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# Aarhus University

School of Engineering
Example axial loaded member with bending moment.
The steel column shown below is free at the upper end and supported by a fixed support at the lower
end. The column is free to deflect in both y- and z-direction.
The design load at the column is:
Axial force NEd = 100 kN
Transverse force: FEd = 20 kN (in z-direction)
The cross section is a rolled I- section type IPE400, see cross-section below. Steel material is S235,
normal control class. IPE400 is a class 3 cross-section.

NEd
FEd

## Bending moment diagram

A
t f =13.5

x
y

b=180

t w=8.6

l =3900

Section A-A

h=400

My,Ed= F l
Ed

Question:
Check the resistance of the column for the attached load.
Solution:
Cross-section values for IPE400:
From IPE400 - table :
A = 8.45 10 3 mm 2
I y = 231.3 10 6 mm 4 and W y = 1160 10 3 mm 3
i y = 165mm
I z = 13.2 10 6 mm 2 and W z = 146 10 3 mm 3
i z = 39.5mm

I w = 490 10 9 mm 6
I v = 514 10 3 mm 4
The column length:
Lcr = 2 l = 2 3900 = 7800mm (concerning both the y-axis and the z-axis).

## Department of Mechanical Engineering

59

Aarhus University
School of Engineering
h 400
=
= 2 .2
b 180

For IPE400:
Slenderness:

A fy

y =

N cr . y

Lcr
iy

7800
=
= 165 = 0.50 buckling curve " a" y = 0.21 ( see Table 6.2 and 6.1)
93.9 93.9 1

Lcr
7800
A fy
iz
z =
=
= 39.5 = 2.10 buckling curve " b" z = 0.34 ( see Table 6.2 and 6.1)
N cr . z
93.9 93.9 1
Buckling reduction factor:
1
1
=
= 0.92 (or from Figure 6.4)
y =
2
2
2
2
0
.
66
+
0
.
66

0
.
50
y + y y

## y = 0.5 1 + y ( y 0.2) + y = 0.5[1 + 0.21 (0.50 0.2) + 0.50 2 ] = 0.66

z =

z + z 2 z

1
3.03 + 3.032 2.10 2

2

## Design resistance for the axial force:

y A f y 0.92 8.45 10 3 235
=
= 1522.4 10 3 N
N b, Rd , y =
M1
1.20

N Ed
100 10 3
ny =
=
= 0.07
N b, Rd , y 1522.4 10 3
N b, Rd , z =

## z A f y 0.19 8.45 10 3 235

=
= 314.4 10 3 N
M1
1.20

N Ed
100 10 3
=
= 0.32
N b , Rd , z 314.4 10 3
Interaction factors (see Table B1, B2 and B3):
k yy = C my (1 + 0.6 y n y ) C my (1 + 0.6 n y )
nz =

k zy = 1

0.05 z
0.05
nz 1
nz
C mLT 0.25
C mLT 0.25

## C mLT = 0.90 (Table B1 : M h = 0 and h = 0)

k zy = 1
my =

0.05 2.10
0.05
0.32 = 0.94 1
0.32 = 0.98 k zy = 0.98
0.90 0.25
0.90 0.25
M y , Ed

LT W y f yd

mz = 0

## Department of Mechanical Engineering

60

Aarhus University
School of Engineering
The lateral-torsional buckling reduction factor LT must be found (same procedure as in Example 2 on
page 55):
G Iv l 2
k l =
=
E Iw

E 514 10 3 3900 2
= 2.48
2.6 E 490 10 9

6
2
k l E Iz
2.48 210000 13.2 10
ME =
1+
1+
386.5 = 442.9 10 6 Nmm
2 ht =

2

2
2
l
3900

c2
c2

cLT = c1 1 +
+

4+
4 +

4
4
= 2 (k l )2 = 2 (2.48)2 = 2.49

= -1

## - load at the upper flange, see page 52

1.282
1.28
cLT = 1.30 1 +

= 0.80

4
+
2
.
49
4
+
2
.
49

6
M cr = cLT M E = 0.80 442.9 10 = 354.3 106 Nmm
Wy f y

LT =

LT =

M cr

1160 10 3 235
=
= 0.88
354.3 10 6

LT + LT 2 LT 2

## LT = 0.5 1 + LT ( LT 0.2) + LT 2 = 0.5[1 + 0.34(0.88 0.2) + 0.88 2 ] = 1.0

h 400
=
= 2.2 > 2 imperfection buckling curve b (Table 6.4) LT = 0.34 - see Table 6.3
b 13.5
1
1
= 0.68
(alternat. case : LT =
= 0.71 )
LT =
2
2
2
1.0 + 1.0 0.88
0.91 + 0.91 0.75 0.88 2
M y , Ed
78 10 6 1.20
my =
=
= 0.51
LT W y f yd 0.68 1160 10 3 235
Criteria, which must be satisfied:
n y + k yy m y + k yz m z 1 0.07 + 0.92 0.51 = 0.54 < 1 O.K.
and
n z + k zy m y + k zz m z 1 0.32 + 0.98 0.51 = 0.82 < 1 O.K.
Because the interaction factors k yy and k zy both are < 1 check of the maximum stress in the member
must be done:
M y , Ed M z , Ed
fy
N
max = Ed +
+

M0
A
Wy
Wz
100 10 3
78 10 6
0
235
+
+
= 79 MPa
= 214 MPa O.K.
3
3
3
1.10
8.45 10 1160 10 146 10
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

max =

61