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Chapter # 1

Introduction
A recent trend in higher training has been to set up the instruction frameworks that give learners
online access and studying substance. Instruction is basically about general values of truth,
excellence and exceptional. These qualities are summarized in confirmable times.
The pathetic certainty is that while a large portion of us live in the computerized time, many
more are avoided. The advanced partition is one of the most excellent weaknesses to overcome
in contemporary instruction, particularly in poor neighborhoods. An isolated environment
without PCs and connectivity to the Web is changeable from current instructive basics.
Innovation might have an effect on instruction just, if, helpful discourse is happening around
instructors, scholars and their families. Besides, computerized innovation ought to be in the
hands of kids at an early age for them, to study the new advanced dialect as a second dialect.
Furthermore, it must be multipurpose (laptops or netbooks, rather than Pcs) in light of the fact
that people study in numerous categories of settings, not just in the classroom.
Innovative developments, for example, more fascinating Laptop, specifically influence the
behavior of the individuals live in this modern age. Over the previous decade, fast innovative
developments have started premium in using laptops as an instructional instrument to enhance
learner studying.
A few economists have attempted to measure the informative effect of computerized innovations;
however, they have reported conflicting comes about. Case in point, scholars utilizing Laptop at
School and at home have accomplished great workstation abilities while their evaluations in
different subjects have declined.

Pakistan is a developing nation. It got its independence on fourteenth August 1947, as an after
effect of the division from the previous British India. Pakistan is the first 5 in Gdp in Asia and
top 10 in sum financial improvement countries in Asia. It is the seventh most masses nation on
the planet, remains at 147th place in the education rate, 128th place according to the Human
Improvement list and 132th position on GdP for every capita foundation around what added up
to 160 nations. The methodology of computerization in Pakistan began in 1957, when an
organization named 'Bundles Ltd." began utilizing machine for its work. It is acknowledged the
first organization in Pakistan, which began utilizing computer11. In 1960 an IBM primary
outline workstation was introduced in PIA for flight reservation and by 1967, there were in the
ballpark of 17 mainframes working all around Pakistan in diverse organization.
Over the past decade, rapid technological advances have sparked interest in utilizing laptops as
an instructional tool to improve student learning. According to The New Lab for Teaching and
Learnings Dalton Council Task Force Report in Laptop Technology(2001), Beaufort County in
South Carolina launched a pilot program in 1994 using laptops for instruction with 330 sixth
graders. The program was expanded to all middle school students by 2000. The same report
indicates that Clovis Unified School District in California and New York City Community
School District Six (with 2,700 students in grades four through seven) launched similar laptop
immersion programs in 1996 (Dalton Council Task Force Report,2001). Similarly, in 2000, the
state of Maine piloted a laptop immersion program with one middle school, expanding it to 241
middle schools in 2001, and increasing to a total of 36,000 laptops with 33,000 students and
3,000 teachers by 2003. The second largest initiative occurred in Henrico County Schools in
Virginia, which piloted a laptop program in 2001 and expanded enrollment to 23,000 students by
the end of 2003. Texas is the most recent state to join this trend. More than 7,300 students in
thirteen schools will be given wireless laptop computers next fall for use at home and at school

as part of a Technology Immersion Project that is expected to fundamentally change the way
students learn.

1.1

Purpose of the study:

From the last 2 years, Government of Pakistan is distributing laptop among the students to
improve their performance. The main target of this study is to investigate the impact of
technology (Laptop) on student performance. It will give us a clear idea of the effectiveness
government policies.

1.2

Scope of study:

The scope of study is limited to the regular master students enrolled in University.

1.3

Objective of the Study:

1.4

To investigate the impact of technology on student performance.

Significance of the study

For the Government Officials and donor organization this study will provide a clear image of the
effectiveness of the Technology (Laptop) on student Performance. Furthermore, study will also
cover other important determinant of the student performance like Family Education and Family
Income.

1.5

Research Question:

Does laptop have an effect on the performance of the student?

1.6

Limitation of the student:

The study will analyze the impact of Technology (Laptop) on student


Performance
The study is limited to Peshawar City
Due to limited resource the study only include only two Universities from
Peshawar

Chapter # 2
Literature Review
In past many studies have been conducted to find out impact of technology on the performance
of student. Acceptance of technology has been considered in previous studies. There are many
models used for the acceptance of technology the most accepted model related to the technology
acceptance is TAM (Technology Acceptance Model) which is proposed by Davis in 1986.
The following literature is related to the research topic of the effect of technology on the
academic performance students. The following description addresses the findings of researchers
linked to the academic disciplines, for purpose to find conclusive evidence of whether
technology can improve student education. It will discuss the occurrence of technology in
Universities, the relationship between technology in the universities and increased overall
academic performance, and elements that increase the likelihood of successful implementation of
technology in the universities and improved academic performance.
This study is done by Cengiz & Demirtis (2005) had done study on Learning with Technology:
The Impact of Laptop Use on Student Achievement in January 2005. They took laptops and
study students performance. This research has two variables Laptop and Non-Laptop. They
study provides a clear evidence that participation in the laptop immersion program had a
significant impact on student achievement. This study also recommends that all students must
have equal access to technology rich environments in which technology is no longer a shared
commodity.
This study is done by Goldberg, et ol, 2003, on The Effect of Computers on Student Writing: A
Meta-Analysis of Studies from 1992 to 2002. They study the effect of Computers on students

writing. They use multiple regression models to analyze the effect of computer on students
writing. The dependent variable is computer based writing while the independent variable is
paper based writing. The results of meta-analyses indicates that normal students who use
computers when learning to write are not only more engaged and motivated in their writing, but
they produce written work that is of greater length and higher quality.
This study is done by El-gayur, (2011) on Students Acceptance of Tablet PCs and Implications
for Educational Institutions. They study shows the effect of Tablet PC on students performance
expectancy, Effort Expectancy, Social Influences, Facilitating condition, Behavioral Intention
and Attitude. The statistical technique use for this study is Partial least square. They take
students performance as a dependent variable while the Tablet PC is taken as the independent
variable. The overall results are significant and have a positive value which means that there is
an effect of Tablet PC on educational situation.
The study done by Park (2009) An Analysis of the Technology Acceptance Model in
Understanding University Students Behavioral Intention to use E-Learning. He investigates the
effect of e-learning on University Students. The effect of E-learning has been taken as
independent variable, while the performance of students on e-learning as the dependent variable.
The descriptive statistical analysis is used for finding the standard deviation and for mean. For
testing hypothesis, structural equation model is used. The overall conclusion of this study is that
e-learning, self-efficacy and subjective model play an important role in moving attitude in the
direction of e-learning and behavioral aim to use e-learning.
As reported by Rockman et al. (1997, 1998, 2000), laptop use not only reinforces the utilization
of successful learning strategies but also enables students to transfer the knowledge across
disciplines. This is believed to occur because laptop students are involved in:

highly engaged and focused activities (spending more time on their work and

completing larger projects);


frequently apply active learning strategies;
interact with each other about their work;
problem solve through project-based activities, which usually involve more critical

thinking;
Regularly find information, make sense of it, and communicate it.

Research provides evidence those students who engage in collaborative work, participating in
more project-based learning, have higher levels of motivation (Wigfield et al., 1998;
Guthrie & Wigfield, 2000). When students are motivated, they demonstrate improved
achievement (White, 1989; Roth & Paris, 1991; Roderick & Engel, 2001; Haydel & Roeser,
2002; Gulek, 2003), they produce longer and higher quality writing samples (Reeves, 2001;
Goldberg, Russell & Cook, 2003), and they spend more time doing homework (Parschal,
Weinstein & Walberg, 1984; Walberg, 1984,1994; Walberg & Haertel, 1997).
Similarly, teachers using a constructivist approach feel more empowered and spend less
time lecturing (von Glaserfeld, 1995, 1995b), have fewer classroom management problems
(Marzano et al., 2003), and have more engaged learners in their classrooms (von Glaserfeld,
1987; Jonassen, 1991; Fosnot, 1996; Marzano et al., 2003). As seen in the evaluations conducted
by Rockman et al. (1997, 1998, 2000), many of these outcomes were observed when students
were provided with their own laptop through the Anytime Anywhere Learning Project.

2.1

Hypothesis

The main hypothesis of our analysis is the effect of Technology on Student Performance.
1:

Technology has no impact on student performance.

2:

Father Education has no impact on Student performance

3:

Average Family Income has no Impact on Student Performance

Chapter # 3
Methodology
A quantitative analysis of research is conducted to assess the validity and strength of the finding
of previous studies on the effects of technology on students Performance. For the purpose of this
thesis, academic studies refers to studies conducted by researchers at the university level and
published in peer- reviewed journals, books, and at conferences. Data is collected through
questionnaire from the graduate university students. The questionnaire is design on the basis of
the available technology for the graduate students. Focal group discussion with Faculty Members
and Researchers in the Institute of Management Sciences and also by studying the above
literature the selected dependent variable is Performance which will be measure through CGPA
while the independent variables are Technology (Laptop), Availability of Internet, Family
Education and Family Income. Family information are the controlled variables used for this
Research. The targeted Population for this study is graduate students of two universities from
Peshawar. The sample size is selected through a formula which is 200 graduate students form
two universities from Peshawar. All participants are enrolled in the degree program. The
descriptive statistics are used and also the regression model for the effect of technology.
3.1

Targeted Populations:

The total targeted population selected for this study is the graduate students from two different
Universities from Peshawar. The total numbers of participant from these Universities are 2000.
The two different universities are Institute of Management Sciences Hayatabad (im|sciences) and
Institute of Management Studies (im|studies) Peshawar Campus. The number of participants
from im|studies is 900 approximately and from im|sciences are 1100. The participant should be

enrolled in their master degree program and will be a regular student of the University. The
participant will have an access to technology and will be aware of the use of technology.
3.2

Sample size and Sampling Frame:

The total number of questionnaire for sample is 200. This is the 10% of the total Population. As
the number of participant in im|sciences is greater than im|studies, so by using ratio we will
distribute 80 questionnaires in im|studies while 120 will be distributed in im|sciences. The
questionnaire is distributed randomly among the students. Every 5th person got the questionnaire.
3.3

Data Collection and Data Entry:

The training is given to students for the filling of questionnaires. The questionnaire is then
distributed in master degree students in both Universities. The whole data is collected and
entered in MS excel for checking the data with different coding.
3.4

Statistical Analysis

The data collected through were coded in MS Excel in the light of Research Assistants. The
participants were given a 29 question survey. The data was distributed among 127 males and 56
females with the average mean of 25.98. The average CGPA was 3.28. To see the effect the
descriptive statistical analysis was used. The descriptive analysis includes mean, standard
deviation and correlation of the variables. The STATA is used for the analysis.

Chapter # 4
Result and Discussion
SPSS is
descriptive
and STATA
Qualitative
categorize
variables.

Table 1.1:

Mean
Median
Maximum
Minimum
Std. Dev.
Skewness
Kurtosis

CGPA
3.241639
3.3
4
0
0.63137
-3.13457
16.61693

AMFI
56803.28
50000
300000
0
52650.04
1.92338
8.164801

Sum
Sum Sq. Dev.

593.22
7.26E+01

10395000
5.05E+11

Observations

183

183

used for the


Statistics
is used for
analysis to
the

Table 1.1

The

results in Table are the Descriptive statistics which is the output of SPSS. The mean value of
CGPA is 3.241 while the Average Monthly Family Income is 56803.68. The observation deviate
from the mean value for CGPA is .63137. There is dispersion from the value in the data. The
observations deviate for the Average Monthly Family Income is 52650.4. The CGPA is
negatively skewed, which means that the data are on the left of the mean and this shows that
there is a high probability for high values on the left and the CGPA is leptokurtic which shows
that the data is high-pitched than the normal values with thicker tails around the mean. While for
Average family Income the data is positively Skewed, most of the data are intense on the right of
the mean, and great number of data are on the right of the Mean. The Average Monthly Family
Income is Leptokurtic distribution. The data is high-pitched than a normal distribution, with a
values intense around the mean and with thicker tails. This shows that there is a high probability
for high values.

FEDUL
Frequency
Valid

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

illiterate

15

8.2

8.2

8.2

Primary

3.3

3.3

11.5

Secondary

3.8

3.8

15.3

Metric

14

7.7

7.7

23.0

F.A/F.Sc

21

11.5

11.5

34.4

Degree

118

64.5

64.5

98.9

Diploma

.5

.5

99.5

Doctor

.5

.5

100.0

183

100.0

100.0

Total

Table 2.1
Table 2.2:

The above table is run by STATA. The above table shows the participants whose

father is illiterate are only 15 which are 8.2% of the total sample. The primary education of the
father is only 6 which are 3.3% of the total sample. The secondary level of the father education is
only 7 which are 3.8% of the total sample. The metric father education is 7.7% of the total
sample. The F.A/F.Sc of the father education from the total sample is 11.5%. The Degree level of
the father education from the total sample is 64.5%. The level of education of father who are
diploma Holder are only .5% and the level of education of father who are doctors are only .5%

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Illiterate

82

44.8

45.1

45.1

Primary

15

8.2

8.2

53.3

Secondary

10

5.5

5.5

58.8

Metric

19

10.4

10.4

69.2

F.A/F.Sc

26

14.2

14.3

83.5

Degree

29

15.8

15.9

99.5

Doctor

.5

.5

100.0

Total

182

99.5

100.0

Missing

.5

Total

183

100.0

Table 2.2
Table2.2:

The above table is run by STATA. The above table shows the participants whose

Mother is illiterate are only 82 which are 44.8% of the total sample. The primary education of the
mother is only 15 which are 8.2% of the total sample. The secondary level of the mother
education is only 10 which are 5.5% of the total sample. The metric level of Mother Education
is 19 which are only 10.4% of the total sample. The F.A/F.Sc Level of the Mother education from
the total sample is 26 which are only 14.2%. The Degree level of the Mother education from the
total sample is 29 which are only 15.8%. The level of education of Mother who are Doctor are
only 1 which is .5

Hours
Frequency

Percent

17

9.3

0.2

.5

0.4

.5

0.8

.5

21

11.5

21

11.5

33

18.0

25

13.7

23

12.6

14

7.7

3.3

3.8

1.6

10

3.8

12

.5

13

.5

15

.5

Total

183

100.0

Table 2.3

Table 2.3:
The above table shows the use of laptop per hour by the students for their study.
The total 33 participants use laptop for 3 hours for study which is the high frequency.

3.5

Econometrics Model:

The Model is based on the relationship of Performance (CGPA) and use of Laptop (Hours),
Father Education Level, Monthly Average Income and Mother Education Level.
y=+ 1 x 1 + 2 x 2+ 3 x 3+ 4 x 4 +

In the above model y is the dependent variable for the CGPA (Performance),

independent variable use for the use of laptop per hour,

is the average monthly income of the family,

x4

x2

x1

is the

is the father education level,

is the mother education level and

error term in the model.


y=+ 1 x 1 + 2 x 2+ 3 x 3+ 4 x 4

The above model is the relation of dependent variable and dependent variable.

x3

is the

4.1

INTERPRETATION for Father Level of Education:

4.1.1 Coefficient for Primary Level of Education:


Coefficient value for Primary level of education is 2.314085 which mean that if Primary level of
education is changed by 1% it will increase the performance of student by 2.134085. Primary
level of education has a positive coefficient value this means that it is positively related to
performance of the student or we can say both variables going in one direction (positive).

4.1.2 Coefficient for Secondary Level of Education:


Coefficient value for Secondary level of education is 3.103839, which mean that if the secondary
level of education is changed by 1% it will increase the performance of student by 3.103839.
Secondary level of education has a positive value which means that it is positively related to
performance of the student or we simply can say that both variables are positively related and are
going in one direction.

4.1.3 Coefficient for Metric Level of Education:


Coefficient value for matric level of education is 2.718765 which mean that if the matric level of
father education is increased by 1% then the student performance increases by 2.71. The result
shows that the matric level of father education and student performance are positive related and
are in one direction.

4.1.4 Coefficient for F.A/F.Sc Level of Education:


Coefficient value for F.A/F.Sc level of education is 3.005391which mean that if the F.A/F.Sc
level of father education is increased by 1% then the student performance increases by 3.005391.

The result shows that the F.A/F.Sc level of father education and student performance are positive
related and are in one direction.

4.1.5 Coefficient for Degree Level of Education:


Coefficient value for Degree level of education is 2.774359, which mean that if the degree level
of education is changed by 1% it will increase the performance of student by 2.77. Primary level
of education has a positive coefficient value this means that it is positively related to
performance of the student or we can say both variables going in one direction (positive). This
means that when the degree level of father education increases the student performance will also
increases.

4.1.6 Coefficient for Lawyers Level of Education:


The 6 level of education of father are those who are lawyers. The coefficient value for lawyers
level of education is 3.202836, which mean that if the Lawyers level of education is changed by
1% it will increase the performance of student by 3.202836. The education level of lawyers has a
positive coefficient value this means that it is positively related to performance of the student or
we can say both variables going in one direction (positive). This means that when the lawyers
level of father education increases the student performance will also increases.

4.1.7 Coefficient for Primary Level of Education:


The 7 level of education of father are those who are Doctors. The coefficient value for Doctors
level of education is 3.148291, which mean that if the Doctors level of education is changed by
1% it will increase the performance of student by 3.148291. The education level of Doctors has
a

ifliterate~l coefficient

Sttd Error

P>t[95%] Conf.

Interval

Primary

2.314085

.4926872 4.70

0.000 1.341429

3.286741

Secondar
y

3.103839

.419813 7.39

0.000 2.275051

3.932628

Metric

2.718765

.3398464 8.00

0.000 2.047846

3.389685

F.A/F.Sc

3.005391

.2738652 10.97

0.000 2.46473

3.546052

Degree

2.774359

.1859354 14.92

0.000 2.407288

3.14143

Lawyers

3.202836

1.171006 2.74

0.007 .891054

5.514619

Docotrs

3.148291

1.143878 2.75

0.007 .8900627

5.406518

positive

coefficient value this means that it is positively related to performance of the student or we can
say both variables going in one direction (positive). This means that when the Doctors level of
father education increases the student performance will also increases.

Table 4.1
Table 4.1: Table 4.1 is the level of Education for Father.

4.2

INTERPRETATION for the Mother Level of Education:

4.2.1 Coefficient for Primary Level of Education:


Coefficient value for Primary level of education of mother is -.2640713which mean that if
Primary level of education of mother is changed by 1% it will decrease the performance of
student by -.2640713. Primary level of education has a negative coefficient value this means that
it is negatively related to performance of the student or we can say both variables going in
opposite direction (negative).

4.2.2 Coefficient for Secondary Level of Education:


Coefficient value for Secondary level of education of mother is -.0186172, which means that if
the secondary level of education is changed by 1% it will decrease the performance of student by
-.0186172. Secondary level of education has a negative value which means that it is negatively
related to performance of the student or we simply can say that both variables are negatively
related and are going in opposite direction.

4.2.3 Coefficient for Metric Level of Education:


Coefficient value for matric level of education is .185695which mean that if the matric level of
mother education is increased by 1% then the student performance increases by .185695. The
result shows that the matric level of mother education and student performance are positive
related and are in one direction.

4.2.4 Coefficient for F.S/F.Sc Level of Education:


Coefficient value for F.A/F.Sc level of education is -.2947176, which means that if the F.A/F.Sc
level of mother education is increased by 1% then the student performance decreases by
-.2947176. The result shows that the F.A/F.Sc level of mother education and student performance
are negative related and are in opposite direction.

4.2.5 Coefficient for Degree Level of Education:


Coefficient value for Degree level of education is -.1437293, which means that if the degree
level of education of mother is changed by 1% it will decrease the performance of student by
-.1437293. The degree level of education of mother has a negative coefficient value this means
that it is negatively related to performance of the student or we can say both variables going in
opposite direction (negative). This means that when the degree level of mother education
decreases the student performance will increases.

4.2.6 Coefficient for Doctors Level of Education:


The 6 level of education of father are those who are doctors. The coefficient value for doctors
level of education is -3.008453, which mean that if the doctors level of education is changed by
1% it will decrease the performance of student by -3.008453. The education level of lawyers has
a negative coefficient value, this means that it is negatively related to performance of the student
or we can say both variables going in opposite direction (negative). This means that when the
Doctors level of Mother Education decreases the student performance will increases.

mothereduc~l coefficient

Sttd Error

P>t[95%]
Conf.

Interval

Primary

.3408502 -0.77
0.2640713

0.440
-.9369727

0.4088301

Secondary

.4249791 -0.04
0.0186172

0.965
-.8576046

0.8203702

Metric

0.185695

0.519
-.3810407

0.7524308

F.S/F.Sc

.2587879 -1.14
0.2947176

0.256
-.8056129

0.2161777

Degree

.2637482 -0.54
0.1437293

0.587
-.6644172

0.3769586

Docotr

-3.008453

0.007
-5.192506

-0.8243989

.2870733 0.65

1.106306 -2.72

Table 4.2

Table 4.2:

Table 4.2 this is the table for the interpretation of Coefficient of mother Education

4.3

Coefficient for Average Monthly Income:

Coefficient value for Average Monthly Income of the family is 0.00000129, which means that if
the Average Monthly Income is changed by 1% it will increase the performance of student by
0.00000129. The Average Monthly Income has a Positive coefficient value this means that it is
positively related to performance of the student or we can say both variables going in same
direction (Positive). This means that when the Average monthly Income increases the student
performance will increases.

coefficient

averagemon~e 1.29E-06

Sttd Error

P>t[95%] Conf.

Interval

1.63e-06 0.79

0.429 -1.93e4.51E-06
06

Table 4.3
Table 4.3: Table 4.3 is the table for Average Monthly Family Income

4.4

Coefficient for Use of Laptop:

Coefficient value for the use of Laptop is 0.1170467, which means that if the use of Laptop is
changed by 1% it will increase the performance of student by 0.1170647. The Use of Laptop has
a Positive coefficient value, this means that it is positively related to performance of the student
or we can say both variables going in same direction (Positive). This means that when the use of
Laptop increases the student performance will increases. The result is shown in the following
table.

coefficient

sincewhena~
p

Sttd Error

0.1170467 .0304994 3.84

P>t[95%]
Conf.

0.000
0568352

Interval

0.1772581

Table 4.4
Table 4.4: Table 4.4 is the table for the Use of Laptop

4.5

Significance of the variables

4.5.1

P-Value of Father Level of Education

P value for the level of education of father is 0.0000 which is significant at 0.05 level of
significance, we may say father level of education has an impact on performance of student. The
entire indicators for level of education of father are significant.
4.5.2

P value for level of Mother Education:

The P-Value for all the indicators of Mother Education is insignificant.


4.5.3

P value for Average Monthly Family Income:

The Average Monthly Income value is significant and has an impact on student Performance
4.5.4

P value for the Use of Laptop:

The P-Value of the Use of Laptop are significant and hence, the Null Hypothesis is rejected and
we can conclude that there is an effect of Laptop (Technology) on student Performance.
4.5.5

Fitness of the Model:

The fitness of the model is checked by Using the F-Statistics and compare with P-Value. The
Null Hypothesis is rejected and hence the model is fit.

Chapter #5
Conclusions:
The purpose of this study is to identify factors affecting student performance. In order to achieve
this purpose technology, parents education and parents income are used as independent
variables whereas performance of the students is used as dependent variables. Each variable has
proxy like for technology use of laptop is taken as a proxy, for parents education their level of
education i.e. primary middle, matric etc are taken furthermore for student performance CGPS is
taken as a proxy. Multiple regression models are used to explore the relationship between student
performance and factors affecting this performance. Primary data was collected through
questionnaire from 183 respondents.
The result of regression model shows that the dependent variable is positively correlated with
father education and negatively correlated with mother education level. When the mother
education is very low the student performance decreases and when the mother education is very
high the student performance also decreases. This result shows that the mother education should
be at the middle point. The father education increases the performance of their children. When
the average income of the family increases of the family the student performance also decrease
i.e. the average family income is negatively related to student performance. When the Use of
Laptop is increased, the Performance of the Students also increases. So our main hypothesis is
rejected and we should simply say that the use of laptop has an effect on the performance of the
student. The use of Laptop will help them in searching the relevant materials on the internet for
their study. The Using Internet the Students can easily search the global world and they can store
their data or study material in Laptop and then easily can study Later.

Laptop Technology is the only source that can be used in Classroom Presentation and also for
reading the articles in the class. Despite the fact, this study provides evidence that participation
in the laptop immersion program had a significant impact on student Achievement. To increase
the achievement of the student, Government should introduce more schemes to give laptop for
the student; the result will be more productivity of the economy, as more skilled students will
arise from the Universities and should be aware of the use of the Technology. New Methods will
be Introduce to make the Economy more efficient. The laptop will give more skills regarding the
Technology use in the economy.