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FIBER BRAGG GRATING SENSORS SIMULATION

by Pavndeep singh Roll no. (10010242) Amrit raj Roll no. (11010208)

Under the

guidance of

Dr. Ramesh Kumar Sonkar

no. (11010208) Under the guidance of Dr. Ramesh Kumar Sonkar DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY GUWAHATI

November 2014

Guwahati - 781039

12 November 2014

Problem statement

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Dr. Ramesh Kumar Sonkar

(Assistant Professor, EEE Dept.)

Electronics sensor are most used in today’s world but, cannot work in electromagnetic or electrostatic disturbance and also not suited for extreme condition like very high or low temperature. Solution for this problem is FBG sensors.

Summary of work done

In this semester we have worked on simulation of fiber Bragg grating temperature sensors using OptiGrating software. Our plan for next semester is to work on simulation of fiber Bragg grating for dispersion compensation.

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Abstract

In today’s world there is great need of long term passive sensor, and here FBG sensors are very important they are based on fiber Bragg grating technology. These sensor have certain advantages over conventional sensors. FBG sensor can be used under extreme conditions like cryogenic or high temperature that is because the nature of material used and because they don’t uses electronics component that also make these sensors immune to electrostatic and electromagnetic disturbance, and these sensor are corrosion resistive. These sensor have longer life and do not require recalibration frequently. These sensor are very small in size just around 0.15 mm, and also very easy to install as well. Because of small size FBG sensor have fast temperature response time which is important to quick temperature changes. Here we first described the theory and fundamentals of fiber Bragg grating then our sensing principal. Fiber Bragg grating technology has many application like optical add drop multiplexer for wavelength and channel or band dispersion compensation and temperature, strain sensing but we have focused on the temperature sensors. Here we have used opti- grating 4.2.2 to first design the fiber Bragg grating and simulate its spectrum then using this software we have simulated effect of temperature on this FBG spectrum. After analyzing this spectrum we can find out the change in temperature. This is the basic principal behind FBG temperature sensor

1. Introduction

Fiber Bragg grating is periodic perturbation of refractive along the core of fiber and formed by interference of intense ultra violet light on the core of optical fiber. Permanent fiber Bragg grating in the optical fiber was first formed by hill et al. and demonstrated in 1978 at the Canadian communication research center (CRC), Ottawa, Ont., Canada, [1]. It was found that when intense argon ion radiation was passed through photosensitive germanium doped silica then intensity of reflected light after several minutes is increased and it kept on increasing until almost all the light was reflected from fiber. Here photosensitivity refers to permanent change in refractive index of the fiber core when exposed to light with characteristic wavelength and intensity that depend on the core material. After doing some spectral measurement they confirmed the formation of narrow band Bragg grating filter. This grating was called “hill grating[1]. When light is passed through optical fiber with periodically perturbed refractive index some of the light is reflected back, reflectivity is maximum for a specific wavelength this wavelength is called Bragg wavelength. Reflectivity can be approached to 100%.This Bragg wavelength is affected by temperature or strain subjected to fiber Bragg grating as a result Bragg wavelength shifts. This shift is linear with respect to temperature and strain [2]. Using this relation we can calculate from shift in Bragg wavelength that how much temperature or strain is changed. FBG grating is formed by various methods. Two main techniques are phase mask [2] and interference of UV light.

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2. Theory of Fiber Bragg Grating

A simple fiber Bragg grating is the periodic modulation of refractive index along the core of optical fiber. In this type of grating planes are perpendicular to the optical fiber’s axis. When light travels along the core of fiber it will be scattered at every grating plane. If Bragg’s condition is not satisfied then reflected light from each plane cancel out each other. Bragg’s law is that for constructive interference for light from subsequent plane the path difference between two reflected light should be multiple of wavelength. But where the Bragg’s condition is satisfied reflected light from each grating plane add constructively in the backward direction to form a back-reflected peak with a center wavelength defined by the grating parameters. This wavelength is called Bragg wavelength.

parameters. This wavelength is called Bragg wavelength. Fig. 1 illustrating uniform Bragg grating with constant

Fig. 1

illustrating uniform Bragg grating with constant index of modulation

amplitude and period [2].

The Bragg grating condition is simply the requirement that satisfies both energy and momentum conservation. Energy conservation requires that the frequency of the incident and the reflected radiation is the same. Momentum conservation requires that the wave vector of the incident wave, ki, plus the grating wave vector, K, equal the wave vector of these scattered radiation kf, which is simply says that

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5 Where the grating wave vector, K , has a direction normal to the grating and

Where the grating wave vector, K, has a direction normal to the grating and with magnitude is given by

The diffracted wave vector is equal in magnitude, but opposite in direction, to the incident wave vector. Hence the momentum conservation condition becomes

vector. Hence the momentum conservation condition becomes This gives the Bragg condition which is [2] Here
vector. Hence the momentum conservation condition becomes This gives the Bragg condition which is [2] Here

This gives the Bragg condition which is

condition becomes This gives the Bragg condition which is [2] Here is Bragg wavelength is grating

[2]

Here

becomes This gives the Bragg condition which is [2] Here is Bragg wavelength is grating period

is Bragg wavelength

is grating period

is effective refractive index of fiber corewhich is [2] Here is Bragg wavelength is grating period Grating Structures In this part we

Grating Structures

In this part we will discuss about apodized and chirp fiber Bragg grating structures [3]. These grating structure are most commonly used in FBG formation either alone or combination of both.

Chirped Bragg Gratings

Chirped fiber Bragg grating has non uniform period generally the period of grating decreases linearly along the core of fiber or increases. This decrement or increment in the period of grating can be nonlinear also. Due to this chirp the reflected spectrum gets broaden. This type of grating is also used in dispersion compensation because different wavelengths reflected from

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the grating will have different delays. This property can also be used in the development of phased array antenna systems. Example of chirped grating is in fig. 2

antenna systems. Example of chirped grating is in fig. 2 Fig. 2 chirped grating [3] Apodized

Fig. 2 chirped grating

[3]

Apodized Gratings

Apodized grating is the grating where change in refractive index along the core of fiber is non uniform that is grading of refractive index is almost zero at the ends of grating and it maximum at the center. This is called the apodization of refractive index change. There are generally two type of function used to apodize these are Gaussian and raised cosine function. By using of apodized grating we can significantly reduce the side lobes. When we use the grating length to set the peak reflectivity which depends on both the grating strength and the grating length but as result we cannot control side lobes and their size becomes significant so here apodized grating is very useful and can be improve significantly Sid lobe suppression. Example of this type of grating structure is given in fig. 3, here refractive index of core is plotted against length of optical fiber.

index of core is plotted against length of optical fiber. Fig. 3 apodized grating structures [3]

Fig. 3 apodized grating structures [3]

We have used apodized grating structure in our FBG simulation to suppress the side lobes and to get narrow Bragg wavelength peak which is important for high accuracy in wavelength measurement [2].

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3. FBG Sensing Principal

Bragg wavelength of FBG depends on the effective refractive index of the core and the periodicity of the grating. The effective refractive index, as well as the periodic spacing between the grating planes, will be affected by changes in strain and temperature. Shift in the Bragg wavelength due to strain and temperature can be calculated from Bragg’s condition and is given by [2]

be calculated from Bragg’s condition and is given by [2] Here first term represent the effect

Here first term represent the effect of strain on the spacing of grating and refractive index of core and, second term here represent effect of temperature on spacing and refractive index of core. Strain effect term may be expressed as [2]

index of core. Strain effect term may be expressed as [2] Where p 11 and p

Where p11 and

p12 are component of strain optic tensor and v is poison‘s ratio and

Ɛz is strain

Temperature effect on Bragg wavelength due to thermal expansion changes the grating spacing and refractive index of core. Fractional wavelength shift for a temperature change T can be written as [2]

shift for a temperature change ∆ T can be written as [2] is the thermal expansion
is the thermal expansion coefficient for the fiber

is the thermal expansion coefficient for the fiber

is thermo-optic coefficient

is thermo-optic coefficient

Here thermo-optic coefficient has higher value than thermal expansion coefficient for the fiber so refractive index change is the dominant effect.

Here Bragg wavelength has linear relation with temperature and strain. When temperature and strain is applied to FBG together we can’t predict that how much shift in Bragg wavelength is due to temperature and how much is due to strain. So here in this simulation we have worked on temperature sensing without the effect of strain.

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So for temperature sensing we will calculate Bragg wavelength at different temperature for FBG and from the linear relation between temperature and Bragg wavelength we can calculate the change in temperature.

4. Simulation

For simulation we have used opt grating 4.2.2 software. In our simulation we have used single fiber with one LP(0,1) mode. We have used Gaussian apodized grating for the suppression of side lobes.

Parameter used in simulation are core refractive index = 1.46, cladding refractive index = 1.45, grating length =10 mm, grating period = 0.53381599 µm

Single fiber profile for our simulation is shown in fig. 4

µm Single fiber profile for our simulation is shown in fig. 4 Fig. 4 fiber profile

Fig. 4 fiber profile

Our grating definition is in fig. 5

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9 Fig. 5 grating definition Grating definition show the index modulation = 0.0003 and also shows

Fig. 5 grating definition

Grating definition show the index modulation = 0.0003 and also shows that we have used Gaussian apodization with taper’s parameter 0.5 to suppress the side lobes and to get narrow peak for high accuracy.

In fig. 6 we have defined our temperature sensor parameter. We have taken the values for thermo-optic coefficient and thermal expansion coefficient as shown in the fig. 6

and thermal expansion coefficient as shown in the fig. 6 Fig. 6 sensor parameter We have

Fig. 6 sensor parameter

We have deselected the effect of strain in our simulation as shown in fig. 6 because we only want to see effect of temperature on Bragg wavelength. Temperature in fig.6 is uniform 25 degree Celsius we will increase the temperature and measure the corresponding Bragg wavelength and then plot the Bragg wavelength vs temperature. This graph should be linear.

Fig.7 shows the Reflection and transmission spectrum of fiber Bragg grating with above parameter at 25ºc

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10 Fig. 7 reflectivity vs transmittivity spectrum at 25ºc Now we have calculated the reflection spectrum

Fig. 7 reflectivity vs transmittivity spectrum at 25ºc

Now we have calculated the reflection spectrum for total 12 different values of temperature but with all the other parameters same. As the temperature increase the shift in Bragg wavelength also increase. Fig. 8 compares the reflectivity spectrum at three given temperature with respect reference temperature 25 degree Celsius.

the reflectivity spectrum at three given temperature with respect reference temperature 25 degree Celsius. Fig.8 a

Fig.8 a

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11 Fig.8 b Fig. 8 c Fig. 8 illustrating shift in Bragg wavelength with temperature

Fig.8 b

11 Fig.8 b Fig. 8 c Fig. 8 illustrating shift in Bragg wavelength with temperature

Fig. 8 c

Fig. 8 illustrating shift in Bragg wavelength with temperature

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In above fig.8 we have only compared three temperature spectrum with respect reference temperature to demonstrate the shift in Bragg wavelength. We didn’t put all the comparison spectrum to save space.

5. Calculations

Bragg wavelength at different temperatures calculated from the simulation of reflectivity spectrum are given in table below.

Temperature (ºc)

Wavelength (nm)

25

1550.000

30

1550.070

35

1550.135

40

1550.205

45

1550.275

50

1550.345

55

1550.410

60

1550.480

65

1550.550

70

1550.615

75

1550.685

80

1550.755

6. Result

We have plotted Bragg wavelength vs temperature using this data table and as expected, this graph is linear. Graph is shown in fig. 9

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13 Fig. 9 Wavelength vs temperature plot So our results shows that Bragg wavelength changes linearly

Fig. 9 Wavelength vs temperature plot

So our results shows that Bragg wavelength changes linearly with temperature.

7. Conclusion

From this simulation it is clear that Bragg wavelength changes linearly with temperature. Using this relation we can make temperature sensors. We can install optical fiber with grating where we want to measure the temperature and connect the optical fiber with spectrometer to measure the reflectivity spectrum. As the temperature rises we will observe the shift in Bragg wavelength from the spectrometer and from the linear relation between wavelength and temperature we can measure the value of temperature.

References

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[1]

Fundamentals and Overview

[2]

Kenneth O. Hill and Gerald Meltz, Member, IEEE, “Fiber Bragg Grating Technology

[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiber_Bragg_grating.