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The main reasons why speaking English is so hard

This special pronunciation section will explain to you why English is hard to speak correctly and
give you some help on improving your pronunciation. These are the main reasons why English is
so hard. There is a lesson for each one.
Note that the pronunciation examples are in American English accent. In the last lesson you will
find American and British English examples.
These lessons are sponsored by: EyeSpeak English
It is likely that some of the sounds that are common in English are not used in your native
language. The most common ones are 'r' as in 'right', 'l' as in 'light' and the 'th' sound as in
'thing'. The 'th' sound, where your tongue is between your teeth is uncommon in other languages.
The other sounds that you will most likely find difficult are the 'moving vowel' sounds or
"diphthongs".

Pronouncing Dipthongs
Here are some examples of diphtongs:
hi

price

eye

by

The vowel sound in these words changes as you say them, it starts off as 'a' and becomes 'e' Here
is a picture showing the starting and finishing mouth positions:

Notice that your mouth position changes considerably when saying this vowel. You start off with
your mouth open and your tongue at the bottom of your mouth, and go to having your mouth
closed with your tongue at the top of your mouth.

It is very common for students learning English to have difficulty making both sounds. Many
students pronounce just one one of these sounds, either the starting 'a' sound or the finishing 'I'
sound. To speak well and be understood, you need to make both sounds.
Here is another example of a diphthong:

This is the sound in words like


'boat'

'goat'

and 'coat'

Your tongue needs to start off near the middle of your mouth, with your mouth open. Then your
tongue needs to move back and up slightly at the same time as you close your lips. Your lips also
need to be 'rounded' slightly.
Here is a technique you can use to feel the difference in different mouth shapes:
1. Start by putting your finger on your lips like you are saying 'shhhhh' and telling someone
to be quiet. (Perhaps you don't make this gesture in your culture, or it is rude to do so.
Actually, it can be a little rude in European cultures also, so you need to use it with care.
You're most likely to see it among audiences at live shows, at the movie theatre, or in the
library if someone is rudely talking.)
2. Hold your finger still - don't move it when your lips move. Now make an 'ee' sound. You
should feel your lips come back to be flat against your teeth. Your finger should now not
be touching your lips.
3. Now make an 'au' sound sticking your lips out. You should feel your finger be pushed
out, away from your mouth. This is what 'rounding' your lips means.
4. Now say the word 'goat' with your finger touching your lips, and check that your lips
become rounded at the end of the vowel sound.
5. Well done! You are probably making the vowel sound correctly now.

As you know, the 'th' sound can also be difficult. Here is how you need to make the 'th' sound:

Can you see how your tongue needs to between your teeth so that someone watching you can
actually see the tip of it? Many people find this strange to do, but if you do not "poke your
tongue out" a little in this way, you will not pronounce the sound correctly.

Pronouncing The "th" Sound In English.


The 'th' sound is quite common in English and found wherever the letters 'th' are found together.
Here are two common examples for you:
Mouth

Thumb

Usually, It's Better To Order "Rice" Than "Lice".


The Difference Between The "r" And "l" Sounds.
The R and L Tongue Positions

The images above illustrate the difficulty in distinguishing the two tongue positions; however
there are important differences:
For 'r':

Your tongue curls up around the edges, and you blow air through the middle of your
tongue.

The top part of your tongue does not touch the top of your mouth.

Your lips should be slightly rounded.

For 'l':

The top of your tongue should touch the top of your mouth.

Your lips should not be rounded

Most people say 'l' correctly however for further help with 'r' you may find the following video
helpful:

How To Test, See And Hear Your Pronunciation On Your


Computer
Do you want to quickly and easily perfect your English pronunciation?
These lessons are a good start, but if you really want to learn how to speak english perfectly then
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pronunciation, analyze it and then instantly teach you how to improve. It's a really great idea.
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There are 45 interactive English conversations to practice with.

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Consonant S & Sh
___________________________________________________
STEP 1 How to Pronounce S

The s sound is unvoiced (the vocal cords do not vibrate during its production), and is the
counterpart to the voiced z sound.
To pronounce the /S/ sound, gently close your front teeth and leave your lips slightly open.
Position your tongue very close to the upper-front roof of your mouth. Leave about a 2-6 mm
gap between the tip of your tongue and the front roof of your mouth to form a narrow pathway.
Push voiceless air out through the pathway between your tongue and the roof of your mouth.
Make sure your voice is not on (vocal cords are not vibrating).
(Source: http://englishsecret.com/s.jsp, http://www.pronuncian.com/Sounds)

___________________________________________________
STEP 2 How to Pronounce Sh

The sh sound is unvoiced (the vocal cords do not vibrate during its production), and is the
counterpart to the voiced zh sound.
To create the sh sound, air is forced between a wide groove in the center of the front of the
tongue and the back of the tooth ridge. The sides of the blade of the tongue may touch the side
teeth. The lips are kept slightly tense, and may protrude somewhat during the production of the
sound.
(Source: http://englishsecret.com/v.jsp, http://www.pronuncian.com/Sounds)
___________________________________________________
STEP 3 Practice
1. Sea

She

2. Sip

Ship

3. Sell

Shell

4. Seat

Sheet

5. Sign

Shine

6. Lease

Leash

7. Suit

Shoot

8. Class

Clash

9. Mess

Mesh

10.

Gas

Gash

___________________________________________________
STEP 4 Tongue Twisters
1. Six slimy snails sailed silently.
2. Should she shut summer shutters slowly or should she shut summer
shutters swiftly?
3. She sells seashells on the seashore. The seashells she sells are
seashore seashells.

Vowel ou &
___________________________________________________
STEP 1 How to pronounce ou sound

The long o is a two-sound vowel that ends in a brief w sound.


Part 1: The body of the tongue is pushed back and in a low-to-mid mouth position and the
bottom teeth can be felt along the sides of the tongue.

Part 2: The sound moves into a w sound by raising the jaw slightly while closing the lips into a
small circle. The body of the tongue moves upward until the tongue is near the back of the hard
palate.
(Source: http://www.pronuncian.com)
___________________________________________________
STEP 2 How to pronounce sound

The entire tongue is pushed back and kept low during the pronunciation of the aw sound. The
bottom side teeth can be felt alongside the front of the tongue during the sound. The back of the
tongue has only a slight rounding upward at the very rear of the mouth. The lips are made into an
oval shape, and may stick slightly outward.
The North American aw sound is one of the sounds with the greatest variation in pronunciation
even within the continent. Some regions of the United States do not consider this to be a different
sound from the short o. However, in many regions of the country it is a unique sound; therefore
it is described separately.
(Source: http://www.pronuncian.com)
___________________________________________________
STEP 3 Practice
Short ou sound words
1. Home

2. Poem
3. Soda
4. Nose
5. Stone
6. Hope
7. October
8. Telephone
9. Moment
10.

Clothes

Short sound words


1. Order
2. Caught
3. Audio
4. Song
5. Course
6. Lost
7. Salt
8. Forest
9. Store
10.

Ball

___________________________________________________
STEP 5 Practice Materials for Vowel Contrast
/ou/ //
1. So Saw
2. Low Law

3. Row Raw
4. Lone Lawn
5. Close Clause
6. Pose Pause
7. Coat Caught
8. Oat Ought
9. Whole Hall
10.

Load Lord

11.

Bow Bore

12.

Tone Torn

13.

Woke Walk

14.

Cold Called

15.

Cozy Cause

Pronunciation Vowel 2 e &


Posted: 11/26/2012 | Author: SkimaTalk | Filed under: Pronunciation |Leave a comment

___________________________________________________

Vowel e &
___________________________________________________
STEP 1 How to pronounce a short e sound

The short e sound is a relatively relaxed vowel sound. The middle of the tongue rounds slightly
upward and the sides of the tongue may lightly touch the top and bottom side teeth. The lips and
jaw are loose and relaxed.
(Source: http://www.pronuncian.com)
___________________________________________________
STEP 2 Introduction to Schwa sound

The reduced vowel sound called schwa is the most common vowel sound in spoken English.
Schwa is a quick, relaxed, neutral vowel pronunciation very close to a short u. The purpose of
schwa is to allow unstressed syllables to be said more quickly so the main beats of spoken words
are easier to place on the stressed syllables.
Schwa does not have an exact and standard pronunciation. Due to the near-identical
pronunciation of schwa and short u, many dictionaries merge the transcription of the two sounds
and strictly use //. Separate symbols are retained here to indicate whether a vowel sound falls on
a stressed or unstressed syllable.
Schwa occurs in two different circumstances:
1. in an unstressed syllable of a multi-syllable word
2. as a reduced vowel sound in a function word

(Source: http://www.pronuncian.com)

___________________________________________________
STEP 3 Practice
Short e sound words
1. Men
2. Pen
3. Red
4. Say
5. Get
6. Sell
7. Well
8. Neck
9. Tell
10.

Friend

Short sound words


1. Banana
2. Animal
3. About
4. Item
5. Travel
6. Family
7. Father
8. System
9. Was
10.

Experiment

___________________________________________________
STEP 5 Practice Materials for Vowel Contrast
/e/ /i/
1. Bell Bill
2. Set Sit
3. Left Lift
4. When Win
5. Pen Pin
// //
1. Honor Honey
2. Monitor Money
3. Bottom Button
4. Comma Company
5. Monument Monday

Vowel a, &
___________________________________________________
STEP 1 How to pronounce a short o sound /a/

The vocal tract is very open for the production of theshort o sound. In fact, the jaw is held more
open and the back of the tongue is held lower for this sound than any other American English
vowel sound pronunciation. The tongue touches the inside of the bottom teeth so that the top of
the tongue is nearly even with the top of the bottom teeth. The lips are held open and kept
rounded, but relaxed.
(Source: http://www.pronuncian.com/Sounds)
___________________________________________________
STEP 2 How to pronounce a short a sound //

The front of the tongue is pushed further forward and is held lower in the mouth when forming
the short asound than with any other vowel sound. The tip of the tongue will touch the inside of
the bottom front teeth. The body of the tongue is rounded slightly upward. The jaw is lowered
and the lips are held apart, allowing the entire oral cavity to remain open.
(Source: http://www.pronuncian.com/Sounds)
___________________________________________________
STEP 3 How to pronounce a short u sound //

The body of the tongue is relaxed and set low in the mouth. The sides of the tongue lightly touch
the bottom teeth during the formation of the sound. The jaw is kept in a neutral position, and the
lips are relaxed.
The overall relaxed nature of the formation of this sound is why it is commonly used for the
pronunciation of the vowel sound of an unstressed syllable. The short i sound may also be used
in an unstressed syllable, but the short u/schwa is more common.
(Source: http://www.pronuncian.com/Sounds)
___________________________________________________
STEP 4 Practice
Short o sound words
1. Top
2. On

3. Box
4. Rock
5. Drop
6. Fox
7. Got
8. Not
9. Cop
10.

Hop

Short a sound words


1. Cat
2. Rat
3. Flat
4. Can
5. Pan
6. Hat
7. Cap
8. Black
9. Track
10.

Dad

Short u sound words


1. Fun
2. Gun
3. Cut
4. Stuf

5. Nut
6. But
7. Run
8. Tub
9. Puf
10.

Hug

___________________________________________________
STEP 5 Practice Materials for Vowel Contrast
/a/ //
1. Bomb Bum
2. Rob Rub
3. College Color
4. Common Come
5. Bother Brother
// //
1. Fan Fun
2. Ran Run
3. Sang Sung
4. Sam Some
5. Cat Cut

Consonant n & ng
___________________________________________________
STEP 1 How to Pronounce n

To create the n sound, the air is blocked from leaving the mouth by pressing the tip against the
tooth ridge and the sides of the front of the tongue against the side teeth. The soft palate drops,
allowing air to pass out through the nose. The sound is voiced, so the vocal cords vibrate while
producing it.
(Source: http://www.pronuncian.com/Sounds)
___________________________________________________
STEP 2 How to Pronounce

To create the ng sound, air is prevented from leaving the vocal tract when the back of the tongue
lifts and presses against the soft palate at the back of the mouth. The soft palate drops, allowing
air to pass out through the nose. The sound is voiced, so the vocal cords vibrate while producing
it.
(Source: http://www.pronuncian.com/Sounds)
___________________________________________________
STEP 3 Practice
1. No
2. Neck
3. Network
4. Answer
5. Nice
6. Funny
7. Finish
8. Bean
9. Campaign
10.

Broken

11.

Blink

12.

Drink

13.

Angry

14.

Rank

15.

Extinct

16.

Bring

17.

Long

18.

Spring

19.

Wrong

20.

Strong

___________________________________________________
STEP 4 Tongue Twisters
1. n: No need to light a night light on a light night like tonight.
2. ng: The ringing, swinging, singing singers sang winning songs.
3. n & ng: Do not hang the ring thing next to the wrong thong.

Consonant Sh() &


___________________________________________________
STEP 1 How to Pronounce Sh()

The sh sound is unvoiced (the vocal cords do not vibrate during its production), and is the
counterpart to the voiced zh sound.
To create the sh sound, air is forced between a wide groove in the center of the front of the
tongue and the back of the tooth ridge. The sides of the blade of the tongue may touch the side
teeth. The lips are kept slightly tense, and may protrude somewhat during the production of the
sound.
(Source: http://www.pronuncian.com/Sounds)

___________________________________________________
STEP 2 How to Pronounce

The zh sound is voiced (the vocal cords vibrate during its production), and is the counterpart to
the unvoiced sh sound.
To create the zh sound, air is forced between a wide groove in the center of the front of the
tongue and the back of the tooth ridge. The sides of the blade of the tongue may touch the side
teeth. The lips are kept slightly tense, and may protrude somewhat during the production of the
sound.
(Source: http://www.pronuncian.com/Sounds)
___________________________________________________
STEP 3 Practice
1. Share
2. Show
3. Shift
4. Shampoo
5. Shine
6. Wash
7. Fish

8. Trash
9. Publish
10.

Establish

11. Usually
12.

Measure

13.

Decision

14.

Asia

15.

Leisure

16.

Vision

17.

Garage

18.

Equation

19.

Pleasure

20.

Occasion

___________________________________________________
STEP 4 Tongue Twisters
1. Sh(): Susan shines shoes and socks; socks and shoes shine Susan.
She stopped shining shoes and socks, for shoes and socks shock
Susan.
2. : He measured his pleasure in treasure
3. Sh() & : She has a vision to share pleasure with Natasha

Consonant Th [] & []
___________________________________________________
STEP 1 How to Pronounce Th []

Place the tip of the tongue between the top and bottom front teeth.
(source: http://englishsecret.com/th_voice_less.jsp, http://www.pronuncian.com/Sounds)
___________________________________________________
STEP 2 How to Pronounce Th []

Place the tip of the tongue between the top and bottom front teeth.
(source: http://englishsecret.com/th.jsp, http://www.pronuncian.com/Sounds)
___________________________________________________
STEP 3 Practice
1. Thin

The

2. Thief

These

3. Theme

Them

4. Three

There

5. Birthday
6. Author

Worthy
Another

7. Nothing

Clothing

8. Width

Bathe

9. Forth

Teethe

10.

Thirtieth

Smooth

___________________________________________________
STEP 4 Tongue Twisters
1. TH []: I thought a thought But the thought I thought I thought
wasnt the thought I thought. If the thought I thought I thought had
been the thought I thought I thought, I wouldnt have thought so
much.
2. TH []: These are teething toys for my children. They use them when
they are teething.
3. TH [] & []: There those thousand thinkers were thinking how did
the other three thieves go through.

Consonant S & Z
___________________________________________________
STEP 1 How to Pronounce S

The s sound is unvoiced (the vocal cords do not vibrate during its production), and is the
counterpart to the voiced z sound.
To pronounce the /S/ sound, gently close your front teeth and leave your lips slightly open.
Position your tongue very close to the upper-front roof of your mouth. Leave about a 2-6 mm
gap between the tip of your tongue and the front roof of your mouth to form a narrow pathway.
Push voiceless air out through the pathway between your tongue and the roof of your mouth.
Make sure your voice is not on (vocal cords are not vibrating).
(Source: http://englishsecret.com/s.jsp, http://www.pronuncian.com/Sounds)
___________________________________________________
STEP 2 How to Pronounce Z

The z sound is voiced (the vocal cords vibrate during its production), and is the counterpart to the
unvoiced s sound.
To pronounce the /z/ sound, gently close your front teeth and leave your lips slightly open.
Position your tongue very close to the upper-front roof of your mouth. Leave about a 2-6 mm
gap between the tip of your tongue and the front roof of your mouth to form a narrow pathway.
Push voiced air out through the pathway between your tongue and the roof of your mouth. Make
sure your voice is on.
(Source: http://englishsecret.com/z.jsp, http://www.pronuncian.com/Sounds)
___________________________________________________
STEP 3 Practice
1. Sue

Zoo

2. Seal

Zeal

3. Sip

Zip

4. Sewn

Zone

5. Lace

Laze

6. Race

Raise

7. Ice

Eyes

8. Peace

Peas

9. Niece

Knees

10.

Face

Phase

___________________________________________________
STEP 4 Tongue Twisters
1. S: Swim, Sam, Swim. Show them youre a swimmer! Six sharp sharks
seek small snacks, so swim, Sam, swim.
2. Z: Zizzis zippy zipper zips.
3. S & Z: Is this your sisters sixth zither, sir?

Practice Materials for Consonants (AmE)


These materials can be used as additional phonetic exercises for practicing consonant sounds in
short frequently used words. (You can listen to similar words in Listening for Consonants (AmE)
and Listening for Consonant Contrast (AmE) in the section Phonetics.)

. (
Listening for Consonants (AmE) Listening
for Consonant Contrast (AmE) Phonetics.)
Consonant sounds

[p], [b], [t], [d], [k], [g], [f], [v], [], [], [s], [z], [sh], [zh], [h], [ch], [j], [m], [n], [], [l], [r], [w],
[y];
pen, be, ten, do, Kate, go, feel, very, thin, this, so, zoo, show, beige, he, cheese, just, me, no, sing,
live, red, we, yes;
The sound [p] as in PEN

peel piece peer pick pin pen pair pack palm part pause pour port pond
pool pure poor put pull person public pay pain pie pound point pole post;
please plenty plan plural plug play split splendid splash splurge;
pretty press practice prune pray price proud prose spring spread spray
sprout;
speak spin spend span sport spoon space spy spoil spoke;
paper pepper happen happy creepy tipping kept napkin apple people staple;
tap nap cup lip drop trip keep help soup tape ripe rope grasp crisp;
The sound [b] as in BE

be beat beer big bit best bed bare bad back balm bar bore boss bought
boom beauty book burn burst bus bun baby buy bound boy bone;
bleed bless black block blue blur blood blame blind blow;
breed bring bread brand broad brother brain break bright brown broken;

habit rabbit ribbon robber robot absent number able terrible rouble gamble
tumble;
tab lab stub rub rib rob knob Bob robe bulb;
The sound [t] as in TEN

team tip tell tan task tar tall torn taught top tool tune tour took turn
ton take time town toy toe tone;
treat trip trend track true trust train trace try street strong struck straight
strike stroke;
steam stick step stare stand star store stop student stir stun stable style
stout stone;
city pity kitten total potato writer later better little rattle title twenty mister
pizza;
set meet rate write part coat short tact draft belt point spent kept last
taste roast;
looked stopped laughed passed released reached washed;
The sound [d] as in DO

deep deal dear dip den dare Dan dark door dog do duty during dirt dull
day die down don't;
dream drink drip dress drag draw drop drew drum drain dry drown drone;
lady hidden admire edition Edward heading idle riddle cradle handle bundle;
kid did read ride made mad add odd cord heard would could send kind
wind round;
played studied called bored lived turned managed hated started needed ended;
The sound [k] as in KATE

keen keep kill kiss Ken chemistry can cap calm car call corn cool cute
cook curse come Kate case kind coast cone;
clean clear click class clue clerk club claim climb cloud clown close;

cream critical credit crash crawl cruise crush crazy cry crowd scream scratch
scrape;
fact active action token lecture awkward Arctic mechanics archive miracle;
[sk] scan scale scare score school scope escape skate ski skin skirt skunk
sky;
[k] account accommodate according accumulate accuse occur;
[ks] access accent accept succeed;
[ks] fix relax maximum axis excellent exceed except excess exchange explain
explore;
[ksk] exclaim exclude excuse excursion;
[kw] question quite quick queen quality equal require request;
cake took walk talk dark oak rack pick panic magic unique bank link
risk task;
The sound [g] as in GO

give gift get guess gas gap guard gorge gone goose good girl gun gust
game guy guide go gold;
glimpse glare glance glamor glue gloomy glum glide global glow;
green grip grab grasp grew groom great ground grow;
begin again ago legal eager beggar regular ignore ugly giggle eagle struggle
single anger hungry;
[gw] language linguist Guatemala Gwen;
[gz] exist exert exam exact exhibit;
big bag dog leg egg rug dialogue vague vogue;
The sound [f] as in FEEL

feel feed fear fit finish fell fed fair fast far four form fond food few
full foot fur firm fun fame fate final find found phone photo;
flick flesh flag floor floss flew flu flirt flame fly flight Floyd flown;
free freeze frigid friend fresh fragile fraud frog fruit frame phrase fry
frown froze;
office offer often suffer effect coffee muffin defend after left drift soft;
if life safe loaf half deaf stiff staff cuff rough tough enough laugh;
The sound [v] as in VERY

veal vivid vet very variant vast vault verb vein vague vine vital vouch
voice void vote;
even evil fever eleven event level lever ever every invest review prevail
prevent provoke;
leave give live active love move brave groove stove curve;
The sound [] as in THIN

theme thief theater theory thin thick thing think therapy thank thorn thought
third thirty thirsty thermometer Thursday thoroughly thumb thunder thousand;
three thrifty thrill thread threat throb through threw thrust thrive throw throat
throne;
method author lethal anything everything nothing diphthong without sympathy;
breath bath path booth tooth teeth truth north cloth moth earth birth faith
south both growth;
health wealth length strength width fifth sixth thirteenth thirtieth with;
The sound [] as in THIS

these this then them their there that than the they those though;
other mother father brother leather feather weather whether together gather
either neither further;

although without southern northern rhythm clothes;


breathe bathe soothe smooth clothe with;
The sound [s] as in SO

seem seen sin simple city send center sad sack saw sore song soon suit
sir certain sun suck save sail side sign sound sour so soul;
lesson listen associate society privacy agency test waste;
sleep slope smell smile snake snow speak span split splash spray spring
stay stone strain stripe sweet swim;
[sk] scale scare escape scatter score school scoundrel screen scrub skate skin
sky;
[s] scene scent science scissors scythe miscellaneous;
[ks] accent access accept except excess explain relax fix mix;
kiss pass advice nice notice release increase reduce use (n.) loose rinse since
chance;
looks takes asks stops keeps types laughs coughs fits hates tests insists;
The sound [z] as in ZOO

zebra zero zip zigzag zest zap zoo zoom zone;


music reason poison present dozen citizen horizon razor resign resist busy
crazy lazy puzzle sizzle dazzle realism idealism capitalism socialism;
[gz] exist exert exam exact exhibit;
lose choose use (v.) rose those wise always advise surprise organize quiz
jazz;
is does has pays runs teams finds tells rubs lives classes loses changes
fixes;
The sound [sh] as in SHOW

she sheep sheer chic ship shed share champagne short shot shoe sure sugar
should shook shirt shut shame shake shape shine show;
shriek shrimp shrink shrug shrine;
special social official financial politician efficient patient delicious suspicious
precious cautious discussion expression mission pressure fashion nation section
condition;
push bush leash fish flash rash cash cache publish foolish;
The sound [zh] as in BEIGE

usual casual visual vision explosion erosion measure pleasure treasure leisure;
beige mirage collage sabotage prestige garage rouge;
The sound [h] as in HE

he heat here him history help hair hand have half heart hard horn hot
who whose hook her heard hurry hunt hundred hate hide how home hope
hold whole;
behind behold inherit inhibit inhabit inhale;
The sound [ch] as in CHEESE

cheese cheap cheer chip chin check chess chair chance chapter charity chart
charter chalk chore choose chew church chunk chain China chime chose
choke,
teacher preacher kitchen matching watching teaching;
much such touch search torch teach rich branch lunch batch catch patch
pitch watch Dutch;
The sound [j] as in JUST

jeans jeep Jim gin gym jet general gentle jam jazz John journey journal
just jump judge June jail Jane giant joint joke;
region surgeon agent angel danger stranger engine Egypt tragic energy object
subject injection suggest fidget;

age page rage large huge emerge package message hostage manage bridge
badge porridge change range strange sponge;
The sound [m] as in ME

me mean mere middle mint men man mark more Mommy moon mute
murder must mother main make mind my mode most;
smell smash smart small smooth smug smile smoke;
summer Emma command memory murmur family female mumble ramble;
seem some dame time form firm stem plum lamb thumb climb comb;
The sound [n] as in NO

need neat knee never nap nasty normal not noon new nutrition nut name
nature knife night nine now noun nose know no;
sneeze sniff snack snap snore snob snug snake snail sniper snow;
funny manner inner winner annoy finish internal Nancy kindness signature;
lunch bench branch change range find mind bend sound round aunt faint
point student sent dance science sense;
ban tan kin pin thin sin son sun born sane main sign nine noun known
own Indian;
The sound [] as in SING

[] sing singer singing sang sung hang hanger hanging hung lung song king
bang slang ring ping thing wrong long young strong tongue going cooking
reading;
[]+[g] finger anger angry hunger hungry linger longer longest younger
youngest stronger strongest congress (n.) single angle strangle tangle lingo
language linguist;
[]+[k] bank banker frank spank tank ankle drink think sink link ink pink
punk drunk skunk uncle;
The sound [l] as in LIVE

lead leap live let less lack last lark law lord lock lot lost lose loop
look learn luck lady late life like light lie loud loyal Lloyd load;
blood blow plain plan clear close glide glow split splash;
sleep slip slap slash slot sluice slur slum slave slight slide slouch slow
slogan;
alone alive Elizabeth elect valley lily silly really lonely nicely wisely;
cold hold held mild field build fault salt felt melt consult;
apple couple table terrible little bottle needle idle miracle vehicle;
all fall call tell well will whole role roll soul deal boil mail tale file
cool girl;
The sound [r] as in RED

read reap real rear risk wrist red rest rare ran rap raw wrong roof route
room run rust rain raise rise right round royal road rope rose wrote;
bring proud spread true stripe dry free crow scrape grab throw shrink;
around arrange arrive arrogant narrow berry carry sorry hurry during period
barbaric murderous careless reference tolerance story salary;
carp hard park large carve born form horse porch morgue term earn birth
first girl curb curl hurt turf;
more tore four car bar far care pair fear hear sir were fur purr fire
hire poor tour our power;
The sound [w] as in WE

we week wheel wind will wet west when where wax wall war warm
water want wool would word worse won one once way wait wild why
white wound won't;
sweet swim swift sweat swear swallow twelve twenty twice twinkle twist
dwell dwarf;
[kw] question quite quick queen quality equal request require;

[gw] language linguist Guatemala Gwen;


The sound [y] as in YES

year yield yes yesterday yellow yet yard yawn York yacht yearn young
yoga yolk you use unit utility;
beyond canyon Tanya Tonya million billion onion union music human few
view.
pleasure-(plezh-er)
measure-(mezh-er)
treasure-(trezh-er)
closer-(kloh-zer)
session-(sesh-uhn)
mission-(mish-uhn)
jeopardy-(jep-er-dee)
passion-(pash-uhn)
father-(fah-ther)
shoe section-(shoo-sek-shuhn)
sea shore-(see-shawr)
demonstration-(dem-uhn-strey-shuhn)
rationalization-(rash-nl-ahyztn)