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Ghogha Rural Drinking Water Supply

Project

May 2011

Governance Knowledge Centre


Promoted by Department of Administrative Reforms
and Public Grievances
Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions,
Government of India
http://indiagovernance.gov.in/

Researched and Documented by

OneWorld Foundation India


www.oneworld.net.in
owsa@oneworld.net

Governance Knowledge Centre


Promoted by Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances
Transparency
and Accountability
Ministry of Personnel,
Public Grievances
and Pensions
Government of India

Case Study
Water and Sanitation

Ghogha Rural Drinking Water Supply Project


May 2011

Table of Contents
Executive Summary ................................................................................................
................................
.................................................................. 2
Background ................................................................................................................................
................................
................................................ 2
Objective ................................................................
................................................................................................
..................................................... 4
Working Design ................................................................................................................................
................................
........................................ 4
Methodology................................................................................................................................
................................
.............................................. 8
Key Stakeholders................................................................................................................................
................................
....................................... 8
Lessons Learned ................................................................................................................................
................................
........................................ 9
Way ahead................................................................................................................................
................................
................................................ 12
Appendix A................................................................................................................................
................................
.............................................. 14
Appendix B ................................................................................................................................
................................
............................................. 15

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Promoted by Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances
Transparency
and Accountability
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and Pensions
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Case Study
Water and Sanitation

Ghogha Rural Drinking Water Supply Project


May 2011

Executive Summary
The Ghogha Rural Drinking Water Supply Project was a demand driven decentralised
community effort for the development of water supply and sanitation in the rural areas of
coastal Ghogha Region of Gujarat. This project was the first ever participatory sector
secto reform
model of the government of Gujarat.
The objective of the project was to achieve sustainability in rural water supply and sanitation
through decentralisation and community involvement in conception, operation and
maintenance of the project.
ha Project was started in the year 1997. It was implemented in Bhavnagar, Ghogha and
Ghogha
Talaja blocks of Bhavnagar district covering an area of about 614 sq. km. 82 villages were
included in the project with an estimated population of 2, 00,000 according to 2001 census.
The project was successful
ul in facilitating dual source of water supply in villages, enhancing the
quality of water, providing household piped water connection and also managing water
resources for sustainable use. Other important components of the project were to improve
sanitation and hygiene practices in the region. Waste water disposal system, latrines and
sanitation units were constructed for the purpose.
The project wass unique in its approach as it institutionalised the decentralised
decen
participatory
model in development projects in Gujarat. Active participation of NGOs, formation of
community
ommunity mandated pani samitis and inclusion of women ensured meaningful participation
and effective decentralisation of resources and responsibilities
responsibilities in the project. The project was a
success as it was built on mutual trust and invoked a strong sense of ownership among the
community.
Ghogha experiencee resulted in the formation of Water and Sanitation Management
Organisation (WASMO), a crucial organisation
org
n of the government of Gujarat that is promoting
community participation in the water sector beyond Ghogha.
Gho

Background
Issues pertaining to water crisis are not alien to the state of Gujarat. With over exploitation of
ground water for irrigation purposes, fluctuating rainfall and declining traditional methods of
managing resources the drinking water crisis situation acquires
acquires an acute dimension leading to
drought, competition and conflict for survival.

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Case Study
Water and Sanitation

Ghogha Rural Drinking Water Supply Project


May 2011

Diverse
verse geological, hydrological and climatic conditions have bearing on the availability of
surface and groundwater sources in the state. Erratic rainfall constitutes a major cause of the
scarcity with differential distribution pattern of rainfall over 2000 mm in Dangs in South
Gujarat to 200 mm in Kutch1. Farmers find it difficult to manage more than 1-2
1 crops a year.
Seasonal migration rate in the region is also noticeable.
n
In the Ghogha region the ground water
wat had high salinity component like in all coastal areas.
Depletion of water tables in hot summers results in drying up of wells or turns saline2. The
government used to supply tank water in the region for months to
to address the issue. During
the year 2000-01,
01, drinking water was supplied to 4054 villages in tankers3. In the year 2000 due
to severe drought, water trains had to be supplied by the administration.
Analysis of the habitation survey conducted by the Gujarat Water Supply and Sewage Board
(GWSSB) showed that more than 50 percent of total habitations in Gujarat were facing low
water availability and water quality problem4.
The state government envisioned
oned the Ghogha project as a drought proofing long term effort
that would create drinking water grid for bulk water transmission from water sources to the
needy, taking water resource management and conservation measures. The project set to
achieve the objectives
ectives with large scale community partnership in managing water supply
infrastructure and service delivery at the local level.
Ghogha projectt was designed in the year 1994 as a conventional rural water supply scheme
that would rely on the Shetrunji reservoir
re
for the resource, the Shetrunji
hetrunji being the second
largest river in Gujarat. The GWSSB was the implementation agency of the project. Research
and earlier experiences indicated that building of local institutional capacity to set up and
manage locall resources in villages with reliable source of water was a better route to
sustainability. The project finalised to provide external piped water only to the no -source
villages5.
From policy to practice: Users as managers of rural drinking water supply systems, WASMO.
Khurana, Indira and Manmohan Sehgal. Drinking water source sustainability
sustainability and groundwater quality
improvement in rural Gujarat, WASMO.
3 From policy to practice: Users as managers of rural drinking water supply systems, WASMO
4 Ibid
5 A village is a no source village
ge if it has any of the following characteristics: (1) No public well, (2) has a
public well that dries up in summer making villagers travel more than 1 km to fetch water, (3) a source
of water supply more than 1 km away, (4) no possibility of a well, needed
needed a tube well for drinking water,
1
2

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Water and Sanitation

Ghogha Rural Drinking Water Supply Project


May 2011

The project rolled out in the year 1997.


1997. It was implemented in Bhavnagar, Ghogha and Talaja
blocks of Bhavnagar district covering an area of about 614 sq. km. 82 villages were included in
the project with an estimated population of 2, 00,000 according to 2001 census. Total fund for
the project was rupees 5960.41 lakhs6.

Objective
The overall purpose of the project is to develop, integrating with water resources management, the
improved, safe, reliable and sustainable drinking water and environmental sanitation provisions in 81
villages and 1 town of Bhavnagar district in Gujarat, where facilities will be community owned and
managed through the local pani-- samities7
In order to provide reliable, sustainable and cost effective water supply and sanitation facilities
Ghogha project aimed to develop and apply concepts and methodologies that would support
community owned and managed water supply systems.
In order to advance environmental sanitation and personal
personal hygiene the project aimed at
improvement in the disposal of human excreta and increase in the coverage of household
latrines.
In order to ensure active
tive and effective participation
participation of the community, capacity building
measures for local institutes such as Pani Samities were undertaken.
undert

Working Design
The Ghogha project was implemented in two phases.
A. The first phase was from 1997 to 2002.
 In this phase Gujarat Water Supply and Sewage Board (GWSSB) was the nodal agency
for implementation, administration and reporting of the project.
project.

Royal Netherlands

Agency was the donor of Ghogha project.

(5) there is a public well, but the supply is below 70 lpcd ( Litres Per Capita Per Day), (6) non potable
water supply (GWSSB 2000).
6 Pioneering the community managed approached, WASMO. pp 6
7 Amendment to grant agreement,
nt, dated 2 December 2002. Reynders, Jan and Sara Ahmed. Whos water?
Learning from public-private
private partnership in Gujarat, pp 163

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Case Study

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and Accountability
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and Pensions
Government of India

Water and Sanitation

Ghogha Rural Drinking Water Supply Project


May 2011

 In the first phase, the project called for NGO cooperation to assess the human resource
available
le and to appraise the socio - economic dimension of demand estimation,
capacity and willingness of the people to share cost of the project. NGOs were expected
to facilitate community capacity building. Pilot projects were initiated on the basis of
local need assessment.
 Pani Samities were formed as a sub-committee
sub committee of village panchayats. They were
responsible for planning, implementation and management of the in-village
in
water
supply and sanitation systems. Along with Pani Samities, other groups such as women
Self Help Groups (SHGs) were
w
also initiated in the phase.
However, the midterm review of the project found that there was a need for institutional
restructuring.
NGO partnership that was created in the
 GWSSB was unable to utilise the government-NGO
first
rst phase due to lack of clear definition of roles. NGOs were largely considered as subsub
contractors and had very little autonomy because of financial dependence and
monitoring by donors8. Village communities were also not seen as active partners in the
t
project.
 GWSSB failed to undertake
underta
any major
ajor external engineering work as well.

Survey

conducted by GWSSB pressed for promoting large scale Mahi pipeline already coming
to the region instead of the proposed local source based project. GWSSB also prioritised
the regional
onal schemes rather the village-level
village level ones. The first phase focuses largely on
water supply as means of addressing health and hygiene issues but neglected the
prospects of water resource management.
B. All these factors led the project into its second
phase which was marked by the establishment of
Water and Sanitation Management Organisation
(WASMO) in the year 2002.
 The Community Management and Support
Unit

(CMSU),

established

to

integrate

lessons from Ghogha project into other


Reynders, Jan and Sara Ahmed. Whos water? Learning from public-private
public private partnership in Gujarat,
pp163
8

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Case Study
Water and Sanitation

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and Accountability
Ministry of Personnel,
Public Grievances
and Pensions
Government of India

Ghogha Rural Drinking Water Supply Project


May 2011

schemes in Gujarat, pressed


pr
the need for a new organisation that would have a wider
scope to work beyond the framework of Ghogha project. WASMO, established with
institutional support from Royal Netherlands Embassy, became that platform for
convergence of endeavours from the government,
overnment, NGOs, Panchayati Raj Institutes
(PRIs), communities and research organisations working for decentralised water crisis
solutions. WASMO was thought of as a learning organisation designed to bring in
paradigmatic shift in the sector through communication
communication skills and human resource
development opportunities encouraging all stakeholders in taking change inducing new
responsibilities9.

WASMO was largely responsible for management and sector

monitoring and policy development of the Ghogha project during 2002-05. It also took
care of Information Education Communication (IEC) and networking aspects.
Institution building and technological innovation were other important
imp
areas of focus
for WASMO.
 In the first phase of Ghogha project it was found that over

exploitation of ground

water had led to exhaustion of local resources. Multi sourcing of resources was
therefore taken up as the new focus point in the second phase. Local sources were
taken up as the prime source in possible cases. External water supply through Mahi
pipeline was advanced only to the no source villages, while keeping it as an alternative
for villages with water resources. In this way two parallel strategies were employedemployed
first,, optimum utilisation of local ground water; second, complimentary
complime
piped water
scheme.
 Check dams,, percolation wells and recharge tube wells were considered as important
structured to be built for ensuring water resource management during this phase.
Pastureland development was also added
as an important aspect of the project.
 Pani Samities were formed in the first phase
of the project itself with total eight
members,

three

of

them

from

the

panchayats. The Pani Samities had to


include

two

women

members

in

it,

compulsorily. In the second phase, the Pani Figure 1: The Pani Samities ensures
Samities were restructured to make it a decentralisation and community participation in
Ghogha project. Photo credit: WASMO

GSDWICL (2000) Gujarat jal-disha


disha 2010: A vision of a healthy and equitable future with drinking water,
hygiene and sanitation for all. Ahmedabad: Gujarat state drinking water infrastructure co. ltd.
9

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Government of India

Case Study
Water and Sanitation

Ghogha Rural Drinking Water Supply Project


May 2011

group of 10-12
12 members. The committee had tenure of two years. The 2002
reconstitution gave guidelines to increase the number of women members to one-third
one
of the 10-12
12 members along with proportionate representation of the marginalised
group. Interested community members such as teachers and health workers can be
elected to the community but it was compelled to include members from the ruling
panchayat.
committe
 While in the first phase the panchayat had a decisive role in the elect ion of committee
members, Gram Sabhas took charge of nomination and ratification of members in the
second phase.
 In the first phase actual construction work was done by the contractors selected by
GWSSB while the local community supported and monitored the work. But there were
lack of trust and cooperation between the two often resulting
resulting in conflict. In the second
phase the Pani Samities themselves took up the construction work. This instilled a sense
of ownership in the locals along with providing wage employment
yment to them.
 NGO collaboration acquired a new dimension in the second phase.
phas
They were no
longer seen as the contractors of the government, instead invited as agencies in
partnership. NGOs were given authority in vital decision making process in the project.
Unlike in the first phase there were clarity of roles and responsibilities
responsibili
in the second
phase. NGOs were chosen by WASMO keeping in mind their track record, expertise in
water sector and inclusive membership norms. Three reputed NGOs (Centre for
Environment Education, Uthan and Medhavi) worked with the Ghogha project
ensuring
ng that the concerns of the committee were communicated to the authorities in
order to redress their issues. NGOs with local presence were chosen as they had wider
outreach in villages. While their roles were restricted to organising Pani Samities and
preparing
aring Village Action Plans in the first phase, a wider platform in the second phase
called for community mobilisation, awareness creation and capacity building of the
local institutes involved.
involved
 The Royal Netherland Embassy (RNE) and the Dutch Support Agency,
Age
IWACO, also
facilitated workshops to build conceptual understanding and analytical tools among all
partners in the first phase. WASMO, in the second phase,
phase, also conducted extensive
training programmes for the local communities in accounts writing,
writing in operation and
maintenance of the programme in the second phase.
7

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Case Study
Water and Sanitation

Ghogha Rural Drinking Water Supply Project


May 2011

Methodology
The Governance Knowledge Centre (GKC) research team identified Ghogha Rural Drinking
Water Supply Project as a best practice because the project was a pioneer in taking up
decentralised and participatory model to resolve the problem of water shortage and impro ve
water quality in the coastal Ghogha region of Gujarat.
The team used both primary and secondary research methods for the preparation
prepar
of this best
practice document.
Conducting desk based secondary research, available through online material the team
gathered important information on the background, operations and achievements of Ghogha
Rural Drinking Water Supply Project.
Project In orderr to validate the secondary research findings, the
team adopted the interview method to carry out primary research.
Responses were obtained from Mr K.C. Tripathy,
hy, Manager, Board of Funding, WASMO,
Gandhi Nagar, Gujarat through telephonic interview on many
ny important aspects of
implementation of the programme. The insights obtained were utilised with the desk research
to prepare this document.

Key Stakeholders


The Gujarat Water Supply and Sewage Board (GWSSB)

Water and Sanitation Management Organisation (WASMO)

Community Management and Support Unit (CMSU)

Royal Netherlands Embassy (RNE)

Technical implementing agencies

NGOs Centre for Environment Education, Utthan and Medhavi


Medhav

Panchayati Raj Institutes

Pani Samities

Community members of Ghogha region

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Ghogha Rural Drinking Water Supply Project


May 2011

Lessons Learned
 Comprehensive improvement in water supply and sanitation through
through the community
led project
The project ensured dual water supply facilities in the 82 selected villages. When the villages
with local water resources catalyzed to develop and maintain
maintain its existing resources, the nono
source villages obtained water from external Mahi piped water system.
The first phase of the project made provisions for
stand-post
post based piped water. Hand-pupms
Hand
were
also provided wherever possible, especially in the
remote areas.
household

However community demand for

connections

was

paramount.

The

second phase of the project


ject was successful in
extending household water supply connection.
Figure 2:: Household water connection made the
lives of people much easier. Photo credit:
WASMO

Although the responsibility of getting the actual


connection belonged to the household, wherever the
village demanded the project provided for the

arterial distribution lines that was fitted


fitted with opening valves at regular intervals.
intervals 10
 One of the most important aspects of the project was its emphasis on spreading
awareness about water quality.
When the Pani Samities used to choose
between local source and piped water system
for the villages they often made the choice on
the basis of cost while mostly neglecting the
quality

criteria.

WASMO

collected

water

samples of all the


he 82 villages in 2004 for
chemical and biological analysis. Whenever the
water

was

found

to

have

bacterial

contamination or chemically unfit,


unfit the villagers
were explained about the negative impacts
with corrective measures. Kits were also given Figure 3:: Water quality checking kits were provided
to Pani Samities
amities to keep a check on water to the community. Photo credit: WASMO

10

Pioneering the community managed approach, WASMO. pp 15

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Water and Sanitation

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May 2011

quality. Subsequently a water quality cell was constituted by WASMO in 2004 to


institutionalise water quality check and redressal in all projects.
Workshops and training sessions are regularly held to spread awareness on water quality.
 Water resource management was unanimously taken as a key solution to address
addr
both
qualitative and quantitative aspect of water supply.
Maintenance of local water resources obtained prime focus. Communities had to contribute 10
percent of the capital cost to water resource management operations.
operations. By the end of the project
75 checkdams, three tidal control structures, and 45 ponds were constructed11.
 Sanitation level of an area has a direct bearing on its water quality.
The project objective
ctive lays equal importance to sanitation along with water supply systems.
Research findings indicated an acute shortage
of latrines in the region. Low hygiene and
sanitation concerns such as prevalent open
defecation
cation led to high prevalence of
o diseases
such as diarrhoea,
ea, dysentery and malaria. Soak
pits were constructed in order to hold the waste
water that run into streets otherwise. In the
areas
reas where soak pits were not feasible,
partially open waste water drainage systems
were constructed.

Figure 4:: 6447 latrines were constructed under the


project, Photo credit: WASMO

A total of 6447 latrines were constructed in order to arrest open defecation in the region.

In

order to make children aware of the importance of personal


personal hygiene sanitation units
comprising toilets, urinals and washbasins were constructed in the schools. Covering all the
primary schools of the region, 150 sanitation corners were used.
 Inclusion of children as an important target group was instrumental
instrumenta in ensuring
sustainability in hygiene and sanitation practices.

11

10

Ibid

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Water and Sanitation

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May 2011

 Community washing facilities and cattle troughs (reservoir) were also constructed
keeping community needs in mind. Pastureland development activities were
undertaken to rejuvenate wastelands and to increase availability of fodder.
 Evolution of Information Education and Communication strategy
Slogans, illustrations, media channels such as print, radio, television were used to create
awareness regarding water issues and solutions. Exposure visits and training workshops
contribute largely to initiate two way communications for all stakeholders. A bi-monthly
bi
newsletter was circulated comprising success stories and discussions on water and sanitation
sanitat
themes by WASMO.
 Active community
y involvement in every aspect of conception, operation and
maintenance of the project
Under the Ghogha project the community was convinced to bear operation and maintenance
cost of the project, while the state funded the capital costs. For sanitation and for water
resource management components complete operation and maintenance cost;
cost and partial
capital cost had to be taken by the community. Couples of meetings, awareness operations and
social pressure were successful
successful in convincing the local people to the tariff plan. The less
privileged sector had differential tariff plans. Some villages like Kobadi even collected more
than targeted funds necessary to meet the operation and maintenance cost.
 Inclusion of women
The project recognised the importance of water in the
lives of women. They are the prime user and conserver
of water resources.

With fair inclusion in the Pani

Samiti,, the women were empowered to fashion and


implement water supply and sanitation schemes
maximum to their advantage. Moreover it was found
that participation of women in Pani Samities ensured
Figure 5:: Inclusion of women ensured
efficiency and transparency in the project,
Photo credit: WASMO

greater

transparency. Women

users were hardly

reluctant to pay for


or water system as well. The process of
Ghogha project opened new doors of opportunity
oppo
and

confidence for the rural women. The household connections made life easier for women. They
didnt have to take
ake long routes to carry water on their heads for consumption. With the success

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May 2011

of water supply scheme in the region women found more time for other productive activities
and for their children.
 Involvement with nongovernmental organisation
The close association with nongovernmental organisations having expertise in the water sector
allowed active decentralisation of decision making and implementation in the project.

Way ahead
Though the Ghogha project ended in June 2005, WASMOs involvement with water and
sanitation continues beyond Ghogha.
WASMO is now the lead agency bringing in sector reform in the state. The lessons learnt from
Ghogha project became the guideline for subsequent large programmes such as Swajaldhara
and Earthquake Restructuring
turing and Rehabilitation Project (ERR). WASMO learnt the importance
as well as the strategies to involve multiple partners such as experts, technical consultants,
NGOs and PRIs in projects.
The Ghogha experience taught WASMO to provide greater emphasis to water quality
qualit aspects.
Local communities are provided with water checking kits to verify the quality of water in local
resources carefully in all projects. WASMO constituted an official water quality cell for the
purpose.
In the Ghogha project the Village Action Plans were prepared by the engineers without seeking
involvement of the communities. That led to problems such as construction of structures not
being in the priority list of the villagers and reluctance of the community
community in sharing the
operation and maintenance cost of the infrastructure. Learning from the Ghogha experience
exper
WASMO decided to obtain 10 percent capital cost from the community so that they have a
greater responsibility and participation in preparing village action plans.
The Ghogha experience proved the general assumption wrong that the community dont want
to pay for water
ter as they consider it as the responsibility
ponsibility of the state. When the level of
satisfaction and standard of services are high, the willingness
gness of people to pay for it increases.

12

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Case Study
Water and Sanitation

Ghogha Rural Drinking Water Supply Project


May 2011

Attempts are continuously being made to obtain village level resolutions from gram sabhas
than only from Pani Samities. WASMO team is incorporating the rich learning of Ghogha
project in the ongoing endeavours.
Further analysis of these is needed to obtain significant insight in the community managed
development projects.

Research was carried out by OneWorld Foundation India (OWFI), Governance Knowledge Centre (GKC) team.
Documentation was created by Research Associate, Ajupi
jupi Baruah
For further information, please contact Naimur Rahman, Director, OWFI, at owsa@oneworld.net

13

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Case Study
Water and Sanitation

Ghogha Rural Drinking Water Supply Project


May 2011

Appendix A
Sources:

GSDWICL (2000) Gujarat jal-disha


jal disha 2010: A vision of a healthy and equitable future with
drinking water, hygiene and sanitation for all. Ahmedabad: Gujarat state drinking
water infrastructure co. ltd

Khurana, Indira and Manmohan Sehgal. Drinking water source sustainability and
groundwater quality improvement in rural Gujarat, WASMO

Pioneering the community managed approach, WASMO

Reynders, Jan and Sara Ahmed. Whos water? Learning from public-private
partnership in Gujarat.

The Ghogha experience. Gandhi Nagar. WASMO/IWACO team

14

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Case Study
Water and Sanitation

Ghogha Rural Drinking Water Supply Project


May 2011

Appendix B
Questionnaire:
Purpose
1. The Ghogha project was launched to address the issue of drinking water shortages in the
region. What were issues surrounding the drinking water shortage that motivated the start of
this programme? What were the problems that existed and how did they affect
affe those living in
the region?
2. Can you explain the efforts carried out to fulfill each of the following focus areas of the
project?
a. Provision of water supply
b. Improve Health, hygiene and sanitation
c. Water resources management
d. Capacity building
ilding and training of the community
Factors of Success
Multi-stakeholder engagement
1. What are the departments of government involved in this project? What are their roles?
a. WASMO
b. Technical departments
c. Water Supply and Sanitation Board
2. What was the purpose of collaborating with NGOs?
a. What methods were used for this collaboration?
b. What is the role of NGOs in this programme?
c. How has this contributed to the success of the programme?
3.

According to our research, engaging the local community was a leading factor of

programme success. Can you explain why the community was approached for this effort?
a. What methods were used to engage the community?
b. What role did the community play
pl in the programme?
c. How has this made the programme successful? Please provide specific examples.
4.

What were the capacity building measures taken to empower the Pani Samities/

community?
a.

What role do the Pani Samities play in this programme? How


How do they support the

programme?

15

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Sustainability & Impact


5. How was the tariff plan for drinking water designed? What factors were taken into account
in designing the plan? Was it agreed upon by the community?
6. What were the major challenges faced in developing this programme? Can you explain why
Phase 1 was not entirely successful?
a. Community mobilisation
b. Collaboration with NGOs
c. Financial sustainability- donor funding
d. Water issues
7. How was the project monitored to ensure transparency
transparency and accountability?
8. The project ended in
n 2005 but WASMOs involvement in the water and sanitation sector
continued beyond Ghogha. How WASMO is utilising the lessons of Ghogha project in shaping
policies and bringing in sectoral reforms in the state?

16

Researched and documented by

OneWorld Foundation India