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woodhouse: becoming an alive neighborhood

MA Landscape Architecture
MA Urban Design

CITIES ALIVE 2015


Marc Bori, Linn Svanh, Martina Maria Taroni

CONTENTS
2

Research
Introduction
Research objectives
Aims
Gardens benefits
Introduction to urban agriculture
Urban agriculture gardens typology
Land access
Food growing principles
Growing food in schools
Children relation with food
National curriculum
Sustainability networks
Case studies

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Site analysis
Location
Context
Topography
Infrastructure
Green spaces
Local activities
Building use
Houses typology

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This study is focused on the idea of


creating an alternative green corridor to
the existing idea of the String o Breads,
connecting Woodhouse Moor (Leeds
Edible Campus) to Woodhouse Ridge. This
idea comes after the observation of the
lack of green spaces in the Woodhouse
neighbourhood.This project will be focused
in more then one area, trying to create
a real green network. It will involve two
public ground and the local primary school
(Quarry Mount primary school) ground.
The idea is to involve all the residents without
distinction of genre, age, background.

INTRODUCTION

It will be use as a social connector, as health,


environmental and economic benefit,
but also as educational instrument to
make the children aware about the
food production and preparation and
to give more skills in term of the nature.

String o Breads
Leeds Edible Campus
Green spaces
Green spaces in the study area

LEC green expansion


Project green expansion
Sites green spaces connection
Connection with outside green

1 step - actual situation

Examination of key principles of designing natural playground in


school and green spaces for the community, both productive and
for leisure.

The whole community will benefit of this project because it will help to
increase the quality of public realm, the social cohesion.Through the
outdoor activities it will help to improve the lifestyle
standards and the mental health, which is directly connected with
happiness and satisfaction.
It will limit the deprivation as if the people will start to produce
their own food they will become self-sufficiency, reducing lifes costs.
At last it will give to the area environmental and ecological benefits as it
will help to build a sustainable landscape and to increase the biodiversity.

2 step - transition
3 step - ideal situation

Regards to health benefits it will help the children to have


a healthier diet and to avoid the problem of oversize/obese
children and to overtake the problem of deprivation which
afflict many families.
Indeed the idea is to expand the
project also outside the school and to involve parents and other
members of the community to start to grow their of vegetables and
fruits giving them the proper collective spaces or promoting the
Back to Front project which can be easily realized in every garden.

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RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

Relating to the school, having a productive ground is


important under different points of view. First of all it will increase the
social benefits as it will help to create stronger friendship, to
improve children behaviour inside and outside the school, it will
help to promote outdoor activities (then exercise) and to revise
the school curriculum including gardening and cooking programs.

AIMS

There is a community amongst gardeners. Gardening has


always served as a way to break down some of social
barriers
Gardening is a preferred form of exercise across
age, gender and ethnicity
There are benefits to the individual via the community gardening such as improved life quality,
personal satisfaction and enjoyment

SHARE KNOWLEDGE AND


BUILD RELATIONSHIPS
IMPROVE ECONOMIC ACTIVITY
BENEFITS FOR THE
INDIVIDUAL

The presence of vegetable gardens in innercity


neighborhoods is positively correlated with decreas in crime, trash dumping, young delinquency,
fires, violent deaths and mental illness

GARDENS BENEFITS
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People who interact with


plants recover more quickly
from everyday stress and
mental fatigue

HOUSE VALUE

SOCIAL BENEFITS

ECONOMIC BENEFITS

GARDENS
BENEFITS

ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS
SOIL CARE

CONNECT
WITH NATURE

HEALTH BENEFITS
RELIEVE STRESS

EAT HEALTHIER
GARDENING BENEFITS
YOUR HEALTH

As an activity it is a means of aerobic, isometric


and isotonic exercise, the combination of which
benefits general health but specifically enhance
strenght, endurance, flexibility

Around 20% of the value of a


house is tied up in the landscape
A garden gives an higher value to
propertiest

BUILD
COMMUNITIES

Yard care and gardening activities have a direct impact on


the neighborhood and comIMPROVE SOCIETY
munity environment
Garden links different sector of cities;
diverse age, race, ethnic and socioeconomic group

Gardening offers a relationship


with nature which provides a
sense of psychological
wellbeing
School based programs have
significant health effect on young
people, help to promote active
lifestyles that counteract the passivity associated with the obesity
epidemic

Urban and street planted trees enchance economic stability of localities and community by attracting
business and tourists

Gardening is utilised
to build teams and
educate

EDUCATION

Promote a community atmosphere and allowing people an opportunity


to meet others, share concerns, share skills and solve problems together

Gardens are an expense but the


investiment is returned not just in
enjoyment but in actual financial
benefits

LOWER BLOOD
PRESSURE

The physicality of gardening


releases endorphins which
helps to alelviate stress and
its side effects
Families with home vegetable garden eat more
fruit and vegetables for
improved nutrition
Green triggers a response in the
sympathetic nervous system to
relive tension in the blood
vessels and lowers the blood
pressure

WILDLIFE

Plants can prevent floods,


drought and soil erosion
Plants help to preserve
biodiversity and wildlife

Trees absorbe CO2


AIR FILTRATION

Trees filter the air and help remove


harmful particulates from the atmosphere
Every garden plant is a bio-filtration
system for the planet

URBAN AGRICULTURE

Urban agriculture plays an important role as part of an


environmental sustainability program. Physically, it
increases green space, which reduces the urban heat
island, storm water runoff, and improves air quality.
Because food is produced locally, urban agriculture
also reduces energy consumption and pollution
associated with transportation. Urban agriculture
also provides social benefits by providing inexpensive
access to locally-grown produce.

Growing food in cities is becoming more and more


popular. Not only are older generations of allotment
holders still gardening happily, but also a new wave
of younger people are seeking land in and beyond
allotments. Small, intensive urban farms, food production
on housing estates, land sharing, rooftop gardens and
beehives, schoolyard greenhouses, restaurant-supported
salad gardens, public space food production, guerrilla
gardening, allotments, balcony and window sill vegetable
growing and other initiatives are just a few examples.
This wide range of initiatives is more and more
often referred to as urban agriculture.
Urban agriculture (UA) is defined as the growing,
processing and distribution of food and other products
obtained through plant cultivation and animal husbandry
in and around cities, generally with the aim of being
sold locally (rather than exported).

POSITIVE
Education about seasonality of food, which can
lead to more sustainable consumption habits
Soil rehabilitation bio and myco remediation
of polluted soils, increased soil fertility and
biodiversity

NEGATIVE

Misuse of commercially available chemicals as


fer-tilisers, insecticides, herbicides, whose traces
in the environment endanger human health

Re-education of taste: possibility of eating


vegetables not usually available in the supermarkets
Improved mental health and relations with
the local community

Increased groundwater pollution and loss of


soil nutrients from poorly managed soils
Council encouragement to local food growing
as justification for substantial cuts in welfare
services (public health budgets)
Increased energy inputs to grow vegetables
unsuitable for the local climate
Poor management of community gardens,
con-flicting projects, unequal sharing of produce

Affordably of fresh, organic food all year round

Increased rent of allotments due to high demand

Reduced carbon footprints of food, when


recycled materials are used, waste is minimised
and organic agriculture is practiced

Increased carbon emissions for food production,


when gardening involves the use of a number
of carbon impacting things such as commercially
produced compost, plastic netting bought
annually, slug pellets, plastic pots and labels
for seedlings that are not re-used, plastic
sheets and other consumables

Reconstruction of food commons (when public


land is managed collectively but not appropriated),
renormalizing the possibility of foraging and
gath-ering food, grow food collectively

Enclosure (or privatisation) of public land for food


growing, justified as saving council management
costs, which reduced public access and
ownership of common resources

Increased consumption of sustainable locally


pro-duced food (increased self-reliance) and
building alternative food regimes, food sovereignty
Snowball effect and greater reconnection of
hu-mans with nature

Strengthening unjust ecological security policies


(self-sufficiency aimed at maintaining neoliberal
regimes and unsuitable consumption patterns)
Uselessly long waiting lists of allotments, and
little beneficial/productive use of allotment land

Alternative, visionary urbanism, which reconciled


society and nature, an embeds food production
in the urban realm

Gentrification of neighbourhoods and the


conse-quent displacement of the less
wealthy population

Recycling of organic waste to keep nutrients local


Increased community activity, physical exercise

Chiara Tornaghi (2014) - How to set up your own urban agricultural project with a socio-environmental justice perspective.
A guide for citizens, community groups and third sector organisations - Leeds, The University of Leeds

URBAN AGRICULTURE TYPOLOGIES

Display Gardens - Small edible beds,


former flower planters or community
gardens set up in public, openly
accessible space that are planted with
edible plants to inspire people to grow.
They lend to be man-aged by local
authorities, and to be aesthetically
pleasing, therefore the plants are not
usually harvested and people are not encouraged to pick the fruit and veg.

Educational Gardens - Food growing


projects that have as their main goal
horticultural, envi-ronmental and/or
food-related education (i.e. cooking,
healthier lifestyle, etc.). Almost all the
existing gardening projects have an
educational element.
Enclosed Community Gardens
Many community gardens are not
located on public land, but are rather
located on private land. Most of the
time this implies a restricted definition
of which community can potentially
be involved. Examples could be
hospital community gardens, projects
for young single mothers or female victims of violence, asylum
seekers and refugees, street drinker rehabilitation projects.

Guerrilla Gardens - These gardens


are a quite wide family of projects,
linked together by the fact that they
are created by someone, on someone
elses land, without asking permission.
These can be flower meadows on
derelict land, vegetable patches on
reclaimed land scattered around the city. Guerrilla gardens tend to be
temporary but if the project gets permission, then this
becomes a community garden.
Public Accessible Community Gardens - this is probably the most
Vertical Gardens - They are usually
known type of urban agricultural initiative. These gardens are located
in parks, street verges, urban greens,
growing projects that extend vertically
city squares or other locations
along a wall, or a window, or occasionally
where they can be accessed by larger
the plants themselves constitute the wall,
public all the time. Plants are grown
and grow in containers attached to vertical
in containers, dedicated raised beds,
cables.
greenhouses, or straight into the soil.

managed

by, or

run

in

Healing Gardens - These are growing


projects specifically dedicated to healing.
They tend to grow medicinal/aromatic
plants, are designed in ways that please
the senses, and are run to support
specific groups through gardening
or creative activities around and in
between the plants. They are often
partnership with, health institutions.

Public orchards
A number of local councils
are investing in the future
and planting fruit and nut
trees on public land. The
act of planting itself is sometimes done in partnership with local
community organisations or institutions, such as primary schools.
Public orchards constitute the basis for a bountiful harvest in a few years
time.

URBAN AGRICULTURE TYPOLOGIES

Community Forest Gardens


Urban Farms - Urban farms are
Forest gardens are usually woody areas
usually middle sized sites within the
planted with edible (perennial) species
city, that combine vegetable growing,
following permaculture principles.This
animal husbandry, leisure and
means that the gardens are designed to
educational activities. Sometimes they
mimic the positive interaction between
run a caf or small restaurant with the
species that we spontaneously find in
local produce, they have play areas and
nature, but maximising the number of
offer growing spaces for local schools,
edible species. While less common than vegetable gardens, edible forest community groups or families. In the UK they are usually co-founded
gardens are increasingly becoming a preferential choice of local communities by local councils and other charities for the educational
that have discovered the benefits of choosing perennial edible plants. services that they provide.

Allotments - Probably the most


widespread form of urban food growing.
While most forms of commercial and
household food growing have progressively
disappeared from the urban fabric in the last
century,allotments have been re-introduced
or become regulated by public authorities.
In the UK it is a statutory duty of local
authorities to provide allotments when there is demand. Allotments
plots are usually of a standard size (originally 10x30), and can be rented by
individuals (a smaller number of plots can be rented by community groups).
Allotments sites are usually fenced and restrict access to members of the
public. Produce cannot be sold commercially, but can be sold when it is
excess produce, with the purpose of raising funds for their allotment
association or can be exchanged/sold among members of the allotment
association.
Landshare Gardens - Landshare
gardens are privately owned (usually
front or back gardens) that property
owners decide to share,or to let people
(landless) who are willing to grow use
for free. Landshare provides a number
of benefits: it encourages the exchange
of skills, pro-duce sharing, community
building and personal and emotional support to lone householders.

Market Gardens and Commercial Farms


These are profit oriented versions
of the above. They also tend to be
middle-sized projects, but are less likely
to receive ex-ternal funding. Some have
adapted to the growing demand for
leisure and educational services,
and combine vegetable (and meat)
production with recreational activities for family and children and offer some
educational opportunities,in the form of short courses.Some of these,smaller
in size, specialise in the propagation of specialist plants for edible landscaping.
Indoor Growing - Urban agriculture does not
only occur outdoors.More and more projects are
looking into how to convert empty buildings into
food growing projects, using natural or artificial
light, or for activities that do not need much light
such as mushroom growing and fish farming.
Private Gardens - Alongside all these
types of urban agriculture we also have
to consider the wide range of interstitial
practises that grow food within the fabric
of the city: balcony pots and window
sill containers, front and back garden
plant growing and animal rearing, beekeeping and seed sprouting.

LAND SHARE
It is an informal agreement between a landowner and one or more
food growers. Several organisations promote forms of land share.
The most know is the nationwide LandShare (www.landshare.net)
GUERILLA GARDENING
It is the cultivation of a plot/portion of land without permission, but
without appropriation/enclosure of the land. This is usually a
temporary and unsecured way of accessing land. Guerilla
approaches dont secure you a harvest.

LAND ACCESS

SQUATTING
It means taking over someone elses land (usually abandoned) to
grow food, establishing some sort of infrastructure that
aims to be permanent. Squatting is usually more long term than
guerrilla gardening, but to make it sustainable needs an energy and
financial investment in legal battles to claim your right to grow food
on this land.

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MEANWHILE USES
These are temporary leases for a space that would normally be used
for other activities.This can be idea for container growing, as the soil
might be concreted over or not fit for agriculture and structures
that can easily be moved elsewhere once the lease ends.
TEMPORARY USES
These are occupational leases, or growing licenses, signed on a
temporary basis, which usually are renewed annually.
ONGOING LEASE
This type of lease is especially designed for farmers.
The ongoing term is particularly suitable for new projects
seeking start-up fund to buy the infrastructured needed.

FOOD GROWING PRINCIPLES


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SUN It absolutely one of the main requirements of the plants,


which need at least six hours of sun a day. When growing in
the lower range of sun exposure, its better to choose carefully
the plants species, such as herbs, all of the leafy greens and some
small fruiting as cherry tomatoes and cucumbers. Carrots, potatoes
and other root vegetables need at least eight hours of sunshine, and
plants such as tomatoes, peppers, melons and squash will not produce
large fruits that ripen to colour without full sun. Plants draw energy
from sunlight, and producing a large, colourful fruit requires much more
energy than producing a small fruit or leafy vegetable.

IRRIGATION Key components of any irrigation system are


well, pump and proper size main and lateral lines. Frequently these
components are undersized for the area to be watered, and serious
inefficiencies occur. Since proper engineering of a watering system
is necessary, it is important to carefully determine the area to be
irrigated with consideration towards increased capacity. Overhead
sprinkling is one of the most commonly used methods of irrigating
greenhouse. Other irrigation methods include drip or trickle
and subirrigation. General information on each of these systems
follows, with mention of some of the major advantages
and disadvantages associated with each method.

SOIL - Well-prepared soil acts as the immune system of the plants.


Its ideal to have 12-18 inches of nutrient-dense, deeply aerated soil
to give plants what they need to thrive. If a plant is well nourished
by healthy soil, its less susceptible to disease and less appealing to insects
because pests attack sick or weak plants first. Compost
supercharges the soil with beneficial bacteria, carbon and nutrients.

PATHS - Paths provide space to work comfortably in the garden


and they allow the garden to breathe without them, the rows
can get trampled and the tiny air pockets that are essential to
soil healthy can get choked off. Ideal to mark the paths are straw,
wood chips, bluestone pavers, brick or stepping stones.

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GROWING FOOD IN SCHOOL

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CHILDREN RELATION WITH FOOD

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NATIONAL CURRICULUM

Feed Leeds is a plot to plate project supporting food growers and would-be growers, shop and markets, schools, caterers and cooks,
in fact anyone who feels that fresh, local, affordable, sustainable and healthy food should be widely available in Leeds. The combined
aim of all the different projects and organisations is essentially to develop and support local food growing and consumption in Leeds,
and to research and promote the significant economic, social, environmental and health benefits they potentially bring to the city.

SUSTAINABILITY NETWORKS

The Feed Leeds co-managed project builds on existing food-growing and biodiversity projects in the city centre to
Hyde park corridor (and beyond), linking schemes run by a number of organisations, and encouraging new plots,
to help create an inspirational demonstration of how Leeds could be more healthy and more sustainable through
the creative, ecological growing of edible plants. Leeds Edible campus sites include Edible Beds outside the Civic
Hall, Leeds Unis Sustainable Garden, the Bardon Grande project, LCC Parks and Countrysides edible beds on
Woodhouse Moor and other food and biodiversity planting schemes. The aim was to create an edible
corridor incorporating a variety of projects and to explore ideas and designs for incorporating edible
plants into the city landscape to create aesthetically pleasing, productive planting.

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Back to Front is a community organisation set up to promote food growing in front gardens so that they look good and taste better.
Growing food at home gives people a chance to exercise, eat fresher food, spend less money on groceries, feel better and help the
environment. Front garden growing improves the look and feel of your street and is super-convenient for growers. But Back to Front
gardening is much more than this; it is about how neighbours talk and share and grow together as communities.
Leeds Edible Schools Sustainability Network (LESSN) has been formed to help promote local food growing and
consumption, healthy lifestyles and sustainability in Leeds schools and communities. We aim to recognise, enhance and
share great ideas, to celebrate achievements large and small, to help connect schools with local support, volunteers,
and national initiatives, and to provide interactive curriculum-based online learning resources, practical help and more.
The Healthy Living Network have delivered a number of projects across the city- including our incredibly successful Community
Health Educator programme, which trains local people to support their communities in making small changes towards
improving their health and wellbeing. It delivers health education sessions in deprived areas of the city.
It is an innovative, creative and dynamic environmental community organisation. It works with local communities to improve their
surroundings, designing and creating attractive, exciting, safe and useful places for people to live, work and play. Improving the
wellbeing of people and communities is at the heart of what they do. Through our work we facilitate the Five Ways to Wellbeing,
encouraging people and communities to Connect, Be Active, Take Notice, Keep Learn-ing and Give.

Rotherfield primary school - Edible playgrounds - London


Rotherfield Primary school is situated in Islington, London where many of the pupils live in flats without any gardens.The government and head teacher
decided to do something about it and came up with the idea of transforming the grey schoolyard into a green garden as a learning resource.
The edible playground has been a huge success among the children and has improved the school in many ways. Not only do they use it for gardening
but for different subjects such as math, English and writing. They also got a woodland area with grown up trees for relaxing and assembling, an outdoor
classroom where the children could gather for story times or reading a book in the woodhouse. The pupils got taught how to grow and harvest the
vegetables in a practical way which encourages them to cook and eat healthy.

CASE STUDIES - SCHOOL

The garden is maintained by the pupils where every class is responsible for their own planting bed. They also got volunteers by the children, their parents and grandparents who look after the garden during the holidays.

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West Jesmond Primary School Gardens - Newcastle


West Jesmond is a suburb just north of the central of Newcastle upon Tyne. 14 years ago a parent of a pupil in the primary school, together with a
member of the Highbury South Allotment Association organized an allotment for the school to take care of. This project have now grown and exist
today of several plots, all maintained by the pupils. The plots are self-sufficient by selling the produced plants to the school and to private persons on
different sales.
The school is using these plots as an outdoor classroom for the older pupils, where they today got a lot of different biotopes. The allotment room
raised beds, greenhouses, an orchard, a pond, a marsh garden, picnic tables and a willow tunnel. This gives the pupils new possibilities for practical
learning and they use the plots on a weekly basis to dig, weed, plant out, harvest etc.

Leaf Street Community Garden - Manchester


The garden along Leaf Street in Manchester was an act from the local residents in 2000. The area existed of a wide pathway, full of weed, in between
two rows of red brick buildings. They wanted to turn it into a community garden where the residents could interact with each other and grow food
together.This is a good example of the phenomena Guerilla gardening were the locals decided to do it on their own and started to dig up the pathway.
Fruit trees and shrubs were planted and they built a big herb spiral made of railroad ties. A pathway of wood chips meanders through the park and has
replaced the former wide concrete pedestrian walk.

CASE STUDIES - community

The garden is loved and has a strong identity by its locals and is now a good example of a resilient community. Here they produce their own vegetables, fruits and herbs together in the community which makes a positive impact on the climate. It is an inspiration for other communities to grow food
locally and stop importing vegetables from all over the world.

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Philadelphia Pop-Up Garden - Philadelphia, United States


This Pop-Up Garden in Philadelphia, U.S. is funded by the non-profit organization Pennsylvania Horticultural Society (PHS) on a vacant lot that has been
neglected for many years. It was in 2011 that they transformed this waste land near 15th and South Streets into a temporary urban resort. The land is
situated just six blocks from the City Hall which makes the area perfect to attract city dwellers to step by and take part of all the activities that goes
on here.
Among the activities, food growing is one of them. Here they produce vegetables for local restaurants and to families in need through the PHS City
Harvest program.The food is grown organically in dozens of raised beds and is maintained by several community garden groups. Other activities going
on are workshops, yoga-classes, movie nights, parties, gardening walks etc.

Arkwright Meadows Community Gardens - Nottingham


In Nottingham a lush community garden has been raised on parts of a disused playing field by its local residents in 2001. It is situated in the meadows,
a central place in Nottingham that is very underprivileged and got residences from all over the world. With partnership from local communities and
volunteers the garden started to transform in 2003. From the beginning, a hedge, fruit trees and raised beds were planted, but now the community has
grown a lot more.

CASE STUDIES - COMMUNITY

The garden now holds 19 small plots that measure 1.5 square meters, where the locals could grow their own food. A tyre garden made of recycled
tractor tyres are used for raising herbs and strawberries. The big growing circle in the garden provides crops for every season of the year and is
maintained and harvested by the community.The garden today even got hens that lay eggs and keep slugs and snails away from the plants.The hens even
help out with the compost area where they move around the weed and food scraps.

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An eco- building where built in the garden after getting funding from the Big Lottery Found in 2012. This made it also possible to employ staff and
go on with the work for four more years. In the new eco-building they got training rooms for meetings and lessons, a kitchen and office. It keeps the
community active even during the winter and is even available for leasing to other groups and communities. The community holds activities apart from
gardening such as dancing, yoga, and cooking. This is a good way to bring the different people in the community together and let them try new things
from all parts of the world.
The Arkwright Meadows Community Garden holds a lot of events where they celebrate the cultural diversity of the community and sales when
residents could come and buy vegetables. They aim to sell organic fruits, plants and vegetables with reasonable prices for the community to eat healthy
and local. The community garden is a place for relaxing and recreation as well as work and education. They train their volunteers to get qualifications
and therefore be able to get a job in the green sector.

Woodhouse is a largely residential area


just north of the city centre of Leeds
(West Yorkshire) and home of the
University of Leeds, which is in the
Hyde Park and Woodhouse ward of
City of Leeds metropolitan district.
The name Woodhouse is likely to derive
from Old English wudu (wood) and hus
(houses).

SITE ANALYSIS - LOCATION

Woodhouse is now a largely working-class


area, with a racially diverse population and
a sizeable student community.

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The area climbs a hill rising from


Woodhouse Moor, adjacent to the
University of Leeds, and backs onto
woodland known as Woodhouse Ridge, a
part of the Meanwood Valley Trail and the
Forest of Leeds.
Older residences are largely redbrick
back-to-back and through terraced
housing. There are also concrete council
houses (the Holborn Estate) and a mixture
of more modern buildings, particularly
student accommodation.
Furthermore,there are other older buildings
like the Anglican parish church of St Marks,
currently disused but being renovated for
use by Gateway Church Leeds, the Quarry
Mount Primary School, and several public
houses that provide historical character
and architectural value to the area.

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SITE ANALYSIS - CONTEXT

SITE ANALYSIS - TOPOGRAPHY


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The local topograhpy consists of ridges


and spurs of land, but in general it slopes
to the city centre. Travel into the city
generate the general impression of
descending to the city centre, being
involved into the urban building mass.
This fact, reflects how the green spaces
around the area have been adapted to
the tophography. Creating a diverse urban
landscape and allowing the creation of a
great green infrastructure around the city
enabling to find from small private gardens
to woodlands.

KEY
Primary roads
Secondary roads
Local roads

SITE ANALYSIS - INFRASRACTURE

Pedestrian paths

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The area is well supplied by a


great
infrastructure
network.
There are few main road crossing it,
which can guarantee an easy movement by car. There also few bus lines
driving through them, which means that
also the residents which dont have a
car have the possibility to move around.
There is a good network of minor
roads which are safer and better used
also by the cyclist and pedestrian. This
is really important in an area mostly
populated by young people and students.

SITE ANALYSIS - GREEN SPACES

KEY

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General green
Woodland
Cemetery
Semi green spaces
Allotments
Playground/sport pitches
Farmland
Buildings

It can be seen from this map that there is


a great quantity of different green spaces
which connect Woodhouse Moor to
Meanwood Farmland through Woodhouse
Ridge.
The main concerning about them
is the quality as not always they are
well maintain and the value of the
green featues is sometimes really low.
Our main aim is to take the existing
green spaces, improving them and then
connecting them with new potential
green spaces with different function:
community allotments, neighboor parks
and school projects.

KEY

Bedford forest garden


Meanwood farm
Mill field primary school
Community centre garden
Pennington street community garden
Friends and volunteers
Council allotments
Community and public harvest
CPUL

SITE ANALYSIS - LOCAL ACTIVITIES

LEC

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Strings o breads

This map shows the different activities


which are already going on in the
area. Most of the projects still involve
a small part of the population or a
restricted group of people, but they
are trying to be more popular and
spread out into the population. Anyway
is really good that something is already
happening, because it will be easier
in the future to create a wider grid.
Three different big aims for the future
are represented by CPULs, LEC and
String o breads route which try to
connect every place in a green way.

KEY

Residential
Schools
Industrial
Community services
Student accomodation
Commercial
Church
Meanwood Urban Farm

SITE ANALYSIS - BUILDINGS USE

Green spaces

25

This map shows that the project area is


mainly dominated by residential buildings.
There is an industrial area on the north east,
but it is not that relevant for the project.
There is the Quarry Mount Primary
School and Nursery, with who it could
be interesting to work, as it is exactly in
the centre of this neighborhood. There
are also another nursery (The Tiny Tree)
and a high school (The Leeds Academy).
There are also few shops which help to
make this district more vital but they can be
involve in a bigger project of improvement.

KEY
Semi detached houses
Terraced houses

SITE ANALYSIS - HOUSES TYPOLOGY

Back to back houses

26

From this map we can see that almost


most of the houses in the area are semi
detached or terraced, so in most of the
cases they have the availability of a garden.
Some of them are bigger and well
maintained, others are mainly just a back
or a front garden without enough space
to grow. But nowadays some projects
like Back to Front are becoming more
popular and these little spaces have
the potential to become greener. Concerning to the back to back houses
who dont have a garden at all is important
to develop public green spaces where they
can enjoy outdoor activities.

Hartley

Crescent

Pos

Park

Developing the new heart of Woodhouse

Design

CONTENTS

Location & context


Site Analysis
How the park looks now
Design Concept
Master Plan
Materials & Features
Planting List
The Edible Wedge
Site Visualisation
Conclusions

28

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
37
38
42

LOCATION
Leeds

Leeds Edible Campus

Hartley Crescent Pos Park

CONTEXT

Hartley crescent pos park

KEY

29
29

Residential

Education

Green Spaces

Community Places

Shops

Industrial

Woodhouse district is clearly dominated


by residential buildings use. This
neighbourhood also has primary and
secondary schools spread around its area,
in addition to their own local shops and
local community places. These urban
facilities provide a great potential to
involve its community by increasing
outdoor activities and with it the social
cohesion of the area.
For that reason, those green spaces
can be used as a nerve center where
people can meet and socialise, and at the
same time to promote healthier lifestyles.

site analysis
Ocasional wind coming from
the North-West

Hartley crescent pos park

1
Existing trees on the perimeter

Existing basketball court

1:500

3
30
30

Unique sitting area around the park

Prevailing wind from the South-West

Grass
Hard standing
Green playground
Grey playground

Existing trees
Pedestrian access
Traffic flow
Slope direction

HOW THE PARK LOOKS NOW


4
Existing playgrounds

Poor quality
frontage

Hartley crescent pos park

Green Open Space

31
31

Poor maintained
walkpaths

Small hill with slope


Main pedestrian route

6
Closed playground with
needs of improvement

Existing green football pitch

6
5

DESIGN CONCEPT
Area 1 - The Amphitheatre
Create
an
amphytheatre
taking
advantage of the slope of the terrain to
build steps and change the dynamics
of the space.
AIMS:
- Link two areas within the park.
- Create a local meeting point able to
host temporary events.

1
2

Hartley crescent pos park

Area 2 - MUGA

32
32

Multi Use Games Area generating sporting


and recreational surfaces to suit a variety
of different leisure activities without
compromising
the
other
playful
occupations within the park.
AIM:
- Improve the quality of the
playground areas.
- Maintain the green open space
surface upgrading its use.

Area 3 - The Edible Wedge


An area of raised planting beds for
vegetables, herbs and salad crops. Also,
the proposal of experimenting with a
compost bin in a public open space.
AIM:
- Involve communities into urban
food growing programmes.
Design Intentions:
- Develope an aesthetically beautiful edible garden for enjoyment. The displayed formats are planned for
variety both visually and in harvest. Plants organised with taller plants towards the center of the design
and lower growing plants towards the edges, creating visibility and access to harvest.
- Produce an open space that allows the hosting of public events.
- Improve the recreational facilities and promote outdoor activities.

1:500
Grass
Hard standing (tarmac)
Green playground
Grey playground (Hoggin)
Amphitheatre
Bushes & Tall grasses
Flower beds

Events platform
Edible beds
Compost bin
Fruit trees
Pedestrian access
Vehicle access

MASTER PLAN
key legend
Grass
Tarmacadam
Football Pitch
Amphitheatre
Tall Bushes Grasses
(Ovens wattle, Giant dogwood, Lilac)

Flower Beds

(Cornflower,Viola, Fuchsia)

Low Rise Covering

Hartley crescent pos park

(Chamomile,Thyme, Dill)

Pumpkin Edible Bed


Spinach Edible Bed
Rhubarb Edible Bed
Beetroot Edible Bed
Compost Bin
Rubber Flooring Playground
Flex Basketball Court
Wooden/Concrete Bench
Wooden Events Platform
Existing Trees

33
33

Proposed Trees

(Sweet Cherry,Walnut, Plum)

MATERIALS & FEATURES


Wooden outdoor stairs
Landscaping steps made of tree trunks or large timber
or treated wood pieces naturally blend with
the surrounding, offering beautiful green design,
nostalgic flavor, charm and unique character for
outdoor spaces.

Rubber flooring
The wearing/surface course can be coloured by using a
coloured binder. Soft durable playground surface made
with recycled rubber for toughness and shock absorption.
It has been designed to provide impact attenuation while
providing drainage during inclement weather.

Hartley crescent pos park

Concrete Benches
They offer space defining, free draining and
comfortable seating all year around.

34
34

Flex court pavement


High impact polypropylene copolymer
suspended modules with open support
structures for drainage. It provides good
shock absorption, suitable for all-weather
surface and easy maintenance and cleaning.

Tarmacadam
This method involved spreading tar on the subgrade, placing a typical macadam
layer, and finally sealing the macadam with a mixture of tar and sand. Suitable
for areas to be trafficked by vehicles and can be used as well for paths.

Wooden raised beds


The vegetable plants are spaced in
geometric patterns, much closer
together than conventional row
gardening. The spacing creates a
microclimate in which weed growth is
suppressed and moisture is conserved.

PLANTING LIST
ornamental edible trees
Sweet Cherry
Prunus avium Stella

Species:
- Black cherry with large, rich, high quality fruits
- Heavy regular crops
- Self-fertile
Soil: Deep, moist but well-drained soil
Flowering period: April to May
Cropping season: Late July

Hartley crescent pos park

Common Walnut

35
35

Juglas regia

Species:
- Medium-sized, broadcrowned deciduous tree
- Aromatic when bruised
Soil: Deep, fertile, well-drained soil
Flowering period: May to June
Cropping season: Late July

Plum Victoria
Prunus domestica

Species:
- Reliable, self-fertible plum
- Rarely attacked by diseases
Soil: Tolerate most soils, except badly drained
Flowering period: April to May
Cropping season: Late August

ornamental edible large shrubs & grasses


Ovens wattle
Acacia pravissima

Species:
- Evergreen shrub to 5m or more
- Crowded, triangular leaves and small yellow
flower-heads
Soil: Moderately fertile, neural to acidic soil
Flowering period: January to April
Other features: beautiful conservatory tree.

Giant dogwood
Cornus controversa

Species:
- Distinctive tiered branching pattern
- Elliptic leaves turning purple in autum
Soil: Deep, fertile, moisture-retentive soil
Flowering period: June
Other features: The fruits may cause a
mild stomach ache if ingested.

Korean Lilac
Syringa meyeri Palibin

Species:
- Spreading perennial with light purplish-pink
flowers
- Short racemes in summer
Soil: Fertile, hummus-rich, well-drained,
neutral to alkaline soil
Flowering period: May to June
Other features: Oval dark green leaves.

PLANTING LIST
ornamental edible herbs
Common Thyme
Thymus vulgaris

Species:
- Bushy dwarf shrub
- Aromatic, dark grey-green leaves
Soil: Fertile, well drained and light
Flowering period: May to July
Other features: Antibacterial, aromatic,
digestive, expectorant and tonic.

Hartley crescent pos park

Dyers chamomile

36
36

Anthemis tinctora

Species:
- Evergreen perennial growing
- Hermaphrodite flower pollinated by bees
Soil: Moderately fertile, well-drained soil
Flowering period: June to August
Planting location: Banks and slopes flower
borders and beds cut flowers cottage.

Dill

Anethum graveolens

Species:
- Upright annual with aromatic blue-green leaves
- Tiny yellow flowers in summer
Soil: Fertile, moist but well rained
Flowering period: June to September
Edible uses: Used as a flavouring

(raw or coocked).

ornamental edible flowers


Cornflower
Centaurea cyanus

Species:
- Perennial with simple or lobed leaves
- Ruffled petals and violet-blue centres
Soil: ell-drained soil
Sow: March May or September - October
Flowering period: July August September

or May July

Viola

Viola brevistipulata

Species:
- Tufted evergreen perennial
- Hermaphrodite flowers pollinated by insects
Soil: Fertile, hummus-rich, moist, well drained
Flowering period: May - August
Edible uses: Flowers and leaves suitable for tea.

Fuchsia
Fuchsia

Species:
- Deciduous shrub or annuals pollinated by
bees, birds
- Hermaphrodite flowers
Soil: Fertile, moist, well-drained
Flowering period: June to October
Edible parts: Fruit (raw or coocked)

the edible wedge


ornamental edible vegetables
Pumpkin
Curcubita pepo

Hartley crescent pos park

Species:
- Slightly ribbed skin and deep yellow to
orange coloration
- Annual climber
Soil: Fertile, hummus-rich, well-drained but
moisture retentive
Sow: April to June
Harvest: September to October

37
37

Spinach

Spinacia oleracea

Species:
- Deep green crinkled leaves with rich flavour
- Not self-fertile
Soil: Fertile and moisture retentive
Sow: March to July
Harvest: May to September

Rhubarb
Rheum austral

Species:
- Perennial growing
- Need a year or two to become established
Soil: Any, except waterlogged soils
Sow: April to May
Harvest: September to November

Beetroot
Beta vulgaris craca

Species:
- Tolerant of weather extremes
- Hermaphrodite ad pollinated by wind
Soil: Tolerates most
Sow: March to July
Harvest: Late May to September

The maintenance and care of the edible beds will be carry out between city council
parks department and local community groups, delivering a suitable growing
environment and ensuring the proper functioning of these facilities.

Hartley crescent pos park

visualisation: the edible wedge

38
38

Hartley crescent pos park

visualisation: the playground (muga)

39
39

Hartley crescent pos park

visualisation: the amphitheatre

40
40

Hartley crescent pos park

visualisation: conceptual section

41
41

grove

s
i
t
t
i
n
g

a
r
e
a

F
O
O
T
P
A
T
H

amphitheatre

F
O
O
T
P
A
T
H

recreational link

events space

rural scape

viewpoint

open green space

F
O
O
T
P
A
T
H

conclusions

green benefints

health & wellbeing benefits

Permeable
Landscape

Resource
Efficiency

Longevity and
Health

Hartley crescent pos park

Climate change
mitigation

42
42

Economic
Prosperity

Balanced

and
Resilient
Ecosystem

Biodiversity

Increase
Lifespan

The main purpose of this project has been based in


the creation of a multipurpose space where the local
community can develope a variety of activities in the
same place. This mechanism has been used to ensure
the wellbeing and security of an urban green and functional
area, apart from creating a pleasant greening space.
The lack of public squares in the area offers a great
opportunity for improving this area, redesigning it
by using sustainable landscape that adapts the green
infrastructure to the ecosystem of the city. This
thoughtful planning helps to buffer and support the
health of the citizen using urban growing programmes
and generates a more climate change resilient
environment.Also, it educates users about the role that
nature can play in the city and make people involved
in the maintenance of the area increasing the feeling
that it belongs to them.

Citizen
Wellbeing

Food
Growing
Community
Vitality

Adaptability

Understanding
and Education

Community
Building

Social
Interaction

community benefits

BOOKS & ARTICLES


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Oldroyd, E; Summers, R; Clavin, A; Andrews, J (2011). Back to front manual for growing food in garden. Leeds: Infrapress. 37.
Department for Communities and Local Government (2012). Food growing: Case studies. Lon-don: Uk goverment. 39.
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43

http://www.feedleeds.org/
http://www.leedsediblecampus.co.uk/
http://www.backtofront.org.uk/
http://lessn.info/
http://hlnleeds.org.uk/
http://www.hydeparksource.org/
http://www.urbal.tv

http://www.crocus.co.uk
http://www.rhs.org.uk
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