Sie sind auf Seite 1von 24

# OBJECTIVE

## 1) To determine the reaction of a two-span continuous beam.

2) To determine either by doing an experiment or by using a formula will get
3) To understand the concept of continuous beam.
4) To finish by the time frame given.
5) To memorise the formula given.

1 | Page

INTRODUCTION

## A continuous beam is a statically indeterminate multi span beam on hinged

support. The end spans may be cantilever, may be freely supported or fixed
supported. At least one of the supports of a continuous beam must be able to
develop a reaction along the beam axis.
The statically determinate primary system may be obtained by elimination of
constraints considered as redundant. The most intuitive primary system is a simply
supported beam, obtained by elimination of internal supports and elimination the
constraint developing bending moment in the first fixed support. The most effective
primary system for continuous beam is proposed by Clapeyron. His primary statically
determinate system is obtained by elimination of the constraints which prevent
mutual rotation of two neighbouring sections over the supports.
When all the moments of the supports are known, one may proceed with the
determination of bending moments within the spans, the shear forces and reactions
developed at each support. These computations will be carried out assuming that
each span is a simply supported beam and it acted upon both by the applied loads
and the moments of the supports just determined.

2 | Page

APPARATUS

This apparatus are the main tools that had been used when doing this
experiment ;-

NAME OF APPARATUS

A support frame

## 3 Nos. reaction support pier

Beam specimen

A meter rule

A set of weight

PICTURE

3 | Page

SAFETY PRECAUTION

All this had been applied when carry out this experiment ;-

1) Wearing a safety outfit when entering lab like wearing a lab outfit and safety
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

boots.
Do not play when doing an experiment.
Repeat the procedures to avoid error.
Read the meter two to three times to avoid error.

4 | Page

PROCEDURES

## 1) The unit been warmed up by switched on the display unit.

2) By using the plate and bolt supplied with the apparatus and at predetermine
distance between the support, reaction piers was clamped to the support
frame.
3) Beam specimen was placed between the two cylindrical pieces of each
support. Two screw at the top of each support been tightened by using
fingers.
4) Load hanger was fixed to the position where the beam is to be loaded.
5) Display unit by connected the load cell from the support pier, each load call
occupying one terminal on the display.
6) Recorded the initial reading for each channel was started with channel one.
load cell. This represents the reaction at each pier.
8) Load on the load hanger was increased at suitable increments and for anch
increment the pier reaction been recorded.

5 | Page

RESULT
(Theory Method)

= 500 mm

= 1000 mm

= 250 mm

## Distance of load from right hand support, X R

= 750 mm

Support Reaction

Left

Middle

Right

0.2

-15

17.3

0.7

-14.3

12.3

0.5

-13.6

17.7

1.0

-12.9

17.6

0.7

-11.5

18.4

1.6

-10.1

18.2

RESULT
(By Using the Formula)
6 | Page

= 500 mm

= 1000 mm

= 250 mm

= 750 mm

Support Reaction

Left

Middle

Right

0.6

2.1

0.6

0.8

2.75

0.8

1.0

3.4

1.0

1.3

4.1

1.3

1.7

5.5

1.7

2.1

6.9

2.1

7 | Page

8 | Page

## B) Reaction at the Support.

Types of support.

Pin Support
-- Support that have 2 reactions from left
or right and from up or down.
-- Example :- Ray and Rax.

Fix Support
-- Support that have 3 reactions.
-- 1 from right or left.
-- 1 from up or down.
-- 1 is the moment.
-- Example :- Ray , Rax and Ma.

Roller Support
-- Support that have just one direction
that is from up or down.
-- Example :- Ray.

9 | Page

## C) Graph of Reaction Against Load

10 | P a g e

SAMPLE OF CALCULATION

11 | P a g e

12 | P a g e

13 | P a g e

14 | P a g e

15 | P a g e

16 | P a g e

17 | P a g e

18 | P a g e

19 | P a g e

20 | P a g e

DISCUSSION

From this experiment, what would need to be discussed is an error that was
appeared to the meter that detects load reading. There is a zero error on support of
left hand, - 8.5 N errors on middle- hand and 18.3 N errors on right hand. This
error must cause of mechanical problem of that equipment itself.
Next, there is also a bit different between the readings were read by the
device and the reading that was obtain by using a formula. This thing might happen
because of an error that was obtained before or mistakenly of calculation using a
formula.
Lastly, even know there is a big different of result between the theoretical and
experiment, but the equipment still can be use because of there is just a slight
different of deflection between this both method. It was 0.7 deflections on theoretical
and 0.68 on experiment.

21 | P a g e

CONCLUSION

## As the conclusion, the objective to determine the reaction of a two-span

continuous beam was successfully achieved. Not just that, now all of us understand
about continuous beam more that before.
1) If the material of the beam is changed from steel to aluminium, how does this
- If the beam material changed from aluminium to steel, beams will become
stronger as aluminium beams usually used for structural applications.
Aluminium 6061-T6 has above average corrosion resistance, mach inability,
and excellent for welding. This application is great for reducing the cost of
damage to the beams of the building.
2) If a thinner beam is used, how does this affect the support reaction? Give
- If a thin beam is used, the effect of an adverse reaction will occur on the
support. This will cause the beam to become brittle and will be easily
collapsed the building. This will require the high cost of repairing the collapsed
beams. Otherwise it will endanger the lives of users if the building is built is
not safe to use.
3) How does the experimental reactions compare with the theoretical.
EXPERIMENT
- The value is a bit lower than
the value that was got using
the formula.
- The value of M for experiment
is 0.68.

THEORETICAL
- The value is a bit higher than
the value that was get from the
experiment.
- Value of M for theoretical is
0.70.

22 | P a g e

4) State the possible factors that might have influenced your results and possible
means of overcoming it.
- The reason that influenced the result might be because of the error that already
there at the apparatus or might be because of the load that been use is little too
old and had loss it weight.
- This thing can be avoid by using the apparatus that had been maintained or
been set the value to 0. The load also need to be replace to the new one.

23 | P a g e

APPENDIX

24 | P a g e