity


It is the ratio of the saturated surface dry density of the aggregate to the density of the
gas free distilled water at a standard temperature (i.e. 4 oC).
3.11 Apparent specific gravity
It is the ratio of the apparent density of the aggregate to the density of the gas free
distilled water at a standard temperature (i.e. 4 oC).

Procedure:
4.1 Coarse Aggregate
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3

4.1.4

4.1.5
4.1.6
4.1.7

Select by quartering or use of a sample splitter approximately 5 kg of


aggregate. Reject all material passing a 4.75mm sieve.
Thoroughly wash the sample to remove all dust or other coatings from the
particles.
Dry the sample to a constant weight at a temperature of 100 to 110C (212 to
230F). Cool at room temperature for about 15 min. and then immerse in
water at room temperature for approximately 30 min.
Remove sample from water and wipe the particles until all surface films are
removed. Weigh the sample in this saturated surface dry condition to the
nearest 0.5 g.
Immediately after weighing, place the sample in a wire basket, suspend in
water, and obtain the buoyant weight.
Dry the sample to a constant weight at a temperature of 100 to 110C (212
to 230F), cool in room temperature for at least 30 min. and weigh.
Computations;

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4.2 Fine Aggregate


4.2.1

Obtain by sample splitting or quartering 3000 grams of aggregate, including


equal quantities of all fractions.
4.2.2 Dry to a constant weight at a temperature of 100 to 110C (212 to 230F).
4.2.3 Allow to cool and cover with water for about 30 min.
4.2.4 Remove excess water and spread on a flat surface. Expose to a gentle moving
flame until test sample approaches a free-flowing condition.
4.2.5 Place a portion of the fine aggregate sample loosely into the mold. Tamp
lightly 25 times and lift the mold vertically. If surface moisture is present, the
fine aggregate will maintain its molded shape. Continue drying and testing
until upon removal of the mold, the aggregate slumps slightly. This indicates
that the saturated, surface-dry condition has been reached.
4.2.6 Immediately introduce into the pycnometer 500.0 g of the fine aggregate. Fill
the
pycnometer almost to capacity and eliminate the air bubbles by agitation. Add
water until the bottom of the meniscus is at the 500 cc line, etched on the
pycnometer. Determine the total weight of the flask, including the sample, and the
water.
4.2.7 Carefully remove the fine aggregate and dry to a constant weight of 100 to
110C (212 to 230F) and cool for at least 30 min. and weigh.
4.2.8 Computations;

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Observations& Calculations:

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Comments:

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JOB NO. 8
Determination of the Aggregate Impact Value of Different Coarse
Aggregate Samples.
1. Scope & significance:
The aggregate impact value gives a relative measure of the toughness or the resistance of
aggregate sudden shock or impact is not proportional to the resistance to a slowly applied
compressive load.

2. Apparatus:
2.1 Coarse aggregate from various sources
2.2 Impact testing machine
2.3 Spanner
2.4 Balance

3. Test specifications:
Figure 8.1
The test sample shall consist of aggregates the whole of which passes through inch
(12.7mm) sieve and is retained on a 3/8 inch (9.51mm) sieve. The aggregate comprising
the test sample shall be dried in an oven for a period of four hours at a temperature of
100-110 C and cooled. The measure (cup) shall be filled about one-third full with the
aggregate and gives 25 blows of tamping rod. A further similar quantity of aggregate
shall be added and a further 25 blows of tamping rod should be given to the second layer
and on the last layer 25 tamping rod blows should again be given and the surplus
aggregate struck off using the tamping rod as a straight-edge. The net weight of aggregate
in the measure shall be determined to the nearest gram (weight A) and this weight shall
be used for the duplicate test on the same material.

4. Procedure:
The impact machine shall test without wedging or packing upon the level plate, block or
floor, so that it is rigid and hammer guide columns are vertical.
The cup shall be fixed firmly in position on the base of the machine and the whole of the
test sample placed in it and compacted by 25 strokes of the tamping rod.
The hammer shall be raised until its lower face is 15 in (381mm) above from the upper
surface of the aggregate in the cup, and allowed to fall freely on the aggregate. The test
sample shall be subjected to a total 15 such blows each being delivered at an interval of
not less than one second. The crushed aggregate shall then be removed from the cup and
the whole of it sieved on No. 7 (2.83mm)sieve until no further significant amount passes
in one minute. The fraction passing the sieve shall be weighted to an accuracy of 0.1

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gram (weight B). Te fraction retained on the sieve shall also be weighed (weight C), and
if the total weight B + C is less than the initial weight (weight A) by more than 1 gm the
result shall be discarded and a fresh test made. Two tests shall be made.

5. Calculations
The ratio of the weight of fines formed to the total sample weight in each test shall be
expressed as a percentage, the result being recorded to the first decimal place.
Aggregate Impact Value =

100

Where,
A = weight of oven dried sample
B = weight of fraction passing 2.83mm sieve

6. Observations& Calculations:

7. Comments:

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JOB NO. 9
Preparing A Concrete-Mix And Casting Various Samples Required For
Different Tests.
(Code: ACI 211.1 91)
1. Scope & significance:
This purpose of this experiment is to simulate the actual formation of concrete mix, its
design and production. In this experiment certain number of samples will be prepared
which will then be tested for the verification of concrete mix design process.

2. Apparatus:
2.1 Concrete Mixer
2.2 Materials
2.2.1 Cement
2.2.2 Sand/Fine Aggregate
2.2.3 Crush/Coarse Aggregate
2.2.4 Water
2.3 Molds for samples to be prepared
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.3.4

Cylinders 300mm x 150mm (10+2), compressive strength & split cylinder test
Cylinders 150mm x 150mm (2), double punch test
Cubes 150mm (10), compressive strength
Beams 76mmx 153mm x 1370mm (4), study of flexure behavior

3. Plain Cement Concrete:


PCC consists of three basic ingredients: aggregate, water and Portland cement. According
to the Portland cements Association (PCA, 1988):
"The objective in designing concrete mixtures is to determine the most economical and
practical combination of readily available materials to produce a concrete that will satisfy
the performance requirements under particular conditions of use."

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PCC mix design has evolved chiefly through experience and well-documented empirical
relationships. Normally, the mix design procedure involves two basic steps:

Mix proportioning. This step uses the desired PCC properties as inputs then
determines the required materials and proportions based on a combination of
empirical relationships and local experience. There are many different PCC
proportioning methods of varying complexity that work reasonably well.

Mix testing. Trial mixes are then evaluated and characterized by subjecting them
to several laboratory tests. Although these characterizations are not
comprehensive, they can give the mix designer a good understanding of how a
particular mix will perform in the field during construction and under subsequent
traffic loading.

This section covers mix design fundamentals common to all PCC mix design methods.
First, two basic concepts (mix design as a simulation and weight-volume terms and
relationships) are discussed to set a framework for subsequent discussion. Second, the
variables that mix design may manipulate are presented. Third, the fundamental
objectives of mix design are presented. Finally, a generic mix design procedure is
presented.
a. Basic Concepts
Before discussing any mix design specifics, it is important to understand a couple of
basic mix design concepts:

Mix design is a simulation


Weight-volume terms and relationships

i.

Mix Design is a Simulation

First, and foremost, mix design is a laboratory simulation. Mix design is meant to
simulate actual PCC manufacturing, construction and performance. Then, from
this simulation we can predict (with reasonable certainty) what type of mix
design is best for the particular application in question and how it will perform.
Being a simulation, mix design has its limitations. Specifically, there are
substantial differences between laboratory and field conditions. For instance, mix
testing is generally done on small samples that are cured in carefully controlled
conditions. These values are then used to draw conclusions about how a mix will
behave under field conditions. Despite such limitations mix design procedures can
provide a cost effective and reasonably accurate simulation that is useful in
making mix design decisions.
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ii.

Lab Manual

Weight-Volume Terms and Relationships

The more accurate mix design methods are volumetric in nature. That is, they
seek to combine the PCC constituents on a volume basis (as opposed to a weight
basis). Volume measurements are usually made indirectly by determining a
material's weight and specific gravity and then calculating its volume. Therefore,
mix design involves several key aggregate specific gravity measurements.
b. Variables
PCC is a complex material formed from some very basic ingredients. When used in
pavement, this material has several desired performance characteristics - some of
which are in direct conflict with one another. PCC pavements must resist
deformation, crack in a controlled manner, be durable over time, resist water damage,
provide a good tractive surface, and yet be inexpensive, readily made and easily
placed. In order to meet these demands, mix design can manipulate the following
variables:
i.

Aggregate. Items such as type (source), amount, gradation and size,


toughness and abrasion resistance, durability and soundness, shape and
texture as well as cleanliness can be measured, judged and altered to some
degree.

ii.

Portland cement. Items such as type, amount, fineness, soundness,


hydration rate and additives can be measured, judged and altered to some
degree.

iii.

Water. Typically the volume and cleanliness of water are of concern.


Specifically, the volume of water in relation to the volume of Portland
cement, called the water-cement ratio, is of primary concern. Usually
expressed as a decimal (e.g., 0.35), the water-cement ratio has a major
effect on PCC strength and durability.

iv.

Admixtures. Items added to PCC other than Portland cement, water and
aggregate. Admixtures can be added before, during or after mixing and are
used to alter basic PCC properties such as air content, water-cement ratio,
workability, set time, bonding ability, coloring and strength.

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c.

Lab Manual

Objectives
By manipulating the mixture variables of aggregate, Portland cement, water and
admixtures, mix design seeks to achieve the following qualities in the final PCC
product (Mindess and Young, 1981):
i.

Strength.
PCC should be strong enough to support expected traffic loading. In
pavement applications, flexural strength is typically more important than
compressive strength (although both are important) since the controlling PCC
slab stresses are caused by bending and not compression. In its most basic
sense, strength is related to the degree to which the Portland cement has
hydrated. This degree of hydration is, in turn, related to one or more of the
following:

Water-cement ratio. The strength of PCC is most directly related to its


capillary porosity. The capillary porosity of a properly compacted PCC is
determined by its water-cement ratio (Mindess and Young, 1981). Thus,
the water-cement ratio is an easily measurable PCC property that gives a
good estimate of capillary porosity and thus, strength. The lower the
water-cement ratio, the fewer capillary pores and thus, the higher the
strength. Specifications typically include a maximum water-cement ratio
as a strength control measure.

Entrained air (air voids). At a constant water-cement ratio, as the amount


of entrained air (by volume of the total mixture) increases, the voidscement ratio (voids = air + water) decreases. This generally results in a
strength reduction. However, airs entrained PCC can have a lower watercement ratio than non-air-entrained PCC and still provide adequate
workability. Thus, the strength reduction associated with higher air
content can be offset by using a lower water-cement ratio. For moderate
strength concrete (as is used in rigid pavements) each percentile of
entrained air can reduce the compressive strength by about 2 - 6 percent
(PCA, 1988).

Cement properties. Properties of the Portland cement such as fineness and


chemical composition can affect strength and the rate of strength gain.
Typically, the type of Portland cement is specified in order to control its
properties.

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ii.

Lab Manual

Controlled shrinkage cracking.


Shrinkage cracking should occur in a controlled manner. Although
construction techniques such as joints and reinforcing steel help control
shrinkage cracking, some mix design elements influence the amount of PCC
shrinkage. Chiefly, the amount of moisture and the rate of its use/loss will
affect shrinkage and shrinkage cracking. Therefore, factors such as high
water-cement ratios and the use of high early strength portland cement types
and admixtures can result in excessive and/or uncontrolled shrinkage
cracking.

iii.

Durability.
PCC should not suffer excessive damage due to chemical or physical attacks
during its service life. As opposed to HMA durability, which is mainly
concerned with aging effects, PCC durability is mainly concerned with
specific chemical and environmental conditions that can potentially degrade
PCC performance. Durability is related to:

Porosity (water-cement ratio). As the porosity of PCC decreases it


becomes more impermeable. Permeability determines a PCC's
susceptibility to any number of durability problems because it controls the
rate and entry of moisture that may contain aggressive chemicals and the
movement of water during heating or freezing (Mindess and Young,
1981). The water-cement ratio is the single most determining factor in a
PCC's porosity. The higher the water-cement ratio, the higher the porosity.
In order to limit PCC porosity, many agencies specify a maximum
allowable water-cement ratio.

Entrained Air (Air voids). Related to porosity, entrained air is important in


controlling the effects of freeze-thaw cycles. Upon freezing, water
expands by about 9 percent. Therefore, if the small capillaries within PCC
are more than 91 percent filled with water, freezing will cause hydraulic
pressures that may rupture the surrounding PCC. Additionally, freezing
water will attract other unfrozen water through osmosis (PCA, 1988).
Entrained air voids act as expansion chambers for freezing and migrating
water and thus, specifying minimum entrained air content can minimize
freeze-thaw damage.

Chemical environment. Certain chemicals such as sulfates, acids, bases


and chloride salts are especially damaging to PCC. Mix design can
mitigate their damaging effects through such things as choosing a more
resistant cement type.

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iv.

Lab Manual

Skid resistance.
PCC placed as a surface course should provide sufficient friction when in
contact with a vehicle's tire. In mix design, low skid resistance is generally
related to aggregate characteristics such as texture, shape, size and resistance
to polish. Smooth, rounded or polish-susceptible aggregates are less skid
resistant. Tests for particle shape and texture can identify problem aggregate
sources. These sources can be avoided, or at a minimum, aggregate with good
surface and abrasion characteristics can be blended in to provide better overall
characteristics.

v.

Workability.
PCC must be capable of being placed, compacted and finished with
reasonable effort. The slump test, a relative measurement of concrete
consistency, is the most common method used to quantify workability.
Workability is generally related to one or more of the following:

Water content. Water works as a lubricant between the particles within


PCC. Therefore, low water content reduces this lubrication and makes for
a less workable mix. Note that a higher water content is generally good for
workability but generally bad for strength and durability, and may cause
segregation and bleeding. Where necessary, workability should be
improved by redesigning the mix to increase the paste content (water +
portland cement) rather than by simply adding more water or fine material
(Mindess and Young, 1981).

Aggregate proportion. Large amounts of aggregate in relation to the


cement paste will decrease workability. Essentially, if the aggregate
portion is large then the corresponding water and cement portions must be
small. Thus, the same problems and remedies for "water content" above
apply.

Aggregate texture, shape and size. Flat, elongated or angular particles tend
to interlock rather than slip by one another making placement and
compaction more difficult. Tests for particle shape and texture can identify
possible workability problems.

Aggregate gradation. Gradations deficient in fines make for less workable


mixes. In general, fine aggregates act as lubricating "ball bearings" in the
mix. Gradation specifications are used to ensure acceptable aggregate
gradation.

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Aggregate porosity. Highly porous aggregate will absorb a high amount of


water leaving less available for lubrication. Thus, mix design usually
corrects for the anticipated amount of absorbed water by the aggregate.

Air content. Air also works as a lubricant between aggregate particles.


Therefore, low air content reduces this lubrication and makes for a less
workable mix. A volume of air-entrained PCC requires less water than an
equal volume of non-air-entrained PCC of the same slump and maximum
aggregate size (PCA, 1988).

Cement properties. Portland cements with higher amounts of C3S and C3A
will hydrate quicker and lose workability faster. Knowing these
objectives, the challenge in mix design is then to develop a relatively
simple procedure with a minimal amount of tests and samples that will
produce a mix with all the qualities discussed above.

d. Basic Procedure
In order to meet the requirements established by the preceding desirable PCC
properties, all mix design processes involve four basic processes:
i.

Aggregate selection.
No matter the specific method, the overall mix design procedure begins with
evaluation and selection of aggregate and asphalt binder sources. Different
authorities specify different methods of aggregate acceptance. Typically, a
battery of aggregate physical tests is run periodically on each particular
aggregate source. Then, for each mix design, gradation and size requirements
are checked. Normally, aggregate from more than one source is required to
meet gradation requirements.

ii.

Portland cement selection.


Typically, a type and amount of portland cement is selected based on past
experience and empirical relationships with such factors as compressive
strength (at a given age), water-cement ratio and chemical susceptibility.

iii.

Mix proportioning.
A PCC mixture can be proportioned using experience or a generic procedure
(such as ACI 211.1).

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iv.

Lab Manual

Testing.
Run laboratory tests on properly prepared samples to determine key mixture
characteristics. It is important to understand that these tests are not
comprehensive nor are they exact reproductions of actual field conditions. The
selected PCC mixture should be the one that, based on test results, best
satisfies the mix design objectives.

4. Concrete Mix Design:


The American Concrete Institute (ACI) mix design method is but one of many basic
concrete mix design methods available today. This section summarizes the ACI absolute
volume method because it is widely accepted in the U.S. and continually updated by the
ACI. Keep in mind that this summary and most methods designated as "mix design"
methods are really just mixture proportioning methods. Mix design includes trial mixture
proportioning (covered here) plus performance tests.
This section is a general outline of the ACI proportioning method with specific emphasis
on PCC for pavements. It emphasizes general concepts and rationale over specific
procedures. Typical procedures are available in the following documents:

The American Concrete Institute's (ACI) Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions
for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete (ACI 211.1-91) as found in their ACI
Manual of Concrete Practice 2000, Part 1: Materials and General Properties of
Concrete.

The Portland Cement Association's (PCA) Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures,
14th edition (2002) or any earlier edition.

The standard ACI mix design procedure can be divided up into 8 basic steps:
a. Choice of slump
b. Maximum aggregate size selection
c. Mixing water and air content selection
d. Water-cement ratio
e. Cement content
f. Coarse aggregate content
g. Fine aggregate content
h. Adjustments for aggregate moisture

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a. Slump
The choice of slump is actually a choice of mix workability. Workability can be
described as a combination of several different, but related, PCC properties related to its
rheology:

Ease of mixing
Ease of placing
Ease of compaction
Ease of finishing

Generally, mixes of the stiffest consistency that can still be placed adequately should be
used (ACI, 2000). Typically slump is specified, but Table 5.14 shows general slump
ranges for specific applications. Slump specifications are different for fixed form paving
and slip form paving.

Table9.1: shows typical and extreme state DOT slump ranges.

Table 9.2: Typical State DOT Slump Specifications (data taken from ACPA, 2001)

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b. Maximum Aggregate Size


Maximum aggregate size will affect such PCC parameters as amount of cement paste,
workability and strength. In general, ACI recommends that maximum aggregate size be
limited to 1/3 of the slab depth and 3/4 of the minimum clear space between reinforcing
bars. Aggregate larger than these dimensions may be difficult to consolidate and compact
resulting in a honeycombed structure or large air pockets. Pavement PCC maximum
aggregate sizes are on the order of 25 mm (1 inch) to 37.5 mm (1.5 inches) (ACPA,
2001).
c. Mixing Water and Air Content Estimation
Slump is dependent upon nominal maximum aggregate size, particle shape, aggregate
gradation, PCC temperature, the amount of entrained air and certain chemical admixtures.
It is not generally affected by the amount of cementitious material. Therefore, ACI
provides a table relating nominal maximum aggregate size, air entrainment and desired
slump to the desired mixing water quantity. Table 5.16 is a partial reproduction of ACI
Table 6.3.3 (keep in mind that pavement PCC is almost always air-entrained so airentrained values are most appropriate). Typically, state agencies specify between about 4
and 8 percent air by total volume (based on data from ACPA, 2001).
Note that the use of water-reducing and/or set-controlling admixtures can substantially
reduce the amount of mixing water required to achieve a given slump.

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Table 9.3: Approximate Mixing Water and Air Content Requirements for Different
Slumps and Maximum Aggregate Sizes (adapted from ACI, 2000)
d. Water-Cement Ratio
The water-cement ratio is a convenient measurement whose value is well correlated with
PCC strength and durability. In general, lower water-cement ratios produce stronger,
more durable PCC. If natural pozzolans are used in the mix (such as fly ash) then the
ratio becomes a water cementitious material ratio (cementitious material = Portland
cement + pozzolonic material). The ACI method bases the water-cement ratio selection
on desired compressive strength and then calculates the required cement content based on
the selected water-cement ratio. Table 5.17 is a general estimate of 28-day compressive
strength vs. water-cement ratio (or water-cementitious ratio). Values in this table tend to
be conservative (ACI, 2000). Most state DOTs tend to set a maximum water-cement ratio
between 0.40 - 0.50 (based on data from ACPA, 2001).

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Table 9.4: Water-Cement Ratio and Compressive Strength Relationship (after ACI, 2000)
e. Cement Content
Cement content is determined by comparing the following two items:

The calculated amount based on the selected mixing water content and water-cement
ratio.

The specified minimum cement content, if applicable. Most state DOTs specify
minimum cement contents in the range of 300 - 360 kg/m3 (500 - 600 lbs/yd3).

An older practice used to be to specify the cement content in terms of the number of 94
lb. sacks of Portland cement per cubic yard of PCC. This resulted in specifications such
as a "6 sack mix" or a "5 sack mix". While these specifications are quite logical to a small
contractor or individual who buys Portland cement in 94 lb. sacks, they do not have much
meaning to the typical pavement contractor or batching plant who buys portland cement
in bulk. As such, specifying cement content by the number of sacks should be avoided.
f. Coarse Aggregate Content
Selection of coarse aggregate content is empirically based on mixture workability. ACI
recommends the percentage (by unit volume) of coarse aggregate based on nominal
maximum aggregate size and fine aggregate fineness modulus. This recommendation is
based on empirical relationships to produce PCC with a degree of workability suitable for
usual reinforced construction (ACI, 2000). Since pavement PCC should, in general, be
more stiff and less workable, ACI allows increasing their recommended values by up to
about 10 percent.

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Table9.5: shows ACI recommended values.


g. Fine Aggregate Content
At this point, all other constituent volumes have been specified (water, Portland cement,
air and coarse aggregate). Thus, the fine aggregate volume is just the remaining volume:
Volume of fine aggregate = Unit volume (1 m3 or yd3) (Volume of mixing water +
Volume of air + Volume of Portland cement + Volume of coarse aggregate)
h. Adjustments for Aggregate Moisture
Unlike HMA, PCC batching does not require dried aggregate. Therefore, aggregate
moisture content must be accounted for. Aggregate moisture affects the following
parameters:
Aggregate weights.
Aggregate volumes are calculated based on oven dry unit weights, but aggregate is
typically batched based on actual weight. Therefore, any moisture in the aggregate will
increase its weight and stockpiled aggregates almost always contain some moisture.
Without correcting for this, the batched aggregate volumes will be incorrect.
Amount of mixing water.
If the batched aggregate is anything but saturated surface dry it will absorb water (if
oven dry or air dry) or give up water (if wet) to the cement paste. This causes a net
change in the amount of water available in the mix and must be compensated for by
adjusting the amount of mixing water added.
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5. Concrete Mix Design and Material Calculation Example:


i. Required Data:
fc'
Concrete type
Maximum aggregate size
Slump required
Fineness Modulus of Fine aggregate
Bulk density of coarse aggregate
Bulk density of fine aggregate
Specific gravity of cement
Specific gravity of coarse aggregate
Specific gravity of fine aggregate
Water absorption of coarse aggregate
Water absorption of fine aggregate
iii.

=30 Mpa
= Non air entrained
= 20 mm
= 30-80 mm
= 2.82
= 1555 kg/m3
= 1070.16 kg/m3
= 3.15
= 2.6
= 2.63
= 0.9 %
= 1.2 %

Calculations:

a. Calculation for target strength:


Fcr' = 38.3
b. Selection of type of cement:
Use ordinary Portland cement
c. Durability check:
Use ordinary Portland Cement
d. Relative water content:
Water content = 92 %
e. Water amount:
Water suggested = 200 kg/m3
Air content = 2 %
Water content = 184 kg/m3
f. Calculation of water/cement ratio:
w/c = 0.437
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g. Cement content:
Cement content = 421.053 kg/m3
h. Bulk volume of aggregate:
Bulk vol.of agg. = 0.618
i. Weight of coarse aggregate:
Wt. of coarse agg. = 960.99 kg/m3
j. Weight of fine aggregate:
Wt. of fine agg. = 769.856 kg/m3
k. Water after considering water absorption:
Water absorbed by C.A= 8.64891 kg/m3
Water absorbed by F.A= 9.23827 kg/m3
Water content required = 202 kg/m3
l. Weight of ingredients (kgs):
Cement:
Coarse Agg.:
Fine Agg.:
Water:

421.053
960.99
769.856
202

m. Concrete Mix:
Cement
421.053
1

Fine Agg.
769.856
1.83

Coarse Agg.
960.99
2.28

W/C = 0.53
Concrete weight = 2353.9 kg/m3

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6. Observations& Calculations:
Calculation of materials required

Total concrete required


Allowance for wastage (10%)
Maximum capacity of the mixer
Number of batches
Quantity required per batch

= _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ kg
= _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ kg
= _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ kg
=________
= _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ kg

Weight of the concrete constituents:


1. Cement
= _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ kg
2. Fine Aggregate
= _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ kg
3. Coarse Aggregate
= _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ kg
4. Water
= _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ kg

7. Comments:

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JOB NO. 10
Standard Test Method for the Slump of Hydraulic Cement
Concrete.
(Code: ASTM C-143/C-143M-03)
1. Scope & significance:
This test method is used in lab and in field for finding out the slump (decrease in the
height of concrete when we lift up the mould). This test is used extensively in site works
all over the world. The slump test does not measure the workability of concrete directly
but it co-relates the workability with some physical measurement.
(ASTM C-143/C-143M-03)
The main significance of this test is as follows;
1.1 This test method is used to determine the slump of plastic hydraulic cement
concrete.
Slump<15mm (Non-Plastic)
Slump>15 (Plastic)
1.2 This test method is applicable to plastic concrete having coarse aggregate upto
37.5mm in size. If the coarse aggregate is larger than the 37.5mm then this
test method is not applicable.
1.3 This test method is not applicable to non-plastic and non-cohesive concrete
(due to larger amount of water presence).

2. Apparatus:
2.1 Metal mould, thickness is 1.15mm; it is in cone form with the base 200mm
diameter and 300mm height with the top diameter 100mm. the top and base of
cylindrical mould is open and parallel to each other. The mould is provided
with foot pieces and handles.
2.2 Temping rod, 16mmdiameter and 600mm in length having temping ends.

3. Related theory:
3.1 Slump
The decrease in the height of concrete when the mould of standard dimensions is
lifted
.

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3.2 Types of slump


There are three types of slump.
3.2.1 True Slump
3.2.2 Shear Slump
3.2.3 Collapse slump

Figure 10.1
We discard the collapse slump due to the very high value of slump
Shear slump occurs due to the lack of cohesion in mix.
We often use the term 100% compaction but actually in 100% compaction we
have percentage of air voids less than 3% by volume of concrete.
3.3 Relation between workability and slump

Table 10.1

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4. Procedure:
The mold is placed on a flat moist non-absorb surface with the smaller opening at the top.
It is then held firmly in place during filling of concrete by the operator standing on two
foot pieces. The mould is filled to a depth of 70mm and 2/3 of volume fills to a depth of
160mm. Each layer is given 25 strokes with the help of temping rod uniformly distributed
over the cross-section of each layer. Rod the 2nd and 3rd layer throughout its depth so that
strokes just penetrates into the under lying layer. After the top layer is rodded strike off
the surface of the concrete by means of rolling motion of temping rod.
Complete the entire test with an elapsed time of 2.5minutes. After filling, the cone is
slowly lifted and the unsupported concrete slumps. The decrease in the height of concrete
is called slump.

It is measured with the nearest 5mm. at the beginning of every test, before lifting the
mould the area immediately around the base of the cone should be cleaned off of concrete
which may be dropped accidentally.

5. Observations& Calculations:
Slump Value = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ inches, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ mm

6. Comments:

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JOB NO. 11
To Perform The Compacting Factor Test.
1. Scope & significance:
This test also gives the workability of concrete indirectly. This test is appropriate for
concrete with the maximum aggregate size of 40mm.
2. Apparatus:
Apparatus consists of two hoppers each in
the shape of frustum of a cone and one
cylinder.
The hoppers have hinge door at the bottom
and all the surfaces are polished to reduce
friction.

3. Related theory:
Figure 11.1
3.1 Compacting factor
The degree of compaction is also called the compacting factor and is measured with the
help of density ratio that is the ratio of density actually achieved in the test to the density
of same concrete when it is fully compacted.
Its maximum answer is 1 but practically it is lesser than 1.
3.2 Relation Between workability and Compacting factor
Workability
Very Low
Low
Medium
High

Compacting Factor
0.78
0.85
0.92
0.95

Slump (mm)
0-25
25-50
50-100
100-175

Table 11.1
Note: More is the compacting factor more will be the workability.

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4. Procedure:
First the concrete is placed gently at the upper hopper so that no work is done on concrete
to produce compaction. The bottom door of the upper hopper is then released and the
concrete falls into the lower hopper. The bottom door of the lower hopper is then released
and the concrete falls into the cylinder. Excess concrete is then removed from the
cylinder.
The density of concrete in now calculated and this density divided by the density of fully
compacted concrete is known as compacting factor.
More is the compacting factor more will be the workability.

5. Observations& Calculations:
Partially Compacted Density =
Fully Compacted Density =
Compactive Factor

PC

FC =

PC

= ------------------------------------------- kg /m3
= ------------------------------------------- kg /m3

= -------------------------------------------

6. Comments:

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JOB NO. 12
Test Method for the Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete specimens
(Code: ASTM C 39, only for cylinders)
1. Scope & significance:
The purpose is to determine the compressive strength of cylindrical specimens, either
molded or drilled cores. The method is limited to concrete having a density of at least 800
kg/m3 (50 lb/ft3 ).The 28-day compressive strength (fc) of molded cylinders is normally
used in design.

(ASTM C 39)
2. Apparatus:
2.1 Universal Testing Machine
2.2 Cylindrical Concrete Specimens
2.3 Cubical Concrete Specimens

3. Procedure:
3.1 Preparation of cylindrical specimens.
Prepare and cure the specimens in accordance with ASTM Designation: C 192.
Perform air content, slump, and penetration tests on the fresh concrete prior to casting the
specimens in accordance with ASTM Designations: C 143, C 231, and C 360.
Fill the cylinders with three lifts of freshly mixed concrete, tamping each lift 25 times
with the tamping rod. Also tap each lift lightly with a mallet 10 to 15 times.
Strike off the excess concrete with the tamping rod and finish to a smooth surface with a
steel trowel.
It is recommended that specimens be prepared and tested in groups of three.
3.2 Curing of the concrete specimens.
Allow the specimens to set for about 24 hours at normal room temperature, with the top
surface covered to prevent loss of moisture.
Strip the mold from the specimens and place in the curing facility until ready for testing.
3.3 Compression testing procedure.
Remove the specimen from the curing facility just prior to testing. Specimens shall be
tested while still in a moist condition.
Measure the diameter of the specimen, determined at right angles to each other about
mid-height of the specimen. Average the two values to the nearest 0.25 mm (0.01 in.).
Center the capped specimens in the testing machine and load them.
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Load to failure.
Record the ultimate load, the angle of fracture, and any other pertinent aspects of failure
such as voids.

4. Observations& Calculations:

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Graph 12.1:
Curve showing rate of gain of strength (Strength Vs Days) of cylinders

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5. Comments:

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References:

Irving Kett , Engineered Concrete Mix Design And Test Methods, Second Edition.

American Association State Highway and Transportation Officials Standard

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