Chapter 1
Vector Calculus
J. W. Elliott
Department of Mathematics
University of Hull
1.1 Motivation
In the absence of any mean flow, viscous dissipation and heat transfer, the propagation of sound in a stationary medium of uniform mean density po and pressure
po is governed by the linearised Euler equations of motion
Here co is the uniform speed of sound, p = p(r, t ) is the acoustic pressure and
+
u = u ( r ,t ) is the fluid velocity at a point P with position vector r = O P at
a time t. In addition we have considered the presence of both an unsteady body
force f , which vanishes in the undisturbed state, and volume sources q.
We can eliminate the velocity u as follows
"
1 a2p
  ( f o g  p o v . u ) = Pov
C; at2
at
at
Thus the governing equation for the pressure p is
(:)
Po
Lecture Notes on the Mathematics of Acoustics
This is the inhomogeneous wave equation describing the production of sound by
the volume source q and body force f .
1.1.1
Velocitypotentiul
In the absence of body forces, where f = 0 , the flow is irrotational since
dw
dt
d
dt
   ( V x u ) = V x
(2)
= &V
x ( V p ) = 0.
(4)
Since the fluid is disturbed from an initial state of rest, we can set
w=Vxu=O,
so
u=Vc$(r,t),
(5)
where q5 is the velocity potential. The linearised equations of motion are then
where the momentum equation integrates to yield the linearised Bernoulli equation. Furthermore, it follows that
Outside the source region, where q = 0, the fluctuations u and p all propagate as
sound waves governed by the homogeneous wave equation, namely
The velocity u associated with the sound is called the acoustic particle velocity.
1.1.2 Plane waves
A plane wave is one in which
Here x measures distance in the direction of the unit vector i, which is (say) to the
right. In the absence of body forces the linearised equations of motion are
au
ap +Po
'
C;
dt
dx
= 0,
au = ap
Po
dt
dx'
It is easily seen that both p and u satisfy the classical wave equation
Vector Calculus
These have a general solution
p ( x , t ) = F ( x  cot) G ( x cot),
1
U ( X , t ) = [ F ( x  cot) poco
where F and G are arbitrary, known as d'hlembert's solution. This solution
represents the linear superposition of two arbitrary disturbances of invariant form
both moving with a speed c, one to the right and one to the left. In particular for a
wave simply travelling to the right
P = P o c o ~ = F ( x  c ~ t ) ~ and
P
Z==poco,
(13)
where Z is the acoustic impedance and /3 = l/Z is the acoustic admittance.
1.1.2.1 Planar harmonic wave
More generally a planar harmonic wave of angular frequency w is of the form
p(rl t ) = a c o s ( k l x k2y ~ Q Z w t ) bsin(klx
= Rcos(k1x
k z y + k3z  wt + c).
+ k 2 y + k3z
wt)
(14)
Taking t a n c = bla, with r = (z, y, z ) the position vector and k = ( k l , k 2 ,k 3 )
the wavenumber vector, then we can write
where A = ~ e ' 4is the complex amplitude. The points of constant phase, where
$ ( r l t ) k . r  wt = constant define a wave front, and such points satisfy
Thus at any given time t the wavefront is given by dq5 = k . dr = 0, so the
wavenumber vector is perpendicular to any wavefront (crest or trough). If we
move with a given crest (or trough) then we must have
where v+ is the phasevelocity. Thus the wave propagates in the direction of the
wavenumber vector at a wavespeed
and the wavelength, the distance between two adjacent crests, is X = 2 ~ / l k l .
Lecture Notes on the Mathematics of Acoustics
1.1.3 Spherical waves
A spherical wave is one in which
U =
u(r,t)P,
p = p(r, t ) ,
(19)
where r measures distance in the radial direction P. In the absence of body forces
the linearised equations of motion are
It is easily seen that p and u satisfy the (spherical) wave equation
since here
Thus we have a general solution
where F and G correspond to waves radiating outward to infinity from the origin,
and inward to the origin from infinity respectively.
1.1.3.1
Causality
Usually when sound is generated in open space we insist that the sound must not
anticipate its cause, the socalled causality condition. Thus G(r cot) = 0
since it must have existed for an infinitely long time in the past. This condition is
indistinguishable from Sommerfeld's radiation condition, namely
1.1.3.2 Harmonic spherical waves
A harmonic outward propagating spherical wave of frequency w is of the form
Vector Calculus
where K = W / Q is and A is a complex amplitude. Now if u = Re [ul(r,t ) ]then
which we can write as
1
 poco
 I
p l ( r , t  ; )4
where q5 = tan'(co/wr) = 7r/2  tan'(wr/co) is the phase angle. Thus, in
contrast to the planar case, the velocity and pressure are not in phase. Indeed as
r 4 0 , 4 + 7r/2 and p1 iwpOru'. We also see the radiation impedance
N
':I I

Poco
dl + ( c o / w r )
I
poco.
As r 4 oo,4 + 0 the pressure and velocity are very nearly in phase, with the
spherical wave acting like a plane wave with p' pocoul.
1.2 Scalars and Vectors
Any entity that can be represented by a single real number, X E R, is called a
scalar. A vector, a E R3, is usually defined to be a quantity that has both a
magnitude and a direction.
1.2.1 Rectangular Cartesian coordinates
In 3D Euclidean R3space we draw, through a fixed point 0 , the origin, three
fixed, mutually perpendicular, lines Ox, Oy and Oz called the xaxis, yaxis and
zaxis respectively, and collectively known as rectangular Cartesian axes Oxyz,
as shown in Fig. 1.1. Place the thumb, index finger and middle finger of the
right hand, at right angles in the most natural way. If the index finger points
along Ox and the middle finger point along Oy then, for a righthanded set, the
thumb points along Oz. This statement exhibits cyclic symmetry in x, y, z since
it remains true when we replace x by y, y by z, and z by x.
The position of a general point P may be specified by drawing a line from 0
to P, of length r = OP. If a,P, y denote the angles O P makes with Ox, Oy Oz,
Lecture Notes on the Mathematics of Acoustics
Fig. 1.1 Rectangular Cartesian axes.
then we define the Cartesian coordinates of P to be the numbers
By considering the rightangled triangles OPL, O P M , O P N where L, M , N
are the feet of the perpendiculars from P to the x, y and zaxes, we see that
x
flength of OL,
y = flength of O M ,
= flength
of ON
We refer to P as the point P : (x,y, z ) . By Pythagoras
1.2.2 Geometric vectors
A geometrical representation of a vector is the directed line segment a = OA,
which has both a magnitude (the length OA) and a direction (indicated by an
arrow in Fig. 1.2).
+
f
Let the vectors a = O A and b = O B represent adjacent sides of a parallelo+
gram. This representation is not unique, since we also have a = BC. The triangle
+
(or parallelogram) law states that c = a b is represented by the diagonal OC.
A unit vector is a vector of unit magnitude, often denoted by a circumflex.
We denote the modulus, or magnitude, of a vector a by the scalar a = la[,so ii =
a/lal is a unit vector lying in the direction of a. The zero vector 0, represented by
the point 0 ,is the only vector without an associated direction.
Vector Calculus
Fig. 1.2 A vector in the plane
1.2.3 Vector algebra
Let i, j and & denote unit vectors in the directions of the xaxis, yaxis and zaxis
respectively, then for any vector a E R3, we can uniquely write
where a l , az, a3 E R . For example i = (1,0,O),j = (0,1,O ) , 1; = (0,0,1).Then
the modulus or magnitude of a vector a = ( a l ,a2, a s ) is the scalar
Given vectors a = (a1,an, as), b = (bl ,bz , bg) and a scalar X E R , then
1.2.4
The scalar product
The scalar product of two vectors a = ( a l ,a:!,a s ) , b = ( b l ,bz, b3) is the scalar
a .b = albl
+ a2b2+ asb3 = JaJIbJcosQ
(35)
+
+
where if a = O A and b = O B then 0 is the angle between O A and OB. Consequently
Two nonzero vectors a and b are orthogonal to each other if a . b = 0.
10
Lecture Notes on the Mathematics ofAcoustics
1.2.5 The vector product
The vector product of two vectors a = (al,an, as) and b = (bl, b2, b3) then
+
d
where the unit vector fi is perpendicular to both a = OA and b = OB. Here 8,
the angle between
and
is such that when looking along
the sense
of 8 increasing is clockwise. Two nonzero vectors a and b are parallel to each
+
other if a x b = 0. Also if a = OA, b = O B represent two adjacent sides of a
parallelogram, then la x bl = la1 Ibl sin B represents the area of the parallelogram.
d.
z,
a,
1.2.6 The triple scalar product
For three vectors a = (al,a2, ag),b = (bl , b2, bg) and c = (cl , cz, cg) the triple
scalar product, sometimes denoted by [a,b, c],is defined to be the scalar
If a = OA, b = OB and c = oc represent adjacent edges of a parallelepiped,
then la. (b x c) I represents the volume of the parallelepiped. Consequently three
nonzero vectors a, b and c are coplanar if and only if a . (b x c) = 0.
1.2.7 The triple vector product
The triple vector product of three vectors a = (al,a2, ag), b = (bl , b2,b3) and
c = (cl,cz ,c3) is the vector defined by
(a x b) x c = ( a . c)b  (b . c)a.
From which it follows that
(a x b) . (c x d) = (a.c)(b.d)  (a.d)(b.c).
(39)
11
Vector CaIcuIus
1.2.8 The standard basis
The set of vectors {i,j,&}, also denoted by {GI,62,63) and {il ,i2,is), is known
as the standard basis. It is a righthanded, orthonormal basis set satisfying
1.2.9 The position vector
The position vector of a general point P with Cartesian coordinates (x,y,t)rela+
tive to an origin 0 is the directed line segment r = OP, which we write as
The modulus r = O P = Irl, in agreement with Eq. (31) is given by
+
An alternative notation to the above is to write x = O P as the position vector of
the point P: (xl,x2,x3),and correspondingly write
1.3 Vector and Scalar Functions
1.3.1 Vectorvahedfunctions of a real variable
A vectorvalued function F : R
IR3 of a real variable t assigns to each scalar
t E I = [a,b] c R a unique vector F E IR3.In Cartesian coordinates we write
where u ,v ,w : IR H IR are scalar functions oft. As {i,j,&) are uniform, we have
F'(t)
dF
du, dv
dw
== 1 + j + k
dt
dt
dt
dt
du dv dw
( d t ' dt ' dt .
(48)
12
Lecture Notes on the Mathematics of Acoustics
The product rules of differentiation for scalar functions f and R , are
1.3.2
Vector and scalar fields
+ +
Let r = O P = ZE
yj zG. A scalar function of position, or scalar field,
R : R3 + R assigns to every point P E R3,a unique scalar R = R ( r ) =
R ( x , y, z). A vectorvalued function of position, or vector field, F : R3 + R3
assigns to every point P E R3,a unique vector F = F ( r ) = F ( x , y, z ) . If we
write
then u , v , w : R3 H R are the scalar functions of position. Furthermore
Similarly for R , = d R / d y , R , = d R / d z , F ,
=dF/dy
and F ,
= dF/dz.
1.3.3 Digerential operators
The gradient of a scalar field R = R ( r ) is a vector field defined by
The divergence of a vector field F = ( u ,v , w) is a scaiar field defined by
The curl of a vector field F = ( u ,v,W ) is another vector field defined by
curl F
=V x F =
k
d/ax d/dy 8/82 .
U
(56)
Vector Calculus
The directional derivative of a scalar field R = R ( r ) is defined to be
where n measures distance in the direction of some unit vector ii.
1.3.4 The chain rules
Let R = R ( x ,y, z ) and x = x ( t ) ,y = y(t) and z = z ( t ) ,then R = R ( t ) and
Let R = R ( x ,Y , z ) and x = x(J, 7 ,C), Y =
R = R ( J ,q, C) and the chain rule gives
Y(J,V,C)
and
= z(J,7 ,C ) then
with similar expressions for dR/dq and dR/d<.
1.3.5 The del operator
We define the (vector) del operator, V, also called simply del or nabla, by
We treat V as a symbolic, but noncommutative, vector, with (F . V )R = F .
(VR)and(FxV)R=Fx(VR)butF.V#V.FandFxV#VxF.
In addition
where
1.3.6
v2= V . V is the Laplacian, or (scalar) delsquared operator.
Vector identities
Given scalar fields A, 0 and vector fields F, G we have the product rules
V(X0)= XVR
+ RVX,
(62)
14
1.3.7
Lecture Notes on the Mathematics of Acoustics
Taylor's theorem
For a sufficiently differentiable scalar field, R, Taylor's theorem states that
Alternatively Taylor's theorem can be written more compactly as
60
R(r
+ 6r)  R(r) = V R . Sr + 0 (ISrI2) ,
(70)
where to first order we have the linear approximation SR = V R . Sr.
1.4 Curves and Surfaces in 3D Space
1.4.1 Curves
A general point P on a curve C C R3has a position vector r
t
= O P given
by
We regard Eq. (71) as a mapping r : R H R3, from I = [a,b] onto C. Here
Eq. (71) is not a unique parametric representation since any transformation t =
t(q) yields a new representation r = r(q), where dtldq 2 0 preserves the sense
of direction.
The unit tangent vector T to the curve C is given by
I/
ds
dr
where  = dt
dt
dr
SO
1
ds
dt = %T, (72)
15
Vector Calculus
where s measures the arc length along the curve C. As dsldt > 0, s = s(t) has
a unique inverse t = t(s), yielding the intrinsic equation of C,
1.4.2
Surfaces
1.4.2.1 Cartesian representations
The implicit and explicit representations of a surface S c R3 are given by
R(x,y,z)=0,
and
z=f(x,y),
for(x,y)~D,
where D is a region of the xyplane. One possible choice for R is R
The unit normal ii to a surface R = z  f (x, y) = 0 is given by
(74)
= z  f (x, y).
since there are two sides to each surface.
1.4.2.2 Parametric representation
A general point P on a surface S C R3has a position vector r
O P given by
Here Eq. (76) is a mapping r : R2 ++ R3 from D*, a region of the uvplane, onto
S . Now r = r(u, vO),in which v = vo is fixed, but u varies, is the equation of
one of the ucoordinate curves. Similarly r = r(uo, v) is the equation of one of
the vcoordinate curves. From Eq. (72) the tangents to the coordinate curves are
Consequently the unit normal ii to S must be of the form
For a surface S given by z
= f (x, y),
we see that
r = r(x, y) = r [x,Y, f (x, Y)I = xi
+ y j + f (5, Y)&
is the equation of S pararneterised by x and y. In this case
(79)
16
Lecture Notes on the Mathematics of Acoustics
1.5 Curvilinear Coordinate Systems
1.5.1 Cartesian coordinates
For every point P we can associate a righthanded orthonormal basis set of uni+
form vectors { i , j ,L), where r = O P = xi yj z&. Let Q be a neighbouring
+
point to P, with PQ = 6r = (62,by, bz), then the elementary (cuboidal) volume
element at P, of volume SV, with bxi, 6yj and bzk representing adjacent sides,
has
+ +
6s'
1brI2 = bx2
+ by2 + 6z2,
6V = bx by bz.
(81)
1.5.2 Curvilinear coordinates
A new coordinate system is defined by a continuously differentiable mapping
x = x ( u ,0 , w ) ,
+
Thus r = O P = xi
= y(u, u , w ) ,
= z ( u , u, w ) .
+ yj + +&, is given by the mapping r : IR3
(82)
IR3, where
Assuming a onetoone mapping then there must exist a unique inverse mapping,
such that, except at isolated points, the Jacobian J of the mapping
Suppose the point P is specified uniquely by u = uo, u = uo and w = W O ,then
the vector equations of the u, u and wcoordinate lines through P are
Given scale factors h, = Ir, 1, hv = Ir, 1 and hw = Irw 1 , the unit tangents at P
to coordinate lines are given by
e,,
1 dr

h, du'
1dr
e, = h, du '
For a neighbouring point Q, where
1 dr
hw dw
ew=
17
Vector Calculus
the arc length 6s = 16rl is given by
bs2 = ) & I 2 = h: bu2 h: bv2 h i 6w2
2 [huh, 6u 6v (G, . 6,) h,h, 6v 6w (G, .6,)
(88)
huhw bu 6w (6, . G,)] .
A (cuboidal) volume element in uvwspace, with 6u Q,, 6v 6,, 6w 6 , representing adjacent sides, corresponds to a curvilinear volume element in xyzspace, with
volume
Finally the equations for the coordinate surfaces through P are given by
r = r(uO,v, w ) ,
r = r ( u ,v , wO).
= r ( u ,v0, w ) ,
(90)
Thus the coordinate surface, w = const, has a unit normal ii with an elementary
surface element of area bA, given by
1.5.3 Orthogonal curvilinear coordinates
For orthogonal curvilinear coordinates we require
with u , v and w chosen so that {G,, G,, 6,) is a righthanded orthonormal basis
set satisfying
e.., . e.,.= e , .. e , = e w ..e w = l ,
A
6,xGw=Gwr
e , . e.
,.= e , . e , = e , ~ e , = .
A
..
e,xe,=G,,
e, x e,
= e,.
0, (93)
(94)
We can show that the arc length 6s = l6rl is given by
bs2 = /brl2= h: 6u2 + hz 6v2 + h;dw2.
(95)
Similarly the elementary volume element has a volume
6V = Jbubvbw
h,h,hWSu6v6w.
and for the coordinate surface, w = const, with unit normal G,, we have
(96)
18
1S.3.l
Lecture Notes on the Mathematics of Acoustics
Vector#elds
A vector field F = ( F l ,F2,F3) can also be written in the form
where F,, F, and Fw are the components of F along the coordinate lines. For
orthogonal curvilinear coordinates F, = F B,, F, = F . B, and Fw = F .GW so
that
For example, as regards the position vector r = (x, y , z ) , we have
In general the basis set of vectors {B,, B,, 6,) are not uniform. Indeed
with similar formulae for d F / a v and d F / d w obtained by cyclic permutation.
1S.3.2 The differential operators
Given a scalar field R ( r ) and a vector field F ( r ) we can show that
Vector Calculus
1.5.4
19
Cylindricalpolar coordinates: ( R ,4, z )
The general point P with position vector r = O P = xi
In terms of the righthanded orthonormal vectors { R,
+ yj + t k is given by
6,& ) we have
so ~ ~ = ( ~ R R + R ~ R ) + s ~ ~ = G R R + R G
(107)
yielding scale factors hR = 1, h$ = Rand h, = 1. Hence we have
r=RR+zk,
1S.4.1 Scalar and vector operators
+ F,k then
If R = R(r) and F = F(r) = F ~ R F ~ $
1.5.5
Spherical polar coordinates: ( r ,8 , 4 )
4
The general point P with position vector r = OP = zi
r = r s i n B ( c o s ~ i + s i n ~ j ) + r c o s O k , so
In terms of the righthanded orthonormal vectors {i.,
so
+ yj + z k is given by
lrI2=r2.
(113)
e l & )we have
b r = ( 6 r i . + r 6 t ) = ~ r f + r d B ~ + r s i n B b q 5 ~(114)
,
yielding scale factors h, = 1, he = r , h+ = r sin 8. Hence we have
6s2 = (6r12 = 6r2 + r26d2 + r2sin2 8 6 4 ~bV~ =~r2sin 8 67 68 64. (1 15)
20
Lecture Notes on the Mathematics of Acoustics
1.5.5.1 Scalar and vector operators
If R = R ( r ) and F
V .F
= F ( r ) = F,f
1 a
r 2 dr
= (r2F,)
+ ~~6+ F@$then
1 a
1 dF,
+ (sin9 Fe) + r sin 6 d6
r sin 6 d 4 '
1
r2 sin 6
VxF=
1.6 Integrals
1.6.1 Line integrals
Suppose the position vector of a general point P on a curve C : A
= r ( t )= x(t)i
+ y(t)j + z ( t ) k ,
for to
B is
< t < tl.
(120)
Then, on C, the scalar field R = R ( t ) ,and the line integral of R along C from A
to B reduces to a standard (Riemann) integral of the form
ds
C : AB
We also write & R ( r )ds to denote a line integral around a closed curve C.
(121)
1.6.2 Surface integrals
Suppose the position vector of a general point P on a surface S is
r = r ( u ,v ) = X ( U , v ) i + Y ( ~v ), j
Z(U,
v)k,
for ( u ,v ) E D.
(122)
Then on S, the scalar field R = R(u, v ) , and the surface integral of R over S
reduces to a double integral over the region D of thejut uvplane, of the form
Vector Calculus
where we regard SSs as a single symbol.
1.6.3 Multiple integrals
We evaluate a double or triple integral by expressing it as a repeated integral. For
example the triple, or volume, integral of a scalar field R = R(r) over a region
C c R3 is given by
where dV = dx dy dz. If we integrate first with respect to z, keeping both x and
y fixed, then the result is a double integral of the form
where D is a domain of the xyplane. This double integral is, in turn, evaluated by
first integrating with respect to x (or y), keeping y (or x) fixed, and then integrating
with respect to y (or x). Note that for a separable integrand, over a rectangular
domain, a multiple integral reduces to a product of standard (Riemann) integrals.
Moreover if the position vector of a general point P in C is given by
+ y(u, u, w)j + Z(U,u, w)&,
for (u, u, W) E C*,
(126)
where C* is the corresponding region in uuwspace, then R = R(u, v,w)and we
can represent Eq. (124) as the alternative triple integral
r = r ( u , u, w) = X ( U , v, w)i
where J is the Jacobian of the mapping.
Example 1.1
Using cylindrical polar coordinates, namely
< <
find the curved surface area A of the cylinder S : x2 + y2 = a2, 0 z H and
the volume V of the region C : x2 Y2 5 a2, 0 5 z 5 H within the cylinder.
Solution
of S is
+
The position vector r = O P of a general point on the curved surface
r = r($,
Z) =
( a cos $, a sin 4, z ) .
(129)
Lecture Notes on the Mathematics of Acoustics
22
Here 8 and z parameterise S with D: 0 5 8 5 27~,0 5 z 5 H mapping to S.
Here
Ir4 x r,l = a ( sin 4i
+ cos 4j) x kI = a lcos 4i + sin 4jJ= a ,
(130)
or SA = h$h, 64 6z = a 64 Sz. Thus the curved surface area of the cylinder is
given by
Here SV = J6R 64 6z where the Jacobian J = hah4h, = R. Thus if C* is the
region 0 R a, 0 I 4 27r, 0 < z < H which maps to C , then
< <
Example 1.2
<
Using spherical polar coordinates, namely
+ +
find the surface area A of the sphere S: x2 y2 z2 = a2 and the volume V of
the region C : x2 y2 + .z2 5 a2 within the sphere.
+
Solution The position vector r = O P of a general point on the surface S is
Here 8 and
Also
4 parameterise S
re
=a
with D : 0
< 8 < T , 0 < 4 < 2 n mapping to S.
[cos 8 (cos 4; + sin 4j)  sin
+
r+ = a sin 6 ( sin +i cos 44) ,
(135)
(136)
or 6A = he h+68 64 = a2 sin 0 68 64. Thus the surface area of the sphere is given
by
Vector Calculus
23
Here 6V = J 6r 68 64 where the Jacobian J = h,hsh+ = r2sin 8. Thus if C* is
the region 0 L r 5 a, 0 5 8 n,0 4 5 2n which maps to C, then
<
V=
//L //L,
dV =
<
r 2 sin 8 d r do dq5
1.6.3.1 Alternative notation
+
When we take x = (x, y , z ) = O P to denote the position vector of the point P,
the triple integral Eq. (124) may be written as
Moreover, when the integrand is a function of several variables, then
Both notations indicate that here y is the dummy vector of integration, its value
ranging over all the points of the region C.
1.7 Integral Theorems
1.7.1 Green's lemma
Lemma 1.1 Consider a curve C in the xyplane enclosing a convex simplyconnected region D in a positive anticlockwise sense, then
where fC fl(r)ds, denotes a line integral around a closed curve C.
This result is also known as Stokes's theorem in the plane.
1.7.2 Gauss's divergence theorem
Theorem 1.1 Let C be a finite region bounded by a simple closed surface S,
which has an outwarddrawn unit normal ii. If F(r) = (PI,F2F3) is a vector
24
Lecture Notes on the Mathematics of Acoustics
field deJined and continually differentiable throughout C and on S, then
Corollary 1.1
on S, then
I f both R(r) and F(r) are continuously diflerentiable in C and
grad R dV =
JJ,
Rfi dA,
1.7.3 Stokes's theorem
Theorem 1.2 Let S be an open surface with a unit normal ii and C be a simple
closed boundary curve to S with a unit normal N and unit tangent vector T taken
in the positive anticlockwise sense ( N x T = ii). I f F(r ) is a vectorfield then
where ds is an element of arc length along the curve C.
By the triple scalar product identity Eq. (146) can be restated as
Corollary 1.2
on C, then
I f both R(r) and F(r) are continuously differentiable in S and
Vector Calculus
1.7.4 Green's theorems
Following from the divergence theorem (143) we have
Theorem 1.3
Green'sjrst theorem (or identity)
JJs$2d~ JJJ, div($V$) d v JJJ, [mvZ$+ ~ 9~ $. dv.
1
=
(150)
Theorem 1.4
Green's second theorem (or identity)
1.7.5 Fundamental solutions
The fundamental solution to the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation
(v2+
where C
K')
9(r) = p(r),
for all r E C
c R3,
(152)
c R3 is a finite region of 3D space, is any solution G = G(r;y ) to
Here 6(r) is the 3D Dirac delta function, which has the property
f(a)
0
i f a E C,
i f a e C.
Thus G(r; y) is the solution at the point r due to a point source placed at the point
y. By the principle of superposition we have
where y is now the dummy variable of integration. For then
In the absence of boundaries, where C
= R3, we have the freespace solution
26
Lecture Notes on the Mathematics of Acoustics
Here i =
is the imaginary unit, and the sign is fixed by the causality
Sommerfeld radiation condition. This, in turn, yields
with the case K = 0 corresponding to Laplace's equation, V2+ = 0. Indeed near
r = y, Helmholtz's equation effectively reduces to Laplace's equation, having the
same singular behaviour. Moreover for any C c R it can be shown that
where H satisfies the homogeneous Helmholtz equation
( ~ ~ + ~ ~ ) H ( r ; y ) = f0o, r a l l r C ~ ~ ~ .
1.7.6
( 160)
The Green 'sfunction
Let C C R3 be a finite region of 3D space bounded by a surface S , with an
outwarddrawn unit normal fi. Suppose we wish to find 4 = 4(r) such that
(v2+ 6')
+(r) = p(r),
for all r E C,
(161)
subject to the boundary condition
4=f(r),
forallr~S,
where f or g are given scalar fields on S. From Green's 2nd identity Eq. (151) we
have
Now if
4 satisfies Eq. (161) and G satisfies Eq. (153), then
Moreover if the Green's function G also satisfies the boundary condition
G = 0,
for all r E S,
(165)
Vector Calculus
1.8 Suffix Notation
In suffix notation the equation c = a + b is simply written as
where a = ( a l ,a2, a s ) and b = (bl ,b2, b3). It is understood that this equation
holds for all values of the free suffix i. The summation convention states that
when a suffix is repeated in a single term, we sum over all values of that suffix.
Thus
To avoid ambiguity, never use any suffix more than twice in any one term. Thus
where we use two dummy variables to indicate that it is b dotted with a.
1.8.1 The Kronecker delta
The Kronecker delta dij consists of 9 quantities defined by
Jij
= [ I ].. =
1 for i = j,
( )
100
w e e1=
(1")
We see that the trace of the matrix I
Tr(I) = bii = d I 1 + d 2 p
+ ds3 = 3.
(172)
For any vector u = ( u ,up, u3)we have
62.3.u3. .
 6zlul
di2~2 di3~3,
SO
d i j ~=
j Uir
(1 73)
Lecture Notes on the Mathematics of Acoustics
28
since as j runs over all values dij
# 0 only for j
= i.
Similarly
1.8.2 The alternating tensor
The alternating tensor c i j k is a set of 27 quantities defined by
+1
1
0
if (i,j,lc) = (1,2,3) o r ( 2 , 3 , 1 ) o r ( 3 , 1 , 2 ) ,
if (i,j , k ) = ( l , 3 ,2) Or (2,1,3) Or ( 3 , 2 ,I ) ,
if any i ,j, k equal.
There are only 6 nonzero elements. A cyclic permutation of suffixes yields
= Ejki = Ekij,
Eijk
since the sign of
fijk
but
fijk = Ejik,
(176)
is changed if any two suffixes are interchanged.
1.8.2.1 The vector product
The vector product of a = ( a l la2, a s ) and b = (bl , b2,b3) has an ith component
[a x b],= eijkajbk
(177)
for i = 1,2 and 3. Thus the triple scalar product is given by
a .( b X
1.8.2.2
C) = ai
[bX cIi = aiEijkbjck = cijkaibjck.
(178)
The 4relation
A very useful result is that
f i j k fimn = bjmbkn
bjndkrn.
from which it follows that
623. f z3
. . k = E i .~k = ' 1
fijkeijk = djjdkk
EijkEijn
djkbkj = (6kk)2 6kk = 9  3 = 6 ,
= d j j d k n  djnbkj = 3dkn  dkn = 2dkn.
(Igo)
(181)
(l82)
Vector Calculus
29
1.8.3 Cartesian coordinates
When using suffix notation we use Cartesian axes 0x1x2x3, and we can state that
the standard basis {GI, 62, G3) is both orthonormal and righthanded by writing
+
If r = O P is the position vector of the general point P : (xl ,x2, xs), then
r = xi$
is equivalent to
r = xlel
+ x2G2+ 5363.
(184)
Note that r2 = lrI2 = xixi, but that r2 # x:.
1.8.4 Differential operators
For a scalar field R(r) : R3 H R the ith component of the vector field V R ( r ) is
dR
d ~1 i
[VR],
=
d
where V = B..
dxj
(18 5 )
Thus for a vector field F = (Fl , F 2 , F3) we have
Note that, in suffix notation the chain rule for a mapping r = r(u, v, w), is simply
1.8.4.1
Second order operators
Here div(grad R), also known as the Laplacian of a scalar field R(r), is given by
Also the ith component of the Laplacian of a vector field F ( r ) is
Similarly we have grad(div F), of which the ith component is given by
Lecture Notes on the Mathematics of Acoustics
Problems
t
Exercise 1.1 Let r = O P = (x, y, 2) be the position vector of the general point
P and G = G(r) be the scalar field
where y = (x,, y,, 2,) is some given uniform vector. Obtain V G and show that
G is a solution to
(v2
X2) G = 0,
for all R
# 0.
Show that for the case X = * i ~ ,where K > 0, then the condition of an outward
propagating wave Ge'"Qt, is equivalent to the Sommerfeld condition
Exercise 1.2
(9
Show that one corollary of the divergence theorem is that
where C is a finite region C of 3D space enclosed by the surface S , and
in which n measures distances in the direction of the outwarddrawn unit
normal, fi, to S .
(ii) By considering the scalar field G of Ex. 1.1, and a sphere S : Ir  y 1 = ro,
show that
Hence confirm the above corollary for this G by direct numerical evaluation
for the case where C is the region enclosed by spheres Ir  yl = b and
Ir  yI = E where 0 < E < b. To evaluate the volume integral you may wish
to use spherical polars
Confirm that this corollary does not hold for the case where C is the region
inside a single sphere S: Ir  y 1 = ro and explain this result.
31
Vector Calculus
Exercise 1.3
identities
Use suffix notation and the summation convention to prove the
(i) V . ( F x G ) = G . ( V x F )  F . ( V x G ) ,
(ii) V x (F x G) = ( V . G ) F  ( V . F ) G + ( G . V ) F  ( F . V ) G ,
(iii) V ( F . G ) = ( F . V ) G + ( G . V ) F + Gx ( V x F ) + F x
(Vx G).