wavelet

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

8 Aufrufe

wavelet

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- linear algebra
- Matrix Analysis for Scientist
- condition assessment of bridge structures using structural health monitoring condition assessment of bridge structures using structural health monitoring
- Santhosh Wave Let Ppt
- Compactly Supported Wavelets Based on Almost Interpolating and Nearly Linear Phase Filters (Coiflets)
- IJAIEM-2013-06-28-096
- Gabor Wavelets in Image Processing
- PP6
- Efficient Triang
- A Survey on Wavelet Applications in Data Mining 1761
- Important t
- HYBRID LWT- SVD WATERMARKING OPTIMIZED USING METAHEURISTIC ALGORITHMS ALONG WITH ENCRYPTION FOR MEDICAL IMAGE SECURITY
- Techniques for Pixel based Image Fusion of Real Image
- MATLAB Excercises
- Linear Algeb notes
- M203_2003answers
- FPGA Based An Efficient Complex Wavelet Transform Based By Using XILINX
- FoVa14
- Artificial Neural Network based Monitoring of Weld Quality in Pulsed Metal Inert Gas Welding using Wavelet Packets of Current Signal
- tutorial_modal_analysis_Walter.pdf

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 23

20 (2006) 161183

www.elsevier.com/locate/acha

Bin Han a,,1 , Soon-Geol Kwon b,2 , Sang Soo Park c,3

a Department of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G1

b Department of Mathematics Education, Sunchon National University, Sunchon, South Korea 540-742

c Department of Mathematics, Ewha Womens University, Seoul, South Korea 120-750

Available online 11 November 2005

Communicated by Akram Aldroubi

Abstract

Compactly supported Riesz wavelets are of interest in several applications such as image processing, computer graphics and

numerical algorithms. In this paper, we shall investigate compactly supported MRA Riesz multiwavelet bases in L2 (R). An algorithm is presented to derive Riesz multiwavelet bases from refinable function vectors. To illustrate our algorithm and results in this

paper, we present several examples of Riesz multiwavelet bases with short support in L2 (R).

2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Riesz multiwavelet bases; Refinable function vectors; Refinable Hermite interpolants; Biorthogonal multiwavelets; Smoothness;

Vanishing moments

Let { 1 , . . . , r } be a finite set of L2 (R) functions. Using integer dilates and shifts, one obtains a wavelet system

:= 2j/2 (2j k): j, k Z, = 1, . . . , r}. If the wavelet system forms a Riesz basis for L (R), then we say

{j,k

2

that { 1 , . . . , r } generates a Riesz wavelet basis in L2 (R).

Due to some desirable properties, Riesz wavelets have been found to be of interest in several applications. For example, Riesz wavelets have been used for numerical solutions to operator equations and for characterization of various

function spaces, see [6,8,10] and many references therein. Recently, a two-dimensional Riesz wavelet basis derived

from the Loop scheme has been employed in mesh compression algorithms in computer graphics with impressive

performance [30]; see [21] for the mathematical analysis of the wavelet system derived from the Loop scheme in [30].

* Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: bhan@math.ualberta.ca (B. Han), sgkwon@sunchon.ac.kr (S.-G. Kwon), pss4855@hanmail.net (S.S. Park).

URL: http://www.ualberta.ca/~bhan.

1 Research was supported in part by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC Canada) under Grant

G121210654.

2 Research was supported by a nondirected research fund from Sunchon National University, South Korea.

3 Research was supported by a postdoctoral fellowship program of Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF), and by NSERC Canada

under Grant G121210654.

1063-5203/$ see front matter 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.acha.2005.10.002

162

Biorthogonal wavelets with rational filters, which are closely related to MRA Riesz wavelets, have been constantly

under investigation in electrical engineering (see [1] and references therein). For example, as demonstrated in [1],

biorthogonal wavelets with rational filters can provide further improvements in wavelet-based image compression

algorithms over traditional compactly supported biorthogonal wavelets with finite impulse filters.

On one hand, due to the complexity of implementing wavelets on a mesh or a complex with an arbitrary topology,

the size of the wavelets in various applications plays a critical role and is preferred to be as small as possible (see [8,

10,20,21,29,30]). For example, it may be easier to adapt wavelet bases with shorter support on the real line to wavelets

on the interval [0, 1] (see [9,18,23]) and the obtained boundary wavelets may have a simpler structure so that it may

be easier to implement such wavelet systems, see [9,18,23] and references therein.

On the other hand, it is required in some applications for various purposes that a wavelet should have a high enough

smoothness order. For example, for wavelet applications in computer graphics, it is strongly preferred that the wavelets

are at least twice differentiable so that the reconstructed subdivision surfaces have continuous curvatures. But it is a

well-known fact that in order to have a wavelet system with a higher smoothness order, it is necessary to enlarge

the support of the wavelets. Comparing with traditional biorthogonal wavelets with compact support, Riesz wavelets

provide a better trade off in order to achieve both high smoothness order and short support of the wavelets. This is

possible partially because the dual Riesz basis of a given Riesz wavelet basis generally has infinite support. In other

words, one achieves the short support property of a Riesz wavelet at the cost of the infinite support of its dual system.

The infinite support of its dual system is not a serious drawback or not a drawback at all in certain applications

for several reasons. First of all, the dual wavelet filters associated with the dual Riesz system with infinite support

are generally rational filters, which can be efficiently implemented in applications, as argued in many papers in the

literature (see [1] and references therein). Secondly, for some applications such as wavelets in computer graphics [30]

and wavelet-based numerical algorithms for solving operator equations [8], the dual system of a Riesz wavelet basis

is not explicitly used and a fast wavelet reconstruction algorithm is still available since the Riesz wavelet itself has

short support.

MRA Riesz wavelets derived from scalar refinable functions have been investigated in a few papers in the literature, for example, see [6,16,20,21,29,31]. In this paper, we are interested in MRA Riesz multiwavelet bases in

L2 (R). As mentioned before, a high smoothness order of a scalar refinable function and the shortness of its support

are two mutually contradicting requirements. By increasing the number of generating functions, it is known that a

refinable function vector in general could be much smoother than the corresponding scalar refinable function when

their supports are more or less the same [11,13,18,23,28]. Since short support of a Riesz wavelet is critical for various

applications, it is natural to consider Riesz multiwavelet bases derived from refinable function vectors. However, to

our best knowledge, only Riesz wavelet bases derived from scalar refinable functions have been discussed in the literature [6,16,20,21,29,31]; except biorthogonal multiwavelets with compact support (for example, see [13] for many

references on biorthogonal multiwavelets), there are very few papers in the literature discussing Riesz multiwavelet

bases with compact support. Since multiwavelets have some interesting and desirable properties as discussed above,

it is the purpose of this paper to further extend the results on Riesz wavelet bases derived from scalar refinable functions in [5,6,16,20,21,29,31] to Riesz multiwavelet bases derived from refinable function vectors. In this paper, we

will present some sufficient conditions and an algorithm for constructing Riesz multiwavelet bases in L2 (R) from

refinable function vectors. Our step-by-step algorithm may allow interested readers to construct Riesz multiwavelet

bases with short support for various applications.

This paper is also motivated by the interesting example of a Riesz multiwavelet system constructed in Jia and

Liu [24] and the Riesz wavelet bases derived from B-splines in Han and Shen [20]. Our approach in this paper on

Riesz multiwavelet bases is closely related and similar to that in [20]. However, as we shall see later, this paper is

not a straightforward generalization of the results in [20] and some difficulties arising from refinable function vectors

and matrix refinement equations have to be overcome in order to construct Riesz multiwavelet bases from refinable

function vectors. As is often the case for studying multiwavelets and refinable function vectors, some technical results

and proofs are needed in our investigation of Riesz multiwavelet bases. Though some results and proofs in this paper

seem technical or complicated at the first glance, one may find the ideas in these proofs and results useful in other

problems related to refinable function vectors and multiwavelets.

Recently, multivariate vector subdivision schemes have been studied in [4,22] and are of interest in generating

subdivision curves and surfaces in computer-aided geometric design. Some interesting examples of smooth twodimensional symmetric refinable function vectors are constructed in [4,22]. Some of the refinable function vectors

163

constructed in [4,22] have very short support (for example, [1, 1]2 or [2, 2]2 ) and good smoothness orders (for

example, C 1 or C 2 ). It is quite appealing to build Riesz multiwavelet bases from such refinable function vectors, since

they may have some interesting applications in computer graphics and numerical algorithms. This is also another

motivation for us to investigate Riesz multiwavelet bases. To avoid further complicated notations and technical results,

we restrict ourselves to Riesz multiwavelet bases in dimension one in this paper. Most techniques and ideas developed

in this paper will be useful for studying multivariate Riesz multiwavelet bases later.

In general, a multiwavelet is derived from a refinable function vector via a multiresolution analysis. We say that

= ( 1 , . . . , r )T is a refinable function vector if

=2

a(k)(2 k),

(1.1)

kZ

where a : Z Crr is a sequence of r r matrices on Z, called the (matrix) mask with multiplicity r for . In the

frequency domain, the matrix refinement equation in (1.1) can be rewritten as

) = a(

),

(2

)(

R,

(1.2)

a(

) :=

a(k)eik , R,

(1.3)

kZ

and the Fourier transform f of f L1 (R) is defined to be f( ) := R f (t)eit dt and can be extended to tempered

distributions. For simplicity, we also call a the mask for .

A multiwavelet is generally derived from the refinable function vector via

)(

),

(2

) := b(

(1.4)

for some r r matrix b of 2 -periodic measurable functions. We say that = ( 1 , . . . , r )T generates a Riesz

:= 2j/2 (2j k): j, k Z, = 1, . . . , r} is dense in L (R),

multiwavelet basis in L2 (R) if the linear span of {j,k

2

and there exist two positive constants A and B such that

2

r

r

r

2

2

c

c

A

c

B

(1.5)

j,k

j,k

j,k

j,k

=1 j Z kZ

=1 j Z kZ

L2 (R)

=1 j Z kZ

}

for all finitely supported sequences {cj,k

j,kZ, =1,...,r . It is of interest to investigate under what conditions the multiwavelet in (1.4) will generate a Riesz multiwavelet basis in L2 (R). In this paper, we shall present some sufficient

conditions on a and b so that generates a Riesz multiwavelet basis in L2 (R).

For a smooth function f , in this paper f (j ) denotes the j th derivative of the function f . We say that =

](j ) (0) = 0 for all = 1, . . . , r and j = 0, . . . , m 1. The order

( 1 , . . . , r )T has m vanishing moments if [

of vanishing moments is one of the most important properties of a wavelet system.

The structure of this paper is as follows. In Section 2, we shall present an algorithm for constructing compactly

supported Riesz multiwavelet bases in L2 (R) with any preassigned order of vanishing moments from refinable function vectors. In order to construct a Riesz multiwavelet basis in L2 (R), we need to calculate a quantity 2 (a)

in our

In Section 4, we shall

algorithm. In Section 3, we shall discuss how to estimate and calculate the quantity 2 (a).

present several examples of Riesz multiwavelet bases with high vanishing moments and short support in L2 (R) to

illustrate the algorithm in Section 2. Finally, in Section 5, we shall present a proof for the algorithm in Section 2.

Some auxiliary and technical results that we need in our proof of the algorithm will be given in Section 5.

In this section, we shall present a step-by-step algorithm for constructing Riesz multiwavelet bases on the real line.

The proof of the algorithm will be given in Section 5.

The following lemma is needed in our algorithm for constructing Riesz multiwavelet bases with high vanishing

moments.

164

1 is a simple eigenvalue of a(0)

and

= 0 for all j N.

det[2j Ir a(0)]

a

a(0)m

(0) = ma (0)

ma (j ),

(2.1)

j 1

1

ma (j ) := 2j Ir a(0)

=0

j!

a (j ) (0)ma (),

!(j )!

j N.

(2.2)

) = a(

), then there

If is an r 1 vector of compactly supported tempered distributions on R such that (2

)(

(j

)

a

) = a(

) that

Proof. By the Leibniz differentiation formula, it follows from (2

)(

2j (j ) (0) = a(0)

(j ) (0) +

j 1

=0

j!

a (j ) (0) () (0).

!(j )!

In order to state the algorithm for constructing Riesz multiwavelet bases, we need to recall a quantity 2 (a) defined

in [15]. The convolution of two sequences is defined to be

rm

mn

u(k)v(j k), u 0 (Z)

, v 0 (Z)

,

[u v](j ) :=

kZ

where (0

denotes the linear space of all finitely supported sequences of r m matrices on Z. Clearly,

u

v = u v.

Let a be a matrix mask with multiplicity r. We say that a satisfies the sum rules of order m [13,15,25] if

= 0,

there exists a sequence y (0 (Z))1r such that y(0)

(j )

(j )

(0) = y (j ) (0) and y(2)

a()

() = 0 j = 0, . . . , m 1.

(2.3)

y(2)

a()

(Z))rm

For y (0 (Z))1r and a positive integer m, as in [15], we define the space Vm,y by

r1

(j )

: y()

v()

(0) = 0 j = 0, . . . , m 1 .

Vm,y := v 0 (Z)

(2.4)

By convention, V0,y := (0 (Z))r1 . Note that the above equations in (2.3) and (2.4) depend only on the values y (j ) (0),

j = 0, . . . , m 1.

For a mask a with multiplicity r, a sequence y (0 (Z))1r and a nonnegative integer m, we define

1/n

m (a, y) := sup lim sup

an v

( (Z))r1 : v Vm,y ,

(2.5)

n

n1 ) a(2

)a(

) and

u

22 (Z) := kZ |u(k)|2 for u 2 (Z). Define

where an ( ) := a(2

= 0 .

(a) := inf m (a, y): (2.3) holds for some m N {0} and some y (0 (Z))1r with y(0)

(2.6)

2 (a) := 1/2 log2 (a).

(2.7)

The above quantity 2 (a) plays a very important role in characterizing the convergence of a vector cascade algorithm

in Sobolev spaces (see [2,3,15,17,28,32] and many references therein for detail). In the above definition of (a), it

seems that the sequences y (more precisely, the vectors y (j ) (0), j = 0, . . . , m 1) are not uniquely determined. We

shall see in Proposition 5.2 that up to a scalar multiplicative constant, the vectors y (j ) (0), j N {0} are quite often

uniquely determined.

For a finitely supported matrix mask a, the quantity 2 (a) can be numerically computed by finding the spectral

radius of certain finite matrix using an interesting algorithm in [26]. However, for an infinitely supported mask a, the

165

algorithm in [26] cannot be directly used to calculate 2 (a). In the following, we introduce a quantity 2 (a), which is

closely related to the quantity 2 (a).

) = q2 ( )d( ) satisfying q1 (0) = q2 (0) = 0,

) = q1 ( )d( ), (

2 (a) := sup 2 (): a(

|q1 ( )| |q2 ( )| R ,

(2.8)

where q2 and all components of d are 2 -periodic trigonometric polynomials. We shall see from Theorem 3.1 that

we always have 2 (a) 2 (a). Moreover, if a is finitely supported, then 2 (a) = 2 (a). By the algorithm in [26] and

Theorem 3.2 in this paper, we can estimate the quantity 2 (a).

Riesz multiwavelet bases in L2 (R) can be obtained via the following algorithm, whose proof will be given in

Section 5.

Algorithm 2.2. Let a : Z Crr be a finitely supported matrix mask on Z with multiplicity r such that 2 (a) > 0.

Let m be a positive integer.

(1) Uniquely calculate the column vectors ma (j ), j = 0, . . . , m 1, from the mask a by the recursive formula (2.2).

(Since 2 (a) > 0, (2.1) must hold [15, Theorem 4.3] and therefore Lemma 2.1 applies.)

(2) Choose a finitely supported sequence b : Z Crr such that

j

=0

and

j!

b (j ) (0)ma (j ) = 0,

!(j )!

a(

)

det

b( )

a(

+ )

0

+ ) =

b(

j = 0, . . . , m 1,

R.

where the matrix mask a is defined to be

T 1

a(

)

a(

+

)

Ir

) := [Ir 0]

.

a(

) b(

+ )

b(

0

(2.9)

(2.10)

(2.11)

If 2 (a)

> 0, then generates a Riesz multiwavelet basis in L2 (R) and has m vanishing moments, where the

)(

wavelet function vector is defined to be (2

) := b(

) = a(

) with (0)

)(

= 0.

Remark. For the scalar case r = 1, using extensive techniques from Fourier analysis, we are able to show that 2 (a)

=

and in fact, Algorithm 2.2 presents a necessary and sufficient condition for to generate a Riesz wavelet basis

2 (a)

in L2 (R) with m vanishing moments. It is quite possible that this is also true for the general case of multiwavelets and

is currently under investigation.

3. Estimate the quantity 2 (a)

and 2 (a)

and 2 (a)

in Algorithm 2.2.

Theorem 3.1. Let d be an r r matrix of 2 -periodic functions in C (R). Let q1 and q2 be 2 -periodic functions

in C (R). Define two masks a1 and a2 by a1 ( ) := q1 ( )d( ) and a2 ( ) := q2 ( )d( ).

(i) If q1 (0) = q2 (0) = 0 and q1 ( )/q2 ( ) is bounded in a neighborhood of = , and if a2 satisfies the sum rules of

order m, then a1 must satisfy the sum rules of order at least m.

(ii) If |q1 ( )| |q2 ( )| for all R and q1 (0) = q2 (0) = 0, then 2 (a2 ) 2 (a1 ).

Proof. Suppose that a2 satisfies the sum rules of order m with a sequence y2 (0 (Z))1r , that is,

166

y2 (2 )

a2 ( ) = y2 ( ) + o | |m1 and y2 (2 )

a2 ( + ) = o | |m1 ,

0.

(3.1)

Since q1 (0) = q2 (0) = 0, by [15, Lemma 2.2] or [19, Lemma 3.2], there exists a 2 -periodic trigonometric polynomial

q such that

(3.2)

q(0) = 1 and q(2 )q1 ( ) = q( )q2 ( ) + o | |m1 , 0.

Denote y1 ( ) := q( )

y2 ( ). Now we show that a1 must satisfy the sum rules of order at least m with the sequence y1 .

By (3.1) and (3.2), we deduce that when 0,

a1 ( ) = q(2 )q1 ( )

y2 (2 )d( ) = q( )q2 ( )

y2 (2 )d( ) + o | |m1 = q( ) y2 (2 )

a2 ( ) + o | |m1

y1 (2 )

= q( )

y2 ( ) + o | |m1 = y1 ( ) + o | |m1 .

That is, [

y1 (2)

a1 ()](j ) (0) = y1 (j ) (0) for all j = 0, . . . , m 1.

On the other hand, let q3 ( ) := q(2 )q1 ( )/q2 ( ). By q1 (0) = q2 (0) = 0, we have q3 (0) = q(0) = 1 and q3 ( ) is

bounded in a neighborhood of = since q1 ( )/q2 ( ) is bounded in a neighborhood of = . Therefore, by (3.1),

when 0, we have

a1 ( + ) = q(2 )q1 ( + )

y2 (2 )d( + ) = q3 ( + )

y2 (2 )

a2 ( + ) = o | |m1 .

y1 (2 )

That is, [

y1 (2)

a1 ()](j ) () = 0 for all j = 0, . . . , m 1. Hence, if a2 satisfies the sum rules of order m with a sequence

y2 , then a1 must satisfy the sum rules of order m with the sequence y1 such that y1 ( ) = q( )y2 ( ). So, (i) holds.

By the assumption in (ii), |q1 ( )/q2 ( )| 1 for all R and therefore, q1 ( )/q2 ( ) is bounded in a neighborhood of = . Suppose that a2 satisfies the sum rules of order m with a sequence y2 (0 (Z))1r . By what has

been proved, a1 must also satisfy the sum rules of order m with the vector y1 , where y1 ( ) = q( )

y2 ( ) and q is

a 2 -periodic trigonometric polynomial with q(0) = 1. Since y1 ( ) = q( )

y2 ( ) for a 2 -periodic trigonometric

polynomial q with q(0) = 1, by [15, Lemma 3.3], it is easy to see that Vm,y1 = Vm,y2 . Denote

a

1 2n1 a1 (2 )

a1 ( ) and a

2 2n1 a2 (2 )

a2 ( ).

1,n ( ) := a

2,n ( ) := a

Since a1 ( ) = q1 ( )d( ) and a2 ( ) = q2 ( )d( ), we have

n1

a

q1 (2 )q1 ( )dn ( )

1,n ( ) = q1 2

and

n1

a

q2 (2 )q2 ( )dn ( ),

2,n ( ) = q2 2

For any v Vm,y2 , by the assumption in (ii), we have

a1,n v

2( (Z))r1

2

1

=

2

=

1

2

1

2

1

2

T

v(

)T a

) d

1,n ( ) a

1,n ( )v(

n1

)T dn ( )T dn ( )v(

) d

n1

)T dn ( )T dn ( )v(

) d

T

v(

)T a

) d

2,n ( ) a

2,n ( )v(

=

a2,n v

2(

2 (Z))

r1

167

Consequently,

1/n

r1

2 (Z))

lim sup

a1,n v

(

n

1/n

r1

2 (Z))

lim sup

a2,n v

(

n

v Vm,y2 .

Since Vm,y1 = Vm,y2 , by (2.5) and the above inequality, we must have m (a1 , y1 ) m (a2 , y2 ). Hence, we conclude

that (a1 ) (a2 ) and therefore,

2 (a2 ) := 1/2 log2 (a2 ) 1/2 log2 (a1 ) =: 2 (a1 ).

This completes the proof.

and 2 (a)

in Algorithm 2.2.

Now we state the result for estimating the quantities 2 (a)

) := q( )1 (

) such that (0 (Z))rr is a finitely supported sequence of r r matrices

Theorem 3.2. Write a(

on Z and q is a 2 -periodic trigonometric polynomial satisfying

q(0) = 1 and 0 < qmin q( ) qmax <

for some positive numbers qmin and qmax . (In case that q( ) is not real-valued but q( ) = 0 for all R, we can

) = 1 2 q( )(

), that is, replace q and by |q( )|2 and q( )(

), respectively.) For any positive even

consider a(

|q( )|

integer n, define

j

n

n1

2q( )

(1 q( ))2

2

2q( )

1

q1 ( ) :=

+ 1

q( )

qmax + qmin

qmax + qmin

qmax + qmin

qmax

j =0

and

j

n

n1

2q( )

(1 q( ))2

2

2q( )

1

+ 1

q( ) .

q2 ( ) :=

qmax + qmin

qmax + qmin

qmax + qmin

qmin

j =0

Then both q1 and q2 converge to 1/q exponentially fast in the space L (R) as n . In addition,

q1 (0) = q2 (0) = 1 and q1 ( )

1

q2 ( )

q( )

R.

(3.3)

)

a

1 ( ) := q1 ( )(

).

and a

2 ( ) := q2 ( )(

(3.4)

Moreover,

If a satisfies the sum rules of order m,

then both a1 and a2 must satisfy the sum rules of order at least m.

we have

2 (a).

2 (a 2 ) 2 (a)

(3.5)

Note that when n is large enough, we have q1 ( ) 0 for all R and consequently, we also have 2 (a 2 ) 2 (a)

2 (a)

2 (a 1 ).

Proof. By calculation, we have the following identity:

1 (1 x)n

=

+

(1 x)j

x

x

n1

x > 0, n N.

j =0

Setting x = 2q( )/(qmax + qmin ) and applying the above identity twice, we have

j

n n

n1

1 1

(1 q( ))n1

1

2q( )

2q( )

2

1 q( ) +

+ 1

1

=

.

q( ) qmax + qmin

qmax + qmin

qmax + qmin

q( )

j =0

=0

168

Taking n1 = 2 and replacing q( ) in the denominator of the last term in the above identity by qmin and qmax , we see

that (3.3) holds since n is an even integer and

n

2 1

2q( )

1

1

= 1

0 R.

1 q( )

q2 ( )

q( )

qmax + qmin

qmin q( )

Since

2q( ) qmax qmin

1

<1

qmax + qmin qmax + qmin

R,

both q1 and q2 converge to 1/q exponentially fast in the space L (R) as n . By Theorem 3.1, we conclude that

(3.5) holds.

If a satisfies the sum rules of order m,

by q1 (0) = q2 (0) = 1/q(0) = 0, it follows from Theorem 3.1 that both a 1

and a 2 must satisfy the sum rules of order m.

The relation 2 (a 2 ) 2 (a)

2 (a)

2 (a 1 ) is a direct consequence

of Theorem 3.1. 2

4. Some examples of Riesz multiwavelet bases on the real line

By Algorithm 2.2 in Section 2, in this section we shall present several examples of MRA Riesz multiwavelet bases

in L2 (R) with short support derived from some refinable function vectors.

Example 4.1. The Hermite cubic spline function vector = ( 1 , 2 )T is given by

1

(x) := (1 3x 2 2x 3 )[1,0] + (1 3x 2 + 2x 3 )(0,1] ,

2 (x) := (x + 2x 2 + x 3 )[1,0] + (x 2x 2 + x 3 )(0,1] .

It is evident that (C 1 (R))21 is a Hermite interpolant of order 1, that is,

1

2

(k) = 0, 2 (k) = 0,

(k) = (k) k Z,

1 (k) = (k),

where is the Dirac sequence such that (0) = 1 and (k) = 0 for all k = 0. See [13,15] for more discussion on

) = a(

), where the

refinable Hermite interpolants. Moreover, is a refinable function vector satisfying (2

)(

mask a is given by

1/4

3/8

1/2 0

1/4

3/8

a(1) =

,

a(0) =

,

a(1) =

,

1/16 1/16

0 1/4

1/16 1/16

with a(k) = 0 for all k Z\{1, 0, 1}. By Lemma 2.1, it follows from (2.2) that

1

ma (2)

ma (3)

ma (1)

0

0

1

15 ,

,

= 1 ,

=

=

,

ma (0) =

1

0

0

i

(i)2 2!

(i)3 3!

15

315

ma (4)

=

(i)4 4!

1

560

.

By calculation, 2 (a) = 2.5. Consider a sequence b (0 (Z))22 supported on {1, 0, 1}. To have a nontrivial solution

to the system of linear equations in (2.9), we find that m 4. Taking m = 3 and imposing symmetry on the sequence

b we find a parameterized solution for b as follows:

1 2

1 2

15

1 0

15

,

b(0) =

,

b(1) =

,

(4.1)

b(1) =

0 1

4 s 15s 2

4 s 15s 2

and b(k) = 0 for all k Z\{1, 0, 1}. Consequently, we have

1

a(

) a(

+ )

det

+ ) = 8 (39s 7) + (21s + 11) cos(2 ) .

b( ) b(

The above determinant is nonzero for all R if and only if |39s 7| > |21s +11|, that is, s (, 1/15)(1, ).

) = q( )1 (

), where

Now by (2.11), we have a(

1

(39s 7) + (21s + 11) cos(2 ) ,

q( ) =

60s + 4

and

169

Fig. 1. Using n = 4 in Theorem 3.2, we find the lower bound of the quantities 2 (a)

and 2 (a)

in Example 4.1 for s (16, 1/15) (1, 16)

(left) and s (1/2, 1/5) (right).

1

15s + 17 14s 2

,

(2) =

48

84s + 16

240s + 16

1

90s 26

0

(0) =

,

0

312s + 32

240s + 16

1

15s + 17 14s + 2

(2) =

,

48

84s + 16

240s + 16

1

60s + 4 4s 4

(1) =

,

144

32

240s + 16

1

60s + 4 4s + 4

(1) =

,

32

240s + 16 144

with (k) = 0 for all k Z\{2, 1, 0, 1, 2}. For s (, 1/15) (1, ), we have

|39s 7| |21s + 11|

9|s 1|

qmin := min q( ) =

= min 1,

R

|60s + 4|

|30s + 2|

and

9|s 1|

|39s 7| + |21s + 11|

= max 1,

.

qmax := max q( ) =

|60s + 4|

|30s + 2|

R

For any s (, 1/15) (1, ), has at least 3 vanishing moments and is supported on [1, 1]. When

s = 7/33, has 4 vanishing moments.

Since a(0)

= diag 1, 60s+8

15s+1 , we see that |60s + 8| < |15s + 1| if and only if 7/15 < s < 1/5. Taking n = 4

in Theorem 3.2, we can estimate 2 (a)

and 2 (a).

See Fig. 1 for more detail. We find that when s = 125/512,

1.932383 < 2 (a)

2 (a)

< 1.935011, which is almost the best one. Therefore, when s = 125/512, has 3

vanishing moments and by Algorithm 2.2, generates a Riesz multiwavelet basis forL2 (R) and therefore [8] for the

Sobolev space W (R) with 1.932383 < < 2.5, where W (R) := {f L2 (R): R |f( )|2 (1 + | |2 ) d < }.

See Fig. 2 for the refinable function vector and the multiwavelet with s = 125/512. When s = 7/33, has

4 vanishing moments and 0.414076 < 2 (a)

2 (a)

< 0.414265. By calculation, the example given in [24] has 2

vanishing moments and 0.497088 < 2 (a)

2 (a)

< 0.500007. The example in [24] has been adapted in [24] to

obtain an interesting Riesz multiwavelet basis in H01 ([0, 1]) := {f L2 ([0, 1]): f L2 and f (0) = f (1) = 0}. We

0.824926 and is

mention that a biorthogonal multiwavelet with compact support is obtained in [9] with 2 (a)

supported on [2, 2] with 2 vanishing moments.

Example 4.2. In this example we take the piecewise linear function vector supported on [1, 1] given in [23]. As

) = a(

), where the mask a is given by

discussed in [23], is a refinable function vector satisfying (2

)(

1/12 5 3/36

0 3/36

,

a(1) =

,

a(2) =

0

0

0

0

1/2 5 3/36

1/12 3/36

a(0) =

,

,

a(1) =

3/3

1/3

0

1/3

with a(k) = 0 for all k Z\{2, 1, 0, 1}. By Lemma 2.1, it follows from (2.2) that

170

Fig. 2. (a) and (b) are the two components 1 and 2 of the refinable function vector in Example 4.1. (c) and (d) are the two components 1 and

2 of the multiwavelet with s = 125/512 in Example 4.1. The multiwavelet has 3 vanishing moments and generates a Riesz multiwavelet

basis in L2 (R).

1

,

m (0) =

3

ma (3)

0

=

3 ,

(i)3 3!

32

1

ma (2)

ma (1)

0

= 7243 ,

=

3 ,

2 2!

i

(i)

2

48

7

2880

ma (4)

= 313 .

(i)4 4!

5760

By calculation, 2 (a) = 1.5. Consider a sequence b (0 (Z))22 such that b(k) = 0 for all k Z\{2, 1, 0, 1}. In

order to have a nontrivial solution to the system of linear equations in (2.9), we find that m 3. Taking m = 3 and

imposing symmetry on the sequence b we find a unique solution

5/12

73/36

0 3/36

,

b(1) =

,

b(2) =

6/36

0

5 2/12 7 6/36

5/12

3/36

1/2 7 3/36

,

b(1) =

b(0) =

0

7 6/36

5 2/12 6/36

with b(k) = 0 for all k Z\{2, 1, 0, 1}. By calculation, we have

6

a(

) a(

+ )

det

+ ) = 9 cos(2 ) 5 = 0 R.

b( ) b(

Now, by (2.11), we have

) = q( )1 (

)

a(

and

with q( ) =

1

5 cos(2 ) ,

4

0 3/8

3/4

1/8

3/4

3/4

,

(2) =

,

(0) =

,

(1) =

0 1/32

3/24 1/2

3/48 3/32

1/8

3/8

0

0

0

0

(1) =

,

(2) =

,

(3) =

,

1/2

3/24 3/32

3/48 1/32

7 3/24

with (k) = 0 for all k Z\{2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3}. Note that 1 = qmin q( ) qmax = 3/2. Taking n = 4 in Theo 2 (a)

< 1.500002. The multiwavelet has 3 vanishing moments and by

rem 3.2, we find that 1.499952 < 2 (a)

171

Fig. 3. (a) and (b) are the two components 1 and 2 of the refinable function vector in Example 4.2. (c) and (d) are the two components 1 and

2 of the multiwavelet in Example 4.2. The multiwavelet has 3 vanishing moments and generates a Riesz multiwavelet basis in L2 (R).

Algorithm 2.2, generates a Riesz multiwavelet basis in L2 (R). See Fig. 3 for the refinable function vector and

2 (a)

the multiwavelet . We note that [23, Example 3.1.1.] has 2 vanishing moments and 1.000000 2 (a)

1.000001.

Example 4.3. Let a be a mask given by

1/256

0

1/4

15/32

a(2) =

,

a(1) =

,

7/512 1/32

1/32 7/64

1/4 15/32

1/256

0

a(1) =

,

a(2) =

,

1/32 7/64

7/512 1/32

63/128

0

a(0) =

,

0

3/16

with a(k) = 0 for all k Z\{2, 1, 0, 1, 2}. By calculation, we have 2 (a) = 4.5 and the refinable function vector

is a vector of C 3 spline functions.

By Lemma 2.1, it follows from (2.2) that

11

ma (2)

ma (3)

ma (1)

0

0

1

a

126

,

= 1 ,

,

=

=

,

m (0) =

1

0

315

0

i

(i)2 2!

(i)3 3!

252

13

1

ma (6)

ma (4)

ma (5)

0

3780 ,

11880 ,

,

=

=

=

31

0

0

110880

(i)4 4!

(i)5 5!

(i)6 6!

5321

a

a

m (8)

m (7)

0

,

=

= 3632428800 .

5141

454053600

0

(i)7 7!

(i)8 8!

Consider a sequence b (0 (Z))22 supported on {2, 1, 0, 1, 2}. To have a nontrivial solution to the system of

linear equations in (2.9), we find that m 8. Taking m = 7 and imposing symmetry on the sequence b we find a

parameterized solution for b as follows:

180493

83200

472416

14206580

764339

764339

764339

,

b(1)

=

,

b(2) = 1528678

275

1

292795

53419

40792

2945255

256

s 14763

69383 1110128 s

555064 + 4440512 s 69383 + 2220256 s

180493

14206580

83200

472416

764339

1528678

764339

764339

b(2) =

,

b(1) =

,

1

14763

292795

275

53419

2945255

555064

4440512

s 40792

256 s

69383 1110128 s

69383 + 2220256 s

172

Fig. 4. (a) and (b) are the two components 1 and 2 of the refinable function vector in Example 4.3. (c) and (d) are the two components 1 and

2 of the multiwavelet with s = 103/128 in Example 4.3. The multiwavelet has 7 vanishing moments and generates a Riesz multiwavelet

basis in L2 (R).

) = q( )1 (

), where is

with b(0) = I2 and b(k) = 0 for all k Z\{2, 1, 0, 1, 2}. Now by (2.11), we have a(

supported on [5, 5] and

a(

) a(

+ )

q( ) := A( )/A(0), where A( ) := det

+ ) .

b( ) b(

Note that

1

a(0)

=

0

8(3530845s2887888)

317528+9731455s

.

is less than 1 in modulus if and only if 0.599964 690472/1150855 <

s < 23420632/18515305 1.264934.

Taking n = 2 in Theorem 3.2, we can estimate 2 (a)

and 2 (a).

We find that when s = 103/128, 4.3183708 <

2 (a)

2 (a)

< 4.428120, which is almost the best one. Therefore, when s = 103/128, has 7 vanishing moments

and generates a Riesz multiwavelet basis for the Sobolev space W (R) with 4.3183708 < < 4.5. See Fig. 4 for

the refinable function vector and the multiwavelet with s = 103/128.

In this section, generalizing the results in [20] and using some techniques in [15], we shall establish some results

on Riesz multiwavelet bases in L2 (R). At the end of this section, we shall give a proof to Algorithm 2.2 stated in

Section 2.

As in [20], we say that a function f : R C has polynomial decay if (1 + | |)j f L (R) for all j N. Similarly,

we say that a function vector f has polynomial decay if each component of f has polynomial decay.

For a sequence a of r s matrices on Z, we say that a has polynomial decay if supkZ (1 + |k|)j

a(k)

< for

all j N. Clearly, the sequence a has polynomial decay if and only if a (C (R))rs .

Combining [15, Theorem 3.6] and [20, Lemma 3.1], we have the following result.

173

(j

)

and m be a positive integer. Then [y()

f()] (2k) = 0 for all k Z and j = 0, . . . , m 1, if and only if, for

Nf

some positive integer Nf , f = j =1 vj hj for some function vectors hj (L2 (R))r1 with polynomial decay and

vj Vm,y , where Vm,y is defined in (2.4) and vj hj := kZ vj (k) hj ( k).

The following result is a special case of [13, Theorem 3.1], which plays a critical role in the CBC (coset by coset)

algorithm for constructing compactly supported biorthogonal multiwavelets with arbitrarily high vanishing moments

in [13]. The following result will be needed later. For the purpose of completeness, we present a proof here.

Proposition 5.2. Let a, a : Z Crr be two sequences of r r matrices on Z such that a is a dual mask of a, that is,

+ )a(

)a(

)T + a(

+ )T = Ir .

a(

(5.1)

with a sequence y (0

then there exists a

(j )

T

a

a

nonzero constant c such that y (0) = cm (j ) for all j = 0, . . . , m

uniquely defined in (2.2) of Lemma 2.1.

(Z))1r ,

with the sequence y,

which is equivalent to

m1

m1

)a(

+ ) = o | |

)a(

) = y(

) + o | |

and y(2

, 0.

y(2

It follows from (5.1) and (5.2) that

) = y(2

)a(

)a(

)a(

+ )a(

)a(

y(2

,

)T + y(2

+ )T = y(

)T + o | |m1

(5.2)

0.

That is,

)T = y(2

)T + o | |m1

a(

)y(

,

0.

By the uniqueness of the vectors ma (j ) (j N {0}), there exists a nonzero constant c such that y

for all j = 0, . . . , m

1. This completes the proof. 2

(j )

(0)T = cma (j )

b : Z Crr be sequences of r r matrices on Z such that

T

+ ) a(

a(

) a(

) a(

+ )

Ir 0

.

=

) b(

+ )

) b(

+ )

b(

0 Ir

b(

(5.3)

if and only if b satisfies

j

=0

j!

b (j ) (0)ma () = 0

!(j )!

j = 0, . . . , m

1,

(5.4)

where the vectors ma (j ) (j N {0}) are uniquely given in (2.2). Similarly, if (2.1) holds with a(0)

being replaced

by a(0),

then a satisfies the sum rules of order m if and only if b satisfies

j

=0

(j )

j!

(0)ma () = 0

b

!(j )!

j = 0, . . . , m 1,

(5.5)

where the vectors ma (j ) (j N {0}) are uniquely defined in (2.2) with a being replaced by a.

with a sequence y (0 (Z))1r . Then y(0)

= 0 and

m1

m1

)a(

+ ) = o | |

)a(

) = y(

) + o | |

and y(2

, 0.

y(2

+ )b(

)b(

)T + a(

+ )T = 0. Therefore, we deduce

By (5.3), we have a(

)a(

+ )b(

)b(

)a(

)b(

)T + y(2

+ )T = y(

)T + o | |m1

,

0 = y(2

0.

174

)T = o(| |m1

)y(

That is, b(

), as 0, or equivalently,

T (j ) (0) =

y()

0 = b()

j

=0

()

j!

b (j ) (0)y (0)T ,

!(j )!

j = 0, . . . , m

1.

(5.6)

()

Since (2.1) holds and a is a dual mask of a, by Proposition 5.2, there exists a nonzero constant c such that y (0) =

1. Therefore, (5.4) holds.

cma ()T for all = 0, . . . , m

(j )

Conversely, suppose that (5.4) holds. Since (2.1) holds, we have some y (0 (Z))1r such that y (0) = ma (j )T

) = y(

)a(

for all j = 0, . . . , m

1. By the definition of the vectors ma (j ), this is equivalent to y(2

)T + o(| |m1

),

)b(

)T = o(| |m1

as 0. Now we see that (5.4) is equivalent to y(

), as 0. From (5.3), we have

) = I

) + b(

)T b(

a(

)T a(

r

+ ) = 0.

+ ) + b(

)T b(

and a(

)T a(

)a(

) + o(| |m1

)b(

)T = o(| |m1

) and y(

)T = y(2

), as 0, we have

Therefore, by y(

) = y(2

) = y(

)a(

) + y(

)b(

)a(

) + o | |m1

)T b(

y(

)T a(

and

+ ) = y(2

)a(

+ ) + y(

)b(

)a(

+ ) + o | |m1

)T b(

.

0 = y(

)T a(

Since y(0)

= ma (0)T = 0, a must satisfy the sum rules of order m

with the sequence y.

We need the following result which is critical in our proof of the main result in this section and may be also useful

for investigating other problems on biorthogonal multiwavelets.

Lemma 5.4. Let a,

a be two r r matrices of 2 -periodic functions in C (R) such that a is a dual mask of a

(that is, (5.1) holds) and (2.1) holds for both a(0)

and a(0).

Suppose that a and a satisfy the sum rules of orders m

1r

and m

with some sequences y, y (0 (Z)) , respectively. Then there exist function vectors f, f (L2 (R))r1

(R))r1 with polynomial decay (in fact, one is compactly supported and the other has exponential decay)

(C m+m2

such that

2 and

(i) [f()T f()](j ) (0) = (j ) for all j = 0, . . . , m + m

(j )

(j )

a()

f() (0) = f(2) (0) j = 0, . . . , m 1,

f() () (0) = f(2) () (0) = 0, . . . , m

1.

a()

(5.7)

(ii) The shifts of f and f are biorthogonal: f, f( k) = (k)Ir for all k Z.

f()](j ) (2k) = (k)(j ) for all k Z and j = 0, . . . , m + m

2.

(iii) [y()

f()](j ) (2k) = [y()

Proof. Without loss of generality, we assume that m m.

Since a satisfies the sum rules of order m and (2.1) holds,

by [19, Theorem 2.3] or [15, Proposition 2.4], there exists an invertible r r matrix U ( ) of 2 -periodic trigonometric

polynomials such that

(1) U ( )1 is an r r matrix of 2 -periodic trigonometric polynomials.

(2) [y()U

(3) U (2 )a(

)U ( )1 takes the form

a 1,1 ( ) a 1,2 ( )

a 2,1 ( ) a 2,2 ( )

(5.8)

such that

a 1,1 (0) = 1,

(j )

a 1,1 () = 0,

(j )

a 2,1 (0) = 0,

(j )

(j )

(5.9)

175

where a 1,1 , a 1,2 , a 2,1 and a 2,2 are some 1 1, 1 (r 1), (r 1) 1 and (r 1) (r 1) matrices of 2 -periodic

functions in C (R).

)[U ( )T ]1 , y(

y and y by U (2 )a(

)U ( )1 and

Replacing the functions a,

a,

)U ( )1 , U (2 )T a(

1

)[U ( )T ] , respectively, by [15, Proposition 2.4] or [19, Lemma 2.1], we see that all the conditions in Lemma 5.4

y(

still hold. So, without loss of generality, by [15, Proposition 2.4], we can assume that a takes the form in (5.8) and

(5.9) with y(

) = [d( ), 0, . . . , 0] for some 2 -periodic trigonometric polynomial d( ) with d(0) = 1.

(j )

) =

In the following, we show that y (0) = [1/d](j ) (0) for all j = 0, . . . , m

1, that is, we can take y(

with the sequence y and (2.1) holds with a(0)

(j )

T

a

by Proposition 5.2, there must exist a nonzero constant c such that y (0) = cm (j ) for all

j = 0, . . . , m

1, where the vectors ma (j ), j N {0}, are uniquely defined in (2.2). Since a takes the form in (5.8)

and (5.9), we know that

(j )

0

a (0)

a (j ) (0) = 1,1

, j = 0, . . . , m 1.

(5.10)

(j )

0

a 2,2 (0)

By induction and m

m, it follows from (2.2) and (5.10) that all the components except the first component of the

vectors ma (j ), j = 0, . . . , m

1, must be zero, that is, ma (j ) = [, 0, . . . , 0]T for all j = 0, . . . , m

1, where

) = [y 1 ( ), 0, . . . , 0] for some y1 0 (Z). By the definition

(j )

a

T

) = y(

)a(

)T + o(| |m1

of m (j ) and y (0) = cm (j ) for all j = 0, . . . , m

1, we see that y(2

). Now it follows

from (5.10) that

.

(5.11)

y 1 (2 ) = y 1 ( )a 1,1 ( ) + o | |m1

On the other hand, since a satisfies the sum rules of order m with the sequence y, by the definition of sum rules in

(2.3), it follows from the special form of a in (5.8) and (5.9) with y(

) = [d( ), 0, . . . , 0] that

m1

d( ) = d(2 )a 1,1 ( ) + o | |

, 0.

(5.12)

Consequently, by m m

and d(0) = 1, it follows from the above relation that

, 0.

d(2 )1 = d( )1 a 1,1 ( ) + o | |m1

(5.13)

(j )

Since a 1,1 (0) = 1, up to a scalar multiplicative constant, the solution {y 1 (0): j = 0, . . . , m

1} to the system

(j )

of linear equations in (5.11) is unique. Now it follows from (5.11) and (5.13) that y 1 (0) = [1/d()](j ) (0) for all

) =

) = [d( ), 0, . . . , 0] and y(

j = 0, . . . , m

1. Consequently, we can take y 1 ( ) = 1/d( ). Therefore, we have y(

[1/d( ), 0, . . . , 0] with d(0) = 1.

In the following, we shall construct the desired function vectors f and f. It is well known [10] that there is a

compactly supported orthogonal refinable function 0 C m+m2

)0 ( ) for some finitely supported mask u 0 (Z), where r is the multiplicity of the matrix mask a.

0 ((r +1) ) = u(

(R) is an orthogonal refinable function with dilation factor r + 1, there exist compactly supported

Since 0 C m+m2

wavelet functions C m+m2

and

2.

(1) 0 (j ) (2k) = 0 for all k Z\{0} and j = 0, . . . , m + m

2 and = 1, . . . , r.

(2) [0 ()0 ()](j ) (0) = (j ) and (j ) (0) = 0 for all j = 0, . . . , m + m

By [15, Lemma 3.4] and d(0) = 0 (0) = 1, there exists a 2 -periodic trigonometric polynomial c( ) such that

1 c

L (R) < 1/2 and

(j )

1

(j )

c (0) =

(0) j = 1, . . . , m + m

2.

d()0 ()

That is,

176

,

c( )d( )0 ( ) = 1 + o | |m+m2

0.

(5.14)

f1 ( ) := c( )0 ( ),

f := 1 ,

= 2, . . . , r

and

f1 ( ) := c( )1 0 ( ),

f := 1 ,

= 2, . . . , r.

Since |1 c( )| < 1/2 for all R, the 2 -periodic trigonometric polynomial c must satisfy 1/2 |c( )| 3/2

for all R. Therefore, it is easy to see that f is compactly supported and f has polynomial decay (in fact, f has

exponential decay).

Now we show that (i) must be true. By the definition of f and f, it follows from (1) and (2) that

,

( )

( ) = 1 + o | |m+m2

f( )T f( ) = 0 ( )0 ( ) +

r1

0.

(5.15)

=1

2. Since ( ) = o(| |m+m2

) as 0 for all =

1, . . . , r, when 0, we have

T

a(

)f( ) f(2 ) = a 1,1 ( )f1 ( ) f1 (2 ), a 2,1 ( )f1 ( ) + o | |m+m2

,

(5.16)

and similarly,

a(

.

(5.17)

a 1,1 ( )f1 ( ) f1 (2 ) = a 1,1 ( )c( )0 ( ) c(2 )0 (2 )

= a 1,1 ( )d(2 )c( )d( )0 ( ) d( )c(2 )d(2 )0 (2 ) d( )d(2 )

= o | |m1 , 0.

f()](j ) (0) = [f(2)](j ) (0) for all j = 0, . . . , m 1. So, the

By (5.9), a 2,1 ( ) = o(| |m1 ), as 0. Therefore, [a()

first part of (5.7) holds.

In order to show the second part of (5.7), let us first show that a must take the following form:

a 1,1 ( ) a 1,2 ( )

a(

(5.18)

)=

a 2,1 ( ) a 2,2 ( )

such that

a 1,1 (0) = 1,

(j )

a 1,1 () = 0,

(j )

a 2,1 (0) = 0,

(j )

(j )

a 1,2 (0) = a 1,2 () = 0 j = 0, . . . , m

1.

(5.19)

Since a satisfies the sum rules of order m

with the sequence y such that y(

the definition of sum rules in (2.3), it is easy to see that

a 1,1 (0) = 1,

(j )

(j )

(j )

a 1,1 () = 0 and a 1,2 (0) = a 1,2 () = 0 j = 0, . . . , m

1.

(5.20)

On the other hand, by (5.8) and (5.18), it follows from (5.1) that

0 = a 2,1 ( )a 1,1 ( ) + a 2,2 ( )a 1,2 ( )T + a 2,1 ( + )a 1,1 ( + ) + a 2,2 ( + )a 1,2 ( + )T ,

1 = a 1,1 ( )a 1,1 ( ) + a 1,2 ( )a 1,2 ( )T + a 1,1 ( + )a 1,1 ( + ) + a 1,2 ( + )a 1,2 ( + )T .

By (5.9) and (5.20), it follows from the above identities that

,

a 2,1 ( ) = o | |m1 and a 1,1 ( )a 1,1 ( ) = 1 + o | |m+m2

0.

(5.21)

177

By m m,

a must take the form in (5.18) and (5.19).

Now by a similar argument, it follows from (5.17) that the second part of (5.7) holds. So, (i) holds. Since { (

k): k Z, = 0, . . . , r} is an orthonormal system, by a simple calculation, it is easy to check that f, f( k) =

(k)Ir for all k Z. Therefore, (ii) holds.

2, by the Leibniz differentiation formula, we

Since 0 (j ) (2k) = 0 for all k Z\{0} and j = 0, . . . , m + m

deduce that

(j )

(j )

2

y()

f() (2k) = d()c()0 () (2k) = 0 k Z\{0} and j = 0, . . . , m + m

and

f() (j ) (2k) =

y()

(j )

0 ()

d() c()

(2k) = 0

k Z\{0} and j = 0, . . . , m + m

2.

)f( ) = 1 + o | |m+m2

y(

)f( ) = 1 + o | |m+m2

and y(

,

0.

(5.22)

By y(

) = [d( ), 0, . . . , 0] and y(

y(

)f( ) = d( )c( )0 ( ) = 1 + o | |m+m2

, 0

and as 0,

)f( ) =

y(

d( ) c( )

0 ( ) =

0 ( )

c( ) d( ) 0 ( )

0 ( ) = 0 ( )0 ( ) + o | |m+m2

.

). Therefore, (5.22) holds and (iii) is verified.

[f, g]( ) :=

f ( + 2k)g( + 2k)T , R.

kZ

(L2 (R))r1 be a function vector. We say that generates a Bessel multiwavelet sequence

Let

in L2 (R) if there exists a positive constant C such that

= ( 1 , . . . , r )T

r

f, 2 C

f

2

j,k

f L2 (R),

=1 j Z kZ

:= 2j/2 (2j k), j, k Z and = 1, . . . , r.

where j,k

The main result in this section is as follows.

b (C (R))rr and

a(

) a(

+ )

det

(5.23)

+ ) = 0 R.

b( ) b(

Define two sequences a,

b : Z Crr by

T 1

a(

)

a(

) a(

+ )

Ir

.

) :=

) b(

+ )

b(

0

b(

(5.24)

and a(0).

Then there exist two r 1 vectors , of tempered distributions such

that

) = a(

),

(2

)(

) = a(

),

)(

(2

T (0)

and (0)

= 1.

(5.25)

178

)(

)

(2

) := b(

)(

).

and (2

) := b(

(5.26)

> 0, then , , ,

If 2 (a) > 0 and 2 (a)

k) = , (

k) = (k)Ir ,

, (

k) = , (

k) = 0 k Z.

, (

(5.27)

Moreover, if

]

(L (R))rr ,

]

(L (R))rr and [,

(i) [,

then generates a Riesz multiwavelet basis in L2 (R).

Proof. Since 2 (a) > 0 and 2 (a)

> 0, by the definition of 2 (a) and 2 (a),

for any , such that 22 (a) < < 1

< < 1, there exist y, y ( (Z))1r such that y(0)

= 0, y(0)

= 0 and

and 22 (a)

0

(1) a satisfies the sum rules of order m with the sequence y.

(2) a satisfies the sum rules of order m

with the sequence y.

y)

< 2

1/2 .

(3) m (a, y) < 21/2 and m (a,

> 0, by [15, Proposition 4.1], we must have m 1 and m

1. Now by Lemma 5.4, there

Since 2 (a) > 0 and 2 (a)

exist two function vectors f and f with polynomial decay such that (i)(iii) of Lemma 5.4 hold.

Now we consider the cascade sequences fn := Qna f and fn := Qna f, where the cascade operators Qa , Qa :

(L2 (R))r1 (L2 (R))r1 are defined to be

f(/2)

Q

a f ( ) := a(/2)

and Q

f(/2).

a f ( ) := a(/2)

Denote g := Qa f f and g := Qa f f. Since all f, f, a and a have polynomial decay, the function vectors g and

g must also have polynomial decay. Now we show that

(j )

(2k) = 0 k Z and j = 0, . . . , m 1

(5.28)

y()

g()

and

g()

(j ) (2k) = 0 k Z and j = 0, . . . , m

y()

1.

(5.29)

Note that g(

) = a(/2)

(j )

(j )

y()

g()

(2k) = y()

f() (2k) +

j

=0

(j )

()

j!

y()

a(/2)

!(j )!

(j )

= y()

f() (2k) + 2j

j

=0

(j )

j!

y(2)

a()

(k)f() (k).

!(j )!

Since a satisfies the sum rules of order m with the sequence y, we have

(j ) (k), k is even,

(j )

(k) = y

y(2)

a()

0,

k is odd.

Consequently, when k is odd, it follows from (5.30) and (iii) of Lemma 5.4 that

(j )

y()

g()

(2k) = (j )(k) + 2j

j

=0

= (j )(k) = 0

(j )

j!

y(2)

a()

(k)f() (k)

!(j )!

j = 0, . . . , m 1

(5.30)

179

(j )

(2k) = (j )(k) + 2j

y()

g()

j!

y (j ) (k)f() (k)

!(j )!

=0

(j )

j

= (j )(k) + 2 y()

f() (k)

= (j )(k) + 2j (j )(k)

= 0.

Therefore, (5.28) holds. By a similar argument, (5.29) can be verified.

Since (5.28) and (5.29) hold, by Lemma 5.1, there exist function vectors hj , h (L2 (R))r1 with polynomial

decay such that

g=

Ng

vj hj

and g =

j =1

Ng

v h ,

=1

y for all = 1, . . . , Ng .

By induction, we have

fn+1 fn = Qna g

=2

an (k)g 2 k = 2

n

Ng

an (k)(vj hj ) 2n k

kZ j =1

kZ

Ng

= 2n

(an vj )(k)hj 2n k

j =1 kZ

and similarly,

fn+1 fn = Qna g = 2n

Ng

(a n v )(k)h 2n k ,

=1 kZ

n1 ) a(2

)a(

) and a

n ( ) := a(2

)a(

where an ( ) := a(2

, h

]

tors in (L2 (R))r1 with polynomial decay, we have [hj , hj ] (L (R))rr for all j = 1, . . . , Ng and [h

rr

for all = 1, . . . , Ng . Therefore, there exists a positive constant C1 , depending only on the function

(L (R))

vectors hj and h , such that for all n N,

fn+1 fn

(L2 (R))r1 C1 2

n/2

Ng

an vj

(2 (Z))r1 ,

j =1

fn+1 fn

(L2 (R))r1 C1 2n/2

Ng

a n v

(2 (Z))r1 .

(5.31)

=1

y)

< 2

1/2 , by vj Vm,y and v Vm,

y , we must have

1/n

r1

2 (Z))

< 21/2

j = 1, . . . , Ng ,

1/n

r1

2 (Z))

< 2

1/2

= 1, . . . , Ng .

lim sup

an vj

(

n

lim sup

a n v

(

n

Therefore, there exists a positive constant C2 such that for all j = 1, . . . , Ng and = 1, . . . , Ng ,

an vj

(2 (Z))r1 C2 n 2n/2

and

a n v

(2 (Z))r1 C2 n 2n/2

n N.

180

fn+1 fn

(L2 (R))r1 C1 C2 Ng n

and

fn+1 fn

(L2 (R))r1 C1 C2 Ng n .

(5.32)

Since 0 < , < 1, the above inequalities in (5.32) imply that both {fn }nN and {fn }nN are Cauchy sequences in

(L2 (R))r1 .

j )f(2n ). Since (2.1) holds for both a(0)

Note that fn ( ) = nj=1 a(2

j )f(2n ) and fn ( ) = nj=1 a(2

T

T

(0)

= f(0) f(0) = 1, we see that lim

f c

= 0 and lim

f

and a(0),

by (0)

c1

(L2 (R))r1

we see that (5.3) holds. Note that by Lemma 5.4, f, f( k) = (k)Ir for all

By the definition of a and b,

k Z. By induction, it follows from (5.1) that fn , fn ( k) = (k)Ir for all k Z and n N. Consequently, by

(L (R))r1 = 0 for some nonzero constant c, we must have

limn

fn c

(L2 (R))r1 = 0 and limn

fn c1

Using the standard argument of multiresolution analysis [7,10], one can show that and form a pair of biorthogonal multiwavelet bases in L2 (R). Therefore, in particular, generates a Riesz multiwavelet basis in L2 (R). 2

(L2 (R))r1

In order to prove Algorithm 2.2, we need the following result which is related to [14, Theorem 2.2].

Proposition 5.6. Let a : Z Crr be a finitely supported matrix mask such that 2 (a) > 0. Let be a compactly

) = a(

) with (0)

)(

= 0. Then for any 0 < < 2 (a), there

exists a positive constant C such that

+ 2k)T (

+ 2k) C R.

1 + | + 2k|2 (

(5.33)

kZ

Proof. Since 2 (a) > 0, by [15, Theorem 4.3], we have (L2 (R))r1 . By the definition of 2 (a) and < 2 (a),

for any 0 < < 2 (a) , there exist y (0 (Z))1r with y(0)

the sum rules of order m with the sequence y and m (a, y) < 21/22 (a) .

](

) 0 for all R and it is a maNow we prove (5.33) by modifying the proof of [14, Theorem 2.2]. Since [,

trix of 2 -periodic trigonometric polynomials, we can find a matrix V ( ) of 2 -periodic trigonometric polynomials

](

). Define

such that V ( )V ( )T = [,

2m

m

](

).

v(

) := 1 ei V ( ) and u(

) := v(

)v(

)T = 1 ei [,

(5.34)

Since is compactly supported, u and v are r r matrices of 2 -periodic trigonometric polynomials. Let an ( ) :=

n ) = an ( )(

), we have

)a(

). As in [14, (2.8)], by (2

a(2

n1 ) a(2

n

n

](

)an ( )T .

2 , 2 ( ) = an ( )[,

Let := (, /2] [/2, ] and define a 2 -periodic function g by g( ) = ( ) for (, ], where

denotes the characteristic function of the set . Then we have 0 g( ) |1 ei |2m for all R and

2n T 2n ( ) 2n T 2n g( ) trace 2n , 2n ( ) g( )

](

)an ( )T g( ) trace an ( )u(

)an ( )T .

= trace an ( )[,

Consequently,

)T (

)2n ( ) trace an 2n u 2n an 2n T

(

R.

(5.35)

n 1

2

an 2n ( + 2k) u 2n ( + 2k) an 2n ( + 2k) T = Tan u ( ),

(5.36)

k=0

T

f(/2)a(/2)

+ a(/2

+ )f(/2 + )a(/2

+ )T .

[Ta f ]( ) := a(/2)

(5.37)

181

Since 2n = (2n , 2n1 ] [2n1 , 2n ], by (5.35) and (5.36), we conclude that for (, ],

+ 2k)T (

+ 2k)

(

trace

n 1

2

+ 2k)T (

+ 2k)2n ( + 2k)

(

k=2n

2n1 | +2k|<2n

n 1

2

k=2n

= 2 trace Tan u ( ) .

Since both u and a are matrices of 2 -periodic trigonometric polynomials, the linear space containing all Tan u,

n N {0}, is a finite-dimensional space (see [17, Lemma 2.3]). Consequently, any norm on this linear space is

equivalent. Therefore, there exists a positive constant C1 , independent of n, such that

n

n

n

n

T u(

trace T u ( ) trace T u

) d = C1 trace

T u ( ) d .

rr C1 trace

a

(L (R))

By (5.36) and u(

) = v(

)v(

)T , we have

n

n

T

T

Ta u ( ) d = 2 trace

trace

an ( )v(

)v( ) an ( ) d

= 2n

) d = 2n 2

an v

2(2 (Z))rr .

By the definition of v, each column of v belongs to the space Vm,y since v (j ) (0) = 0 for all j = 0, . . . , m 1. Now it

follows from m (a, y) < 21/22 (a) that there exists a positive constant C2 such that

an v

(2 (Z))rr C2 2n/2 2n(2 (a))

n N.

Combining all the above inequalities together, we conclude that for (, ] and n N,

2 2n(2 (a))

+ 2k)T (

+ 2k) 42n C1

an v

2

.

(

(2 (Z))rr 4C1 C2 2

(5.38)

2n1 | +2k|<2n

Since < 2 (a) , we have 2 (a) + < 0 and by (5.38), we conclude that for all (, ] and n N,

+ 2k)T (

+ 2k) C3 n ,

1 + | + 2k|2 (

2n1 | +2k|<2n

where C3 := 8 1+2 C1 C22 < and := 22(2 (a)+) < 1. Hence, for (, ], we have

+ 2k)T (

+ 2k)

1 + | + 2k|2 (

C3 n = C3 /(1 ) < .

| +2k|

n=1

Since is compactly supported, the function vector is continuous. Now (5.33) follows directly from the above

inequality. 2

We finish this paper by presenting a proof to Algorithm 2.2.

,

be defined as in Theorem 5.5. Since 2 (a) > 0, by [15, Theorem 4.3], (2.1)

Proof of Algorithm 2.2. Let b,

2 (a)

> 0. By Theorem 5.5, we have

holds and a must satisfy the sum rules of order at least 1. Note that 2 (a)

(L2 (R))r1 and (5.25) holds. By 2 (a)

> 0 and [15, Proposition 3.1], (2.1) holds with a(0)

being re, , ,

placed by a(0).

182

In the following, we show that the conditions in (i) and (ii) of Theorem 5.5 are satisfied. Since 2 (a)

> 0, by the

) =

in (2.8), there is a finitely supported mask such that 2 () > 0 and ( ) = q2 ( )d( ), a(

definition of 2 (a)

q1 ( )d( ), q1 (0) = q2 (0) = 0 and |q1 ( )| |q2 ( )| for all R, where q2 and all components of d are 2 -periodic

) = (

)

)(

trigonometric polynomials. Let be the compactly supported refinable function vector satisfying (2

= a(0).

with (0)

= (0),

by (0)

Since 2 (a) > 0 and 2 () > 0, by Proposition 5.6, there exist > 0 and C > 0

)| for all

)| |(

it is easy to see that |(

By the relation between and a,

such that (5.33) holds for both and .

r1

Now it follows directly from

R, where | | is the 2 -norm on C . So, (5.33) holds with being replaced by .

rr C and

[, ]

(5.33) that

[, ]

(L (R))

(L (R))

by the definition of and and b,

Since (5.33) holds for both and ,

with being replaced by and (probably with a different constant C). Now by the Hlders inequality, for any

0 < < 2/( + 1), we have

1/2

/2

2

2

(2/1)

2

2

(

+ 2k)

+ 2k)

1 + | + 2k| (

1 + | + 2k|

kZ

kZ

C1

where

C1 := C

kZ

R,

/2

2 (2/1)

1 + | + 2k|

1/2

kZ

< ,

L (R)

+ 2k)|2

|(

L (R).

and since a satisfies

(0)

the sum rules of order at least 1, by Proposition 5.3, we must have (0)

= b(0)

= 0.

Since (5.33) holds with being replaced by and is differentiable with (0)

= 0, it is not difficulty to verify that

j )|

j

j Z |(2 )| L (R). By the same proof, we also have

kZ |( + 2k)|

L (R). So, both and satisfy the conditions in [12, Proposition 2.6] and consequently, both and generate

Bessel multiwavelet sequences in L2 (R). Therefore, condition (ii) of Theorem 5.5 is verified.

Hence, all the conditions in Theorem 5.5 are satisfied, which completes the proof. 2

Acknowledgments

The second and third authors thank Professors Rong-Qing Jia and Bin Han, as well as the Department of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, at the University of Alberta for their hospitality during their visits at the University

of Alberta. The authors are grateful to the anonymous referees for their comments which greatly improved the presentation of this paper.

References

[1] A.Z. Averbuch, V.A. Zheludev, A new family of spline-based biorthogonal wavelet transforms and their application to image compression,

IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13 (2004) 9931007.

[2] C.A. Cabrelli, C. Heil, U.M. Molter, Self-similarity and multiwavelets in higher dimension, Mem. Amer. Math. Soc. 170 (2004) No. 807.

[3] D.R. Chen, R.Q. Jia, S.D. Riemenschneider, Convergence of vector subdivision schemes in Sobolev spaces, Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 12

(2002) 128149.

[4] C.K. Chui, Q.T. Jiang, Matrix-valued symmetric templates for interpolatory surface subdivisions: I. Regular vertices, Appl. Comput. Harmon.

Anal., in press.

[5] C.K. Chui, J.Z. Wang, On compactly supported spline wavelets and a duality principle, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 330 (1992) 903915.

[6] A. Cohen, I. Daubechies, A new technique to estimate the regularity of refinable functions, Rev. Mat. Iberoamericana 12 (1996) 527591.

[7] A. Cohen, I. Daubechies, J.C. Feauveau, Biorthogonal bases of compactly supported wavelets, Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 45 (1992) 485560.

[8] W. Dahmen, Wavelet and multiscale methods for operator equations, Acta Numer. 6 (1997) 55228.

[9] W. Dahmen, B. Han, R.Q. Jia, A. Kunoth, Biorthogonal multiwavelets on the interval: Cubic Hermite splines, Constr. Approx. 16 (2000)

221259.

183

[10] I. Daubechies, Ten Lectures on Wavelets, CBMS-NSF Series in Applied Mathematics, SIAM, Philadelphia, 1992.

[11] G.C. Donovan, J.S. Geronimo, D.P. Hardin, Orthogonal multiwavelet constructions: 101 things to do with a hat function, in: Advances in

Wavelets, Springer, Singapore, 1999, pp. 187197.

[12] B. Han, On dual wavelet tight frames, Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 4 (1997) 380413.

[13] B. Han, Approximation properties and construction of Hermite interpolants and biorthogonal multiwavelets, J. Approx. Theory 110 (2001)

1853.

[14] B. Han, Compactly supported tight wavelet frames and orthonormal wavelets of exponential decay with a general dilation matrix, J. Comput.

Appl. Math. 155 (1) (2003) 4367.

[15] B. Han, Vector cascade algorithms and refinable function vectors in Sobolev spaces, J. Approx. Theory 124 (2003) 4488.

[16] B. Han, On a conjecture about MRA Riesz wavelet basis, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., in press.

[17] B. Han, R.Q. Jia, Multivariate refinement equations and convergence of subdivision schemes, SIAM J. Math. Anal. 29 (1998) 11771199.

[18] B. Han, Q.T. Jiang, Multiwavelets on the interval, Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 12 (2002) 100127.

[19] B. Han, Q. Mo, Multiwavelet frames from refinable function vectors, Adv. Comput. Math. 18 (2003) 211245.

[20] B. Han, Z.W. Shen, Wavelets with short support, Preprint, 2003.

[21] B. Han, Z.W. Shen, Wavelets from the Loop scheme, J. Fourier Anal. Appl., in press.

[22] B. Han, T. Yu, B. Piper, Multivariate refinable Hermite interpolants, Math. Comp. 73 (2004) 19131935.

[23] D.P. Hardin, J.A. Marasovich, Biorthogonal multiwavelets on [1, 1], Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 7 (1999) 3453.

[24] R.Q. Jia, S.T. Liu, Wavelet basis of Hermite cubic splines on the interval, Adv. Comput. Math., in press.

[25] R.Q. Jia, Q.T. Jiang, Approximation power of refinable vectors of functions, in: Wavelet Analysis and Applications, Guangzhou, 1999, in:

AMS/IP Stud. Adv. Math., vol. 25, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2002, pp. 155178.

[26] R.Q. Jia, Q.T. Jiang, Spectral analysis of the transition operators and its applications to smoothness analysis of wavelets, SIAM J. Matrix Anal.

Appl. 24 (2003) 10711109.

[27] R.Q. Jia, C.A. Micchelli, Using the refinement equation for the construction of pre-wavelets II: Power of two, in: P.J. Laurent, A. Le Mhaut,

L.L. Schumaker (Eds.), Curves and Surfaces, Academic Press, New York, 1991, pp. 209246.

[28] R.Q. Jia, S.D. Riemenschneider, D.X. Zhou, Vector subdivision schemes and multiple wavelets, Math. Comp. 67 (1998) 15331563.

[29] R.Q. Jia, J.Z. Wang, D.X. Zhou, Compactly supported wavelet bases for Sobolev spaces, Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 15 (2003) 224241.

[30] A. Khodakovsky, P. Schrder, W. Sweldens, Progressive geometry compression, in: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH, 2000.

[31] R. Lorentz, P. Oswald, Criteria for hierarchical bases in Sobolev spaces, Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 8 (2000) 3285.

[32] Q.Y. Sun, Convergence of cascade algorithms and smoothness of refinable distributions, Chinese Ann. Math. Ser. B 24 (2003) 367386.

- linear algebraHochgeladen vonusman4
- Matrix Analysis for ScientistHochgeladen vondialneira7398
- condition assessment of bridge structures using structural health monitoring condition assessment of bridge structures using structural health monitoringHochgeladen vonAsif Chaudry
- Santhosh Wave Let PptHochgeladen vonSanthosh Guduru
- Compactly Supported Wavelets Based on Almost Interpolating and Nearly Linear Phase Filters (Coiflets)Hochgeladen vonlumonzon
- IJAIEM-2013-06-28-096Hochgeladen voneditorijaiem
- Gabor Wavelets in Image ProcessingHochgeladen vonDavid Bařina
- PP6Hochgeladen vonpperformance
- Efficient TriangHochgeladen vonTache Alexandru-Petre
- A Survey on Wavelet Applications in Data Mining 1761Hochgeladen vonamit_mjoshi
- Important tHochgeladen vonSaid Djaballah
- HYBRID LWT- SVD WATERMARKING OPTIMIZED USING METAHEURISTIC ALGORITHMS ALONG WITH ENCRYPTION FOR MEDICAL IMAGE SECURITYHochgeladen vonsipij
- Techniques for Pixel based Image Fusion of Real ImageHochgeladen vonIJRASETPublications
- MATLAB ExcercisesHochgeladen vonRanaissance
- Linear Algeb notesHochgeladen vonMartin Daniels
- M203_2003answersHochgeladen vonpigcowdog
- FPGA Based An Efficient Complex Wavelet Transform Based By Using XILINXHochgeladen vonseventhsensegroup
- FoVa14Hochgeladen vonserly
- Artificial Neural Network based Monitoring of Weld Quality in Pulsed Metal Inert Gas Welding using Wavelet Packets of Current SignalHochgeladen vonAnonymous kw8Yrp0R5r
- tutorial_modal_analysis_Walter.pdfHochgeladen vonganesh
- 2004 Semisimplicial Unital GroupsHochgeladen vonDuval Zephirin
- harmonics newHochgeladen vonlvndr_sngh
- pxc387257Hochgeladen vonajit310
- 00559568+خوب+endnoteHochgeladen vonsanatishirin
- APPLICATION OF COMPRESSED SAMPLING FOR SPECTRUM SENSING AND CHANNEL ESTIMATION IN WIDEBAND COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKSHochgeladen vonAIRCC - IJCNC
- Tugas Resume Individu MetSeis 23Des2013Hochgeladen vonbella_ds
- 1-s2.0-S0024379511003053-mainHochgeladen von123chess
- A Composite Cell-Multiresolution Time-DomainHochgeladen vondisvala
- Armstrong ThesisHochgeladen vonfrancisco_barboza_1
- Lec 2 SlidesHochgeladen vonJerico Arciaga

- A. Zygmund Trigonometric Series, Third Edition, Volume I & II Combined (Cambridge Mathematical Library) 2002Hochgeladen vonNicole Pennington
- program10092icaam2014 (1)Hochgeladen vonNicole Pennington
- Wang.pdfHochgeladen vonNicole Pennington
- Fourier Expansions of Functions with Bounded Variation of Several VariablesHochgeladen vonNicole Pennington
- Victor l. Shapiro - Localization on SpheresHochgeladen vonNicole Pennington

- Temporal data clustering via weighted clustering ensemble with different representationsHochgeladen vonxpiration
- IEEE_2015-16_MATLABHochgeladen vonTriple N Infotech
- EMOTIV EPOC NBACK.pdfHochgeladen vonPaasol
- 1-D Decimated Wavelet Transforms - MATLAB & SimulinkHochgeladen vonccdj1235
- PDTools - a Toolbox of Partial Discharge (PD) Signal Analysis for Transformer Condition AssessmentHochgeladen vonsulemankhalid
- Wavelet – RELAX Feature Extraction in Radar ImagesHochgeladen vonAngello387
- Classification of Sleep Stages Using Neural Network Based on EEG and EOG signalsHochgeladen vonijcsis
- Digital Water MarkingHochgeladen vonMounika Chundi
- Geometric Wavelet Transform for Optical Flow Estimation AlgorithmHochgeladen vonijcga
- Dwt based image resolutionHochgeladen vonmaheshmd7
- 09 Chapter 2Hochgeladen vonNarayanamoorthy
- ECG Coding by Wavelet-Based Linear PredictionHochgeladen vonEsteban Mejia Arenas
- MATLAB for Brain and Cognitive ScientistsHochgeladen vonshankar
- Seismic ReflectionHochgeladen vonvelkus2013
- Report 2Hochgeladen vonSachin chinnu
- Paper 22-A Fresnelet-Based Encryption of Medical Images Using Arnold TransformHochgeladen vonEditor IJACSA
- Fuzzy Logic in the Wavelet FrameworkHochgeladen vonsammy militante
- M.Phil Computer Science Image Processing ProjectsHochgeladen vonkasanpro
- 1-s2.0-S0007850610001976-mainHochgeladen vonM Vamshi Krrishna
- Simultaneous Acquisition of 3D Surface Seismic and 3D VSP Data — Processing and IntegrationHochgeladen vonAndrew Kryzan
- A New SURE Approach to Image Denoising Interscale Orthonormal Wavelet ThresholdingHochgeladen vonmeomuop2508
- Image Compression Dwt Project ReportHochgeladen vonSIRISHASIRII
- Wavelet Transforms That Map Integers to IntegersHochgeladen vonPrasanna Ganesh
- Convolution and SpectraHochgeladen vonOlga
- Classification of Cardiac VascularHochgeladen vonhiijjournal
- Image Processing With Sampling and Noise Filtration in Image Reconigation ProcessHochgeladen vonInternational Journal of Engineering Inventions (IJEI)
- Continuous Wavelet Transform Coeff_matlab CodeHochgeladen vonBiswajeet Champaty
- Estimating the Hurst ExponentHochgeladen vonLuis Héctor Hernández-Magro Miranda
- Reversible Watermarking Based on Invariant Image ClassificatioShifting-DocxHochgeladen vonvenkatsrmv
- Digital Image Steganography Based on Combination of DCT and DWT_springer2010Hochgeladen vonPrasanna Ganesh