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OBDBr-2 Highlights

and Opportunities
related to I/M
Prepared by Michel Zambon Alves

AEA SEMINAR - Apr 2nd, 2009


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Main Topics

 OBD Introduction
 OBDBr Regulations
 How does OBD work?
 OBDBr-2 Highlights
 USA I/M Program Overview
 Final Considerations

AEA SEMINAR - Apr 2nd, 2009


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OBD Introduction

 OBD is a real-time, on-board monitoring system


integrated into the Powertrain Control Module
(PCM)
 It monitors emission related components and
systems as the vehicle is being driven
 Objectives:


Reduce high in-use emissions caused by


emission-related malfunctions
Reduce time between occurrence of a malfunction
and its detection and repair
Allow quick diagnostic of emission-related
malfunction
AEA SEMINAR - Apr 2nd, 2009
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OBD

AEA SEMINAR - Apr 2nd, 2009


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Examples of OBD Standards

OBD-II

JOBD

EOBD

OBDBr-2

AEA SEMINAR - Apr 2nd, 2009


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OBDBr Regulation
CONAMA RESOLUTION 354/2004

REGULATORY INSTRUCTIONS

 general requirements
 implementation phase-in

 detailed technical
requirements

OBDBr-1

OBDBr-1

2007 2008 2009


40% 70% 100%

OBDBr-2
2010 2011
60% 100%

126/2006

OBDBr-2
Proposed text sent to CONAMA

AEA SEMINAR - Apr 2nd, 2009


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How does OBD


work?

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Practical Example
Background Ignition System Monitoring
OBDBrOBDBr-1

OBDBrOBDBr-2

Coil 1

Coil 2

Coil 3

Coil 4

Important: there are other possible


OBDBr-1 / OBDBr-2 monitoring strategies
AEA SEMINAR - Apr 2nd, 2009
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Practical Example
Misfire on cylinder #3

AEA SEMINAR - Apr 2nd, 2009


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Practical Example
Misfire on cylinder #3

AEA SEMINAR - Apr 2nd, 2009


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Practical Example
Misfire on cylinder #3

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OBDBr-2 Highlights and Peculiarities

 AFR RANGES MONITOR ENABLEMENT


(oxygen sensors deterioration, catalyst)



E19 to E30
E90 to E100

 MONITOR DISABLEMENT
(oxygen sensors, catalyst, misfire)



blow-by warm-up phase (vaporization of fuel from the oil)


fuel inferring and learning

 IMPORTED VEHICLES


volumes up to 1000 units / semester / vehicle


configuration  original OBD-II or EOBD certification

AEA SEMINAR - Apr 2nd, 2009


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OBDBr-2 Highlights and Peculiarities


 VIN and CALID info available to the scan tool

AEA SEMINAR - Apr 2nd, 2009


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USA I/M Program Overview


Enhanced or Basic I/M requirement is based on Clean Air
Act Amendments (CAAA) classification for ozone and CO
non-attainment areas

ENHANCED
1992

1974

1978

NEW
JERSEY

I/M
POLICY

1995

2002

ARIZONA,
COLORADO

OBD I/M

BASIC

1996
OBD-II

AEA SEMINAR - Apr 2nd, 2009


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USA I/M Program Overview


Typical Tailpipe Emission Related Inspections

Basic I/M
 visual inspection of
emission control
devices

Enhanced I/M
 visual inspection of emission
control devices
 pre-1981 MY: idle testing (HC, CO)

 idle testing (HC, CO)


 1981-1985 MY: two-speed testing
(HC, CO)
 1986 MY on: loaded-mode testing
(HC, CO, NOx)
 OBD-II checks

AEA SEMINAR - Apr 2nd, 2009


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USA I/M Program Overview


Enhanced I/M Emission Test Cycles

IM240: loaded-mode transient test

ASM: loaded-mode steady-state test

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USA I/M Program Overview


OBD-I/M

vs Conventional I/M

Dec, 2001  EPA OBD Policy Workgroup


Jan, 2002  EPA required that States implement OBDOBD-II checks in
I/M lanes and discouraged additional tailpipe testing
Nov, 2002  EPA OBD Policy Workgroup Findings:


Oregon and Wisconsin data shows average OBD failure rates very similar
to tailpipe testing

Necessary repairs to deactivate the MIL and to comply with I/M tailpipe
testing have similar average costs

OBD appears very effective at finding emissions related failures on


very high mileage (over 100,000 miles) vehicles

OBD provides accurate diagnosis allowing the repairs to be more


effective and minimizing consecutive I/M failures after a repair

AEA SEMINAR - Apr 2nd, 2009


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USA I/M Program Overview


OBD-I/M

vs Conventional I/M

ADVANTAGES
 OBD thresholds are generally more stringent than I/M
standards
 Scan tools are used instead of dynamometers and gas
analyzers and they are far less expensive
 Safety concerns related to dynamometer operation can be
avoided
 Test times are significantly faster

DISADVANTAGES
 OBD regulations are generally delayed in relation to I/M
ones
 Technical people would need to be properly trained to
perform OBD inspections
AEA SEMINAR - Apr 2nd, 2009
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Final Considerations

 OBD effectiveness increases with introduction of


OBD Checks in the I/M programs
 OBD Checks can potentially avoid increase in cost
and test time as I/M requirement gets more
stringent following the Emission Regulation for
new vehicles
 Correlations tests (OBD Checks vs conventional I/M
emission results) are fundamental to support
further I/M regulation definition
 Only by end of 2011 there may be significant
number of OBDBr-2 vehicles in need of repair
AEA SEMINAR - Apr 2nd, 2009
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Thank you!
contact: malves13@ford.com

Regulatory information contained in this presentation is intended


intended to serve as reference only.
Updated and complete rules and regulations must be used for official
official purposes.

AEA SEMINAR - Apr 2nd, 2009


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