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Introduction

A recent trend in higher training has been to set up the instruction frameworks that give learners

online access and studying substance. Instruction is basically about general values of truth,

excellence and exceptional. These qualities are summarized in confirmable times.

The pathetic certainty is that while a large portion of us live in the computerized time, many

more are avoided. The advanced partition is one of the most excellent weaknesses to overcome

in contemporary instruction, particularly in poor neighborhoods. An isolated environment

without PCs and connectivity to the Web is changeable from current instructive basics.

Innovation might have an effect on instruction just, if, helpful discourse is happening around

instructors, scholars and their families. Besides, computerized innovation ought to be in the

hands of kids at an early age for them, to study the new advanced dialect as a second dialect.

Furthermore, it must be multipurpose (laptops or netbooks, rather than Pcs) in light of the fact

that people study in numerous categories of settings, not just in the classroom.

Innovative developments, for example, more fascinating Laptop, specifically influence the

behavior of the individuals live in this modern age. Over the previous decade, fast innovative

developments have started premium in using laptops as an instructional instrument to enhance

learner studying.

A few economists have attempted to measure the informative effect of computerized innovations;

however, they have reported conflicting comes about. Case in point, scholars utilizing Laptop at

School and at home have accomplished great workstation abilities while their evaluations in

different subjects have declined.

Pakistan is a developing nation. It got its independence on fourteenth August 1947, as an after

effect of the division from the previous British India. Pakistan is the first 5 in Gdp in Asia and

top 10 in sum financial improvement countries in Asia. It is the seventh most masses nation on

the planet, remains at 147th place in the education rate, 128th place according to the Human

Improvement list and 132th position on GdP for every capita foundation around what added up

to 160 nations. The methodology of computerization in Pakistan began in 1957, when an

organization named 'Bundles Ltd." began utilizing machine for its work. It is acknowledged the

first organization in Pakistan, which began utilizing computer11. In 1960 an IBM primary

outline workstation was introduced in PIA for flight reservation and by 1967, there were in the

ballpark of 17 mainframes working all around Pakistan in diverse organization.

Over the past decade, rapid technological advances have sparked interest in utilizing laptops as

an instructional tool to improve student learning. According to The New Lab for Teaching and

Learnings Dalton Council Task Force Report in Laptop Technology(2001), Beaufort County in

South Carolina launched a pilot program in 1994 using laptops for instruction with 330 sixth

graders. The program was expanded to all middle school students by 2000. The same report

indicates that Clovis Unified School District in California and New York City Community

School District Six (with 2,700 students in grades four through seven) launched similar laptop

immersion programs in 1996 (Dalton Council Task Force Report,2001). Similarly, in 2000, the

state of Maine piloted a laptop immersion program with one middle school, expanding it to 241

middle schools in 2001, and increasing to a total of 36,000 laptops with 33,000 students and

3,000 teachers by 2003. The second largest initiative occurred in Henrico County Schools in

Virginia, which piloted a laptop program in 2001 and expanded enrollment to 23,000 students by

the end of 2003. Texas is the most recent state to join this trend. More than 7,300 students in

thirteen schools will be given wireless laptop computers next fall for use at home and at school

as part of a Technology Immersion Project that is expected to fundamentally change the way

students learn.

1.1

From the last 2 years, Government of Pakistan is distributing laptop among the students to

improve their performance. The main target of this study is to investigate the impact of

technology (Laptop) on student performance. It will give us a clear idea of the effectiveness

government policies.

1.2

Scope of study:

The scope of study is limited to the regular master students enrolled in University.

1.3

1.4

For the Government Officials and donor organization this study will provide a clear image of the

effectiveness of the Technology (Laptop) on student Performance. Furthermore, study will also

cover other important determinant of the student performance like Family Education and Family

Income.

1.5

Research Question:

1.6

Performance

The study is limited to Peshawar City

Due to limited resource the study only include only two Universities from

Peshawar

Chapter # 2

Literature Review

In past many studies have been conducted to find out impact of technology on the performance

of student. Acceptance of technology has been considered in previous studies. There are many

models used for the acceptance of technology the most accepted model related to the technology

acceptance is TAM (Technology Acceptance Model) which is proposed by Davis in 1986.

The following literature is related to the research topic of the effect of technology on the

academic performance students. The following description addresses the findings of researchers

linked to the academic disciplines, for purpose to find conclusive evidence of whether

technology can improve student education. It will discuss the occurrence of technology in

Universities, the relationship between technology in the universities and increased overall

academic performance, and elements that increase the likelihood of successful implementation of

technology in the universities and improved academic performance.

This study is done by Cengiz & Demirtis (2005) had done study on Learning with Technology:

The Impact of Laptop Use on Student Achievement in January 2005. They took laptops and

study students performance. This research has two variables Laptop and Non-Laptop. They

study provides a clear evidence that participation in the laptop immersion program had a

significant impact on student achievement. This study also recommends that all students must

have equal access to technology rich environments in which technology is no longer a shared

commodity.

This study is done by Goldberg, et ol, 2003, on The Effect of Computers on Student Writing: A

Meta-Analysis of Studies from 1992 to 2002. They study the effect of Computers on students

writing. They use multiple regression models to analyze the effect of computer on students

writing. The dependent variable is computer based writing while the independent variable is

paper based writing. The results of meta-analyses indicates that normal students who use

computers when learning to write are not only more engaged and motivated in their writing, but

they produce written work that is of greater length and higher quality.

This study is done by El-gayur, (2011) on Students Acceptance of Tablet PCs and Implications

for Educational Institutions. They study shows the effect of Tablet PC on students performance

expectancy, Effort Expectancy, Social Influences, Facilitating condition, Behavioral Intention

and Attitude. The statistical technique use for this study is Partial least square. They take

students performance as a dependent variable while the Tablet PC is taken as the independent

variable. The overall results are significant and have a positive value which means that there is

an effect of Tablet PC on educational situation.

The study done by Park (2009) An Analysis of the Technology Acceptance Model in

Understanding University Students Behavioral Intention to use E-Learning. He investigates the

effect of e-learning on University Students. The effect of E-learning has been taken as

independent variable, while the performance of students on e-learning as the dependent variable.

The descriptive statistical analysis is used for finding the standard deviation and for mean. For

testing hypothesis, structural equation model is used. The overall conclusion of this study is that

e-learning, self-efficacy and subjective model play an important role in moving attitude in the

direction of e-learning and behavioral aim to use e-learning.

As reported by Rockman et al. (1997, 1998, 2000), laptop use not only reinforces the utilization

of successful learning strategies but also enables students to transfer the knowledge across

disciplines. This is believed to occur because laptop students are involved in:

highly engaged and focused activities (spending more time on their work and

frequently apply active learning strategies;

interact with each other about their work;

problem solve through project-based activities, which usually involve more critical

thinking;

Regularly find information, make sense of it, and communicate it.

Research provides evidence those students who engage in collaborative work, participating in

more project-based learning, have higher levels of motivation (Wigfield et al., 1998;

Guthrie & Wigfield, 2000). When students are motivated, they demonstrate improved

achievement (White, 1989; Roth & Paris, 1991; Roderick & Engel, 2001; Haydel & Roeser,

2002; Gulek, 2003), they produce longer and higher quality writing samples (Reeves, 2001;

Goldberg, Russell & Cook, 2003), and they spend more time doing homework (Parschal,

Weinstein & Walberg, 1984; Walberg, 1984,1994; Walberg & Haertel, 1997).

Similarly, teachers using a constructivist approach feel more empowered and spend less

time lecturing (von Glaserfeld, 1995, 1995b), have fewer classroom management problems

(Marzano et al., 2003), and have more engaged learners in their classrooms (von Glaserfeld,

1987; Jonassen, 1991; Fosnot, 1996; Marzano et al., 2003). As seen in the evaluations conducted

by Rockman et al. (1997, 1998, 2000), many of these outcomes were observed when students

were provided with their own laptop through the Anytime Anywhere Learning Project.

2.1

Hypothesis

The main hypothesis of our analysis is the effect of Technology on Student Performance.

1:

2:

3:

Chapter # 3

Methodology

A quantitative analysis of research is conducted to assess the validity and strength of the finding

of previous studies on the effects of technology on students Performance. For the purpose of this

thesis, academic studies refers to studies conducted by researchers at the university level and

published in peer- reviewed journals, books, and at conferences. Data is collected through

questionnaire from the graduate university students. The questionnaire is design on the basis of

the available technology for the graduate students. Focal group discussion with Faculty Members

and Researchers in the Institute of Management Sciences and also by studying the above

literature the selected dependent variable is Performance which will be measure through CGPA

while the independent variables are Technology (Laptop), Availability of Internet, Family

Education and Family Income. Family information are the controlled variables used for this

Research. The targeted Population for this study is graduate students of two universities from

Peshawar. The sample size is selected through a formula which is 200 graduate students form

two universities from Peshawar. All participants are enrolled in the degree program. The

descriptive statistics are used and also the regression model for the effect of technology.

3.1

Targeted Populations:

The total targeted population selected for this study is the graduate students from two different

Universities from Peshawar. The total numbers of participant from these Universities are 2000.

The two different universities are Institute of Management Sciences Hayatabad (im|sciences) and

Institute of Management Studies (im|studies) Peshawar Campus. The number of participants

from im|studies is 900 approximately and from im|sciences are 1100. The participant should be

enrolled in their master degree program and will be a regular student of the University. The

participant will have an access to technology and will be aware of the use of technology.

3.2

The total number of questionnaire for sample is 200. This is the 10% of the total Population. As

the number of participant in im|sciences is greater than im|studies, so by using ratio we will

distribute 80 questionnaires in im|studies while 120 will be distributed in im|sciences. The

questionnaire is distributed randomly among the students. Every 5th person got the questionnaire.

3.3

The training is given to students for the filling of questionnaires. The questionnaire is then

distributed in master degree students in both Universities. The whole data is collected and

entered in MS excel for checking the data with different coding.

3.4

Statistical Analysis

The data collected through were coded in MS Excel in the light of Research Assistants. The

participants were given a 29 question survey. The data was distributed among 127 males and 56

females with the average mean of 25.98. The average CGPA was 3.28. To see the effect the

descriptive statistical analysis was used. The descriptive analysis includes mean, standard

deviation and correlation of the variables. The STATA is used for the analysis.

Chapter # 4

Result and Discussion

SPSS is

descriptive

and STATA

Qualitative

categorize

variables.

Table 1.1:

Mean

Median

Maximum

Minimum

Std. Dev.

Skewness

Kurtosis

CGPA

3.241639

3.3

4

0

0.63137

-3.13457

16.61693

AMFI

56803.28

50000

300000

0

52650.04

1.92338

8.164801

Sum

Sum Sq. Dev.

593.22

7.26E+01

10395000

5.05E+11

Observations

183

183

Statistics

is used for

analysis to

the

Table 1.1

The

results in Table are the Descriptive statistics which is the output of SPSS. The mean value of

CGPA is 3.241 while the Average Monthly Family Income is 56803.68. The observation deviate

from the mean value for CGPA is .63137. There is dispersion from the value in the data. The

observations deviate for the Average Monthly Family Income is 52650.4. The CGPA is

negatively skewed, which means that the data are on the left of the mean and this shows that

there is a high probability for high values on the left and the CGPA is leptokurtic which shows

that the data is high-pitched than the normal values with thicker tails around the mean. While for

Average family Income the data is positively Skewed, most of the data are intense on the right of

the mean, and great number of data are on the right of the Mean. The Average Monthly Family

Income is Leptokurtic distribution. The data is high-pitched than a normal distribution, with a

values intense around the mean and with thicker tails. This shows that there is a high probability

for high values.

FEDUL

Frequency

Valid

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

illiterate

15

8.2

8.2

8.2

Primary

3.3

3.3

11.5

Secondary

3.8

3.8

15.3

Metric

14

7.7

7.7

23.0

F.A/F.Sc

21

11.5

11.5

34.4

Degree

118

64.5

64.5

98.9

Diploma

.5

.5

99.5

Doctor

.5

.5

100.0

183

100.0

100.0

Total

Table 2.1

Table 2.2:

The above table is run by STATA. The above table shows the participants whose

father is illiterate are only 15 which are 8.2% of the total sample. The primary education of the

father is only 6 which are 3.3% of the total sample. The secondary level of the father education is

only 7 which are 3.8% of the total sample. The metric father education is 7.7% of the total

sample. The F.A/F.Sc of the father education from the total sample is 11.5%. The Degree level of

the father education from the total sample is 64.5%. The level of education of father who are

diploma Holder are only .5% and the level of education of father who are doctors are only .5%

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Illiterate

82

44.8

45.1

45.1

Primary

15

8.2

8.2

53.3

Secondary

10

5.5

5.5

58.8

Metric

19

10.4

10.4

69.2

F.A/F.Sc

26

14.2

14.3

83.5

Degree

29

15.8

15.9

99.5

Doctor

.5

.5

100.0

Total

182

99.5

100.0

Missing

.5

Total

183

100.0

Table 2.2

Table2.2:

The above table is run by STATA. The above table shows the participants whose

Mother is illiterate are only 82 which are 44.8% of the total sample. The primary education of the

mother is only 15 which are 8.2% of the total sample. The secondary level of the mother

education is only 10 which are 5.5% of the total sample. The metric level of Mother Education

is 19 which are only 10.4% of the total sample. The F.A/F.Sc Level of the Mother education from

the total sample is 26 which are only 14.2%. The Degree level of the Mother education from the

total sample is 29 which are only 15.8%. The level of education of Mother who are Doctor are

only 1 which is .5

Hours

Frequency

Percent

17

9.3

0.2

.5

0.4

.5

0.8

.5

21

11.5

21

11.5

33

18.0

25

13.7

23

12.6

14

7.7

3.3

3.8

1.6

10

3.8

12

.5

13

.5

15

.5

Total

183

100.0

Table 2.3

Table 2.3:

The above table shows the use of laptop per hour by the students for their study.

The total 33 participants use laptop for 3 hours for study which is the high frequency.

3.5

Econometrics Model:

The Model is based on the relationship of Performance (CGPA) and use of Laptop (Hours),

Father Education Level, Monthly Average Income and Mother Education Level.

y=+ 1 x 1 + 2 x 2+ 3 x 3+ 4 x 4 +

In the above model y is the dependent variable for the CGPA (Performance),

x4

x2

x1

is the

y=+ 1 x 1 + 2 x 2+ 3 x 3+ 4 x 4

The above model is the relation of dependent variable and dependent variable.

x3

is the

4.1

Coefficient value for Primary level of education is 2.314085 which mean that if Primary level of

education is changed by 1% it will increase the performance of student by 2.134085. Primary

level of education has a positive coefficient value this means that it is positively related to

performance of the student or we can say both variables going in one direction (positive).

Coefficient value for Secondary level of education is 3.103839, which mean that if the secondary

level of education is changed by 1% it will increase the performance of student by 3.103839.

Secondary level of education has a positive value which means that it is positively related to

performance of the student or we simply can say that both variables are positively related and are

going in one direction.

Coefficient value for matric level of education is 2.718765 which mean that if the matric level of

father education is increased by 1% then the student performance increases by 2.71. The result

shows that the matric level of father education and student performance are positive related and

are in one direction.

Coefficient value for F.A/F.Sc level of education is 3.005391which mean that if the F.A/F.Sc

level of father education is increased by 1% then the student performance increases by 3.005391.

The result shows that the F.A/F.Sc level of father education and student performance are positive

related and are in one direction.

Coefficient value for Degree level of education is 2.774359, which mean that if the degree level

of education is changed by 1% it will increase the performance of student by 2.77. Primary level

of education has a positive coefficient value this means that it is positively related to

performance of the student or we can say both variables going in one direction (positive). This

means that when the degree level of father education increases the student performance will also

increases.

The 6 level of education of father are those who are lawyers. The coefficient value for lawyers

level of education is 3.202836, which mean that if the Lawyers level of education is changed by

1% it will increase the performance of student by 3.202836. The education level of lawyers has a

positive coefficient value this means that it is positively related to performance of the student or

we can say both variables going in one direction (positive). This means that when the lawyers

level of father education increases the student performance will also increases.

The 7 level of education of father are those who are Doctors. The coefficient value for Doctors

level of education is 3.148291, which mean that if the Doctors level of education is changed by

1% it will increase the performance of student by 3.148291. The education level of Doctors has

a

ifliterate~l coefficient

Sttd Error

P>t[95%] Conf.

Interval

Primary

2.314085

.4926872 4.70

0.000 1.341429

3.286741

Secondar

y

3.103839

.419813 7.39

0.000 2.275051

3.932628

Metric

2.718765

.3398464 8.00

0.000 2.047846

3.389685

F.A/F.Sc

3.005391

.2738652 10.97

0.000 2.46473

3.546052

Degree

2.774359

.1859354 14.92

0.000 2.407288

3.14143

Lawyers

3.202836

1.171006 2.74

0.007 .891054

5.514619

Docotrs

3.148291

1.143878 2.75

0.007 .8900627

5.406518

positive

coefficient value this means that it is positively related to performance of the student or we can

say both variables going in one direction (positive). This means that when the Doctors level of

father education increases the student performance will also increases.

Table 4.1

Table 4.1: Table 4.1 is the level of Education for Father.

4.2

Coefficient value for Primary level of education of mother is -.2640713which mean that if

Primary level of education of mother is changed by 1% it will decrease the performance of

student by -.2640713. Primary level of education has a negative coefficient value this means that

it is negatively related to performance of the student or we can say both variables going in

opposite direction (negative).

Coefficient value for Secondary level of education of mother is -.0186172, which means that if

the secondary level of education is changed by 1% it will decrease the performance of student by

-.0186172. Secondary level of education has a negative value which means that it is negatively

related to performance of the student or we simply can say that both variables are negatively

related and are going in opposite direction.

Coefficient value for matric level of education is .185695which mean that if the matric level of

mother education is increased by 1% then the student performance increases by .185695. The

result shows that the matric level of mother education and student performance are positive

related and are in one direction.

Coefficient value for F.A/F.Sc level of education is -.2947176, which means that if the F.A/F.Sc

level of mother education is increased by 1% then the student performance decreases by

-.2947176. The result shows that the F.A/F.Sc level of mother education and student performance

are negative related and are in opposite direction.

Coefficient value for Degree level of education is -.1437293, which means that if the degree

level of education of mother is changed by 1% it will decrease the performance of student by

-.1437293. The degree level of education of mother has a negative coefficient value this means

that it is negatively related to performance of the student or we can say both variables going in

opposite direction (negative). This means that when the degree level of mother education

decreases the student performance will increases.

The 6 level of education of father are those who are doctors. The coefficient value for doctors

level of education is -3.008453, which mean that if the doctors level of education is changed by

1% it will decrease the performance of student by -3.008453. The education level of lawyers has

a negative coefficient value, this means that it is negatively related to performance of the student

or we can say both variables going in opposite direction (negative). This means that when the

Doctors level of Mother Education decreases the student performance will increases.

mothereduc~l coefficient

Sttd Error

P>t[95%]

Conf.

Interval

Primary

.3408502 -0.77

0.2640713

0.440

-.9369727

0.4088301

Secondary

.4249791 -0.04

0.0186172

0.965

-.8576046

0.8203702

Metric

0.185695

0.519

-.3810407

0.7524308

F.S/F.Sc

.2587879 -1.14

0.2947176

0.256

-.8056129

0.2161777

Degree

.2637482 -0.54

0.1437293

0.587

-.6644172

0.3769586

Docotr

-3.008453

0.007

-5.192506

-0.8243989

.2870733 0.65

1.106306 -2.72

Table 4.2

Table 4.2:

Table 4.2 this is the table for the interpretation of Coefficient of mother Education

4.3

Coefficient value for Average Monthly Income of the family is 0.00000129, which means that if

the Average Monthly Income is changed by 1% it will increase the performance of student by

0.00000129. The Average Monthly Income has a Positive coefficient value this means that it is

positively related to performance of the student or we can say both variables going in same

direction (Positive). This means that when the Average monthly Income increases the student

performance will increases.

coefficient

averagemon~e 1.29E-06

Sttd Error

P>t[95%] Conf.

Interval

1.63e-06 0.79

0.429 -1.93e4.51E-06

06

Table 4.3

Table 4.3: Table 4.3 is the table for Average Monthly Family Income

4.4

Coefficient value for the use of Laptop is 0.1170467, which means that if the use of Laptop is

changed by 1% it will increase the performance of student by 0.1170647. The Use of Laptop has

a Positive coefficient value, this means that it is positively related to performance of the student

or we can say both variables going in same direction (Positive). This means that when the use of

Laptop increases the student performance will increases. The result is shown in the following

table.

coefficient

sincewhena~

p

Sttd Error

P>t[95%]

Conf.

0.000

0568352

Interval

0.1772581

Table 4.4

Table 4.4: Table 4.4 is the table for the Use of Laptop

4.5

4.5.1

P value for the level of education of father is 0.0000 which is significant at 0.05 level of

significance, we may say father level of education has an impact on performance of student. The

entire indicators for level of education of father are significant.

4.5.2

4.5.3

The Average Monthly Income value is significant and has an impact on student Performance

4.5.4

The P-Value of the Use of Laptop are significant and hence, the Null Hypothesis is rejected and

we can conclude that there is an effect of Laptop (Technology) on student Performance.

4.5.5

The fitness of the model is checked by Using the F-Statistics and compare with P-Value. The

Null Hypothesis is rejected and hence the model is fit.

Chapter #5

Conclusions:

The purpose of this study is to identify factors affecting student performance. In order to achieve

this purpose technology, parents education and parents income are used as independent

variables whereas performance of the students is used as dependent variables. Each variable has

proxy like for technology use of laptop is taken as a proxy, for parents education their level of

education i.e. primary middle, matric etc are taken furthermore for student performance CGPS is

taken as a proxy. Multiple regression models are used to explore the relationship between student

performance and factors affecting this performance. Primary data was collected through

questionnaire from 183 respondents.

The result of regression model shows that the dependent variable is positively correlated with

father education and negatively correlated with mother education level. When the mother

education is very low the student performance decreases and when the mother education is very

high the student performance also decreases. This result shows that the mother education should

be at the middle point. The father education increases the performance of their children. When

the average income of the family increases of the family the student performance also decrease

i.e. the average family income is negatively related to student performance. When the Use of

Laptop is increased, the Performance of the Students also increases. So our main hypothesis is

rejected and we should simply say that the use of laptop has an effect on the performance of the

student. The use of Laptop will help them in searching the relevant materials on the internet for

their study. The Using Internet the Students can easily search the global world and they can store

their data or study material in Laptop and then easily can study Later.

Laptop Technology is the only source that can be used in Classroom Presentation and also for

reading the articles in the class. Despite the fact, this study provides evidence that participation

in the laptop immersion program had a significant impact on student Achievement. To increase

the achievement of the student, Government should introduce more schemes to give laptop for

the student; the result will be more productivity of the economy, as more skilled students will

arise from the Universities and should be aware of the use of the Technology. New Methods will

be Introduce to make the Economy more efficient. The laptop will give more skills regarding the

Technology use in the economy.

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