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Flipped Classroom notes

Flip Your Classroom: Reach Every Student in every Class Every Day
By Jonathan Bergmann and Aaron Sams
Book Notes compiled by Jane L. Sigford
Chapter 1:
Our Story: Creating the Flipped Classroom
Background: In 2007 2 teachers in Colorado, Jonathan Bergman and Aaron Sams,
realized they were spending an inordinate amount of time on catching students up
when they missed class. Because towns are so far apart, many athletes struggled to
keep up and be in class when they had to be on the bus for hours to go to
competitions.
Technology got to a point to be a tool to use whereby the two teachers,
Jonathan and Aaron, began videotaping their lessons so absent students
could hear the information and students who were present could watch and
pick up on information they may have missed during class.
Side effects: More emails from students asking questions, emails from
teachers who were using the videos, online science teacher forums, etc.
Flipped Classroom is Born:
Aaron had a stark realization: The time when students really need me
physically present is when they get stuck and need my individual help. They
dont need me there in the room with them to yak at them and give them
content; they an receive content on their own. P. 5
Began to prerecord all lessons as homework and then just helped students
with concepts they didnt know.
Teachers found they had more time for labs and for problem work time.
They ran out of things for the students to do. They were completing all
their work with 20 minutes left in class. This model was much more
efficient than lecturing and assigning homework. P. 5
Personalization of education for each student has merit but how can a
teacher individualize for 150 students each day when the model is built on
the standardized, factory model? Flipping the classroom facilitates the
individualization.
Realized that some students were getting more information yet the
Jonathan and Aaron realized they were still pushing some kids through
before they had achieved mastery of content.
They realized they had never been trained in how to set up a classroom
designed for mastery learning. They experimented and realized several
things: One, there is no such thing as THE flipped classroom. Its about a
mindset, not a recipe. The attention is on the student, not the teacher.
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Flipped Classroom notes

Chapter 2: The Flipped Classroom


What is a flipped classroom?
That which has been homework is now done in class and that which was done
in class is now done at home. But there is more.
What does a class look like:
o Start with discussion of video from night before. They spend
considerable time training the students how to watch the video with
an inquiring eye and mind. Train them to turn off other distractions,
take notes about questions they have, pause and rewind, use Cornell
note taking.
o Use the common questions as indicators that this is a topic that is not
secure for all the students. The outlier questions allow opportunities
for individualization and differentiation.
o Then students given assignment for daylab, inquiry activity,
directed problem solving. Depending on length of class period,
students may have more than one of these activities per class.
o Teachers role is more tutorial. Still have tests, quizzes, papers to
grade. Benefitthe students who struggle the most, get the most
attention.
Chapter 3: Why you Should Flip your Classroom
It has transformed their teaching practice. Have a different role
More in line with how todays students engage and learn.
Some adults worry that they are increasing screen time for their children.
The response is that they are infiltrating the video/digital culture instead
of fighting it. P. 21.
Bad reasons for flipping your classroom:
Because some guys who got a book published told you so
Because you think it will crate a 21st century classroom
Because you think you will become cutting edge
Because you think flipping your classroom exempts you from being a good
teacher
Because you think it will make your job easier
When you walk into a flipped classroom you will see:
Students using multiple ways of learning including their own technological
devices which may be more sophisticated and up to date than those owned by
the school.
Flipping Helps busy Students
Students can work ahead, catch up, repeaton their timebefore practice,
after practice, while homebound etc.
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Flipping Helps Struggling Students
Previously, the best and brightest were the ones who got the most attention.
Now teachers walk around helping those when and how they need it. We
think this may be the single most important reason that students thrive in
the flipped classroom. P. 23
Flipping Helps students of all abilities to excel
Students who need more time and repetition can watch the videos as much
as they want.
Flipping allows students to pause and rewind their teacher
Students can pause the teacher when things move to fast or if they miss a
point.
And some can skip over material they already know and get to the more
advanced information. Plus, they can watch in segments if they have to leave
in the middle to go to practice.
Flipping increases student-teacher interaction
Flipping does not replace teachers like online. In fact, it increases the need
for teachers to individualize, build relationships, know their students, and
design instruction accordingly. It is more of a blended classroom.
Teachers play a vital role in the lives of their students. Face-to-face
interaction is invaluable. P. 25
Flipping allows teachers to know their students better
Teachers not only produce content but they are there to inspire, encourage,
listen and provide vision. They also build relationships and provide an adult
role model. P. 26 These are IMPORTANT roles. Relationships get stronger
as teachers know their students better in a flipped classroom.
Flipping increases student-student interaction
Can organize groups based on common needs. Students can solve problems
together and develop a culture of learning and collaboration, instead of
competition. The goal is for all to be the best learners possible.
Flipping allows for real differentiation
If students can prove mastery of certain learning target, we can assign them
fewer or different problems, therefore, differentiating. Also, if someone
needs more practice, we can assign that as well. P. 28
Flipping changes classroom management
Because the classroom is structured around activities, not seat time,
students are engaged and inattention becomes a non-issue. Disruptive
students are engaged and dont have an audience for their behavior.
Flipping changes the way we talk to parents
Conversations now are more about what the student has or has not learned
and what they need to learn next, instead of being about whether or not the
student is participating, behaving in class, paying attention. The
conversation is now about how the student can become a better learner.
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Flipped Classroom notes


Flipping educates parents
The parents watch the videos and feel more knowledgeable about what their
child is learning. They learn too and leads to great discussions at home and
school.
Really helpful for ELL parents.
Flipping makes your class transparent
The videos make the classroom transparent and invite the public in. Videos
are posted on Internet and parents have free access.
Posting the videos has actually brought some students back to this school
which was previously perceived as not being as academic. P. 32
Flipping is a great technique for absent teachers
Can prerecord the video for days when there will be a substitute. The sub
can play the video and students can take notes and get the same lesson they
would have gotten with the teacher present.
Flipping can lead to the flipped-mastery program
Now have flipped mastery program. Not all students watch the same video
It is differentiated based on needs. Students watch and learn in
asynchronous system leading to mastery.
Have to do this gradually and over a period of years.
Chapter 4:How to Implement the Flipped Classroom
First, be sure that videos are correct medium for your lesson. Dont just
videotape for technologys sake. If you do not speak well in front of
computer, try a different tool, for example.
You may want to use another teachers videos if they are better.
Its hard to make videos without live audience. Perhaps have a teacher in
the room so you are speaking to a person.
You may find free videos online to use.
The key is to find quality videos of your subject matter.
Making your own videos
Can do it while teaching the class (using smartboards for example) Jonathan
and Aaron use Camtasia Studio.
Adding picture-in-picture, video clips and other postproduction items make
the presentation more engaging.
It takes time to video so plan to take a year!!! Dont try to do it all at once.
P. 37
Video making equipment
They use screencasting software, computer, pen-tablet input device,
microphone, and webcam. Pen-table device and software may be all you need
because most new computers have built in mics and cameras.

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Flipped Classroom notes


Screencasting software
Captures what on you computer screen. With mic can record voice. Many
available programs, some are free and open source. Find a program that
works for you and your situation,
Pen annotation
Indispensable. Use Microsoft PowerPoint because it has pen annotation
feature. Have been experimenting with SMART software using SMART
boards.
Many options here. One is Wacom Bamboo. Then there are wireless tablets
which have the advantage of being able to walk around.
Teachers can use tablet PCThey are not in favor because you still need a
computer. Prefers wireless tablet because of cost factor
Microphone
Try to the mic on your computer to see if it produces the quality you want.
It is important that the videos be of high quality and not frustrating to
watch and listen to. If the mic is not great, you can purchase external mics
for under $10 at a big box retailer. External mics dont record the sound of
clicking keys on the computer or mouse pad
If recording live, you will want wireless mic.
Webcam
Most new computers come equipped with this but if not, you may need to
purchase. They use webcam and the PIP feature to include science
demonstrations that are either unsafe or too lengthy to conduct in class.
They record the lesson, pause, then turn the webcam onto science
demonstration and resume recording to capture the event. P. 400
Recording software
Has PIP feature. Will capture webcam shot of presenter while they record.
Can use editing features to change size and position of PIP. Students really
like being able to see teachers face and demonstration at same time.
Video camera
Great value in creating more than screencast, such as short clips from video
camera.
They shoot clips as often as they canscientific experiments, in world
around them, etc.
Money
To start they had a tablet, added the software, and over time upgraded to
better microphone, stand-alone webcam, and eventually a digital video cam.
Stages in Making a Video4 stages
Planningdetermine learning targets. Then ask if video is appropriate
instructional tool to accomplish your goal. If video of direct instruction is
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Flipped Classroom notes

not the best tool, then do not make a video. Some people flip their
classroom without making a single video. [Underlining and bolding mine]
You can use power points and tools you have already created.
If you make videos, you may want to vary the format so they dont
become repetitive and boring. Add video clips, blank slates, etc.
Recording the videoSit at whiteboard, computer with mic, webcam, writing
device, and camera. Teach to absent audience.
Some work better from script or outline, but dont make the video boring
and a talking head. Make the lessons conversational and less formal.
If you use a script, sometimes the videos are shorter and better. They
dont have to be long.
Editing the videoDo as much or as little as you want. Its time consuming
but you can remove mistakes. Can add videos and pip ideas, zoom in and out,
etc. Dont expect it to be perfect or Hollywood quality. P. 43
Publishing the videoEvery school system different. Can post online to
YouTube, internal district servers. Can also burn to DVD for those who dont
have online access. Find out what works best in your setting. P. 43

How to Make Videos your Students will Love


Keep it short: We are in YouTube generation,
o Dont make videos same length as usual lecture.
o One topic per video
o Under 15 minutes but shoot for 10 minutes
Animate your voiceUse some sort of presentation softwarePowerPoint,
Prezi, Keynote, Smart Notebook, etc. You want more than just your voice
and your pen. Change the inflection in your voice. Chances are you will be
more relaxed as time goes on. P. 45
Create the video with another teacherWatching two people have a
conversation and team teaching may be more engaging than watching one
person. This is a way to vary the presentation. This is also a way to
introduce other teachers to the flipped classroom.
Add humorHumor can either add a lot or take some away because not
everyone has the same sense of humor. But wackiness adds to the video just
like it adds to a classroom
Dont waste your students timeKeep the video to the topic. Dont talk
about your week-end or football, e.g.
Add annotationsUse the writing tool to demonstrate.
Add calloutsText boxes, shapes etc that appear and disappear from the
video add attention to key elements in a video.
Zoom in and outwe do this postproduction. The whole screen is not always
the most important so zooming allows a focus.
Keep it copyright friendlyMake sure to follow copyright laws
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Class Time:
You will now have more time in class than you had before. You will get to
redesign your class time and focus on activities that are differentiated and
meet more needs. We always talk about wanting more time and now you have
it. Can extend activities and provide more in-depth learning.
Foreign language classes
Because of flipping language teachers are able to have more real dialogues
in target language
Math Classes
Able to engage in deep analysis of math problems. Able to use manipulatives
more.
Science
Definitely can use inquiry approach because you have more in class time to
inquire. POGIL (Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning: www.pogil.org)
has become powerful tool for students to create conceptual understanding
without direct instruction in chemistry education community. P. 49
Jonathan and Aaron use this instead of video and then build on concepts in
class. Still need some videos for those who need remediation.
Social Science/Language Arts/Humanities
Can use new found time to link topic to current events, e.g.
More time for speeches, writing, and peer review
Physical Education
Students get more time being physical when they learn the rules and
procedures via video
Project Based Learning
Can teach the foundations in video and have students apply in class. They
also may discover that they need some procedural information in order to
proceed so they go back to the video to learn.
Student Created Content
Students can blog, create videos, podcasts, etc. to build their own
knowledge.
Chapter 5: Flipped Mastery Classroom
Mastery learning was popularized by Benjamin Bloom. He talked about the present
system and how it was like a race where only the fastest learners were rewarded.
His idea was that if mastery learning was implemented well, studies showed that
nearly 80% of all students could learn all of the important content compared to
20% taught with the traditional model.
Basic idea is for students to learn a series of objectives at their own pace.
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Students work toward predetermined objectives.

Key components:
Students work in small groups or individually at an appropriate pace
Teacher assesses students formatively and gauges student understanding
Students demonstrate mastery of objectives of objectives on summative
assessments. If students have not mastered it, they have remediation
Research shows mastery learning shows improvement in student achievement. Also
shows increased cooperation among students, increased student self-assurance, and
students receiving second chance at demonstrating mastery of given objective.

Schools abandoned it because it was too difficult to implement (particularly


before technology)

Flipped Mastery Classroom


Technology allows for differentiation and asynchronous learning.
Teachers are constantly moving around the classroom.
Have to switch from one topic to another.
Teacher needs to be content master
Teacher must be willing to research an answer when they dont know
Teacher must be able to be nonlinear
Teacher must be able to relinquish control of the learning process to the
student. Control freaks need not apply. P. 55
Components of a Flipped Mastery classroom
Establish clear learning objectives
Determine which objectives are best achieved through inquiry and which are
best through direct instruction.
Assure student access to videos
Incorporate engaging learning activities to be done in class
Create multiple versions of summative assessment so students can
demonstrate mastery
Chapter 6: Case for Flipped Mastery Model
Reasons we could never go back to a more traditional model of teaching
MM (Mastery Model) teaches students responsibility for their own learning
MM creates way to personalize and differentiate classroom
Makes learning center of classroomits more of a conversation than
dissemination
Gives students instant feedback and reduces teacher paperwork. Teachers
dont grade everything. Use formative assessments and dont grade them.
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Sometimes students even take unit test on computer so they are easily
graded. Feedback is timely and work specific
MMprovides opportunities for remediationHave many opportunities to
relearn and reassess. Teachers have more time to work with students.
MMallowsfor multiple means of learning contentUse Universal Design
for Learning (UDL)Give students choice in how they learn material.
Assignments vary in content, and length.
MMprovides multiple chances for demonstrating understanding
o Unit tests
o Verbal discussions
o Detailed PowerPoint presentations
o Short videos
o Demonstrating of understanding written in prose
o Other methods developed by students.
o The demonstration is linked directly to the learning targets.
MMchanges role of teachernot standing in front of room. Class time is
learning experience for student not a download and upload of knowledge. P.
71
MMstudents value of learning instead of playing school. Students who
have been successful in the game of school may be frustrated with this
new model because it is unfamiliar. [Now the focus is on learning, not
compliance.] Note mine
MMeasily reproducible, scalable, and customizableCan be done on a scale
indicative of the settingnot a recipe.
Increases face-to-face time with teacher
MMensures that all students are involved. Based on learning targets not
seat time.
MMmakes hands-on activities more personal
MMmakes teacher-led demonstrations more engaging. Now all students
can see the demonstration and replay if necessary for parts that were
unclear or confusing. Everyone has a front row seat.
MMhelps teachers help kids.
Chapter 7:How to Implement Flipped-Mastery Model

First Day
Made the mistake when starting to start all students on same video and
change to mastery model. That was mistake. Start right away by
individualizing. Use formative assessment to find out where people are.
First year is hardest; 2nd year most bugs worked out; 3rd year part of school
culture.
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Inform Parents about Model
Send letter home explaining
They worry particularly about assessment model. When they see how
students benefit, they get on board. Early on there was pushback but that
has ceased.
Teach Students how to Watch and Interact with Videos
Similar to teaching students how to use a textbook. They should eliminate
distractions when watching
o Watch a few videos together and model
o Use pause button
o Rewind
o Teach effective note taking skillsCornell model Give them a
template
Require Students to Ask Interesting Questions
Question must be related to video.
Every student must ask one question per video
Open with question and answer time
Quiet students come out of their shells.
Set up your Classroom for Flipped Mastery
Have desks facing screen, not front of room. Desks focused on middle of
room which changes psychology of students
Focus is on learning, not presentation
SMART boards are set up as a station where students can manipulate
science demonstrations
More like elementary classroom
They use less science equipment than before so its actually cheaper.
Allow Students to Manage their time and workload
Students can work ahead or catch up depending on their life, e.g. they have a
busy time in a sport, they can work ahead.
Encourage Kids to help kids
Focus of classroom is on kids. Encourage collaboration and sharing.
Place students in strategic groups. Put those together who are struggling
with same issue.
Better to work as a team than alone. Gets to heart of world of work.
Build an Appropriate Assessment System
One of biggest challenges
Key is appropriate learning targets linked to assessments that assess that
learning.
Another key is appropriate and frequent use of formative assessment.
Students have to provide evidence they have mastered learning target.
Teacher evaluates students path constantly and gives immediate feedback p.
86
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Asking the right Formative Assessment Questions
As we interact we are constantly asking students questions to make sure
they understand learning objectives.
Talk to students; ask how they learned; how do they know. Help them
understand their thinking and correct it when necessary so they dont go
down the wrong path.
Vary the questions and type of questions
Summative Assessments
Use a variety of summatives.
Decided that students need a minimum of 75% on every summative to prove
mastery. We create the assessment so the other 25% is nice to know and
Allow for retake even if someone gets 75% and wants higher score.
Authentic assessments (solving a chemical problem) are part of the array.
Can give the summative all on the same day or not depending on structure of
your classroom.
Test Integrity
Need to limit opportunities to cheat, e.g. Take pix of the exam and send it to
friends.
Can make them open-ended which is more difficult to cheat.
Logistics of Summative Assessment
When exams taken at different times, logistics may be issue. Using
computer-assisted helps.
We write multiple questions for each objective and vary the test at each
administration. Moodle, Blackboard and WebCT can help manage this.
Working within A-F grading
Make summatives worth 50% of grade. Students must score at least 75%
before grade is entered in grade book.
50% if for timely progression toward mastery.
Standards-based grading is perfect for flipped classroom.
Will vary by system
Chapter 8: Answering FAQs
What do all flipped classrooms have in common?Not use of videos
It is the desire to redirect the attention in a classroom away from teacher
and onto learners and learning. Ask: Which activities that do not require my
physical presence can be shifted out of the class in order to give more class
time to activities that are enhanced by my presence. P. 96
What do you do about students who do not have computer access at home?
Posted online
Students can use mobile devices- e.g. ipods, phones, etc.
Created DVDs
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Write grants to get some more mobile technology to loan students
How do I know if students watch video?
Require they take notes and check the notes
Have Q & A time at beginning of class where everyone has to ask one
question.
Can check sites, e.g. Moodle, to see who and how many views.
What about kids who dont watch the video
Have 2 computers in class and they watch in class but then miss out on
discussion.
How long are videos
10-15 minutes and wish they were 5 minutes. Best if chunked
Doesnt flipping increase homework time, especially if students watch videos for
multiple classes?
Time watching videos is about same time they spent doing homework.
Could design class (if you dont believe in homework) so all work done in class
and would be a mastery learning, asynchronous class
How did you get administration to buy in
We jumped in and they saw the excitement about learning in class
They responded to our concerns by buying more updated teacher computers.
How do you get parents to buy in
Once they understood the purpose, they were excited and bought in.
Consistent, clear communication goes a long way.
Once they understood it is not an online class
What do you do with students who dont buy in?
Even with MM class have 10% failure rate. Usually those who have personal
issues but this model allows us to get to know students better and intercede
with interventions. P. 102
Does it work? Do students learn better with flipped model?
Little research yet but we have anecdotal evidence. We have 2 years of data
that showed that students with lower math ability were able to achieve at
the same level as those with higher ability.

Chapter 9: Conclusion
Direct instruction necessary but can be delivered outside of classroom
Some concepts must be discovered independently by student and some by
inquiry.
Right reason to flip a classroom is to enhance learning.
Challenge: go out and do whatever it takes to think differently about
education. What is best for kids and go and do it. P. 112

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