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4 Statements

(A) Determine Whether a Given Sentence is a Statement


1. A statement is a sentence which is either true or false but not both.
2. Sentences which are questions, instructions and exclamations are
not statements.
Example 1:
Determine whether the following sentences are statements or not. Give a
reason for your answer.
(a) 3 + 3 = 8
(b) A pentagon has 5 sides.
(c) Is 40 divisible by 3?
(d) Find the perimeter of a square with each side of 4cm.
(e) Help!
Solution:
(a) Statement; it is a false statement.
(b) Statement; it is a true statement.
(c) Not a statement; it is a question.
(d) Not a statement; it is an instruction.
(e) Not a statement; it is an exclamation.

(B) Determine Whether a Statement is True or False.


Example 2:
Determine whether each of the following statements is true or false.
(a) 7 is a prime number
(b) -10 > -7
(c) 3 is a factor of 8.
Solution:
(a) True
(b) False
(c) False

(C) Constructing Statements Using Numbers and Symbols


1. True and false statements can be constructed with numbers and
mathematical symbols.
Example 3:
Construct (i) a true statement, (ii) a false statement,
using the following numbers and mathematical symbols.
(a) 2, 4, 8, x, =
(b) {a, b, c}, {d} , =
Solution:
(a)(i) A true statement: 2 x 4 = 8
(a)(ii) A false statement: 2 x 8 = 4
(b)(i) A true statement: {d} {a, b, c} = {a, b, c, d}
(b)(ii) A false statement: {d} {a, b, c} = {d}

Statements Example (Sample Questions)


Example 1:
Determine whether the following sentences are statements or not. Give a reason for
your answer.
(a) 3 + 3 = 8
(b) 9 4 = 5
(c) A pentagon has 5 sides.
(d) 4 is a prime number.
(e) Is 40 divisible by 3?
(f) Find the perimeter of a square with each side of 4cm.
(g) Help!
Answer:
(a) Statement; it is a false statement.
(b) Statement; it is a true statement.
(c) Statement; it is a true statement.
(d) Statement; it is a false statement.
(e) Not a statement; it is a question.
(f) Not a statement; it is an instruction.

(g) Not a statement; it is an exclamation.

Quantifiers All and Some


Quantifiers All and Some
Statement using All and Some
1. Quantifiers are words that denote the number of objects or cases
referred to in a given statement.
2. Quantifier all, any and every describe each and every object or
case.
3. Quantifier some, several and part of describe one or more
objects or cases.
Example:
Complete each of the following statements using the quantifiers all or some
to make the statement true.
(a) _______ polygons have the same number of vertices and sides.
(b) _______ multiples of 9 are even numbers.
(c) _______ of the whole numbers are divisible by 7.
(d) _______ factors of 4 are factors of 20.
Solution:
(a) All polygons have the same number of vertices and sides.
(b) Some multiples of 9 are even numbers.
(c) Some of the whole numbers are divisible by 7.
(d) All factors of 4 are factors of 20.

Quantifiers 'All' and 'Some' (Sample Questions)


Example 1:
Complete each of the following statements using the quantifiers all or some to
make the statement true.
(a) _____ rectangles are squares.
(b) _____ prime numbers are odd numbers.
(c) _____ triangles have equal sides.
(d) _____ even numbers are divisible by 2.
Answer:
(a) Some rectangles are squares.

(b) Some prime numbers are odd numbers.


(c) Some triangles have equal sides.
(d) All even numbers are divisible by 2.

Example 2:
Construct a true statement using the quantifier all or some for the given object
and property.
(a) Object: multiples of 4
Property: can be divided exactly by 5
(b) Object: regular hexagon
Property: 6 equal sides
(c) Object: acute angles
Property: less than 90o
Answer:
(a) Some multiples of 4 can be divided exactly by 5.
(b) All regular hexagons have 6 equal sides.
(c) All acute angles are less than 90o.

Operations on Statements
Operations on Statements
Nagating a Statement using No or Not
1. Negation of a statement refers to changing the truth value of the statement,
that is, changing a true statement to a false statement and vice versa, using
the word not or no.
Example 1:
Change the true value of the following statements by using no or not.
(a) 17 is a prime number.
(b) 39 is a multiple of 9.
Solution:
(a) 17 is not a prime number. (True to false)
(b) 39 not is a multiple of 9. (False to true)
2. A compound statement can be formed by combining two given statements
using the word and.

Example 2:
Identify two statements from each of the following compound statements.
(a) All pentagons have 5 sides and 5 vertices.
(b) 33 = 27 and 43 = 64
Solution:
(a) All pentagons have 5 sides.
All pentagons have 5 vertices.
(b) 33 = 27
43 = 64
Example 3:
Form a compound statement from each of the following pairs of statements
using the word and.
(a) 19 is a prime number.
19 is an odd number.
(b) 15 5 = 10
15 5 = 75
Solution:
(a) 19 is a prime number and an odd number. (Repeated words can be
eliminated when combining two statements using and.)
(b) 15 5 = 10 and 15 5 = 75.
3. A compound statement can also be formed by combining two given
statements using the word or.
Example 4:
Form a compound statement from each of the following pairs of statements
using the word or.
(a) 11 is an old number.
11 is a prime number.

(b)3=273

3=4+1

Solution:
(a) 11 is an old number or a prime number.

(b)3=273 or 3=4+1

Truth Values of Compound Statements using And


4. When two statements are combined using and, a true compound statement
is obtained only if both statements are true.
5. If one or both statements are false, then the compound statement isfalse.
The truth table:
Let p = statement 1 and q = statement 2.
The truth values for p and q are as follows:
p
True
True
False
False

q
True
False
True
False

p and q (compound statement)


True
False
False
False

Example 5:
Determine the truth value of the following statements.
(a) 12 (3) = 36 and 15 7 = 8.
(b) 5 > 3 and 4 < 5.
(c) Hexagons have 5 sides and each of the interior angles is 90o.
Solution:
(a)
12 (3) = 36 (p is true)
15 7 = 8 (q is true)
Therefore 12 (3) = 36 and 15 7 = 8 is a true statement. (p and q is
true)

(b)
5 > 3 (p is true)
4 < 5 (q is false)
Therefore 5 > 3 and 4 < 5 is a false statement. (p and q is false)
(c)
Hexagons have 5 sides. (p is false)
Each of the interior angles of Hexagon is 90o. (q is false)
Therefore Hexagons have 5 sides and each of the interior angles is 90o is a false
statement. (p and q is false)

Truth Values of Compound Statements using Or


1. When two statements are combined using or, a false compound statement is
obtained only if both statements are false.
2. f one or both statements are true, then the compound statement istrue.
The truth table:
Let p = statement 1 and q = statement 2.
The truth values for p and q are as follows:
p
True
True
False
False

q
True
False
True
False

p and q (compound statement)


True
True
True
False

Example 6:
Determine the truth value of the following statements.
(a) 60 is divisible by 4 or 9.
(b) 53 = 25 or 43 = 64.
(c) 5 + 7 > 14 or 9 = 2.
Solution:
(a)
60 is divisible by 4 (p is true)
60 is divisible by 9 (q is false)
Therefore, 60 is divisible by 4 or 9 is a true statement. (p or q is true)

(b)
53 = 25 (p is false)
43 = 64 (q is true)
Therefore, 53 = 25 or 43 = 64 is a true statement. (p or q is true)
(c)
5 + 7 > 14 (p is false)
9 = 2 (q is false)
Therefore, 5 + 7 > 14 or 9 = 2 is a false statement. (p or q is false)

Operations on Statements (Sample Questions)


Example 1:
Form a compound statement by combining two given statements using the word
and.
(a) 3 12 = 36
7 5 = 35
(b) 5 is a prime number.
5 is an odd number.
(c) Rectangles have 4 sides.
Rectangles have 4 vertices.
Solution:
(a) 3 12 = 36 and 7 5 = 35
(b) 5 is a prime number and an odd number.
(c) Rectangles have 4 sides and 4 vertices.

Example 2:
Form a compound statement by combining two given statements using the word
or.
(a) 16 is a perfect square. 16 is an even number.
(b) 4 > 3. -5 < -1
Solution:
(a) 16 is a perfect square or an even number.
(b) 4 > 3 or -5 < -1.

Example 3:
Determine whether each of the following statements is true or false.
(a) 3 (-4) = -12 and 13 + 6 = 19
(b) 100 0.7 = 70 and 12 + (-30) = 18
Solution:
When two statements are combined using and, a true compound statement is
obtained only if both statements are true.
If one or both statements are false, then the compound statement is false.
(a) Both the statements 3 (-4) = -12 and 13 + 6 = 19 are true. Therefore, the
statement 3 (-4) = -12 and 13 + 6 = 19 is true.

(b) The statement 12 + (-30) = 18 is false. Therefore, the statement 100 0.7 =
70 and 12 + (-30) = 18 is false.

Antecedent and Consequent of an Implication


1. For two statements p and q, the sentence if p, then q is called
animplication.
2. p is called the antecedent.
q is called the consequent.
Example:
Identify the antecedent and consequent of the following implications.
(a) If m = 2, then 2m2 + m = 10

(b) If PQ=P, then QP


Solution:
(a) Antecedent: m = 2
Consequent:: 2m2 + m = 10
(b)Antecedent:PQ=PConsequent:QP
Implications of the Form p if and only if q
1. Two implications if p, then q and if q, then p can be written as p if
and only if q.
2. Likewise, two statements can be written from a statement in the
form p if and only if q as follows:
Implication 1: If p, then q.
Implication 2: If q, then p.
Example 1:
Given that p: x + 1 = 8
q: x = 7
Construct a mathematical statement in the form of implication
(a) If p, then q.
(b) p if and only if q.
Solution:

(a) If x + 1 = 8, then x = 7.
(b) x + 1 = 8 if and only if x = 7.
Example 2:
Write down two implications based on the following sentence:
x3 = 64 if and only if x = 4.
Solution:
If x3 = 64, then x = 4.
If x = 4, then x3 = 64.
Converse of an Implication
1. The converse of an implication if p, then q is if q, then p.
Example:
State the converse of each of the following implications.
(a) If x2 + x 2 = 0, then (x - 1)(x + 2) = 0.
(b) If x = 7, then x + 2 = 9.
Solution:
(a) If (x - 1)(x + 2) = 0, then x2 + x 2.
(b) If x + 2 = 9, then x = 7.

Implications (Sample Questions)


Example 1:
Write down two implications based on the following statement.
y3 = -125 if and only if y = -5.
Solution:
Implication 1: If y3 = -125, then y = -5.
Implication 2: If y = -5, then y3 = -125.

Example 2:
Write down two implications based on the following statement.
8 is a factor of 24 if and only if 24 can be divided exactly by 8.

Solution:
Implication 1: 8 is a factor of 24 if 24 can be divided exactly by 8.
Implication 2: 24 can be divided exactly by 8 if 8 is a factor of 24.

Example 3:
State the converse of the following statement and hence, determine whether its
converse is true or false.
(a) If 2x > 8, then x > 4.
(b) If x is a multiple of 6, then it is a multiple of 3.
Solution:
(a) Converse implication: If x > 4, then 2x > 8.
The converse is true.
(b) Converse implication: If x is a multiple of 3, then it is multiple of 6.
The converse is false. (9 is a multiple of 3 but it is not a multiple of 6)

Argument
(A) Premises and Conclusions
1. An argument is a process of making conclusion based on several given
statements.
2. The statements given are known as premises.
3. An argument consists of premises and a conclusion.
Example 1:
Identify the premises and conclusion of the following argument.
(a) A pentagon has 5 sides. ABCDE is a pentagon. Therefore,ABCDE has 5
sides.
Solution:
Premise 1: A pentagon has 5 sides.
Premise 2: ABCDE is a pentagon.
Conclusion: ABCDE has 5 sides.
(B) Forms of Arguments

1. Based on two given premises, a conclusion can be made for three


different forms of arguments.
Argument Form I
Premise 1: All A are B.
Premise 2: C is A.
Conclusion: C is B.

Example 2:
Make a conclusion based on the two premises given below.
Premise 1: All multiples of 5 are divisible by 5.
Premise 2: 45 is a multiple of 5.
Conclusion: ______________
Solution:
Conclusion: 45 is a divisible by 5.

Argument Form II
Premise 1: If p, then q.
Premise 2: p is true.
Conclusion: q is true.

Example 3:
Make a conclusion based on the two premises given below.
Premise 1: If a number is a factor of 18, then the number is a factor of 54.
Premise 2: 3 is a factor of 18.
Conclusion: ______________
Solution:
Conclusion: 3 is a factor of 54.

Argument Form III


Premise 1: If p, then q.
Premise 2: Not q is true.
Conclusion: Not p is true.

Argument (Sample Questions)


Example 1:
Complete the conclusion in the following argument:
Premise 1: All regular polygons have equal sides.
Premise 2: ABCD is a regular polygon.
Conclusion:

Solution:
Conclusion: ABCD has equal sides.

Example 2:
Complete the conclusion in the following argument:
Premise 1: If m > 4, then 2m > 8.
Premise 2: 2m < 8
Conclusion:

Solution:
Conclusion: m < 4.

Example 3:
Complete the premise in the following argument:
Premise 1:
Premise 2: mn is not an even number.
Conclusion: m and n are not even numbers.

Solution:
Premise 1: If m and n are even numbers, then mn is an even number.

Example 4:
Complete the premise in the following argument:
Premise 1: If x = 3, then x2 = 9.
Premise 2:
Conclusion: x 3

Solution:
Premise 2: x2 9.

Deduction and Induction


Deduction and Induction
Reasoning by Deduction and Induction
1. Reasoning by deduction is a process of making a conclusion for aspecific
case based on a given general statement.
2. Reasoning by induction is a process of making a generalizationbased
on specific cases.
Maths Tip
1. General statement Special conclusion Deduction
2. Specific cases General conclusion Induction
Example:
Determine whether the following conclusion is made based on a deductive
reasoning or inductive reasoning.

(a) Area of triangle = Base Height


(i)

Area of ABC
= 7cm 5cm
= 17.5 cm2

(ii)

Area of DEF
= 7cm 4cm
= 14 cm2

(b)
1 = 7 (1)2 6

22 = 7 (2)2 6
57 = 7 (3)2 6
106 = 7 (4)2 6
7n2 6, n = 1, 2, 3, 4
Solution:
(a)
The specific conclusion is made based on a general statement ~ Area of
triangle = Base Height. Therefore, the conclusion is made based
on deductive reasoning.
(b)
The general conclusion 7n2 6, n = 1, 2, 3, 4 is made based onspecific
cases. Therefore, the conclusion is based on inductive reasoning.

Mathematics Reasoning Long Questions (Question 1 - 3)


Question 1:

(b) Complete the statement, in the answer space, to form a true statement by
using the quantifier all or some.
(c) Write down two implications based on the following statement:
A number is a prime number if and only if it
is only divisible by 1 and itself.

Solution:
(a)(i) False
(a)(ii) True
(b) Some

multiples of 3 are multiples of 6.

(c) Implication 1: If a number is a prime number, then it is only divisible by 1


and itself.

Implication 2: If a number is only divisible by 1 and itself, then it is a prime


number.

Question 2:
(a) State if each of the following statements is true or false.
(i) 2 3 = 6 or 2 + 3 = 6
(ii) 2 is a prime number and 5 is an even number.
(b) Write down the converse of the following implication.
Hence, state whether the converse is true or false.
If x is a multiple of 12,
then x is a multiple of 3.

(c) Complete the premise in the following argument:


Premise 1: All hexagons have six sides
Premise 2: _____________________
Conclusion: ABCDEF has six sides.

Solution:
(a)(i) True
(a)(ii) False
(b) Converse: If x is a multiple of 3, then x is a multiple of 12.
The converse is false.
(c) Premise 2: ABCDEF is a hexagon.

Question 3:
(a) Complete each of the following statements with the quantifier all or some
so that it will become a true statement.
(i) ___________ of the prime numbers are odd numbers.
(ii) ___________ pentagons have five sides.

(b) Write down two implications based on the following statement:


A B = B if and only if A B = A.

(c) Complete the premise in the following argument:


Premise 1: If a number is a factor of 24, then it is a factor of 48.
Premise 2: 12 is a factor of 24.
Conclusion: _____________________

Solution:
(a)(i)
Some
(a)(ii)
All

of the prime numbers are odd numbers.


pentagons have five sides.

(b) Implication 1: If A B = B, then A B = A.


Implication 2: If A B = A, then A B = B.
(c) Conclusion: 12 is a factor of 48.
Question 4:
(a) Combine the following two statements to form one true statement.
Statement 1: ( 3) = 9
Statement 2: 3 (3) = 19
(b) Complete the premise in the following argument:
Premise 1: _____________________
Premise 2: x is a multiple of 25.
Conclusion: x is a divisible of 5.

(c) Make a general conclusion by induction for the sequence of numbers 7, 14,
27, which follows the following pattern.
7 = 3 (2)1 + 1
14 = 3 (2)2 + 2
27 = 3 (2)3 + 3

. = ..

Solution:
(a) ( 3) = 9 or 3 (3) = 19.
(b) Premise 1: All multiples of 25 is divisible by 5.
(c) 3 (2)n + n, where n = 1, 2, 3,

Question 5:
(a) State if each of the following statements is true or false.
(i)
23 = 8 or = 1.33.
(ii)
6 > 8 and 6 > 8.

Solutio
n:
(a)(i) True

(a)(ii) False