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This brochure

High power means intercepting wind P2


Technical innovations P3
Turnkey option P4

CRITICAL NEEDS
With the critical need for
alternative
energy,
FTC
Energy is moving quickly to
provide our technology in a
larger, more powerful form.

FTC Energy is bringing clean, high


power vertical axis wind turbines within
the reach of everyone.

Low noise
Virtually zero vibration
Broad, stable platforms
No cut off speed limitations
Only fully UL-rated turbines
Do not affect birds or other wildlife
Have no gears, belts, or pulleys
Direct DC voltage output with a wide range of
available voltages
Zero Cogging, Patent Applied-For Neodymium
Generators

BROADER SOLUTIONS
The world is full of platforms, buildings, hills, and
plains where wind energy is
plentiful. Each location requires its own solution a
solution that FTC Energy
turbines can serve.
Our engineers have developed and continue to develop daily innovative
solutions to solve these
challenges.
We are also collaborating
with the some of the most
technically advanced engineering firms in the world.

The Strength of an Arch


The Power of the Wind
To extract
power from
the wind, you
must
intercept the
wind.
FTC Energy has a simple
philosophy: You must
intercept the wind to
make wind power. We
believe that relying on
three propellers to
somehow couple with
the wind is not going to
work.

Physical Dimensions Can Be Changed


To Match the Location
Virtually every location our turbines go has a different wind
profile. Our engineers recognized this and came up with a
design that can be modified.

The vertical pole under the

turbine can be adjusted vertically to position the turbine in


the best wind stream. Because some locations have lower

winds than others, we often need to make the size of the


wind directors larger.
Making wind directors larger means a greater side load on
the assembly.

To solve this issue, we went back to a

architectural shape that has been used for thousands of


years the arch.

This arch redirects the side loading

downwards. We can change this shape to match the need


while intercepting maximum wind energy.

Our wind tunnel tests


show that you need to
guide a large amount of
wind into a blade
assembly that forces the
wind to turn it. Turning
the blade assembly
forcefully causes torque
and torque is the real
power. Allowing the wind
to slip by or through is
energy lost regardless
of how fast the blade
turns.
We have spent years
designing and perfecting
complex wind directors
(stators) that funnel wind
easily and smoothly into
our turbines. We do not
want even a whisper of
wind to escape our
turbines.

Power Curves
700000
250 KW, 649,251
600000

Watts

500000
400000
300000

100 KW, 259,701

200000
100000
0
1

50 KW, 129,850
25 KW, 64,925
MPH, 33
11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33

Complex Computational
Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
Analysis

FTC Energys
Unique Blade
Shape
One of the secrets of
the FTC Energy turbine
is the unique, patent
pending blade shape.
The shape was
developed in our own
wind tunnel. It uses a
complex lift/drag
system to capture fluid
motion better than any
design weve ever
tested.

Multiple DC Voltage Options

For example, our 250 KW generator can be configured


to produce from 7,000 volts to 30 volts.
Correspondingly, the current can be configured from 40
amperes to over 9,000 amperes. Our generators can
also produce multiple separate voltages.
The generators are fully potted with UL-approved
potting compound to seal them from external issues.

Dome Option
The FTC Energy Super Class vertical axis wind
turbine can have the power it generates enhanced
by adding a dome underneath the turbine assembly.
This dome causes more wind to flow up into the
turbine and, thus, allows more wind energy to be
harvested.
The dome also allows for storage, monitoring
equipment, or a broad range of additional uses.

Power Range 25 KW to 250 KW


o Units are fully spec-ed for the customer to ensure
the system does exactly what the customer needs
o All components (turbine, inverters, columns, base,
etc.) are supplied as a single package
o Customer is supplied all documentation,
engineering data, blueprints, etc.
o We handle all matters necessary to get local
approval of the installation
o We handle the entire installation process
o Licensed electricians connect the system to the
local grid
o FTC Energy personnel test and verify the system
on site
o Customer is supplied with Internet-based real time
monitoring equipment
o We provide complete on-site maintenance, if
needed
o FTC Energy monitors the site continuously to
ensure performance

FTC Energy, Inc.


P.O. Box 730955
Ormond Beach, FL 32173
386.446.9300
Ftcenergy.com
Copyright 2011, FTC Energy, Inc. All Rights Reserved
All figures, charts, and any other data are a guide only. Your results will vary.

Wind Generator
Savonius Type 12V 200 Watt

http://www.energybook.co.uk
http://www.wxtrade.com
http://www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius Type 200 Watt 12V Wind Generator

Introduction
About the publisher
Richard Jemmetts keen interest in the generation and use of energy has helped to
shape his formal career and provide an incentive to write on the subject. He
graduated from the University of Leeds in 1980 with a degree in fuel and energy
engineering and has held various positions within energy and consultancy companies
working in the UK, Europe the Middle East and Asia. He is a Board Director of two
energy related companies and a past president of the Institution of Gas engineers
and Managers
He has written many articles, essays, and conference presentations on utility industry
strategy, energy industry development, energy market deregulation, renewable
energy, distributed generation and high reliability organisational design.
This ebook and other similar documents can be found at the onetoremember online
bookshop

Your online bookshop for rare, used and new books


Ecology, environment, sustainable living and renewable energy
onetoremember is a family owned business based in Bracknell Berkshire
committed to making small changes towards meeting the big challenge of
sustainable living.

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Disclaimer
The information supplies in this publication has been supplied in all good faith and
believed to be correct. However no liability will be accepted for any accident, damage
or injury caused as a result, or arising from the use of information form this
publication.

Savonius Type 200 Watt 12V Wind Generator


Introduction to the Savonius wind turbine
Wind units can be divided into two major types, horizontal axis and vertical axis machines.
Horizontal machines some times known as HAWT (Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines) are the
traditional conventional design, they consist of a rotor with one to twenty blades driving a
generator or a pump either directly or through a gearbox, chain or belt system. A tail vane or
fantail is required to direct the machine into the wind.

They are usually more efficient than vertical axis units known as VAWT (Vertical Axis
Wind Turbines). Savonius and Darius are two designs of vertical axis machines. This
type of unit is often not situated on a tower and does not have to be directed into the
wind. Materials and construction are usually cheaper than horizontal axis machines.
The Savonius windmill was the brainchild of Sigrid Savonius of Finland. The racing
driver of the 1930s said the secret of a good machine was to "add lightness and
simplicate". A simple unit can be made by attaching two halves of vertically split oil
barrel to a vertical axis this produces a low speed high torque unit that can be used
for pumping water and through a gearing mechanism, generating electricity. This
design also has the advantage of an aerodynamic effect called the "magnus
principal, suction is formed by the air moving over the convex face of the rotor. This
means that there is force acting on the face of the rotor pulling it into the wind.
The most ubiquitous application of the Savonius wind turbine is the Flettner Ventilator
which is commonly seen on the roofs of vans and buses and is used as a cooling
device. The ventilator was developed by the German aircraft engineer Anton Flettner
in the 1920s. It uses the Savonius wind turbine to drive an extractor fan. The vents
are still manufactured in the UK by Flettner Ventilator Limited.
Small Savonius wind turbines are sometimes seen used as advertising signs where
the rotation helps to draw attention to the item advertised.

About these plans


This plan was developed to make use a car alternator maybe not the best generator but
certainly widely available. The plan was originally written Peter Hanbury in the 1970s with the
rights for reproduction bought by Richard Jemmett (then Jemmett Engineering) in the 1980s.
Since then many hundreds have been sold and successfully built. The plan is in its original
form and may be a little difficult to read but if you have any difficulties after printing please
email me plans@onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

NOTICE
The information contained in this guide has been given in good faith and
is believed to be accurate at the time of writing. Whilst every effort has
been made to obtain the correct information, no liability can be accepted
for any information that is incorrect or misleading.

Website links
Energybook and associated websites
http://www.energybook.co.uk
A great website developed by the author of this guide it provides lots of
information on renewable energy and sustainable living
http://www.wxtrade.com
The energybook marketplace - buy and sell renewable energy and
sustainable living products for free. Hundreds of great products.
http://www.ometoremember.co.uk
Web based bookshop selling fiction and non-fiction books including renewable
energy books.

Wind energy associations


ANEV - associazione nazionale energia del vento (I)
AWEA - American Wind Energy Association (USA)
APPA - Asociacin de Productores de Energas Renovables (ES)
Austrian Wind Energy Association (A)
AUSWEA - Australian Wind Energy Association (AUS)
BWE - Bundesverband Wind Energie e.V., German Wind Energy Association (D)
BWEA - British Wind Energy Association (GB)
CANWEA - Canadian Wind Energy Association (CAN)
Les Compagnons d'Eole (B)
DV - Danmarks Vindmlleforening - Danish Wind Turbine Owners' Association (DK)
Dansk Selskab for Vindenergi (DK)
EOLE (CAN) (pour les francophones)
Estonian Wind Power Association (EST)
EWEA, European Wind Energy Association (EU)
Finnish Wind Power Association (FIN)
Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC)
Vindkraftfreningen Finland, Finnish Wind Energy Association (Swedish language)
IWEA, Irish Wind Energy Association (IE)
New Zealand Wind Energy Association (NZ)
PEE - Plataforma Empresarial Elica (ES)
South African Wind Energy Association (ZA)

Suisse-Eole (CH)
Syndicat des Energies Renouvelables (FR)

Magazines and information services


Windpower Monthly Good international coverage of the wind business.
WindStats Newsletter Articles plus loads of statistics on wind energy production in many parts
of the world.
Wind Directions is the magazine of the European Wind Energy Association, published six
times a year, giving current developments and news on the wind energy industry in
Europe.
Windpower Monthly publishes news and critical analyses of key issues about wind power
and its markets. Includes The Windicator, the renowned page of market indicators, giving
a country by country breakdown of installed capacity.
New Review is the Quarterly Newsletter for the UK New and Renewable Energy Industry,
principally covering: wind, solar, biomass and hydro energy developments. Produced by
ETSU on behalf of the DTI.
WindStats Newsletter is a quarterly international wind energy publication with news,
reviews, wind turbine production and operating data from over 12,000 wind turbines, plus
much more.
Renewable Energy World accentuates the achievements and potential of all forms of
renewable energy sources and the technologies being developed to harness them. In this
on-line version there are full text selected articles, abstracts, back issue information, and
links to all of the other renewable energy information sources at James & James including
its international database of renewable energy suppliers and services.
Renew On-Line is an edited, text only, version of parts of the News sections of RENEW, the
journal of NATTA, the independent national UK Network for Alternative Technology and
Technology Assessment. Members include the Energy and Environment Research Unit
(EERU) and the Open University.
CADDET provides international information on renewable energy on full-scale commercial
projects which are operating in the member countries, currently Australia, Belgium,
Denmark, Finland, Japan, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, United
States and the European Commission (DGXVII - Energy). The CADDET programme covers
the full range of renewable energy technologies.
EuroREX (European Renewable Energy Exchange) is an on-line commercial information
service and newsletter created by a network of energy experts from 30 European
countries. Its aim is to provide up-to-date information on renewables directly from
professionals working in the field. European Renewable Energy exchange
Solstice is the Internet information service of the Renewable Energy Policy Project and the
Center for Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technology (REPP-CREST). Sustainable
energy and development information as well as renewable energy, energy efficiency and
sustainable living
World-wide Information System for Renewable Energy (WIRE).
Wind Engineering. A bi-monthly journal which publishes technical papers on all aspects of
wind energy systems.

Places to visit in the United Kingdom


The Centre for Alternative Technology in Wales is an educational charity striving to achieve
the best cooperation between the natural, technological and human worlds. CAT tests, lives
with and displays strategies and tools for doing this. CAT has it's own wind turbine as part of
their work for a sustainable future.
The EcoTech Centre at Swaffham in Norfolk is an educational charity which aims to stimulate
and inform people about the need for sustainable development. The Centre grounds include
organic gardens, a biomass power station and one of the largest wind turbines in the world.
The Earth Centre at Doncaster encompasses a range of environmental exhibitions and
activities. Tel 01709 512000 for further information.

The Gaia Energy Centre in Cornwall is a centre for the promotion of, and education about,
renewable and sustainable energy and energy conservation.
Many wind farms have visitor centres or opportunities to see the turbines at closer range.
Specific details can be found in our map of wind farms of the UK.

Scientific and research institutions


The Wind Turbine Research Group at Cranfield Universtity.
Institute for Wind Energy at Delft University of Technology in The Netherlands.
National Wind Technology Center at The National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The U.S.
Department of Energy's premier laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency
research, development and deployment.
Risoe National Laboratory Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics department.The research
of the department aims develop new opportunities for industry and society in the exploitation
of wind power and to map and alleviate atmospheric aspects of environmental problems in
collaboration with the National Environmental Research Institute.
The Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN is the leading institute for energy
research in the Netherlands. Research is carried out under contract from the government and
from national and foreign organisations and industries. ECN's activities are concentrated in
six priority areas: solar energy, wind energy, biomass, clean fossil, energy efficiency, and
policy studies.
Wind Energy Technology at Sandia National Laboratories. Applied research in aerodynamics,
structural dynamics, fatigue, materials, manufacturing, controls, and systems integration to
understand unsolved technology problems and to provide better design tools. New efforts
investigate how rare atmospheric events can impact wind turbine long-term structural integrity
and how advanced data handling techniques can be successfully applied to the difficult field
environment of operating wind turbines.
Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) - science and technology solutions for the global
energy industry.

General wind power links


www.countryguardian.net
Country Guardian is a UK conservation group focused on the environmental damage caused
by commercial windfarms in areas of national or local landscape value. It is not opposed to
wind energy as such, but in practice almost all onshore sites which are windy enough are
environmentally sensitive.
www.cefncroes.org.uk
Cefn Croes Wind Farm Campaign - An American backed company, the Renewable
Development Company (RDC), wishes to build Britains largest wind power station yet in the
heart of Mid Wales. RDC proposes to build 39 enormous turbines on Cefn Croes, a wild
expanse of upland above the villages of Cymystwyth.
www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf10.htm
Renewable Energy and Electricity - good article on the alternatives to fossil fuels in electricity
generation - Technology to utilise the forces of nature for doing work to supply human needs
is as old as the first sailing ship. There is a fundamental attractiveness about harnessing such
forces in an age which is very conscious of the environmental effects of burning fossil fuels.
www.cprw.org.uk/press/pressind.htm
Campaign for the Protection of Rural Wales - Index of Press Notices - Includes several press
notices on the subject of wind turbines in Wales.
www.natwindpower.co.uk/northhoyle/northhoyle.htm
National Wind Power (NWP) is proposing to develop a wind farm off the North Wales coast.
The proposed project, known as North Hoyle Offshore Wind Farm (North Hoyle), is situated 45 miles off the coast between Prestatyn and Rhyl and will consist of 30 wind turbines with a
total installed capacity of between 60-90MW.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/uk/wales/newsid_1432000/1432541.stm
Wind farm plans scrapped - Company withdraws its plans for 26 turbines - Controversial
plans for a 30m wind farm development on Denbigh Moors have been scrapped after rare
birds were found on the site.

www.offshorewindfarms.co.uk
With the first offshore wind turbines in the UK already generating electricity at ~5p per unit,
the further development of the offshore wind industry is an exciting prospect, and one which
will see significant growth over the next decade.
www.cru.uea.ac.uk/~mikes/norfolk/wind/
Norfolk wind turbines - A total of 853 turbines currently produce 405 megawatts of electricity
in the UK, enough to meet the needs of quarter of a million homes annually (BWEA). Norfolk
generates 5.25 megawatts (about 1.3% of total UK production, versus about 1.2% of UK
population.)
www.britishwindenergy.co.uk
British Wind Industry Association - With a membership of over 500, including more than 180
corporate members, generating an annual turnover of 1,000,000 ecus, the BWEA is uniquely
placed to consolidate and extend the wind energy industry in the UK.
www.windpower.org
Danish Wind Industry Association - read about Wind Energy - More than 100 animated pages
and calculators on wind resources, wind turbine technology, economics, and environmental
aspects of wind energy in the Guided Tour section.
www.indianwindpower.com
Indian Wind Turbine Manufacturers Association - Power generation from wind has emerged
as one of the most successful programmes in the renewable energy sector, and has started
making meaningful contributions to the overall power requirements of some States.
news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/uk/england/newsid_1777000/1777268.stm
Wind farm closed after blade snaps - The blade sits at the top of a 93-metre-high column. A
turbine propeller blade has folded in half at the UK's first electricity-generating offshore wind
farm, at Blyth, in Northumberland.
www.dti.gov.uk/renewable/wind.html
Introduction - Wind represents a vast source of energy which man has harnessed for over
2000 years. As the UK is the windiest country in Europe, wind power is one of the UK's most
promising renewable energy technologies and already provides electricity for nearly a quarter
of million homes.
www.natwindpower.co.uk/
As environmental protection and sustainable development are now top priorities world wide,
we all need to consider carefully how the energy that we consume should be produced.
www.cprw.org.uk/wind/windindc.htm
Campaign for the Protection of Rural Wales - Wind Power Generation - CPRW's View: In the
process of encouraging renewable energy Government policies on wind power fail to provide
sufficient recognition of the the need to conserve the landscape and environment of rural
Wales.
www.scotland.gov.uk/news/2001/06/se1472.asp
Scottish Executive - UK'S FIRST WIND TURBINE FACTORY TO BE BUILT IN THE
HIGHLANDS - The UKs first wind turbine factory will be built in Scotland, Highlands and
Islands Minister, Alasdair Morrison announced today. The facility at Machrihanish, near
Campbeltown will create 124 direct jobs and 44 indirect for the local economy.
www.foe.co.uk/pubsinfo/infoteam/pressrel/2001/20010619115149.html
Friends Of the Earth welcomes UK's first wind turbine factory - 19 Jun 2001- 'Swords into
ploughshares' as military base becomes renewable energy plant - Friends of the Earth today
warmly welcomed the announcement by the Scottish Executive and Danish firm Vestas Wind
Systems of the UK's first commercial scale wind turbine plant.
www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4195427,00.html
MoD tries to veto wind farm sites - Trade department's expansion of renewable energy
undermined by its backing for RAF objections to onshore and offshore plants
www.cprw.org.uk/press/pn250102.htm

Cefn Croes Ceredigion: Conservation groups call for Public Inquiry into UK's biggest wind
power station. Today, six major conservation bodies, with a joint membership in Wales of
many thousands, sent a letter to The Rt. Hon. Patricia Hewitt MP, Secretary of State for Trade
and Industry protesting "in the strongest possible terms" about the declaration of the Energy
Secretary.
education.guardian.co.uk/higher/engineering/story/0,9840,653199,00.html
Cold blow - Wednesday February 20, 2002 - For some, they are blights on a glorious
landscape; for others, they mean clean energy and economic lifelines for rural communities.
John Vidal looks at the battle over windfarms in mid-Wales.
www.sustdev.org/energy/articles/energy/edition2/index.shtml
An Assessment of the Impact of Wind Turbines on Birds at Ten Windfarm Sites in the UK by
Ruth Thomas, University College London, UK
American Wind Energy Association (AWEA)
Since 1974, AWEA has advocated the development of wind energy as a reliable,
environmentally superior energy alternative in the United States and around the world.
AWEA's Green Power Factsheets provide answers to basic questions about Green Power,
including what it is, the rationale for purchasing it, and procedures for buying it.
Choosing a Home-Sized Wind Generator
The August/September 2002 issue of Home Power Magazine is a must-read for anyone
contemplating installing a wind generator. Home Power leads the reader through all the steps
necessary to arrive at the answer to this key question about wind systems: which one should
you choose. The entire 17-page article can be downloaded from Home Powers website.
Consumer's Guide to Renewable Energy in Arkansas
While intended for Arkansas residents and businesses, much of the information presented in
this publication also applies to residents in other states. Includes useful information on solar,
wind, and renewable fuels.
Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is recognized as a world leader in creating
science and technology solutions for the energy industry and for the benefit of the public.
EPRI's technical program spans virtually every aspect of power generation, delivery, and use,
including environmental considerations. The organization serves more than 1,000 energy
organizations worldwide and draws on a global network of technical and business expertise to
help solve energy problems.
Energy Resources Research Laboratory (ERRL)
The ERRL at Oregon State University has managed the data collection, quality assurance,
and analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration's wind energy resource studies since
1978 and manages other data management activities for transmission line research. It
maintains a large data base of wind data for the Pacific Northwest. This web page
summarizes the wind statistics of the five Bonneville Power Administration's long-term wind
monitoring sites in the Pacific Northwest.
Guided Tour on Wind Energy
Switch to the UK flag for the English website. Want to know where wind energy comes from?
Want to learn about the Coriolis Force, global winds, geostrophic wind, wind speed
measurement, the wind rose, wind shear, and wind shade? Need to find a wind shade
calculator, information about wind turbine components, rotor blades, and wind energy
economics? Answers to all your questions about wind energy can be found at the Danish
Wind Turbine Manufacturers Associations Guided Tour on Wind Energy. The website
includes wind resource calculators and features more than 100 animated pages on wind
resources, wind turbine technology, and economics. Each of the nine tours is a self-contained
unit, so you may take the tours in any order.
Minnesotans for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ME3) website provides many pages of
wind energy information, including a wealth of links to utilities, research and other
organizations, wind industry companies, federal government resources and wind energy
publications and miscellaneous information.
Montana Wind Energy Atlas
The Montana Wind Energy Atlas is a comprehensive analysis of wind energy data available
as of 1987. Data collected by a variety of public and private organizations at 158 wind
monitoring sites around Montana were reviewed. Data from 56 sites are analyzed in the Atlas.
Information on the sites and the data collection programs is included. While more data have
been gathered since the Atlas was published, it remains the only publicly available collection
of data from numerous sites. These historical data should be useful for preliminary

identification of potential sites. The Atlas is available on line at the Montana Department of
Environmental Quality Energize Montana website.
National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC)
A U.S. consensus-based collaborative formed in 1994, NWCC identifies issues that affect the
use of wind power, establishes dialogue among key stakeholders, and catalyzes appropriate
activities to support the development of an environmentally, economically, and politically
sustainable commercial market for wind power. NWCC members include representatives from
electric utilities and support organizations, state legislatures, state utility commissions,
consumer advocacy offices, wind equipment suppliers and developers, green power
marketers, environmental organizations, and state and federal agencies.
Wind Energy Basics
Provides information about wind, including how wind turbines work, advantages and
disadvantages of its use, wind energy use throughout history, U.S. wind energy resource
potential, and current research and development.
Renewable Resource Data Center (RReDC)
Provides information on several types of renewable energy resources in the United States, in
the form of publications, data, and maps. An extensive dictionary of renewable energy related
terms is also provided. The News section announces new products on the RReDC, which is
supported by the U. S. Department of Energy's Resource Assessment Program and managed
by the Photovoltaics Technology Division of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable
Energy.
Small Wind Electric Systems A Montana Consumers Guide (PDF)
Learn about small wind systems and whether one is right for you in a this new booklet
published jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Center for Appropriate
Technology, and the Montana Department of Environmental Quality. The booklet includes a
wind resource map of Montana, an explanation of state incentives for installing a wind
system, and a list of contacts for more information.
Small Wind Electric Systems A U. S. Consumers Guide (PDF)
This guide provides basic information you need to answer those questions and to address the
many factors you need to consider to successfully install a small wind energy system and get
maximum production.
Small Wind Energy Systems for the Homeowner
This publication will help you decide whether a wind system is practical for you. It explains the
benefits, helps you assess your wind resource and possible sites, discusses legal and
environmental obstacles, and analyzes economic considerations such as pricing.
Small Wind System Slide Shows
Downloadable slide shows from the American Wind Energy Association.
Solar and Wind Easements
Montana's solar and wind easement provisions allow property owners to create solar and
wind easements for the purpose of protecting and maintaining proper access to sunlight and
wind. While 32 other states have solar easement provisions, only three other states have
created specific provisions for the creation of wind easements. Montana's solar easement law
was enacted in 1979 and the wind easement was enacted in 1983. For more information,
contact Tom Livers, Montana Department of Environmental Quality, at 406-444-6776.
Utility Wind Interest Group (UWIG)
A non-profit corporation whose mission is to accelerate the appropriate integration of wind
power for utility applications through the coordinated efforts and actions of its members, in
collaboration with public and private sector stakeholders. Membership is open to utilities and
other entities that have an interest in wind generation.
What Landowners Need to Know About Attracting Wind Energy Developers to Their
Land in North Dakota
Published by the University of North Dakota at Grand Forks, this brochure can help
Montanans faced with questions about developing wind resources on their land. It includes
partial lists of nonprofit wind energy contacts, websites, and with landowner information.
AWEA's Wind Directory
Search this directory to obtain wind energy services and equipment from companies who
have demonstrated a commitment to wind and renewable technology and adhere to AWEA's
code of business ethics.
Wind Energy Atlas
Estimates wind energy resource for the United States and its territories and indicates general

areas where a high wind resource may exist. This information is valuable to wind energy
developers and potential wind energy users because it allows them to choose a general area
of estimated high wind resource for more detailed examination. A siting document, such as
that written by Hiester and Pennell (1981), can assist a potential user in going from wind
resource assessment to site selection.
Wind Energy Finance Website
Operated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, this website allows users to
calculate online the cost of electricity generated by a wind system. The website lets users
create a new project on screen (or modify an existing project) by entering values for
numerous assumptions step-by-step until enough information has been entered to calculate
the project cost. Projects added or modified are stored convenience and are available the
next time a user logs in.
Wind Energy Potential in the United States
Estimates of the electricity that could potentially be generated by wind power and of the land
area available for wind energy have been calculated for the contiguous United States. The
estimates are based on published wind resource data and exclude windy lands that are not
suitable for development as a result of environmental and land-use considerations.
Wind Potential in the United States: U.S. Wind Maps
Maps showing the U.S. annual wind power resource, annual wind power resource in Alaska
and Hawaii and the percent of U.S. land area with an annual wind resource of Class 3 or
above.
Wind Powering America
A commitment to dramatically increase the use of wind energy in the United States. This
initiative works to establish new sources of income for American farmers, Native Americans,
and other rural landowners, and meet the growing demand for clean sources of electricity.
Website offers a host of useful information on topics such as wind resource assessment,
siting, transmission, economics, utility integration, project development, and policy issues.
Wind Power in Montana
Pages from a Wind Powering America publication that focus on Montana.
Wind Workshop Presentations On Line
Presentation from the Wind Powering Montana Workshop October 3, 2001, in Big Sky.
Translated from PowerPoint into viewable web pages.
Windustry
Focuses on economic development from wind energy, valuation of environmental benefits,
and distributed generation. Windustry promotes wind energy through outreach, educational
materials, and technical assistance to rural landowners, local communities and utilities, and
state, regional, and non-profit collaborations. Website features wind basics, wind
opportunities, wind turbine sites, a wind calculator, curriculum, resource library, and news and
events.

Homebuilt wind turbines


Scoraig Wind Electric
Hugh Piggott's homebuilt wind power homepage. Great information about small-scale wind
power--one of the best websites out there. Lots of interesting pages and links. Blade design
and construction techniques, Tip Speed Ratio explained in plain english, Rotor design info
and other downloads, and pictures and information about Hugh's Brakedrum Windmill. The
newest pages of his site describe in detail the axial flux designs that Hugh is building at his
seminars now, both an 8-foot dia. and 4-foot dia. model. You can order the plans for these
new machines from his site.
WindStuffNow.com
Ed Lenz's excellent homebuilt wind power site. Lots of projects! Alternators from scratch,
converting induction motors to permanent-magnet alternators, useful formulas, blade building,
3-phase explained in plain English, inexpensive blade design software, and more. Really cool
site, with lots of informative pictures too.
Building a Wind Generator from Scratch
Chuck Morrison's highly informative homebuilt windmill site. A 7ft. rotor with lots of pictures
and templates of rotor construction. Powered by a fan motor re-wound into an alternator.
Great project!

Andy Little's Homemade Wind Generator


Uses a homebrew PM alternator based on Hugh Piggott's design. In use for pumping water
electrically. Lots of photos and information about how it was built, very informative site if you
want to build an axial-flux machine from scratch!
Otherpower.com's Homebrew Wind Generators
A collection of all of our experiments with wind power, including our Volvo brake disc wind
generator designs. A great resource for the homebrew wind experimentor, with lots of
informative photos.
Mike Klemen's Wind Generator Page
Lots of information, photos, maintenance logs, reliability reports, windmill sound clips and
data acquisition plots from a variety of working wind installations. A really nice site!
Detronics.net
Wind turbine and wind data acquisition dealer, with a very informative website. He's flying a
Bergey XL.1 and a SWWP Air X at his wind test site, and posts the collected monthly data to
this site, along with solar data. The numbers show very dramatically how important swept
area is!
Paul Gipe's Website
Lots of small- and large-scale wind power articles and information from an expert in the field.
Paul Gipe is also an active participant in the AWEA wind Discussion Board, and has written
excellent books on the subject.
Airheads -- the GarboGen wind generator
The GarboGen is a wind generator designed by Jerry and built by him and many others
worldwide -- made from a surplus garbage disposal motor converted into a permanent
magnet alternator, and plastic blades on a metal hub to drive it. Many detailed pictures on the
site, and the blades and hubs are available for purchase inexpensively.
Savonious Rotor
Savonious Rotor windmill sketches and information from Australia. This windmill design is
built from 55gallon oil drums.
TopGreen.co.uk
Homebuilt brake disc wind turbine information and pictures from the hamlet of Top Green,
Sibthorpe, Nottinghamshire. An excellent array of pictures of every step of the construction
process.
Airheads -- the GarboGen wind generator
The GarboGen is a wind generator designed by Jerry and built by him and many others
worldwide -- made from a surplus garbage disposal motor converted into a permanent
magnet alternator, and plastic blades on a metal hub to drive it. Many detailed pictures on the
site, and the blades and hubs are available for purchase inexpensively.
Steve's Tape Drive Motor Wind Turbine
Lots of great photos and construction details about this working, flying wind turbine made with
a tape drive motor as the generator.
Picoturbine.com
Includes a unique educational windmill kit, wind power books, and Savonius rotor simulator
software, as well as many links.
Dragonfly Power
Home of the Dragonfly Wind Generator, a very interesting design that uses an automotive
alternator and gearing. Neat furling and field control system.
The Back Shed
Homebuilt wind turbine site from an Australian friend from our discussion board. Lots of
pictures and construction details, plus kits for sale based on Fisher-Paykel smartdrive motors
converted to alternators. The kits take care of the complicated metalworking bits for you. This
site is well worth checking out!
http://www.energybook.co.uk
A great website developed by the author of this guide it provides lots of information on
renewable energy and sustainable living
http://www.wxtrade.com
The energybook marketplace - buy and sell renewable energy and sustainable living products
for free. Hundreds of great products.
http://www.ometoremember.co.uk
Web based bookshop selling fiction and non-fiction books including renewable energy books.

--

How To Construct
A CHEAP WIND MACHINE
FOR PUM ING WATER
instructions

for building a Savonius Rotor


for Water Bumping

The Savonius Hotor is a vertical-shaft


winddevelcrpetl by the Finish
engineer.
machine,
S. J. Savonius, during the years 1925-28.
A test program was carried out on this typr
cf machine by the Bract
&search
Institute
to find out its potentialities
for low Cost water
pumping.
From the tests the following
conclusions
can
The Savonius Rotor, although not
be drawn:
as efficient as a windmill
of comparabte size,
lends itself to water pumping for irrigation
in
areas due to its low initial
underdeveloped
cost, simplicity
of materials and construction.
and low maintenance cost.
It will successfully
operate in areas whert*
the wind
speeds are in the region of 8 to 12
mph. and above, and the water level is not more
than
10 to 15 ft. below ground.
The rotor,
drive
and yuml~
are eminently
suitable
for
home construction
by the handyman with
but
a few tools and access to a welding set. It can
be made from a variety of materials at low cost
since no critical machining
is necessary.
The only important
points to be observed in
erecting such a machine
is the proper
choicr
of the site and careful assessment of the average
wind-speeds. From this information
the tlrouer
pump size and stroke can be Chosen from the
graphs at the back of this pamphlet. It will also
be necessary to provide
some sort of water
storage into which water can be pumped at good
wind-speeds aud later used for irrigation
when
needed. The bigger
tbe storage capacity the
more flexible the system becomes.
The rotor
described here is the one used
for all the tests carried out at the Brace Research
Institute and was built from locally (Barbados)
available
materials in a small workshop
with
unskilled labor at very low cost.
The whole pumping system comprises 3 units:
The rotor, the drive and the pump.
Each unit will be dealt with separately. These
instructions
apply to the type built at Brace,
but it is left to the builders ingenuity to subatitute other materials or processes of ronstruction to suit local conditions. The only
important measurements
to be adhered
to are the
proportions
in
of the rotor
itself. as shown
Fig. 1.

1. The Rotor
tt Consists of two 45 gallon uit drums, bisected
leugthwise
and welded
together to form two
troughs.
(Fig.
2). These two troughs
arc
mounted betwetn two end plates, made from of

Fig.

plywood, 48 diameter.
They can both be cut
frbni one siuglc sheet of standard
plywood.
which measures 48 ins. by 9ti ins. The dimensions for mounting the drum halves are given
in Fig. 1. The ends of the oil drums are simply
bolted to the wooden disks with 3/8 in. stnve
and nuts. The shaft
through
bolts, washers
the renter of the rotor is l-1/4 in. It) water
pipe, which should extend about (i ins. beyond
either
end of the rnd plates. To secure the
shalt to the end plates two flanged collars arc
used, as shown in Fig. 3. They should bc ;I snuct
fit on the outside of the shaft. They :IW btrltc*tl
to the plywood witlr 4 bolts, and after inserting
the shaft, are drilled and secured to it with
:I
S/4 in. bolt. spring wnshcr and nut. To sutrtmrl

..
METWOO !%R BALAYCY~
Fig. 3.

Fijr.

Romp.
5 .

Fig. 4,

Before
nrounting this rutor in tlir
franlv il
mud be rarefully
balanced to itvoid vibriilions
at high speeds. This is easily rlun~ by pluciw
the assembled rotor horixontallp
on twit Irvel
tirarght a%&% aad adding wei@& to the circomference in the center of the rotor,
until
prdect balance is achieved.
(See Fig. 5).

THE
FRAME
The frame consisls of four pieces of 4 in, by
as shown in Fig. 6. The joints
2 in. timber,
should be securely bolted with gusset plates, to
make it as stiff as possible. It must be steadied
with
wire
guys, securely
anchored
to the
ground
and tensioned by turnbuckles.
The
lower cross member should be about 6 ft. above
the ground, but can be Inore if practicable.

k--RAhE 4~
Fig. 6.

WtREs

The

2.

-__ -Colwrcmc ROD

~XCCNI

YB

Drive

It consists of the krcentric.


horizontal
conrod.
neoting rod, brll rrank and vertical pun~p
See Fig. 7.
tilt* rccc~nlril~ 14 ;I t)irc*c* 4&f sl~c*l. Imrmt 141fil
flw
c-utl of I!w 1owc.r ;ulal)tor aucl sccurc+d to it
by II Illrough
boll. liu~ frlrc* is clriltrd
and
Iaptml 141reccGvc* ii holl which must br a good
fit in the bore* of lhc tmtt bearing, forming the
is 7/32 ins. which
big encl. Thr erceutricity
gives H htrokc ~tf i/l(i
in. !-he blg ecr! of the
connecting
rod is ;I ball bearing, *h in. bore,
which is held in a split fitting
attached to the
or
rod. The ronnecting
rod of a motorcycle
small c:lr &gine \vill do nicely for this purpose.
Cut the sbarrk off i~nrl weld a piecc Of 1 in. Ill
the
tubihg lo it. about ti ins. long to receive
wooden ronnpc4iug rtr~l. (Fig. XC).

DPIVEAsscien
Fig. 7.

a.

ADXJSTABLE

&

PUMPS

t?H?K~hlb

CONNECTING ROD FOW lh.

c.

CONNECTING

Rob t%
Fig. N

END

backlash. lhpre should also be an oil hose for


Thr overall
lubrication.
width of the hushes
must be a closr fit in
thP fork to preevnt any
side play.

S~IICT 11~~putnp is :I 5iuglr uVt1ug diaphragm


pulll(~. the two actuating rods arr only in tcnn~nde of ~ootl.
I in.
sirm, ;Incl :IW thrrmcfow
SIIIU!~
c*crrutricit?;
:rnd
the
\Villi
lhr
S~lUi~lY.
fiesitrility
td
!h
wocbli
il is nut necessary
crank
to I~:IVV :I univc~rsal joint ilt the beI1
counccting rod carries
a
woollall
iWil. :hi
wifh :I good fitting
pin
rntl.
fork on its wdl
in the upper arm
of I& in. tli;l. through ;I hole
The pump rod is a similar
of the bell crank.
oiecc of 1 is. square \voort with an adjustab!e
fork zsd on top. Refer to Figs. 8A and 86,
which are self-explanatory.
The bell crank is made from a piece of l/4
in. steel plate, cut as shown in Fig. 9. The
with welded
bosses :IS
holes
are reinforced
and drilled
after welding.
If possible
shown
these bearing holes should be bushed with a
bronze bush, this will
increase the lit% of the
pin ;rncl tirevent the system from developing

3. The PlJrnD
II-it!
pullIt)
sheeted for this applicaliou
is a
single acting diaphragm pump. This design has
been chosen because it is simple to build, with
tllil~llillilig
rc:tuirrd.
It
is
pmctical!v
Iriiniliiuiil
nl:iilitenaiirc
II-CT
cehrap. All pipe eon:IIICI
it
is
uipples
iic~clicms ilW stantl;irci 1 inch watrr-pipe
kklbnws. Th? valves can be any com:llltl
nlerci;lllu
;Ivailable type of non-return
valve.
The pump itself is mounted just below wutrl
level
I fully subrurrgetl)
so that there is no
the rod on the suction stroke.
cwlllprcssitrn
in
slmr~l~l
bc* fitted on the intake valve to
.\ srrwn
prt~verlt foreign malt~~r entering the pump. The
cliafihragui
is ~.~actefruur a piece of inner trite,
t/32 to l/U in. thick. Ihc flange should bv at

Fig

9.

._._-_PUMP

ROD

Fig . Iti
ltwsl
l-l/4 in. witlc
:mcl lakri: # bolts around
the circunlfwrnw,
to enswe n good senl.
As cm be .see11 in Figs. 10 unrl 11. the PUIIIP
is inverted,
the diaphragm
being
operated
throutfh a stirrup attached
to the pump
rod.
This gives the tnuutr greater flexibility
and is
siiuplcr than Icarlinrc the rod through the puurt~

fhc tliwrnhions
of thr lmmp arc not
tuo witic3l
cmcc* the ttianwtcr and strtrkrn havr
been detcrtninecl.
The stirrut) must he itimen
~ionc~l SO that it provides H definite stop cm the
up ;Intl cl6bwn strakr. This will prevent damage
10 the cli:lptrrtigm
during
hnnclling and instab
laticrn.

c~ll;lllllIw.

---- SHEET

HET~C BRAC.KET,

WEIDEDT~ STIRQUP.

A.055

D &MN.

FiH. II.

The main
body of the pump consists of u
piece of pipe or welded ring, closed at one end
:I welded flange on the other.
A
and having
flange ring povides the clamping of the rubber
diaphragm.
See Fig. 11. Two 1 inch water-pipr
nipples arc welded on each side for thr
inlet
and outlet valv(*s. The two discs supportiug the
rubber diaphragm
-were made from Tufnol.
impregnated
fnbrir,
hul any
:I
hard,
resin
similar hard r~ialcrial can be used, f*ven I~arflwood will do. if nothing else ran hr- lwwurett.
Thr cleamncr between discs and putnl~-body is
0.055D and thr inside corners of tbc discs must
be well rounded to prevent cutiixg tlrt* rubber
on thr up and down sir&e.
This is very inlportant. When nsscmbling
the pump,
sealingcompound
is applied
to the rubber between
the discs and the flanges to assure a good seal.
The mounting bar on top of the housing
must
be very stiff and can be (tither welded or bolted
to the top platr. If bolts are used they must he
a good fit and should have copper washers to
insure against leaks. it is most important when
mounting
the pump in the well, to secure the
mounting bar vtary firmly either by concreting,
or bolting to :t couple of cross-timbers in lhc
well. lhe tension forces in the pump-rod are in
the rcginn of 21Ml Ihs. and at high revolutions
this hanlnlrring
will
SOOII shake loose a weak
The pump-rod
should be left longer
mounting.
h-fortmounting
thr
than Ihr required lrngth
After the lmn11, h:is been
pump in tlie well.
installctl am: the bell crank is nlountrtl on thr
frame, lhe i*rll crank is brought to its neutr;lI
position
awl the adjustable fork end of the
pump-rod to hallway on the thread. The rod is
now cut so that it will fit fully into the tube of
the fork,
drilledaud
secured with 4 holts, ah
shown in Fig. 8A. Now the pun~p-rod is pulled
up against
the stop, the eccentric tnrnrcl
to
full stroke and the fork adjusted so thal the pin
goes freely lhrough the hole in 111~ Iwll
Crth.
Now turn the fork nnnthrr one and a half turns

sch.1
the head of wzitcr to
i:; 11~~ vcrtirnl
tlist:l:i~*c~
IJCt\wt*ll
the water Iwc4 ili the Wdl. ;rnd the oiillct
in the rcscrvo,ir. lhc grilpll is alrcacly c*cbrrected
for the dynamic head. which inc!uf!rs
the
friclion in thr pipe ibnd thtb va1~cx From t!lr head
of wuter on the left scale drtiv: a horizontal
linr until
it intersects, the apl>ropri;ltr
wind
speett corye and draw :I sertirnl line through
lhis point.
This will intersect
eve of the fmw
straight
lines marked:
Pump 1. 2, 3. and 4.
Each is !;or one IJUIIII,
of a given tiiametm and
gives on the right hand scalr the proper stroke
for this particular
I~III~~J and I:PYI combination.
OH

gr:Iph

So.

be pumped.

1.

This

Eruniple:
(Follow dotted iinr 011 graph)
He:id 15 ft. windspeed 10 III~*I.
Draw liorizontal
line at 15 ft. head.
with 10 Illlrh. rnrve
draw
At intrsection
VcrtiCill

line.

It intersects str;iight
liiw of pump 2
l+orn this poinl llril\V
horizont;ll
line to the
right hand. stroke-?.ciilc.
This gives 4 stroke of 0.M in.
The pump has to operate
at thi:: stroke
bw
give the best clffirienry
of the rotor.
To obtain
this
stroke from
the bell
crank, pmcced
as
follows: lhc ratios of strnkc ?nrl distancr from
pivot are rqii:il.
I).J.?75:~I-=O.M:x
I?creforf* :
s---

(ixll..Xi
(L.4375

77
.

rhe horizontal :\rnI of the! hell crank will


have to be 7.7 ins long to give :I pump stroke
nf 0.56 in. Fig 9.
The bntlom scale of Graph Ne!. 1 gives the
xtuai
volume in cubic* ins. per stroke pumped
at various wind spcctls.
This inakrs il pf~ssihlc tn tlcterminr
the size
iIII(I
stroke of any
other
:lVilihbk
such
Imlnp,
ns
;I piston
pump.
Find the* hcatl to 1)~ l~u~nprrl and Ihe wind
speefl as hcfore,
draw :I vertical line from this
point tu the bottom
w11e and read the volume
per stroke. Divide
Illis volume hy Ihe piston
area and this will hr the stroke required.
lf. fnr t~Xillllpl~.
a piston ~JUIII~ of 2 in. diaincter 1~cix a~nilat~lc thr hc;ld is again I.i ft.
r:>d the \vinrl SIYCCC~ IO lrlph..
cnntir?rrt:
the

vertical dotted lint tcl fhe base scalr and read


13.3 divided
by 3.14
off 13.3 Cu. ins./strokc.
(artla of piston) gives a sforke of 4.23 ins.
11) obtain
this slrokc III 1.23 ins. from
Ihe
hrll rrank. il ~trultl
IW ;ItlVisablr to alter the
er:.clnlricily
10 NISI 11 IIIWC suitnblr radio :\I fho
Itc41 (*rank. If 1h(* carrrntricity
is marIt* Si in..
Ihen the stroke of the ccmnccting rod bcromrs
I in. This leavrs A ratio of 1 4.23 at the bell
crank, which could br divided intct in vertical
leg of, say, 2?4 ins., and a Iiorizontal leg of
IO.58 ins. long. The hell crank
would have to
be shaped to conform to these measurements.
If a piston, pump is used for this purpose. it
must be a single arting pump, mounted below
water level and operated so that the pump rod
is only in tension. This will assure that there are
no problems either due to buckling of the pump
rod and connecting rod, or trouble with priming of the pump.

Estimating

the Output

of the Pump

(iraph No. 2, Curve A. gives the output of thr


pu111p at the srlcctrtl
(rated) windspcrtl
for the
sitr in clueslion, when pumping against H head
of 111feet. Tlic output ;8t the rat14 wintlspee(l
when
pumrtina
ilpainsl
a hcatl dthrr than
calrUliltt*tl
from (:urvc X by
II! feet may bk
simlllr
proportion.
For rxaniplc,
the piiml~
selected
from
(iraph
which has already heen
No. 1, to pump against a bead of 15 fee1 most
efficiently
in a windspeed
of 10 mph..
will
have an output at 10 mph. of
10
\V := 272 X. - = 181 Inlprrial
~:;lll~Jns l,lr
15
hour.
Note that. at windspeeds other than the rated
windspeed, the pump will give,=an output SOIIWwhat lower than the figure read froul Curve A
of Graph No. 2. :IS it will no longrr be operating at its best efficiency.
For rxample.
the
performance of a particular
pump is indicated
hy Curve B on Graph No. 2, which refers to a
putnl, with a bore of 7-l/4 in. and :I stroke of
7/1fi in. The stroke has bern selcrtrd to give
optimum
performance
at -a windspeed of 9.2
and Cnrve B coincides with
Curve A pt
wh.,
this windspeed.
However.
as thv wintlspced
increases (or decreasrs)
progressively
beyond
the rated windspeed
of Q.2 mph.. the rclativc
performance
of ?hr pump drops off and the
actual output,
read from
Curve 8, becomes $1
progressively
smaller fraction
of lhe optimum
output. read from Curve A.

Pumping at Heads of More Than 30 Feet


In this
:eaflct
consideration
has brrn
t-cstrirted
to a very
low cost pump) :~ntl thr
simplest farm of power transmission
system.
The equipment described ubovc has been tested
when pumping against hinds of up to 30 feet.

It is rxtrctnrly
tliflirul1
18, tlrfinc the ;ic2ual
rest of ;I prcljccnl II~V this in tlclll;irs ;1nd c-ruts.
As in an> l)o.lt-\l,rll.srlf
llrnj,~rl,
the biqcrsl
part nf the job is the labour. which is assu~rd
lo bc frw.
Drlwl~tlirlg
OII tllc skill,
I)atirrCc
and resources 4 the home-l:uild~~r. even the
Cost of tllr Inatc*rials can v:lrv ronGdrmbly.
In thr prolotypr
clc~srribrd
hcrr. only
the
ball bearings, WKMI Ior thr lramr, and plywond
for the rotor WPW purchased nrw. All
nthrr
matrrial
was fwntl
:lrnund
the p!nrr. The bark
of a garage or sm:~ll machinp shop is usually :I
good place to look for things like
pircrs of
If rrn wrlding
equippipe. angles, bolls, etr.
ment is at hand, all the pirres to hr welded
should be carrfully
prcpnred. wired or clamped
nearest
welding
and taken tn thr
togetlirr
~1101. If cvcrything
is properly
prepared,
the
actual welding for thr whole iob will nc,t take
longer than I hour. rhc only parts
rrcluirinil
machining
:I.(* thr Shilft ad:il)tors, the etrentric
flanges and tlisrs for thr
for the* rotor, thr
rbthrr work requirrn
a
diaphia~m
~111111~I.
Ail
drill only.
Finally, fit give :I rougl~ idpa of the r:nst. the
main
ih~ms ;Irc listecl
hrrt* as purchased
in
U;irbadoh, in thr cquivalcnt
of I!.!? TIoll:irs:$4 2.m
.
2 Oil tlrums (gnod condition)
2 Self-alignin;!
Hall Wirings.
flange
14.m
..
..
type
7.50
..
..
Mi ft. 2 s 4 Timber
1 ~lwc*l

in. Plywvcwrl

12.50

(4 ft. R 8 ft.)

30 ft. l/R tliilmetcnr (;:ilvanizrd


Stcrl
..
..
..
Wire
..
..
6 l/J s 4 ius. I~II.II I+uckles
7 ft. l-I/J
1.1). \V;itrr
Iipc (Elotrrr
..
..
..
..
shaft)
1 $4 in. I~(IIY 11itll ILring
(big-*ml I
.
1:) ft. Il;lS:iC Iipc~ (rl?*livcry~
Rolts.

Nuts.

\~;~sll~l~s.

c4r.

. .

. .
Tot,11

U.S.

.30
3.30
2.70

1.60
4.1Q
2.00
9 51.00

TECHNICAL NOTESON THE DIAPHRAGMPUMP


1.

The diaphragm should be of fairly


thick rubber
- rubber from heavy truck or tractor
inner tube is good
- rubber that is too thin or too flexible
is not satisfactory
since under a large head the deformation
of the diaphragm
to negate the full diaphragm displacement,

tends

2.

The stroke may well have to be increased to one or tw> inches,


depending on the rubber flexibility,
In order to effect this, it
may be necessary to increase the clearance between the discs and
the pumpbody.

3.

It was found, in practice


in very remote conditions,
that a fair
bit of experimentation
was needed in order to determine the best
location
of the pump relative
to both the source and the
discharge.
This pump is most efficient
when immersed, however
the pressure head then becomes too great and diaphragm deformation
becomes very significant,
For our 4+" pump, a suction head of about
6 to 8 feet with a pressure head of some 8 to 10 feet was felt to be
about thelimiting
conditions,

4.

The pump rod and connecting rod end connections


should be firm.
Any play in these takes away from the length of stroke,

Wind Generator
Savonius Type 12V 200 Watt

http://www.energybook.co.uk
http://www.wxtrade.com
http://www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius Type 200 Watt 12V Wind Generator

Introduction
About the publisher
Richard Jemmetts keen interest in the generation and use of energy has helped to
shape his formal career and provide an incentive to write on the subject. He
graduated from the University of Leeds in 1980 with a degree in fuel and energy
engineering and has held various positions within energy and consultancy companies
working in the UK, Europe the Middle East and Asia. He is a Board Director of two
energy related companies and a past president of the Institution of Gas engineers
and Managers
He has written many articles, essays, and conference presentations on utility industry
strategy, energy industry development, energy market deregulation, renewable
energy, distributed generation and high reliability organisational design.
This ebook and other similar documents can be found at the onetoremember online
bookshop

Your online bookshop for rare, used and new books


Ecology, environment, sustainable living and renewable energy
onetoremember is a family owned business based in Bracknell Berkshire
committed to making small changes towards meeting the big challenge of
sustainable living.

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Disclaimer
The information supplies in this publication has been supplied in all good faith and
believed to be correct. However no liability will be accepted for any accident, damage
or injury caused as a result, or arising from the use of information form this
publication.

Savonius Type 200 Watt 12V Wind Generator


Introduction to the Savonius wind turbine
Wind units can be divided into two major types, horizontal axis and vertical axis machines.
Horizontal machines some times known as HAWT (Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines) are the
traditional conventional design, they consist of a rotor with one to twenty blades driving a
generator or a pump either directly or through a gearbox, chain or belt system. A tail vane or
fantail is required to direct the machine into the wind.

They are usually more efficient than vertical axis units known as VAWT (Vertical Axis
Wind Turbines). Savonius and Darius are two designs of vertical axis machines. This
type of unit is often not situated on a tower and does not have to be directed into the
wind. Materials and construction are usually cheaper than horizontal axis machines.
The Savonius windmill was the brainchild of Sigrid Savonius of Finland. The racing
driver of the 1930s said the secret of a good machine was to "add lightness and
simplicate". A simple unit can be made by attaching two halves of vertically split oil
barrel to a vertical axis this produces a low speed high torque unit that can be used
for pumping water and through a gearing mechanism, generating electricity. This
design also has the advantage of an aerodynamic effect called the "magnus
principal, suction is formed by the air moving over the convex face of the rotor. This
means that there is force acting on the face of the rotor pulling it into the wind.
The most ubiquitous application of the Savonius wind turbine is the Flettner Ventilator
which is commonly seen on the roofs of vans and buses and is used as a cooling
device. The ventilator was developed by the German aircraft engineer Anton Flettner
in the 1920s. It uses the Savonius wind turbine to drive an extractor fan. The vents
are still manufactured in the UK by Flettner Ventilator Limited.
Small Savonius wind turbines are sometimes seen used as advertising signs where
the rotation helps to draw attention to the item advertised.

About these plans


This plan was developed to make use a car alternator maybe not the best generator but
certainly widely available. The plan was originally written Peter Hanbury in the 1970s with the
rights for reproduction bought by Richard Jemmett (then Jemmett Engineering) in the 1980s.
Since then many hundreds have been sold and successfully built. The plan is in its original
form and may be a little difficult to read but if you have any difficulties after printing please
email me plans@onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

Savonius 12V - 200 Watt Wind Generator

www.onetoremember.co.uk

NOTICE
The information contained in this guide has been given in good faith and
is believed to be accurate at the time of writing. Whilst every effort has
been made to obtain the correct information, no liability can be accepted
for any information that is incorrect or misleading.

Website links
Energybook and associated websites
http://www.energybook.co.uk
A great website developed by the author of this guide it provides lots of
information on renewable energy and sustainable living
http://www.wxtrade.com
The energybook marketplace - buy and sell renewable energy and
sustainable living products for free. Hundreds of great products.
http://www.ometoremember.co.uk
Web based bookshop selling fiction and non-fiction books including renewable
energy books.

Wind energy associations


ANEV - associazione nazionale energia del vento (I)
AWEA - American Wind Energy Association (USA)
APPA - Asociacin de Productores de Energas Renovables (ES)
Austrian Wind Energy Association (A)
AUSWEA - Australian Wind Energy Association (AUS)
BWE - Bundesverband Wind Energie e.V., German Wind Energy Association (D)
BWEA - British Wind Energy Association (GB)
CANWEA - Canadian Wind Energy Association (CAN)
Les Compagnons d'Eole (B)
DV - Danmarks Vindmlleforening - Danish Wind Turbine Owners' Association (DK)
Dansk Selskab for Vindenergi (DK)
EOLE (CAN) (pour les francophones)
Estonian Wind Power Association (EST)
EWEA, European Wind Energy Association (EU)
Finnish Wind Power Association (FIN)
Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC)
Vindkraftfreningen Finland, Finnish Wind Energy Association (Swedish language)
IWEA, Irish Wind Energy Association (IE)
New Zealand Wind Energy Association (NZ)
PEE - Plataforma Empresarial Elica (ES)
South African Wind Energy Association (ZA)

Suisse-Eole (CH)
Syndicat des Energies Renouvelables (FR)

Magazines and information services


Windpower Monthly Good international coverage of the wind business.
WindStats Newsletter Articles plus loads of statistics on wind energy production in many parts
of the world.
Wind Directions is the magazine of the European Wind Energy Association, published six
times a year, giving current developments and news on the wind energy industry in
Europe.
Windpower Monthly publishes news and critical analyses of key issues about wind power
and its markets. Includes The Windicator, the renowned page of market indicators, giving
a country by country breakdown of installed capacity.
New Review is the Quarterly Newsletter for the UK New and Renewable Energy Industry,
principally covering: wind, solar, biomass and hydro energy developments. Produced by
ETSU on behalf of the DTI.
WindStats Newsletter is a quarterly international wind energy publication with news,
reviews, wind turbine production and operating data from over 12,000 wind turbines, plus
much more.
Renewable Energy World accentuates the achievements and potential of all forms of
renewable energy sources and the technologies being developed to harness them. In this
on-line version there are full text selected articles, abstracts, back issue information, and
links to all of the other renewable energy information sources at James & James including
its international database of renewable energy suppliers and services.
Renew On-Line is an edited, text only, version of parts of the News sections of RENEW, the
journal of NATTA, the independent national UK Network for Alternative Technology and
Technology Assessment. Members include the Energy and Environment Research Unit
(EERU) and the Open University.
CADDET provides international information on renewable energy on full-scale commercial
projects which are operating in the member countries, currently Australia, Belgium,
Denmark, Finland, Japan, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, United
States and the European Commission (DGXVII - Energy). The CADDET programme covers
the full range of renewable energy technologies.
EuroREX (European Renewable Energy Exchange) is an on-line commercial information
service and newsletter created by a network of energy experts from 30 European
countries. Its aim is to provide up-to-date information on renewables directly from
professionals working in the field. European Renewable Energy exchange
Solstice is the Internet information service of the Renewable Energy Policy Project and the
Center for Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technology (REPP-CREST). Sustainable
energy and development information as well as renewable energy, energy efficiency and
sustainable living
World-wide Information System for Renewable Energy (WIRE).
Wind Engineering. A bi-monthly journal which publishes technical papers on all aspects of
wind energy systems.

Places to visit in the United Kingdom


The Centre for Alternative Technology in Wales is an educational charity striving to achieve
the best cooperation between the natural, technological and human worlds. CAT tests, lives
with and displays strategies and tools for doing this. CAT has it's own wind turbine as part of
their work for a sustainable future.
The EcoTech Centre at Swaffham in Norfolk is an educational charity which aims to stimulate
and inform people about the need for sustainable development. The Centre grounds include
organic gardens, a biomass power station and one of the largest wind turbines in the world.
The Earth Centre at Doncaster encompasses a range of environmental exhibitions and
activities. Tel 01709 512000 for further information.

The Gaia Energy Centre in Cornwall is a centre for the promotion of, and education about,
renewable and sustainable energy and energy conservation.
Many wind farms have visitor centres or opportunities to see the turbines at closer range.
Specific details can be found in our map of wind farms of the UK.

Scientific and research institutions


The Wind Turbine Research Group at Cranfield Universtity.
Institute for Wind Energy at Delft University of Technology in The Netherlands.
National Wind Technology Center at The National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The U.S.
Department of Energy's premier laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency
research, development and deployment.
Risoe National Laboratory Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics department.The research
of the department aims develop new opportunities for industry and society in the exploitation
of wind power and to map and alleviate atmospheric aspects of environmental problems in
collaboration with the National Environmental Research Institute.
The Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN is the leading institute for energy
research in the Netherlands. Research is carried out under contract from the government and
from national and foreign organisations and industries. ECN's activities are concentrated in
six priority areas: solar energy, wind energy, biomass, clean fossil, energy efficiency, and
policy studies.
Wind Energy Technology at Sandia National Laboratories. Applied research in aerodynamics,
structural dynamics, fatigue, materials, manufacturing, controls, and systems integration to
understand unsolved technology problems and to provide better design tools. New efforts
investigate how rare atmospheric events can impact wind turbine long-term structural integrity
and how advanced data handling techniques can be successfully applied to the difficult field
environment of operating wind turbines.
Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) - science and technology solutions for the global
energy industry.

General wind power links


www.countryguardian.net
Country Guardian is a UK conservation group focused on the environmental damage caused
by commercial windfarms in areas of national or local landscape value. It is not opposed to
wind energy as such, but in practice almost all onshore sites which are windy enough are
environmentally sensitive.
www.cefncroes.org.uk
Cefn Croes Wind Farm Campaign - An American backed company, the Renewable
Development Company (RDC), wishes to build Britains largest wind power station yet in the
heart of Mid Wales. RDC proposes to build 39 enormous turbines on Cefn Croes, a wild
expanse of upland above the villages of Cymystwyth.
www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf10.htm
Renewable Energy and Electricity - good article on the alternatives to fossil fuels in electricity
generation - Technology to utilise the forces of nature for doing work to supply human needs
is as old as the first sailing ship. There is a fundamental attractiveness about harnessing such
forces in an age which is very conscious of the environmental effects of burning fossil fuels.
www.cprw.org.uk/press/pressind.htm
Campaign for the Protection of Rural Wales - Index of Press Notices - Includes several press
notices on the subject of wind turbines in Wales.
www.natwindpower.co.uk/northhoyle/northhoyle.htm
National Wind Power (NWP) is proposing to develop a wind farm off the North Wales coast.
The proposed project, known as North Hoyle Offshore Wind Farm (North Hoyle), is situated 45 miles off the coast between Prestatyn and Rhyl and will consist of 30 wind turbines with a
total installed capacity of between 60-90MW.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/uk/wales/newsid_1432000/1432541.stm
Wind farm plans scrapped - Company withdraws its plans for 26 turbines - Controversial
plans for a 30m wind farm development on Denbigh Moors have been scrapped after rare
birds were found on the site.

www.offshorewindfarms.co.uk
With the first offshore wind turbines in the UK already generating electricity at ~5p per unit,
the further development of the offshore wind industry is an exciting prospect, and one which
will see significant growth over the next decade.
www.cru.uea.ac.uk/~mikes/norfolk/wind/
Norfolk wind turbines - A total of 853 turbines currently produce 405 megawatts of electricity
in the UK, enough to meet the needs of quarter of a million homes annually (BWEA). Norfolk
generates 5.25 megawatts (about 1.3% of total UK production, versus about 1.2% of UK
population.)
www.britishwindenergy.co.uk
British Wind Industry Association - With a membership of over 500, including more than 180
corporate members, generating an annual turnover of 1,000,000 ecus, the BWEA is uniquely
placed to consolidate and extend the wind energy industry in the UK.
www.windpower.org
Danish Wind Industry Association - read about Wind Energy - More than 100 animated pages
and calculators on wind resources, wind turbine technology, economics, and environmental
aspects of wind energy in the Guided Tour section.
www.indianwindpower.com
Indian Wind Turbine Manufacturers Association - Power generation from wind has emerged
as one of the most successful programmes in the renewable energy sector, and has started
making meaningful contributions to the overall power requirements of some States.
news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/uk/england/newsid_1777000/1777268.stm
Wind farm closed after blade snaps - The blade sits at the top of a 93-metre-high column. A
turbine propeller blade has folded in half at the UK's first electricity-generating offshore wind
farm, at Blyth, in Northumberland.
www.dti.gov.uk/renewable/wind.html
Introduction - Wind represents a vast source of energy which man has harnessed for over
2000 years. As the UK is the windiest country in Europe, wind power is one of the UK's most
promising renewable energy technologies and already provides electricity for nearly a quarter
of million homes.
www.natwindpower.co.uk/
As environmental protection and sustainable development are now top priorities world wide,
we all need to consider carefully how the energy that we consume should be produced.
www.cprw.org.uk/wind/windindc.htm
Campaign for the Protection of Rural Wales - Wind Power Generation - CPRW's View: In the
process of encouraging renewable energy Government policies on wind power fail to provide
sufficient recognition of the the need to conserve the landscape and environment of rural
Wales.
www.scotland.gov.uk/news/2001/06/se1472.asp
Scottish Executive - UK'S FIRST WIND TURBINE FACTORY TO BE BUILT IN THE
HIGHLANDS - The UKs first wind turbine factory will be built in Scotland, Highlands and
Islands Minister, Alasdair Morrison announced today. The facility at Machrihanish, near
Campbeltown will create 124 direct jobs and 44 indirect for the local economy.
www.foe.co.uk/pubsinfo/infoteam/pressrel/2001/20010619115149.html
Friends Of the Earth welcomes UK's first wind turbine factory - 19 Jun 2001- 'Swords into
ploughshares' as military base becomes renewable energy plant - Friends of the Earth today
warmly welcomed the announcement by the Scottish Executive and Danish firm Vestas Wind
Systems of the UK's first commercial scale wind turbine plant.
www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4195427,00.html
MoD tries to veto wind farm sites - Trade department's expansion of renewable energy
undermined by its backing for RAF objections to onshore and offshore plants
www.cprw.org.uk/press/pn250102.htm

Cefn Croes Ceredigion: Conservation groups call for Public Inquiry into UK's biggest wind
power station. Today, six major conservation bodies, with a joint membership in Wales of
many thousands, sent a letter to The Rt. Hon. Patricia Hewitt MP, Secretary of State for Trade
and Industry protesting "in the strongest possible terms" about the declaration of the Energy
Secretary.
education.guardian.co.uk/higher/engineering/story/0,9840,653199,00.html
Cold blow - Wednesday February 20, 2002 - For some, they are blights on a glorious
landscape; for others, they mean clean energy and economic lifelines for rural communities.
John Vidal looks at the battle over windfarms in mid-Wales.
www.sustdev.org/energy/articles/energy/edition2/index.shtml
An Assessment of the Impact of Wind Turbines on Birds at Ten Windfarm Sites in the UK by
Ruth Thomas, University College London, UK
American Wind Energy Association (AWEA)
Since 1974, AWEA has advocated the development of wind energy as a reliable,
environmentally superior energy alternative in the United States and around the world.
AWEA's Green Power Factsheets provide answers to basic questions about Green Power,
including what it is, the rationale for purchasing it, and procedures for buying it.
Choosing a Home-Sized Wind Generator
The August/September 2002 issue of Home Power Magazine is a must-read for anyone
contemplating installing a wind generator. Home Power leads the reader through all the steps
necessary to arrive at the answer to this key question about wind systems: which one should
you choose. The entire 17-page article can be downloaded from Home Powers website.
Consumer's Guide to Renewable Energy in Arkansas
While intended for Arkansas residents and businesses, much of the information presented in
this publication also applies to residents in other states. Includes useful information on solar,
wind, and renewable fuels.
Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is recognized as a world leader in creating
science and technology solutions for the energy industry and for the benefit of the public.
EPRI's technical program spans virtually every aspect of power generation, delivery, and use,
including environmental considerations. The organization serves more than 1,000 energy
organizations worldwide and draws on a global network of technical and business expertise to
help solve energy problems.
Energy Resources Research Laboratory (ERRL)
The ERRL at Oregon State University has managed the data collection, quality assurance,
and analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration's wind energy resource studies since
1978 and manages other data management activities for transmission line research. It
maintains a large data base of wind data for the Pacific Northwest. This web page
summarizes the wind statistics of the five Bonneville Power Administration's long-term wind
monitoring sites in the Pacific Northwest.
Guided Tour on Wind Energy
Switch to the UK flag for the English website. Want to know where wind energy comes from?
Want to learn about the Coriolis Force, global winds, geostrophic wind, wind speed
measurement, the wind rose, wind shear, and wind shade? Need to find a wind shade
calculator, information about wind turbine components, rotor blades, and wind energy
economics? Answers to all your questions about wind energy can be found at the Danish
Wind Turbine Manufacturers Associations Guided Tour on Wind Energy. The website
includes wind resource calculators and features more than 100 animated pages on wind
resources, wind turbine technology, and economics. Each of the nine tours is a self-contained
unit, so you may take the tours in any order.
Minnesotans for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ME3) website provides many pages of
wind energy information, including a wealth of links to utilities, research and other
organizations, wind industry companies, federal government resources and wind energy
publications and miscellaneous information.
Montana Wind Energy Atlas
The Montana Wind Energy Atlas is a comprehensive analysis of wind energy data available
as of 1987. Data collected by a variety of public and private organizations at 158 wind
monitoring sites around Montana were reviewed. Data from 56 sites are analyzed in the Atlas.
Information on the sites and the data collection programs is included. While more data have
been gathered since the Atlas was published, it remains the only publicly available collection
of data from numerous sites. These historical data should be useful for preliminary

identification of potential sites. The Atlas is available on line at the Montana Department of
Environmental Quality Energize Montana website.
National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC)
A U.S. consensus-based collaborative formed in 1994, NWCC identifies issues that affect the
use of wind power, establishes dialogue among key stakeholders, and catalyzes appropriate
activities to support the development of an environmentally, economically, and politically
sustainable commercial market for wind power. NWCC members include representatives from
electric utilities and support organizations, state legislatures, state utility commissions,
consumer advocacy offices, wind equipment suppliers and developers, green power
marketers, environmental organizations, and state and federal agencies.
Wind Energy Basics
Provides information about wind, including how wind turbines work, advantages and
disadvantages of its use, wind energy use throughout history, U.S. wind energy resource
potential, and current research and development.
Renewable Resource Data Center (RReDC)
Provides information on several types of renewable energy resources in the United States, in
the form of publications, data, and maps. An extensive dictionary of renewable energy related
terms is also provided. The News section announces new products on the RReDC, which is
supported by the U. S. Department of Energy's Resource Assessment Program and managed
by the Photovoltaics Technology Division of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable
Energy.
Small Wind Electric Systems A Montana Consumers Guide (PDF)
Learn about small wind systems and whether one is right for you in a this new booklet
published jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Center for Appropriate
Technology, and the Montana Department of Environmental Quality. The booklet includes a
wind resource map of Montana, an explanation of state incentives for installing a wind
system, and a list of contacts for more information.
Small Wind Electric Systems A U. S. Consumers Guide (PDF)
This guide provides basic information you need to answer those questions and to address the
many factors you need to consider to successfully install a small wind energy system and get
maximum production.
Small Wind Energy Systems for the Homeowner
This publication will help you decide whether a wind system is practical for you. It explains the
benefits, helps you assess your wind resource and possible sites, discusses legal and
environmental obstacles, and analyzes economic considerations such as pricing.
Small Wind System Slide Shows
Downloadable slide shows from the American Wind Energy Association.
Solar and Wind Easements
Montana's solar and wind easement provisions allow property owners to create solar and
wind easements for the purpose of protecting and maintaining proper access to sunlight and
wind. While 32 other states have solar easement provisions, only three other states have
created specific provisions for the creation of wind easements. Montana's solar easement law
was enacted in 1979 and the wind easement was enacted in 1983. For more information,
contact Tom Livers, Montana Department of Environmental Quality, at 406-444-6776.
Utility Wind Interest Group (UWIG)
A non-profit corporation whose mission is to accelerate the appropriate integration of wind
power for utility applications through the coordinated efforts and actions of its members, in
collaboration with public and private sector stakeholders. Membership is open to utilities and
other entities that have an interest in wind generation.
What Landowners Need to Know About Attracting Wind Energy Developers to Their
Land in North Dakota
Published by the University of North Dakota at Grand Forks, this brochure can help
Montanans faced with questions about developing wind resources on their land. It includes
partial lists of nonprofit wind energy contacts, websites, and with landowner information.
AWEA's Wind Directory
Search this directory to obtain wind energy services and equipment from companies who
have demonstrated a commitment to wind and renewable technology and adhere to AWEA's
code of business ethics.
Wind Energy Atlas
Estimates wind energy resource for the United States and its territories and indicates general

areas where a high wind resource may exist. This information is valuable to wind energy
developers and potential wind energy users because it allows them to choose a general area
of estimated high wind resource for more detailed examination. A siting document, such as
that written by Hiester and Pennell (1981), can assist a potential user in going from wind
resource assessment to site selection.
Wind Energy Finance Website
Operated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, this website allows users to
calculate online the cost of electricity generated by a wind system. The website lets users
create a new project on screen (or modify an existing project) by entering values for
numerous assumptions step-by-step until enough information has been entered to calculate
the project cost. Projects added or modified are stored convenience and are available the
next time a user logs in.
Wind Energy Potential in the United States
Estimates of the electricity that could potentially be generated by wind power and of the land
area available for wind energy have been calculated for the contiguous United States. The
estimates are based on published wind resource data and exclude windy lands that are not
suitable for development as a result of environmental and land-use considerations.
Wind Potential in the United States: U.S. Wind Maps
Maps showing the U.S. annual wind power resource, annual wind power resource in Alaska
and Hawaii and the percent of U.S. land area with an annual wind resource of Class 3 or
above.
Wind Powering America
A commitment to dramatically increase the use of wind energy in the United States. This
initiative works to establish new sources of income for American farmers, Native Americans,
and other rural landowners, and meet the growing demand for clean sources of electricity.
Website offers a host of useful information on topics such as wind resource assessment,
siting, transmission, economics, utility integration, project development, and policy issues.
Wind Power in Montana
Pages from a Wind Powering America publication that focus on Montana.
Wind Workshop Presentations On Line
Presentation from the Wind Powering Montana Workshop October 3, 2001, in Big Sky.
Translated from PowerPoint into viewable web pages.
Windustry
Focuses on economic development from wind energy, valuation of environmental benefits,
and distributed generation. Windustry promotes wind energy through outreach, educational
materials, and technical assistance to rural landowners, local communities and utilities, and
state, regional, and non-profit collaborations. Website features wind basics, wind
opportunities, wind turbine sites, a wind calculator, curriculum, resource library, and news and
events.

Homebuilt wind turbines


Scoraig Wind Electric
Hugh Piggott's homebuilt wind power homepage. Great information about small-scale wind
power--one of the best websites out there. Lots of interesting pages and links. Blade design
and construction techniques, Tip Speed Ratio explained in plain english, Rotor design info
and other downloads, and pictures and information about Hugh's Brakedrum Windmill. The
newest pages of his site describe in detail the axial flux designs that Hugh is building at his
seminars now, both an 8-foot dia. and 4-foot dia. model. You can order the plans for these
new machines from his site.
WindStuffNow.com
Ed Lenz's excellent homebuilt wind power site. Lots of projects! Alternators from scratch,
converting induction motors to permanent-magnet alternators, useful formulas, blade building,
3-phase explained in plain English, inexpensive blade design software, and more. Really cool
site, with lots of informative pictures too.
Building a Wind Generator from Scratch
Chuck Morrison's highly informative homebuilt windmill site. A 7ft. rotor with lots of pictures
and templates of rotor construction. Powered by a fan motor re-wound into an alternator.
Great project!

Andy Little's Homemade Wind Generator


Uses a homebrew PM alternator based on Hugh Piggott's design. In use for pumping water
electrically. Lots of photos and information about how it was built, very informative site if you
want to build an axial-flux machine from scratch!
Otherpower.com's Homebrew Wind Generators
A collection of all of our experiments with wind power, including our Volvo brake disc wind
generator designs. A great resource for the homebrew wind experimentor, with lots of
informative photos.
Mike Klemen's Wind Generator Page
Lots of information, photos, maintenance logs, reliability reports, windmill sound clips and
data acquisition plots from a variety of working wind installations. A really nice site!
Detronics.net
Wind turbine and wind data acquisition dealer, with a very informative website. He's flying a
Bergey XL.1 and a SWWP Air X at his wind test site, and posts the collected monthly data to
this site, along with solar data. The numbers show very dramatically how important swept
area is!
Paul Gipe's Website
Lots of small- and large-scale wind power articles and information from an expert in the field.
Paul Gipe is also an active participant in the AWEA wind Discussion Board, and has written
excellent books on the subject.
Airheads -- the GarboGen wind generator
The GarboGen is a wind generator designed by Jerry and built by him and many others
worldwide -- made from a surplus garbage disposal motor converted into a permanent
magnet alternator, and plastic blades on a metal hub to drive it. Many detailed pictures on the
site, and the blades and hubs are available for purchase inexpensively.
Savonious Rotor
Savonious Rotor windmill sketches and information from Australia. This windmill design is
built from 55gallon oil drums.
TopGreen.co.uk
Homebuilt brake disc wind turbine information and pictures from the hamlet of Top Green,
Sibthorpe, Nottinghamshire. An excellent array of pictures of every step of the construction
process.
Airheads -- the GarboGen wind generator
The GarboGen is a wind generator designed by Jerry and built by him and many others
worldwide -- made from a surplus garbage disposal motor converted into a permanent
magnet alternator, and plastic blades on a metal hub to drive it. Many detailed pictures on the
site, and the blades and hubs are available for purchase inexpensively.
Steve's Tape Drive Motor Wind Turbine
Lots of great photos and construction details about this working, flying wind turbine made with
a tape drive motor as the generator.
Picoturbine.com
Includes a unique educational windmill kit, wind power books, and Savonius rotor simulator
software, as well as many links.
Dragonfly Power
Home of the Dragonfly Wind Generator, a very interesting design that uses an automotive
alternator and gearing. Neat furling and field control system.
The Back Shed
Homebuilt wind turbine site from an Australian friend from our discussion board. Lots of
pictures and construction details, plus kits for sale based on Fisher-Paykel smartdrive motors
converted to alternators. The kits take care of the complicated metalworking bits for you. This
site is well worth checking out!
http://www.energybook.co.uk
A great website developed by the author of this guide it provides lots of information on
renewable energy and sustainable living
http://www.wxtrade.com
The energybook marketplace - buy and sell renewable energy and sustainable living products
for free. Hundreds of great products.
http://www.ometoremember.co.uk
Web based bookshop selling fiction and non-fiction books including renewable energy books.

--

How To Construct
A CHEAP WIND MACHINE
FOR PUM ING WATER
instructions

for building a Savonius Rotor


for Water Bumping

The Savonius Hotor is a vertical-shaft


winddevelcrpetl by the Finish
engineer.
machine,
S. J. Savonius, during the years 1925-28.
A test program was carried out on this typr
cf machine by the Bract
&search
Institute
to find out its potentialities
for low Cost water
pumping.
From the tests the following
conclusions
can
The Savonius Rotor, although not
be drawn:
as efficient as a windmill
of comparabte size,
lends itself to water pumping for irrigation
in
areas due to its low initial
underdeveloped
cost, simplicity
of materials and construction.
and low maintenance cost.
It will successfully
operate in areas whert*
the wind
speeds are in the region of 8 to 12
mph. and above, and the water level is not more
than
10 to 15 ft. below ground.
The rotor,
drive
and yuml~
are eminently
suitable
for
home construction
by the handyman with
but
a few tools and access to a welding set. It can
be made from a variety of materials at low cost
since no critical machining
is necessary.
The only important
points to be observed in
erecting such a machine
is the proper
choicr
of the site and careful assessment of the average
wind-speeds. From this information
the tlrouer
pump size and stroke can be Chosen from the
graphs at the back of this pamphlet. It will also
be necessary to provide
some sort of water
storage into which water can be pumped at good
wind-speeds aud later used for irrigation
when
needed. The bigger
tbe storage capacity the
more flexible the system becomes.
The rotor
described here is the one used
for all the tests carried out at the Brace Research
Institute and was built from locally (Barbados)
available
materials in a small workshop
with
unskilled labor at very low cost.
The whole pumping system comprises 3 units:
The rotor, the drive and the pump.
Each unit will be dealt with separately. These
instructions
apply to the type built at Brace,
but it is left to the builders ingenuity to subatitute other materials or processes of ronstruction to suit local conditions. The only
important measurements
to be adhered
to are the
proportions
in
of the rotor
itself. as shown
Fig. 1.

1. The Rotor
tt Consists of two 45 gallon uit drums, bisected
leugthwise
and welded
together to form two
troughs.
(Fig.
2). These two troughs
arc
mounted betwetn two end plates, made from of

Fig.

plywood, 48 diameter.
They can both be cut
frbni one siuglc sheet of standard
plywood.
which measures 48 ins. by 9ti ins. The dimensions for mounting the drum halves are given
in Fig. 1. The ends of the oil drums are simply
bolted to the wooden disks with 3/8 in. stnve
and nuts. The shaft
through
bolts, washers
the renter of the rotor is l-1/4 in. It) water
pipe, which should extend about (i ins. beyond
either
end of the rnd plates. To secure the
shalt to the end plates two flanged collars arc
used, as shown in Fig. 3. They should bc ;I snuct
fit on the outside of the shaft. They :IW btrltc*tl
to the plywood witlr 4 bolts, and after inserting
the shaft, are drilled and secured to it with
:I
S/4 in. bolt. spring wnshcr and nut. To sutrtmrl

..
METWOO !%R BALAYCY~
Fig. 3.

Fijr.

Romp.
5 .

Fig. 4,

Before
nrounting this rutor in tlir
franlv il
mud be rarefully
balanced to itvoid vibriilions
at high speeds. This is easily rlun~ by pluciw
the assembled rotor horixontallp
on twit Irvel
tirarght a%&% aad adding wei@& to the circomference in the center of the rotor,
until
prdect balance is achieved.
(See Fig. 5).

THE
FRAME
The frame consisls of four pieces of 4 in, by
as shown in Fig. 6. The joints
2 in. timber,
should be securely bolted with gusset plates, to
make it as stiff as possible. It must be steadied
with
wire
guys, securely
anchored
to the
ground
and tensioned by turnbuckles.
The
lower cross member should be about 6 ft. above
the ground, but can be Inore if practicable.

k--RAhE 4~
Fig. 6.

WtREs

The

2.

-__ -Colwrcmc ROD

~XCCNI

YB

Drive

It consists of the krcentric.


horizontal
conrod.
neoting rod, brll rrank and vertical pun~p
See Fig. 7.
tilt* rccc~nlril~ 14 ;I t)irc*c* 4&f sl~c*l. Imrmt 141fil
flw
c-utl of I!w 1owc.r ;ulal)tor aucl sccurc+d to it
by II Illrough
boll. liu~ frlrc* is clriltrd
and
Iaptml 141reccGvc* ii holl which must br a good
fit in the bore* of lhc tmtt bearing, forming the
is 7/32 ins. which
big encl. Thr erceutricity
gives H htrokc ~tf i/l(i
in. !-he blg ecr! of the
connecting
rod is ;I ball bearing, *h in. bore,
which is held in a split fitting
attached to the
or
rod. The ronnecting
rod of a motorcycle
small c:lr &gine \vill do nicely for this purpose.
Cut the sbarrk off i~nrl weld a piecc Of 1 in. Ill
the
tubihg lo it. about ti ins. long to receive
wooden ronnpc4iug rtr~l. (Fig. XC).

DPIVEAsscien
Fig. 7.

a.

ADXJSTABLE

&

PUMPS

t?H?K~hlb

CONNECTING ROD FOW lh.

c.

CONNECTING

Rob t%
Fig. N

END

backlash. lhpre should also be an oil hose for


Thr overall
lubrication.
width of the hushes
must be a closr fit in
thP fork to preevnt any
side play.

S~IICT 11~~putnp is :I 5iuglr uVt1ug diaphragm


pulll(~. the two actuating rods arr only in tcnn~nde of ~ootl.
I in.
sirm, ;Incl :IW thrrmcfow
SIIIU!~
c*crrutricit?;
:rnd
the
\Villi
lhr
S~lUi~lY.
fiesitrility
td
!h
wocbli
il is nut necessary
crank
to I~:IVV :I univc~rsal joint ilt the beI1
counccting rod carries
a
woollall
iWil. :hi
wifh :I good fitting
pin
rntl.
fork on its wdl
in the upper arm
of I& in. tli;l. through ;I hole
The pump rod is a similar
of the bell crank.
oiecc of 1 is. square \voort with an adjustab!e
fork zsd on top. Refer to Figs. 8A and 86,
which are self-explanatory.
The bell crank is made from a piece of l/4
in. steel plate, cut as shown in Fig. 9. The
with welded
bosses :IS
holes
are reinforced
and drilled
after welding.
If possible
shown
these bearing holes should be bushed with a
bronze bush, this will
increase the lit% of the
pin ;rncl tirevent the system from developing

3. The PlJrnD
II-it!
pullIt)
sheeted for this applicaliou
is a
single acting diaphragm pump. This design has
been chosen because it is simple to build, with
tllil~llillilig
rc:tuirrd.
It
is
pmctical!v
Iriiniliiuiil
nl:iilitenaiirc
II-CT
cehrap. All pipe eon:IIICI
it
is
uipples
iic~clicms ilW stantl;irci 1 inch watrr-pipe
kklbnws. Th? valves can be any com:llltl
nlerci;lllu
;Ivailable type of non-return
valve.
The pump itself is mounted just below wutrl
level
I fully subrurrgetl)
so that there is no
the rod on the suction stroke.
cwlllprcssitrn
in
slmr~l~l
bc* fitted on the intake valve to
.\ srrwn
prt~verlt foreign malt~~r entering the pump. The
cliafihragui
is ~.~actefruur a piece of inner trite,
t/32 to l/U in. thick. Ihc flange should bv at

Fig

9.

._._-_PUMP

ROD

Fig . Iti
ltwsl
l-l/4 in. witlc
:mcl lakri: # bolts around
the circunlfwrnw,
to enswe n good senl.
As cm be .see11 in Figs. 10 unrl 11. the PUIIIP
is inverted,
the diaphragm
being
operated
throutfh a stirrup attached
to the pump
rod.
This gives the tnuutr greater flexibility
and is
siiuplcr than Icarlinrc the rod through the puurt~

fhc tliwrnhions
of thr lmmp arc not
tuo witic3l
cmcc* the ttianwtcr and strtrkrn havr
been detcrtninecl.
The stirrut) must he itimen
~ionc~l SO that it provides H definite stop cm the
up ;Intl cl6bwn strakr. This will prevent damage
10 the cli:lptrrtigm
during
hnnclling and instab
laticrn.

c~ll;lllllIw.

---- SHEET

HET~C BRAC.KET,

WEIDEDT~ STIRQUP.

A.055

D &MN.

FiH. II.

The main
body of the pump consists of u
piece of pipe or welded ring, closed at one end
:I welded flange on the other.
A
and having
flange ring povides the clamping of the rubber
diaphragm.
See Fig. 11. Two 1 inch water-pipr
nipples arc welded on each side for thr
inlet
and outlet valv(*s. The two discs supportiug the
rubber diaphragm
-were made from Tufnol.
impregnated
fnbrir,
hul any
:I
hard,
resin
similar hard r~ialcrial can be used, f*ven I~arflwood will do. if nothing else ran hr- lwwurett.
Thr cleamncr between discs and putnl~-body is
0.055D and thr inside corners of tbc discs must
be well rounded to prevent cutiixg tlrt* rubber
on thr up and down sir&e.
This is very inlportant. When nsscmbling
the pump,
sealingcompound
is applied
to the rubber between
the discs and the flanges to assure a good seal.
The mounting bar on top of the housing
must
be very stiff and can be (tither welded or bolted
to the top platr. If bolts are used they must he
a good fit and should have copper washers to
insure against leaks. it is most important when
mounting
the pump in the well, to secure the
mounting bar vtary firmly either by concreting,
or bolting to :t couple of cross-timbers in lhc
well. lhe tension forces in the pump-rod are in
the rcginn of 21Ml Ihs. and at high revolutions
this hanlnlrring
will
SOOII shake loose a weak
The pump-rod
should be left longer
mounting.
h-fortmounting
thr
than Ihr required lrngth
After the lmn11, h:is been
pump in tlie well.
installctl am: the bell crank is nlountrtl on thr
frame, lhe i*rll crank is brought to its neutr;lI
position
awl the adjustable fork end of the
pump-rod to hallway on the thread. The rod is
now cut so that it will fit fully into the tube of
the fork,
drilledaud
secured with 4 holts, ah
shown in Fig. 8A. Now the pun~p-rod is pulled
up against
the stop, the eccentric tnrnrcl
to
full stroke and the fork adjusted so thal the pin
goes freely lhrough the hole in 111~ Iwll
Crth.
Now turn the fork nnnthrr one and a half turns

sch.1
the head of wzitcr to
i:; 11~~ vcrtirnl
tlist:l:i~*c~
IJCt\wt*ll
the water Iwc4 ili the Wdl. ;rnd the oiillct
in the rcscrvo,ir. lhc grilpll is alrcacly c*cbrrected
for the dynamic head. which inc!uf!rs
the
friclion in thr pipe ibnd thtb va1~cx From t!lr head
of wuter on the left scale drtiv: a horizontal
linr until
it intersects, the apl>ropri;ltr
wind
speett corye and draw :I sertirnl line through
lhis point.
This will intersect
eve of the fmw
straight
lines marked:
Pump 1. 2, 3. and 4.
Each is !;or one IJUIIII,
of a given tiiametm and
gives on the right hand scalr the proper stroke
for this particular
I~III~~J and I:PYI combination.
OH

gr:Iph

So.

be pumped.

1.

This

Eruniple:
(Follow dotted iinr 011 graph)
He:id 15 ft. windspeed 10 III~*I.
Draw liorizontal
line at 15 ft. head.
with 10 Illlrh. rnrve
draw
At intrsection
VcrtiCill

line.

It intersects str;iight
liiw of pump 2
l+orn this poinl llril\V
horizont;ll
line to the
right hand. stroke-?.ciilc.
This gives 4 stroke of 0.M in.
The pump has to operate
at thi:: stroke
bw
give the best clffirienry
of the rotor.
To obtain
this
stroke from
the bell
crank, pmcced
as
follows: lhc ratios of strnkc ?nrl distancr from
pivot are rqii:il.
I).J.?75:~I-=O.M:x
I?creforf* :
s---

(ixll..Xi
(L.4375

77
.

rhe horizontal :\rnI of the! hell crank will


have to be 7.7 ins long to give :I pump stroke
nf 0.56 in. Fig 9.
The bntlom scale of Graph Ne!. 1 gives the
xtuai
volume in cubic* ins. per stroke pumped
at various wind spcctls.
This inakrs il pf~ssihlc tn tlcterminr
the size
iIII(I
stroke of any
other
:lVilihbk
such
Imlnp,
ns
;I piston
pump.
Find the* hcatl to 1)~ l~u~nprrl and Ihe wind
speefl as hcfore,
draw :I vertical line from this
point tu the bottom
w11e and read the volume
per stroke. Divide
Illis volume hy Ihe piston
area and this will hr the stroke required.
lf. fnr t~Xillllpl~.
a piston ~JUIII~ of 2 in. diaincter 1~cix a~nilat~lc thr hc;ld is again I.i ft.
r:>d the \vinrl SIYCCC~ IO lrlph..
cnntir?rrt:
the

vertical dotted lint tcl fhe base scalr and read


13.3 divided
by 3.14
off 13.3 Cu. ins./strokc.
(artla of piston) gives a sforke of 4.23 ins.
11) obtain
this slrokc III 1.23 ins. from
Ihe
hrll rrank. il ~trultl
IW ;ItlVisablr to alter the
er:.clnlricily
10 NISI 11 IIIWC suitnblr radio :\I fho
Itc41 (*rank. If 1h(* carrrntricity
is marIt* Si in..
Ihen the stroke of the ccmnccting rod bcromrs
I in. This leavrs A ratio of 1 4.23 at the bell
crank, which could br divided intct in vertical
leg of, say, 2?4 ins., and a Iiorizontal leg of
IO.58 ins. long. The hell crank
would have to
be shaped to conform to these measurements.
If a piston, pump is used for this purpose. it
must be a single arting pump, mounted below
water level and operated so that the pump rod
is only in tension. This will assure that there are
no problems either due to buckling of the pump
rod and connecting rod, or trouble with priming of the pump.

Estimating

the Output

of the Pump

(iraph No. 2, Curve A. gives the output of thr


pu111p at the srlcctrtl
(rated) windspcrtl
for the
sitr in clueslion, when pumping against H head
of 111feet. Tlic output ;8t the rat14 wintlspee(l
when
pumrtina
ilpainsl
a hcatl dthrr than
calrUliltt*tl
from (:urvc X by
II! feet may bk
simlllr
proportion.
For rxaniplc,
the piiml~
selected
from
(iraph
which has already heen
No. 1, to pump against a bead of 15 fee1 most
efficiently
in a windspeed
of 10 mph..
will
have an output at 10 mph. of
10
\V := 272 X. - = 181 Inlprrial
~:;lll~Jns l,lr
15
hour.
Note that. at windspeeds other than the rated
windspeed, the pump will give,=an output SOIIWwhat lower than the figure read froul Curve A
of Graph No. 2. :IS it will no longrr be operating at its best efficiency.
For rxample.
the
performance of a particular
pump is indicated
hy Curve B on Graph No. 2, which refers to a
putnl, with a bore of 7-l/4 in. and :I stroke of
7/1fi in. The stroke has bern selcrtrd to give
optimum
performance
at -a windspeed of 9.2
and Cnrve B coincides with
Curve A pt
wh.,
this windspeed.
However.
as thv wintlspced
increases (or decreasrs)
progressively
beyond
the rated windspeed
of Q.2 mph.. the rclativc
performance
of ?hr pump drops off and the
actual output,
read from
Curve 8, becomes $1
progressively
smaller fraction
of lhe optimum
output. read from Curve A.

Pumping at Heads of More Than 30 Feet


In this
:eaflct
consideration
has brrn
t-cstrirted
to a very
low cost pump) :~ntl thr
simplest farm of power transmission
system.
The equipment described ubovc has been tested
when pumping against hinds of up to 30 feet.

It is rxtrctnrly
tliflirul1
18, tlrfinc the ;ic2ual
rest of ;I prcljccnl II~V this in tlclll;irs ;1nd c-ruts.
As in an> l)o.lt-\l,rll.srlf
llrnj,~rl,
the biqcrsl
part nf the job is the labour. which is assu~rd
lo bc frw.
Drlwl~tlirlg
OII tllc skill,
I)atirrCc
and resources 4 the home-l:uild~~r. even the
Cost of tllr Inatc*rials can v:lrv ronGdrmbly.
In thr prolotypr
clc~srribrd
hcrr. only
the
ball bearings, WKMI Ior thr lramr, and plywond
for the rotor WPW purchased nrw. All
nthrr
matrrial
was fwntl
:lrnund
the p!nrr. The bark
of a garage or sm:~ll machinp shop is usually :I
good place to look for things like
pircrs of
If rrn wrlding
equippipe. angles, bolls, etr.
ment is at hand, all the pirres to hr welded
should be carrfully
prcpnred. wired or clamped
nearest
welding
and taken tn thr
togetlirr
~1101. If cvcrything
is properly
prepared,
the
actual welding for thr whole iob will nc,t take
longer than I hour. rhc only parts
rrcluirinil
machining
:I.(* thr Shilft ad:il)tors, the etrentric
flanges and tlisrs for thr
for the* rotor, thr
rbthrr work requirrn
a
diaphia~m
~111111~I.
Ail
drill only.
Finally, fit give :I rougl~ idpa of the r:nst. the
main
ih~ms ;Irc listecl
hrrt* as purchased
in
U;irbadoh, in thr cquivalcnt
of I!.!? TIoll:irs:$4 2.m
.
2 Oil tlrums (gnod condition)
2 Self-alignin;!
Hall Wirings.
flange
14.m
..
..
type
7.50
..
..
Mi ft. 2 s 4 Timber
1 ~lwc*l

in. Plywvcwrl

12.50

(4 ft. R 8 ft.)

30 ft. l/R tliilmetcnr (;:ilvanizrd


Stcrl
..
..
..
Wire
..
..
6 l/J s 4 ius. I~II.II I+uckles
7 ft. l-I/J
1.1). \V;itrr
Iipc (Elotrrr
..
..
..
..
shaft)
1 $4 in. I~(IIY 11itll ILring
(big-*ml I
.
1:) ft. Il;lS:iC Iipc~ (rl?*livcry~
Rolts.

Nuts.

\~;~sll~l~s.

c4r.

. .

. .
Tot,11

U.S.

.30
3.30
2.70

1.60
4.1Q
2.00
9 51.00

TECHNICAL NOTESON THE DIAPHRAGMPUMP


1.

The diaphragm should be of fairly


thick rubber
- rubber from heavy truck or tractor
inner tube is good
- rubber that is too thin or too flexible
is not satisfactory
since under a large head the deformation
of the diaphragm
to negate the full diaphragm displacement,

tends

2.

The stroke may well have to be increased to one or tw> inches,


depending on the rubber flexibility,
In order to effect this, it
may be necessary to increase the clearance between the discs and
the pumpbody.

3.

It was found, in practice


in very remote conditions,
that a fair
bit of experimentation
was needed in order to determine the best
location
of the pump relative
to both the source and the
discharge.
This pump is most efficient
when immersed, however
the pressure head then becomes too great and diaphragm deformation
becomes very significant,
For our 4+" pump, a suction head of about
6 to 8 feet with a pressure head of some 8 to 10 feet was felt to be
about thelimiting
conditions,

4.

The pump rod and connecting rod end connections


should be firm.
Any play in these takes away from the length of stroke,

E. J. GALLAGHER.
_

wmn MOTOR,

APPLICATION FILED APR. 5, I916.

Patented Nov. 2?, 1917,


4 snaps-sneer 1.

E. J. GALLAGHER
WIND MOTOR.
APPLICATION FILED APR.5, 191s.

Patented Nov, 27, 1917.

I30

133

E. J. GALLAGHER.
WIND MOTOR.
APPLICATION FILED APR. 5, I916.

Pmentml Nov. 2?, 191?.


4 SHEEISSHEET 3.

9/

15%

=1: Y

gmuwhw

Edward M: Haggai/150M???

J. M. CLARK.
1:5 GENERATING PLANT.
AF'PLiCAIlUN man MAR. 19. 19M.

1931595
>5 772
19
____Z

Z]
J

$1
/ F019

E. C. BOZIED.
WINDMILL WHEEL.
APPLICATION FILED Aumvo. I920.

11,367,766.

'

Patented Feb. 8, 1921.


2 SHEETS~SHEET l

E. C. BOZI'ED.
WINDMILL WHEEL.
APPLICATION FILED AUG-30; .1920.

1,3673766.

Patented Feb. 8, 1921.


2 SHEETS-SHEET 2.

H. G. LLOYD AND 0. A. SPON.


FLUID CURRENT MOTOR.

APPLICATION EILED OCT. 26I I920.

Patented Apr. 18, 1,922.

1,413,411.

'2 SHEETS-SHEET 1.

F491.

hil ". 1
.

3:5.

2543556

|__
Illll?.

I!!!
"zw.-

M
| whuu
m
I

Jim/671160775

H.'G.'LLOYD AND C..A. SPON.


FLUID CURRENT MOTOR.
APPLICATION FILED bcf. 26, 1920.

PatentedlApr. 18, 1922.

1,413,411.

2 SHEETS-SHEET 2.

w
I

l
32

188

l luml 1

\\ 2%

was
,mmi'

g
I

Inn/63150715

Jan 9, 1923.

1,441,774.

0. T. ADAMS.
WIND MOTOR.
FILED DEC. 15. 1920.

4. SHEETS-SHEET 1.

18

Jan. 9, 1928,
0. T. ADAMS.

7 1,441,774.

WIND MOTOR.
FILED DEC. 15. 1920.

o I

4 SHEETS-SHEET 3.

52

Jan. 9, 1923.,

'

0- T. ADAMS,

'

11.,Mwm.

WVIND MOTOR.
FILED 050.15; 1920-

@1101
~
Wm, MI.

4 SHEETS-SHEET 4.

W K2571

'Jan. 5 ,1926.
A. GENERICH

156mm I

51.301316 FAN BLADE.


Filed Jan. 7, 1925

861.9%- -

anomlioz

Generic-h,

Dec. 27, 19270

'

1,654,165

D. E. FELT
WINDMILL -

Filed June 18, 1924


("f2

/6

PM

4 Sheets-Sheet l

>1 19

5/

'

#9

2a
5/
22

+2

i____________,

?zz/1E rZT7i~~

June 24, 1930.

s. J. sAvoNlUs
WIND ROTOR

Filed OCT.. ll, 1928

1,766,765~

US 20030235498A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2003/0235498 A1
(43) Pub. Date:

Boatner
(54) VERTICAL AXIS WIND ENGINE

(76) Inventor: Bruce E. Boatner, Murrieta, CA (US)

Correspondence Address:
Mr. Loyal M. Hanson
Hanson Law Corporation
PO. Box 430

Fallbrook, CA 92088-0430 (US)

(21) Appl. No.:

10/178,209

(22) Filed:

Jun. 24, 2002


Publication Classi?cation

(51)

Int. Cl.7 ...................................................... .. F03D 1/00

(52)

US. Cl. ............................................................ .. 416/119

(57)

ABSTRACT

Avertical axis Wind engine, also referred to as a vertical axis


Wind turbine (VAWT) includes a support structure, a rotor
mounted rotatably on the support structure for rotation about
a vertical axis, and at least one airfoil for causing the rotor

Dec. 25, 2003

to rotate about the vertical axis in response to Wind passing

the Wind engine. The airfoil has vertically extending leading


and trailing edges, an angle-of-attack axis extending hori
Zontally through the leading and trailing edges, and a pivotal
axis extending vertically intermediate the leading and trail
ing edges. The airfoil is mounted on the rotor for pivotal
movement about the pivotal axis and the rotor includes

components for limiting pivotal movement of the airfoil to


?rst and second limits of pivotal movement. The airfoil is
free to pivot about the pivotal axis intermediate the ?rst and
second limits of pivotal movement as the rotor rotates about

the vertical axis in order to thereby enable the airfoil to align

the angle-of-attack axis according to the Wind. Preferably,


the Wind engine has more than one free-?ying, self-posi
tioning airfoil, and the rotor includes ?rst and second stops
for each airfoil that augment virtual stop effects to limit
pivotal movement to a radially aligned ?rst limit and a

tangentially aligned second limit. According to another


aspect of the invention, multiple Wind engines are stacked.
Yet another aspect provides an exponentially shaped struc
ture surrounding the vertical axis that funnels Wind toWard
the rotor.

10

l/,'50
16c

'

140

In
<lllll A

'69

I
/l
ll

20

l|||||||||||||ll||l||||||||l||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||
US 20040001752A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2004/0001752 A1
Noble
(54)

(43) Pub. Date:

TURBINE APPARATUS AND METHOD

(52)

Jan. 1, 2004

US. Cl. ................................................................ .. 416/1

(76) Inventor: James D. Noble, Pearland, TX (US)

(57)

Correspondence Address:
SHAFFER & CULLBERTSON
913 Gulf Breeze Parkway

21

( )

A turbine system (10) for capturing energy from a ?uid

Sulte 43

stream includes a torque arm (12). At least a pair of,

Gulf Breeze FL 32561 (Us)

preferably symmetrical clam shell, turbine blades (14) With

the upper (16) and loWer (18) halves are oppositely con
nected to the torque arm (12). A coordinating system (46) is

pp

l. N .:

10 217 722

(22) Filed;

Aug 13, 2002

connected to the symmetrical clam shell turbine blades (14).


The coordinating system (46) further comprises a ?rst
system (48) and second system (52). The ?rst system (48) is

Related US Application Data


63
(

C
)

(51)

ABSTRACT

t_

t,

t f

1_ f

on mua Ion-m1) O app lea Ion

09/813 423
0'

connected to control and regulate opening and closing of the

upper(16) and loWer (18) halves of each individual clam

?led on Mar' 20 2001 HOW abandoned


Publication Classi?cation

shell turbine blade(14). The second system (52) is connected


betWeen each pair of the symmetrical clam shell turbine

Int. Cl.7 ...................................................... .. F03D 1/00

blades (14) so that as one clam shell turbine blade(14) closes


the opposite clam shell turbine blade (14) is forced open.

54

WW

US 20040057830A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2004/0057830 A1
(43) Pub. Date:

Boatner
(54) ROTATING DISPLAY APPARATUS

Mar. 25, 2004

Which a user may display promotional, political, or other

information, including using the shape of the Wind-reactive


(76) Inventor: Bruce E. Boatner, Murrieta, CA (US)

Correspondence Address:

elements as the displayed information. The Wind-reactive


elements (airfoil or non-airfoil) cause the rotor to rotate

P.O. Box 430

about the rotational axis in response to Wind passing the


rotating display apparatus. Each is free to pivot betWeen a
respective one of ?rst and second pairs of stop positions as

Fallbrook, CA 92088-0430 (US)

the rotor rotates a bout the rotational axis in order to

Mr. Loyal M. Hanson


Hanson Law Corporation

(21) Appl. No.:

10/254,204

self-align according to Wind direction and impart rotational


movement to the rotor, moving through ?ve phases per

(22) Filed:

Sep. 25, 2002

revolution as they orbit the rotational axis. One embodiment


includes a constricting dampener mechanism that includes a

Publication Classi?cation

spring arranged to constrict radially against a cylindrical


portion of a pivot tube in order to inhibit pivotal movement

(51)
(52)

(57)

Int. Cl.7 ...................................................... .. F03D 3/06


US. Cl. ............................................ .. 416/61; 416/119

of the tube (and thereby the associated Wind-reactive ele


ment of Which the tube is a part) When the Wind-reactive

element reaches a predetermined stop position. Another

ABSTRACT

A rotating display apparatus includes a support structure, a


rotor mounted rotatably on the support structure for rotation
about a vertically disposed rotational axis, and at least tWo
(preferably more) Wind-reactive elements on the rotor on

SUPPORT

embodiment includes a moveable stop that restricts the free


movement of the Wind-reactive element in relation to the

rotational speed of the rotor by means of centrifugal force.


Yet another embodiment includes a dampener mechanism

that disengages in heavy Wind conditions.

US 20040183310A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. N0.: US 2004/0183310 A1
M0wll
(54)

(43) Pub. Date:

MOWLL-BERNOULLI WIND POWER

(52)

Sep. 23, 2004

US. Cl. ............................................ .. 290/55; 290/1 R

GENERATOR

(76) Inventor: Jack MOWll, Baltimore, MD (US)

(57)

ABSTRACT

Correspondence Address:
Royal W- Craig

AWind power generator. The apparatus comprises a vortex

La_W O?ices of Royal W Cralg

housing With a large frontal opening at one end and a smaller

$311? 153] t St t
Baltiinoievia?) 2113502 (Us)

exhaust opening at another end. The housing further has a


concave internal surface leading rearWard to the exhaust

opening and an exhaust channel. A propeller-driven electri

(21) App1_ No;

10/805,098

(22)

Mall 19, 2004

Filed:

cal generator is mounted inside the exhaust channel for


generating electrical poWer from the Wind. The apparatus is
mounted atop a vertical-axis base for free pivotal movement,

and a plurality of air-foil ?ns are mounted toWard the rear of

Related US Apphcatlon Data

the housing to continuously maintain the frontal opening of

(60) Provisional application No. 60/456,109, ?led on Mar.


19 2003'

Publication
Classi?cation

th? a.pparam.S facmg. the Wmd' Based uPOn.BernOu1h.S

principle, Wind entermg the frontal opemng increases in


velocity as it is constricted toWards the exhaust opening and
c h anne 1 .

Th us,

1
h'gh

ve 1 oc1t
' y Wm
' d is
' create d

for P assm
' g

over and turning the generators propellers and thereby


(51)

Int. Cl.7 ..................................................... .. H02P 9/04

4>
l0

_,..

increasing the rotation speed of the propellers.

{.
\

l2

US 20050263057A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2005/0263057 A1
(43) Pub. Date:

Green
(54) CYCLOSAIL WIND TURBINE

(76) Inventor: Douglas Lynde Green, Denver, CO

(Us)
Correspondence Address:
Douglas L. Green
1680 Pecos Way
Denver, CO 80221 (US)

(52)

(57)

Dec. 1, 2005

US. Cl. ........................................................ .. 114/1021

ABSTRACT

AVertical Axis Wind Turbine comprising: Ahub housing an


alternator or generator, gearbox, arbor, tachometer and pro
grammable logic controller. At the upper outer radius of the
hub is a track supporting the landing gear for the Wind rotor.
Above the hub a large elongated Wind rotor is attached to the
arbor With landing gear that ride on the track. The rotor is the

(21) Appl. No.:

11/139,838

(22) Filed:

May 27, 2005

support structure providing anchoring for masts, sails and

Related US. Application Data

boom control systems. Attached to the top/center of the rotor


is a toWer With cables supporting the outer perimeter por
tions of the rotor arms. At the top of the toWer is a

(60)

Provisional application No. 60/576,066, ?led on Jun.


1, 2004.
Publication Classi?cation

(51)

Int. Cl? ................................................... .. B63B 35/00

Weathervane and position controller. Fabric sails are


attached to the mast assemblies and controlled by resolvers.
When the Wind causes rotation the programmable logic

controller adjusts the sails to best catch the Wind regardless


of Wind direction or their position While the rotor is rotating.

US 20050263057A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2005/0263057 A1
(43) Pub. Date:

Green
(54) CYCLOSAIL WIND TURBINE

(76) Inventor: Douglas Lynde Green, Denver, CO

(Us)
Correspondence Address:
Douglas L. Green
1680 Pecos Way
Denver, CO 80221 (US)

(52)

(57)

Dec. 1, 2005

US. Cl. ........................................................ .. 114/1021

ABSTRACT

AVertical Axis Wind Turbine comprising: Ahub housing an


alternator or generator, gearbox, arbor, tachometer and pro
grammable logic controller. At the upper outer radius of the
hub is a track supporting the landing gear for the Wind rotor.
Above the hub a large elongated Wind rotor is attached to the
arbor With landing gear that ride on the track. The rotor is the

(21) Appl. No.:

11/139,838

(22) Filed:

May 27, 2005

support structure providing anchoring for masts, sails and

Related US. Application Data

boom control systems. Attached to the top/center of the rotor


is a toWer With cables supporting the outer perimeter por
tions of the rotor arms. At the top of the toWer is a

(60)

Provisional application No. 60/576,066, ?led on Jun.


1, 2004.
Publication Classi?cation

(51)

Int. Cl? ................................................... .. B63B 35/00

Weathervane and position controller. Fabric sails are


attached to the mast assemblies and controlled by resolvers.
When the Wind causes rotation the programmable logic

controller adjusts the sails to best catch the Wind regardless


of Wind direction or their position While the rotor is rotating.

US 20070018462A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2007/0018462 A1
Richards et al.
(54) GENERATOR
(75)

(43) Pub. Date:


(30)

Inventors: Malcolm Colin Richards, Hucknall

Jan. 25, 2007

Foreign Application Priority Data

Jun. 5, 2003

Nottingham (GB); Bernard John


Sheridan, South Clifton Newark (GB);

(GB) ....................................... .. 03129038

Publication Classi?cation

Margaret Sheridan, legal


representative, South Clifton Newark

(51)

(GB); Anthony Whitham, Burton

Joyce Nottingham (GB)


(52)

Correspondence Address:
HARNESS, DICKEY, & PIERCE, P.L.C
7700 BONHOMME, STE 400
ST. LOUIS, MO 63105 (US)

(73) Assignee: INTEC POWER HOLDINGS LIM

ITED, Old Basford, Nottingham (GB)


(21) Appl. No.:

10/559,591

(22)

PCT Filed:

Jun. 1, 2004

(86)

PCT No.:

PCT/GB04/02353

371(c)(1),
(2), (4) Date:

109

103%

May 9, 2006

Int. Cl.
F03D 9/00
H02P 9/04
US. Cl.

(57)

(2006.01)
(2006.01)

.............................................................. .. 290/55

ABSTRACT

A wind powered generator comprising ?rst and second


current generator means arranged to generate electric current
in response to relative rotation between the two generator
means; at least one rotary part having vanes, the rotary part
being operatively connected to one of the generator means
and arranged to rotate in a ?rst direction around an axial
shaft when exposed to a ?ow of air perpendicular to the

shaft; and said axial shaft is con?gured to receive electrical


connection means therethrough, said electrical connection
means con?gured to provide an electrical connection
between said current generating means and generator elec
trical means.

US 20080023964A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. N0.: US 2008/0023964 A1
Sureshan
(54)

(43) Pub. Date:

OMNI-DIRECTIONAL WIND TURBINE

(52)

Jan. 31, 2008

U.S. Cl. ............................................. .. 290/55; 415/2.1

(75) Inventor: Vaheisvaran Sureshan, Sydney (AU)


(57)

Correspondence Address:

ABSTRACT

STETINA BRUNDA GARRED & BRUCKER

75 ENTERPRISE, SUITE 250


ALISO VIEJO, CA 92656 (Us)

An omni directional, vertical discharge Wind turbine, con


sisting of a shroud that captures Wind from any direction and
directs it to How vertically through a throat section Where an

(73)

Assignee? Katru Eco-Inventions Pty Ltd-

aerofoil multi-bladed rotor is mounted. The rotor shaft is


connected to an electrical poWer generator. The intake of the

(21) Appl' NO:


_

(22) Flled:

11/820123

shroud incorporates multiple horizontally curved blades of

Jun 18 2007
.

Related U's' Apphcatlon Data


(63) Continuation of application No. PCT/AU05/ 11882,
?led on D e0 23 2004'

(30)

toroidal form va

in u to nearl tWice the siZe of the rotor

diameter, stackeld: stgaggered andy secured in place by mul

ti le aerod namic vertical Walls in the radial direction, to

fciim a cehtral collection chamber for Wind. The blade


living angles ,and the Stacking arrangmem are Such that
While acceleratmg and focusing the Wind, across the full
sWept area of the rotor blades, the loss of air from the central

Foreign Application Priority Data

collection chamber is signi?cantly reduced by air ?oW


forming a ?uid dynamic gate across inactive faces. Utilizing

Dec. 23, 2004

(AU) .................................... .. 2004907279

Publication Classi?cation

21 Wedge and Collar near the Open t01D discharge the free Wind

stream ?owing across the open top assists in increasing the


How of air through the rotor. With the increased extraction

and Wider operational envelop, the energy produced per


(51)

Int. Cl.
F03D 9/00
F03D 1/04

(2006.01)
(2006.01)

annum of this omni-directional shrouded vertical Wind tur


bine is anticipated to be much higher than that of a standard
free Wind turbine of same rotor diameter.

VERTICAL SECTION THROUGH CEIMPLETE SHRDUD ASSEMBLY. AA

F REE WIND

11.

US 20080131281A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2008/0131281 A1
Kariya
(54)

(76)

(43) Pub. Date:

VERTICAL AXIS WINDMILL WITH


GUIDING DEVICES

Inventor:

(57)

COHEN & POKOTILOW, LTD.


11TH FLOOR, SEVEN PENN CENTER, 1635
MARKET STREET

PHILADELPHIA, PA 19103-2212

PCT Filed:

Feb. 27, 2006

(86)

PCT No.:

PCT/IN06/00064

371 (0X1)
(2), (4) Date:

Jul. 13, 2007

(30)

(200601)

us. Cl. ...................................................... .. 416/183

ABSTRACT

The instant invention deals With the solution to technical


?aWs of existing vertical axis Windmills in Which the Wind
strikes simultaneously on inWard and outWard facing sides of

rotor blades Which reduce e?iciency. Hence, this invention,


i.e., the vertical axis Windmill With Wind guiding device,

11/813,966

(22)

Int- Cl

F03D 3/04
(52)

Correspondence Address:
CAESAR, RIVISE, BERNSTEIN,

(21) Appl. No.:

Publication Classi?cation

(51)

Vinod Kumar Chamanlal Kariya,


Gularat (IN)

Jun. 5, 2008

includes vertical plates Which are ?xed from the bottom of a


base structure to the top of a rotor in an annular array. In

between any tWo vertical plates, inclined plates are ?xed from
the bottom of the base structure to the top of the base struc
ture. These plates are tilted toWards the concave side of the
rotor blades. The vertical and inclined plates are ?xed in
angular and radial directions so that Whenever the Wind bloWs

Foreign Application Priority Data

from any direction, it gets compressed and then is diverted


toWards the Wind receiving blades. Also the vertical plates
protect the convex side of the rotor blades from Wind While

Mar. 22, 2005

(IN) ......................... .. 326/MUM/2005

diverting the Wind toWards the Wind receiving blades.

Bird's Eye View of windmill


with Wind Guiding Device

US 20080304968A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2008/0304968 A1
(43) Pub. Date:

Flte
(54)

Related US. Application Data

VERTICAL-AXIS TURBINE FOR


CAPTURING THE FORCE OF MOVING
GASES OR LIQUIDS AND A METHOD FOR
ITS USE

Dec. 11, 2008

(60)

Provisional application No. 60/942,714, ?led on Jun.


8, 2007.
Publication Classi?cation

(76)

Inventor:

David L. Fite, Mount Orab, OH

(51)

(Us)
(52)

Int. Cl.
F03D 3/06
F033 3/12

(2006.01)
(2006.01)

US. Cl. ........................................... .. 416/140; 416/1

Correspondence Address:

(57)

MUSKIN & CUSICK LLC


30 Vine Street, SUITE 6

A vertical-axis turbine is provided, Which comprises tWo or


more arc-shapedblades Which canpivot so as to decrease drag

ABSTRACT

Lansdale, PA 19446 (US)

and maximize the force collected by each blade from moving


gas or liquid. These arc-shaped blades can also be capable of
directing moving gas or liquid from one blade to another.

(21) Appl. No.:


(22)

Filed:

12/135,885

Additionally, these blades can comprise thin strips along their

Jun. 9, 2008

outer edge, Which can increase their strength and rigidity as


Well as increase the amount of force captured by each blade
from the moving gas or liquid.

500

530
533

503

US 20090066088A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2009/0066088 A1
Liang
(43) Pub. Date:
Mar. 12, 2009
(54)

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE

(52)

US. Cl. .......... .. 290/55; 415/42; 416/11; 416/132 B

Ray-Hung Liang, Morris Plains,

(76) Inventor:

NJ (US)

(57)

ABSTRACT

Correspondence Address:

Ray-Hung Liang

One aspect of the present invention relates to a vertical axis


Wind turbine. In one embodiment, the vertical axis Wind
turbine comprises a rotor comprising a vertical oriented shaft,
and a plurality of vertical oriented blades angle-equally and

48 Battle Ridge Road


Morris Plains, NJ 07950 (US)

(21) Appl. No.:

11/900,270

radially secured to the vertical aligned shaft. Each of the

Sep. 10, 2007

plurality of vertical oriented blades has a face side, a back


side, at least one WindoW and at least one pane pivotally

Publication Classi?cation

mounted onto the at least one WindoW on the face side such
that the at least one pane is rotatable between a closed position

(22) Filed:

(51)

Int. Cl.
F03D 1/00
F03D 9/00

and an opening position around a pivotal axis responsive to a

Wind condition thereof. The pivotal axis is substantially per


pendicular to the vertical oriented shaft.

(2006.01)
(2006.01)

2 0
295
226

290

224

US 20090140528A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2009/0140528 A1
Ireland

(43) Pub. Date:

(54) WIND AND UPDRAFT TURBINE


Inventor:

(30)

Barry l1I Ireland Moosomin

Publication
. . . . . Classi?cation
. . . . . . . . . . ..

(51) Int CL

FULBRIGHT & JAWORSKI L.L.P

F03D 9/00

2200 ROSS AVENUE SUITE 280

(52)

DALLAS, TX 75201-2784 (US)

(73) Assignee?

Foreign Application Priority Data


20,

Correspondence Address:

Jun. 4, 2009

(57)

(200601)

us. Cl. ........................................................ .. 290/55

ABSTRACT

BRI Ene_rgy solutions Limited,

The invention relates to the ?eld of electrical generation and

Moosomln (CA)

more speci?cally to the use of a Wind turbine for generating

electricity. The invention provides a fully integrated vertical


(21)

Appl. No.:

12/334,333

axis Wind turbine (VAWT) Which can be mounted on a cylin

(22)

Filed;

Dec_ 12, 2008

permanent magnet generator integral to the VAWT, the rotor


blades being coupled directly to a rotating, current inducing

drical pole. Rotor blades are disposed on the outside of a

set of permanent magnets or rotor for rotation about a station

Related U's' Apphcatlon Data

(63)

ary, current generating stator. At least three rotor blades are

Continuation-in-pa1t of application No. 12/298,472.

used Which are vertically Offset frOm One another.

\A
f

430

/A/
450

410%,)
460

400

US 20090322095A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2009/0322095 A1
Mazur
(54)

(43) Pub. Date:

WIND TURBINE

(76) Inventor:

Dec. 31, 2009

Publication Classi?cation

(5 1) Int. Cl.
F03D 11/00

Ed Mazur, Sierra Vista, AZ (U S)

(52)

Correspondence Address:

(2006.01)

US. Cl. ........................................................ .. 290/55

(57)

DAMBROSIO & ASSOCIATES, P.L.L.C.

ABSTRACT
_

10260 WESTHEIMER SUITE 465


HOUSTON, TX 77042 (Us)

A w1nd turblne hav1ng one or more sets of opposlng magnets


to create an opposing force between a turbine support and a
turbine rotor great enough to form a space between them

thereby reducing friction between the turbine support and the


turbine rotor. The reduction of friction between the turbine

(21)

Appl' N05

12/215,233

(22)

Filed:

Jun. 26, 2008

rotor and the turbine support allows for an increase in energy

production and scale of the wind turbines.

[100
I

126

: l :2.4///////////4
IL'

108\

I
110D\

I f

/104
_

/110D

I /

118/

2/

113

;,/106

1/
/
/
a

110A 110A

116

130

110A 110A

128

122

7%//////////l///////)Q///
124

120

123

1108

\106

US 20100066094A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2010/0066094 A1
Bernhoff

(43) Pub. Date:

(54) WIND-POWER UNIT WITH VERTICAL AXIS


(75)

Inventor:

Hans Bernhoffs Uppsala (SE)

Correspondence Address:

(30)

(51) Int. Cl.


F03D 9/00
F03D 11/04

1300 I STREET, NW

(52)

WASHINGTON, DC 20005 (US)

(57)

(2006.01)
(2006-01)

US. Cl. ........................................................ .. 290/55

ABSTRACT

The invention relates to a Wind-power unit With a Wind tur

(73) Asslgnee'

VERTICAL WIND AB

(21) Appl. No.:


(22)

Foreign Application Priority Data

Jun. 11, 2007 (SE) .................................. .. 0701407-9


Publication Classi?cation

DYKEMA GOSSETT PLLC


FRANKLIN SQUARE, THIRD FLOOR WEST,

Mar. 18, 2010

12/451,609

PCT Filed
'

Oct 6 2008
'

bine, a generator With vertical axis (8, 9, 10). A supporting


pillar (2) supports the Wind turbine and a foundation (3) is

arranged for the supporting pillar (2). According to the inven


tion, the stator (8, 9) of the generator (8, 9, 10) is integrated
With the foundation (3). The invention also relates to an elec
tric mains connected to a Wind-power unit according to the

invention. The invention also relates to a method in the pro

(86)

PCT No.:

PCT/SE2008/050693

371 (c)(1),
(2), (4) Date:

Nov. 20, 2009

duction of such a foundation. According to the method, the


stator is built together to a generator having the foundation.
The invention furthermore relates to use of the Wind-power
unit to generate electrical energy.

US 20100213720Al

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2010/0213720 A1
(43) Pub. Date:

Bailey et al.
(54)

SHROUDED VERTICAL AXIS


DUAL-TURBINE GENERATOR

(76) Inventors:

Laura J. Bailey, Denver, CO (US);


John T. Bailey, Denver, CO (US)

Related U.S. Application Data

(60)

Laura J. Bailey

(51)
(52)

Denver, CO 80219 (US)

Provisional application No. 60/904,411, ?led on Mar.


2, 2007.
Publication Classi?cation

Correspondence Address:
2515 S. Hazel Ct.

Aug. 26, 2010

(57)

Int. Cl.
F03D 9/00
F03D 7/06

(2006.01)
(2006.01)

U.S. Cl. .......................................... .. 290/55; 415/4.2

ABSTRACT

The Shrouded Vertical Axis Dual-Turbine Generator is a sys

(21) Appl. No.:

12/449,842

tem consisting of a superstructure in the shape of a symmetri


cal foil, With a vertical axis turbine set into the camber of each

side. The leading edge of the superstructure increases the

(22)

PCT Filed:

Feb. 29, 2008

(86)

PCT No.:

PCT/US2008/004269

speed of the Water or air current pas sing around the generator.
The trailing edge creates a slip stream Which reduces turbu
lence. Shutters on each side of the superstructure control the
amount of current in contact With the turbines by sliding
forward or rearward to increase or decrease How to the tur

371 (00).
(2), (4) Date:

bines. The turbines are modular in design and can be custom

Aug. 28, 2009

iZed into longer or shorter turbines, depending on application.

US 20110006526A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2011/0006526 A1
Hemmingsson

(43) Pub. Date:

(54) PITCH CONTROL ARRANGEMENT FOR

(30)

Jan. 13, 2011

Foreign Application Priority Data

WIND TURBINE
Dec. 20, 2007

(75) Inventor:

Jonas Hemmingsson, Stockholm


(SE)

(SE) .................................. .. 0702854-1

Publication Classi?cation
(51)

Correspondence Address:

Int. Cl.
H021) 9/04

(200601)

YOUNG & THOMPSON


209 Madison street suite 500

(52)

Alexandria, VA 22314 (US)

(57)

(73) Assignee:

US. Cl. ........................................................ .. 290/44

ABSTRACT

LILJEHOLM KONSULT AB,

A pitch control arrangement for a Wind turbine of the vertical

Stockholm (SE)

axis type. Cam element and cam follower element are


arranged to set the pitch angle of a turbine blade in accordance
With a predetermined cyclic variation. The cam element

(21) Appl, No.1

12/809,712

(22) PCT Filed;

Dec, 19, 2008

(86)

PCT NO;

PCT/sE2008/051541

371 (0X1),
(2), (4) Date;

Jul. 29, 2010

includes a cam surface of different cam pro?les, Which de?ne

different predetermined cyclic variation of the pitch angle.


The present invention provides an improved ef?ciency for a
Wind turbine irrespective of actual Wind conditions, and fur
ther, both self-starting capability and high ef?ciency at a Wide
range of rotation speeds is accomplished using a simple and
reliable construction.

US 20110008167A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2011/0008167 A1
Cummings
(54)

(43) Pub. Date:

HINGED SAIL VERTICAL-AXIS WIND


GENERATOR FOR RESIDENTIAL GROUND
OPERATION
Inventor:

Christian

Cummings

Publication Classi?cation

(51)

LeWiSViHe

Cl-

(2006.01)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

(57)

ABSTRACT

EZHFSPOHTHSE AddFeSSZ

A ground-level vertical-axis Wind generator introduces the

3l7nlgtlfgll) _ ummmgs

use of reverse push-away hinges and soft sails speci?cally

_ in 1.132375 0 5 6 U 5
ewlsvl 6
.

(
_

(73) Asslgnee'

made for safe operation in a residential environment. The


)

concave sails harness the Wind energy, each one tensioned

fhrlstlqln

between tWo curved support arms, Which connect to the cen

umsmmgs

eWlSVl 6

tral rotor via butt hinges. These hinges and soft sails yield

(U )

safety to alloW the Wind generator to operate at ground level.

(21) Appl' NO"


.

The rotor drives an alternator included in the support structure

12/564905

of the Wind generator via a gear assembly. The alternator

Flled'

generates the electricity and a direct current to alternating

sep' 22 2009
.

(60)

Int Cl
F03D 3/06
US.

TX (U S)

(22)

Jan. 13, 2011

current poWer inverter converts the electrical current to match

that of the residential utility grid. No installation is required;

Related U's' Apphcatlon Data


Provisional app1icati0nNO_ 61/223,651, ?led on Ju1_ 7,

instead, it operates at ground-level in the backyard, Which


makes this safe and easy-to-assemble invention a cost effec
tive alternative to harnessing free energy.

2009.

18

//

xy

115

Q
110

[118
l

\
/

6
(Til

2F
\\

US 20110042962A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2011/0042962 A1
Yoon

(43) Pub. Date:

(54) VERTICAL SHAFT TYPE DARIUS

(30)

Feb. 24, 2011

Foreign Application Priority Data

WINDMILL
Jul. 31, 2008

(75) Inventor:

Yang H Yoon, GWangju (KR)

(KR) ...................... .. 10-2008-0075358

Publication Classi?cation
(51)

Int. Cl.
F03D 9/00

CHRISTOPHER PAUL MITCHELL

(52)

US. Cl. ........................................................ .. 290/55

888 16TH ST., NW, SUITE 800


WASHINGTON, DC 20006 (US)

(57)

Correspondence Address:

(2006-01)
ABSTRACT

The present invention relates to a Darrieus Windmill, and


.

more speci?cally, to a vertical axis type Darrieus Windmill

(73) Asslgnee'

gYGNUSIEQWER CO" LTD


Wangiu (

that enables self-start in the loW Wind velocity range. The


Darrieus Windmill, in Which a primary vertical shaft is rotated

by the lift forces generated by primary blades, has a starting


(21) Appl. No.:
-

12/989,956
_

means for assisting the starting or rotation of the primary shaft


at a 10W Wind velocity. The present invention provides advan
tages of enabling self-start and rotation due to the lift gener

(22)

PCT Flled'

Jul 31 2009

(86)

PCT No.:

PCT/KR09/04313

ated by the blade in loW Wind velocity conditions and


enabling the generation of rotating moments in any Wind
direction or Wind velocity, thereby easily starting even in
urban areas With very loW Wind velocities or large variations

371 (c)(1),
(2), (4) Date:

in Wind direction, and thus enabling the generation of elec


Oct. 27, 2010

tricity over a Wide range of Wind velocities.

US 20110103942Al

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2011/0103942 Al
Green et al.
(54)

(43) Pub. Date:

WIND ENERGY SYSTEM

(75) Inventors._

Publication Classi?cation

_
.
.
.
Colin
Green, Victoria
(CA),_ Nick

( 51)

Dan
Blitterswyk,
Lucy, BoZeman,
New York,
MTNY
(US);
(US);
Michael Blevins, BoZeman, MT
(Us)

(73) Assignee:

May 5, 2011

(
' )
(200601)

F03D 11/00
(52)

The Green Electric Company,


Inc., BoZeman, MT (US)

Int. Cl.

(57)

US. Cl. ..................... .. 415/183; 415/211.1; 415/201

ABSTRACT

Wind energy s y stems comP rise a Wind accelerator havin g a

(21) Appl' NO:


_

(22)

12/771,898

Flled'

port assembly. The Wind accelerator has a front region and a

Apr 30 2010
.

(60)

support assembly and an outer structure surrounding the sup

_
.

Related U's' Apphcatlon Data


Provisional application No, 61/256,174, ?led on Oct

rear region. The rear region is substantially Wider than the


front region, and the outer structure tapers from the rear

29, 2009, provisional application No. 61/256,474,

region to the front region. One or more turbines are mounted


on the support assembly at or near the rear region of the Wind
accelerator or at or near the Widest point of the Wind accel

?led on Oct. 30, 2009.

erator.

/216

US 20110142641Al

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2011/0142641 A1
Anderson
(54)

(43) Pub. Date:

ENCLOSED VERTICAL AXIS FLUID ROTOR

(76) Inventor:

(57)

OR (Us)

A enclosed vertical axis ?uid rotor used as a Wind turbine of

ABSTRACT

tWo designs having multiple sails that are concave on the

Appl' NO"

12/905058

inside and convex on the outer side Which alloWs omni

(22)

US. Cl. .................................................. .. 416/132 B

Bruce Elliot Anderson, Eugene,


_

(21)

(52)

Jun. 16, 2011

directional Wind or other ?uids to engage sails to create opti

Flled:

Oct 14 2010
_

mum ?uid momentum. These are sectional segmentation of

each rotor that can be stacked upon one another at locating lug

Related Us Apphcatlon Data

points to be attached to each rotor to keep radial alignment

(60) Provisional application No. 61/272,626, ?led on Oct.

Precise during assembly- The Preferred embodiment Would

14, 2009, provisional application No_ 61/283,988


?led on Dec_ 10, 2009

be of composite materials or plastics that can be molded to a


given design of three or more stages. The advantage of this
turbine is using the ?uids to their optimum e?iciency. These

Pubhcatlon Classl?catlon
(51)

Int, C],
F03D 11/00

(200601)

designs have loW starting speed, loW precession, and loW

drag. One design has a central axis that turns With bearings
With the rotor and the other design is a central static (non
turning) axis shaft that alloWs the turbine to turn on bearings.

US 20110175366A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2011/0175366 A1
Steinlechner
(54)

(43) Pub. Date:

LOW-PROFILE POWER-GENERATING WIND

(52)

Jul. 21, 201 1

US. Cl. ......................................... .. 290/55; 415/222

TURBINE

(76) Inventor:

Johann Steinlechner, Palm

Springs, CA (US)
(57)
(21)

1Xppl.lo;

13/009,735

ABSTRACT
_

A W1ndturb1ne is disclosed Wh1ch uses energy in air movmg

(22)

Filed;

Jam 19, 2011

relatively toward the turbine to focus and increase the Velocity

Related US, Application Data

of air entering a turbine inlet air ?oW passage. The inlet ?oW
passage discharges focused and accelerated air to blades of a

_ _

(60)

rotor Where the blades interact With that air to turn the rotor.

PrOVlslOnal apphcanon NO 61/296,280 ?led on Jan


19 2010'
_

Pubhcatlon Classl?catlon
(51)

Int, C],

Rotor motion can be used to operate an electrical generator.


The plane of rotation of the rotor can be at substantially right
an les to the lane of the assa e inleto enin .Baf?es inthe

?ov passagerand stator vgnes a1j acent the rotir blades cause

the mass How of the accelerated air to be substantially uni

F03D 9/00

(200601)

form, and desirably directed, throughout the rotors blade

F03D 1/04

(200601)

area. The turbine is compact and operates quietly.

16

)7

24W
GENERATOR

A {-25
|N\/.

N
o

US 20120099994A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2012/0099994 A1
Eguizabal
(43) Pub. Date:
Apr. 26, 2012
(54)

VERTICAL-AXIS WIND ROTOR

(76) Inventor:

(52)

Us. or. .................................................. .. 416/197R

Juan Jose Eguizabal, Logrono (La

(57)

Rioja) (ES)

ABSTRACT

This present invention relates to a wind rotor with a vertical

shaft, formed by means of a vertical shaft (1), two horizontal

(21) Appl. No.:

13/379,046

end supports (3, 3) and a plurality of blades (4, 4) arranged

(22)

PCT Filed:

Feb. 15, 2011

between said supports. The features of the invention are cen


tered on the fact that the blades (4, 4) are of two types, in an

(86)

PCT No.:

PCT/ES2011/000038

371 (0X1)
(2), (4) Date:

for forming drag elements and blades (4) prepared for form
ing lift elements, with the additional particularity that the

Dec. 19, 2011

causing a braking effect in the rotor. This structure eliminates


many of the drawbacks of the known wind rotors with a
vertical shaft, such that it does not require an important start

(30)

Foreign Application Priority Data

Mar. 2, 2010

(ES) ............................... .. P201000283

Publication Classi?cation

(51)

Int. or.
F03D 11/02

alternating arrangement, blades (4) prepared and con?gured


latter stall when they exceed a pre-established wind speed,

ing torque, a braking system with strong winds, or the orien


tation and reorientation with respect to the dominant winds.
Nor is it limited to being used with laminar winds, and it does

not require being arranged at great heights, being able to be


installed on a short support post (2) in optimal operating

(2006.01)

conditions.

US 20120107085A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2012/0107085 A1
McCoWan et al.
(54)

(43) Pub. Date:

HOUSING AND MASS AIRFLOW RATE


CONTROL SYSTEM FOR A WIND TURBINE

Publication Classi?cation

(51)

_ _

(75)

Inventors:

William Paul McCoWan;

gueenstlolwna Mghws); J01};


pence

ayes

apman,

.;

May 3, 2012

Int. Cl.
F03D 3/04

(2006.01)

F 03D 11/00

(2006.01)

F03D 7/06

(200601)

(52) us. Cl. ............. .. 415/1; 415/42; 415/126; 415/141

White Hall; MD (US); Donald

(57)

George Myers, Forest Hill, MD


(US)

The present invention provides control for air?ow to a wind


turbine that allows a wind turbine to operate cost effectively
and e?iciently in a wide range of speeds and a variety of

ABSTRACT

Total Energy Renewable Power

assembly located within an interior space of the housing; and

ambient conditions. A system has a housing; a wind turbine

(73) Assignee;

systems, LLC Annapolis, MD

at least one moveable shutter or de?ector. The wmd turbine

(Us)

assembly mcludes a shaft; a plurality of air foils or turbine

blades; and a plurality of spars supporting the plurality of air


foils or turbine blades rotatably around the shaft. At least one
movable shutter or de?ector is coupled to the housing and

(21) APP1- NOJ

12/915,687

adjustably positioned relative to the open sides of the housing


to be able to move between different positions to partially or

(22)

Filed:

Oct. 29, 2010

fully cover each open side depending upon the wind speed of
the ambient wind.

120
112

l26

126a

US 20120119502A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2012/0119502 A1
HUANG et al.
(54)

(43) Pub. Date:

VERTICAL WIND POWER GENERATOR

Publication Classi?cation

WITH AUTOMATICALLY UNSTRETCHABLE


BLADES

(76)

Inventors:

(21) Appl. No.:

May 17, 2012

51
(

TZu_Ya0 HUANG, Taichung City

I t Cl
)

(52)

n '

'

F03D 9/00
B64C 27/00

(2006.01)
(2006.01)

US. Cl. ..................................... .. 290/55; 416/170 R

(TW); Tso-Cheng Hsiao, Taichung

(57)

City (TW)

A vertical Wind power generator With automatically

ABSTRACT

12/972,443

unstretchable blades is disclosed. The vertical Wind poWer


generator includes a generator, a linkage mechanism, a lifting
type blade assembly, a resistance type blade assembly and a

drive unit. The drive unit provides poWer for driving the

(22) Filed:

linkage mechanism. The drive unit has an output shaft mov


able between a ?rst position and a second position. When the

Dec. 18, 2010

output shaft is moved to the ?rst position, the linkage mecha


nism is driven to move the resistance type blades to a

(30)

Foreign Application Priority Data

Nov. 15,2010

(TW) ............................... .. 099139145

stretched position. When the output shaft is moved to the


second position, the linkage mechanism is driven to move the
resistance type blades to an unstretched position.

50

51

52

/
\_

70

20

21

US 20120153632A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2012/0153632 A1
Suttisiltum
(54)

(43) Pub. Date:

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE


GENERATOR

(76) Inventor:

(51)

Apichat Suttisiltum, Bangkok


(TH)

Publication Classi?cation
Int CL
F03D 3/04
(2006.01)

F03D 9/00
(52)

Appl' NO':

13/393532

(22) PCT Filed:

Sep. 6, 2010

plurality of V-shape longitudinal cup type blades mounted


horizontally in one or more circulars around a rotor to
received the Wind mass and push the turbine to rotate, a

PCT NO"
371 (6X1)

PCT/TH10/00033

step-up gear to increase the turbine shaft rotation speed, a


generator is to be rotated by the drive shaft of step-up gear, a

Feb 29 2012

While the turbine rotation to make it rotate similarly; freely


?oated in the air, and a set of Wind velocity accelerating tunnel
to increase Wind mass bloWing from any directions to a higher
velocity than the natural instantaneous Wind speed When

_
(2), (4) Dam
(30)

ABSTRACT

The present invention relates to a vertical axis Wind turbine


generator comprising one turbine. The turbine comprises a

(86)

(2006.01)

US. Cl. ........................................................ .. 290/55

(57)
(21)

Jun. 21, 2012

lift-up equipment for eliminating friction loss at the bearings

Foreign Application Priority Data


Sep. 8, 2009

(TH) .............................. .. 0901004039

approaching blades front. The turbine set is installed on a

Oct. 7, 2009

(TH) .............................. .. 0901004535

toWer structure.

(1

(I

I
I
l
/

US 20120189428Al

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2012/0189428 A1
Gamberini

(43) Pub. Date:

(54) WIND TURBINE


(75)

Inventor:

(30)

Enzo Gamberini Zola Predosa

Foreign Application Priority Data

Jul. 28, 2009

(Bologna) (1T)
.

(73) Asslgnee.

832x512)

(22)

PCT Filed
'

Int. Cl.
F 03D 7/06

Crespellano

F03D 3/04
(52)

(21) Appl. No.:

(IT) ........................ .. RE2009A000077

Publication Classi?cation
(51)

Jul. 26, 2012

(2006.01)

(200601)

US. Cl. ....................................................... .. 415/4.4

13/387,368

(57)

Feb 10 2010

A Wind turbine device comprising a base frame Which sup


ports a vertical axis Wind operated rotor, the axis being asso

'

ABSTRACT

ciated to a user device and being contained in a matchingly

dimensioned cylindrical casing exhibiting tWo openings,


(86)

PCT No.:

PCT/EP10/51650

371 (0X1),
24D
,
ate:

A102012
pr.
,

14 .

respectively an inlet and an outlet, aligned perpendicular to


the rotor axis, the casing being driven to rotate about the axis
by a member sensitive to the direction of the Wind, such that
"l
th'l
e 1n et opemng
1s a Ways f"
acmg into th'd
e Wm .

US 20120294705A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2012/0294705 A1
Unno
(54)

(43) Pub. Date:

HYDRAULIC POWER GENERATING


APPARATUS

(76) Inventor:

(51)

Yuji Unno, Tokyo (JP)

(21) Appl. No.:

13/390,363

Publication Classi?cation
Int CL
F03B 3/00
(2006.01)

F03B 11/00
(52)

NOV. 22, 2012

(2006.01)

US. Cl. ...................................................... .. 415/151

(57)

ABSTRACT

The apparatus includes a water collecting plate 6 which col

(22)

PCT Flledt

Sep- 1, 2011

lects water into a water in?ow opening 8 while intercepting


and accumulating water ?owing through a waterway, and a

(86)

_
PCT NO"
371 (0X1)

PCT/JP11/69889

movable gate 5 which is capable of changing ?ow cross


sectional area of water ?ow acting to the top ends of rotor
blades 33 of a vertical axis turbine 3 as in?owing from the

_
(2), (4) Dam

Feb 14 2012

water in?ow opening 8. Here, owing to changing of ?ow


cross-sectional area with opening and closing of the movable

Foreign Application Priority Data

the upstream side and opening area of an ori?ce hole and


operation of the rotor blades 33 can be stopped by blocking

gate 5, a ?ow rate can be adjusted by changing a water level at

(30)

May 18, 2011

(JP) ............................... .. 2011-111809

water passing toward the vertical axis turbine 3.

*6

UPSTREAM SIDE

DOWNSTREAM SIDE

US 20120319407A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. N0.: US 2012/0319407 A1
Glass
(54)

(43) Pub. Date:

LIGHTER-THAN-AIR CRAFT FOR

(52)

Dec. 20, 2012

US. Cl. ....................................................... .. 290/55

ENERGY-PRODUCING TURBINES

(75) Inventor:

Benjamin W. Glass, Somerville, MA

(57)

ABSTRACT

(Us)
(73) Assignee: ALTAEROS ENERGIES, INC.,
Boston MA (Us)

A Wind-based power generating system provides a Wind


energy converter for converting Wind energy into another

(21) Appl. No.: 13/565,916

form of energy using a lighter-than-air craft con?gured to


produce a positive net lift. The net lift includes both a net

(22)

Filed?

Aug- 31 2012

aerodynamic lift and a net buoyant lift. A tethering mecha


_

nism is con?gured to restrain the lighter-than-air craft With

Related Us Apphcatlon Data

respect to the ground. The lighter-than-air craft de?nes an

(63) continuationqmpan of application NO_ 12/579,839,

interior volume for containing a lighter-than-air gas, and the

?led on Oct. 15, 2009, noW Pat. No. 8,253,265.


. .

(60) {52031830811211 apphcanon NO' 61/105509 ?led on Oct'

lighter-than-air craft has a fore section and an aft section. The


tethering system has at least one attachment point on the fore

'

section of the lighter-than-air craft and at least one attachment


point on the aft section of the lighter-than-air craft. The

publication Classi?cation

lighter-than-air craft provides a stable aerodynamic moment


With respect to a yaW axis about a center-of-mass of the

(51)

Int. Cl.

F03D 9/00

lighter-than-air craft. The craft can be formed in a variety of

(2006.01)

aerodynamic pro?les/ shapes.

US 20130094967A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. N0.: US 2013/0094967 A1
SU

(43) Pub. Date:

(54)

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE SYSTEM

(76)

Inventor:

(21)

App1_ NO; 13/273,310

(22)

Filed:

MAX SU TAINAN CITY (TW)

Oct- 14, 2011


_

Pubhcatlon Classl?catlon

(51)

Int Cl
F03D 3/02
(52) US. Cl.
USPC

(2006-01)

........................................................ .. 416/202

Apr. 18, 2013

(57)
ABSTRACT
A vertical axis Wind turbine system is revealed. TWo vertical
axis Wind supply units are arranged beside a support rod and
between an upper and a lower connection plates. The vertical
axis Wind supply unit includes blades around a rotor shaft.
Each blade includes a blade body and valves. The blade body
is a helical plate having a plurality of crossed barriers and
insertion holes among barriers. Moreover, the valves are ?xed
on an upWind surface of the blade body and an upper side of
the valve is connected to the blade body. Each valve is corre

sponding to at least one insertion hole. Each of the tWo rotor


shafts are connected to a generator set by a transmission set.

When Wind turns the blades, each blade spin the rotor shaft
and the transmission set transfers energy generated by the
rotating blades to the generator set for conversion to electrical
poWer.

US 20130136600A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. N6.: US 2013/0136600 A1
Tamatsu
(54)

(43) Pub. Date:

WIND/WATER TURBINE WITH ROTATIONAL

(52)

RESISTANCE REDUCED BY WIND vANE

May 30, 2013

US. Cl.
CPC ............ .. F03B 17/065 (2013.01); F03D 3/067

BLADE

(2013.01)
USPC

........................................................ ..

416/119

(76) Inventor: Yoshiji Tamatsu, Okinawa (JP)

(21) Appl. No.:

13/702,614

(57)

(22)

PCT Filed:

Jun. 7, 2011

A Wind/Water turbine has a basic con?guration in Which both

(86)

PCT No.:

PCT/JP11/62988

ends of blades Which are in rotational symmetry are ?xed to

371 (0X1)
(2), (4) Date:

(30)

Dec. 7, 2012

Foreign Application Priority Data

Jun. 9, 2010
Aug. 10,2010

(JP) ............................... .. 2010-132516


(JP) ............................... .. 2010-179089

Publication Classi?cation

(51)

Int. Cl.

(2006.01)
(2006.01)

F03B 17/06
F03D 3/06

1'. -1:

ABSTRACT

support plates, the blades have vanes, one of the vertical sides
of the vanes is attached to a vane rotating shaft, and the free
opposite sides each rotate freely in a sector extending as far as
the adjacent vane rotating shafts on either side. The vanes are

arranged such that When the blades of the Wind/Water turbine


are convex, moving against the Water ?ow/air?ow, the vanes
are pressed by the Water ?ow/air?ow and are opened, thereby
reducing the rotational resistance, and When the blades have
pivoted further and are concave, the spaces between the vane

rotating shafts are closed, the Water/ air pressure is received


over the entire surface of the blade, and thus a pivoting force
that is increased corresponding to the reduction in rotation
resistance is obtained.

I'M-".D I

US 20130285382A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. N0.: US 2013/0285382 A1
Grigg
(54)

(43) Pub. Date:

WIND TURBINE GENERATOR AND MOTOR

(52)

Oct. 31, 2013

US. Cl.
CPC .................................. .. H02K57/003 (2013.01)

(71)

Applicant: Charles Grigg, Westpmt, CA (US)

USPC .......................................................... .. 290/54

(72) Inventor: Charles Grigg, Westport, CA (U S)

(57)

A PAVA (parallel and vertical axis) turbine includes a plural

(21) Appl' No" 13/761506


-

(22)

ity of Wing Assemblies having vertical pivot shafts extending

Flled'

between tWo vertically spaced end assemblies that are joined

Feb 7 2013

to a central driveshaft assembly. The Wing assemblies are


.

rotatable about their respective pivot axes from a drive posi

Related U's' Apphcatlon Data


(63)

ABSTRACT

tion in Which they extend radially outWardly from the central

Continuation of application No. 12/657,136, ?led on


Jan. 13, 2010, noW Pat. No. 8,373,297.

Publication Classi?cation

axis and transverse to incident ?uid ?oW to maximally Cap


ture ?uid ?oW and rotate the turbine, to a glide position in
Which the Wings extend tangentially to the direction of rota
tion and parallel to incident ?uid ?oW to minimize drag. The

Wings may have articulating ?aps rotating outWardly from the


(51)

Int. Cl.
H02K 57/00

Wing assembly in the drive quadrant to capture more of the


passing ?uid ?oW.

(2006.01)

11

:._LS~
3

10 0

l
I

40

52

US 20140023500A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2014/0023500 A1
(43) Pub. Date:

RUBIO
(54)

Jan. 23, 2014

Publication Classi?cation

VERTICAL AXIS WIND AND HYDRAULIC


TURBINE WITH FLOW CONTROL

(51)

Int. Cl.
F03D 3/00
(52) Us. or.

(71) Applicant: Humberto Antonio RUBIO, Ciudad


Autonoma de Buenos Aires (AR)

(2006.01)

CPC .................................... .. F03D 3/005 (2013.01)

(72)

Inventor:

USPC

Humberto Antonio RUBIO, Ciudad


Autonoma de Buenos Aires (AR)

(57)

.......................................................... ..

416/24

ABSTRACT

A Vertical axis Wind and hydraulic turbine with How control

including a regular hexagonal structure of radius R, parallel

(21) App1.No.: 13/736,325

epiped-shaped, inside Which a rotor rotates With three or more


vanes on a Vertical axis Which is located in the center of the

hexagon as seen from above, Wherein the vanes When rotating

(22) Filed:

generate a circle of radius Rt, further including six articulated

Jan. 8, 2013

de?ector vanes that grab and concentrate the How of air or

(30)

Foreign Application Priority Data

liquid entering the rotor vanes, from the Wind or liquid current
entry side to the turbine and diffuse the How of air or liquid

Jul. 19, 2012


Oct. 15, 2012

(AR) ............................ .. P12 01 02619


(AR) ............................ .. P12 01 03837

exiting from the rotor vanes, from the side opposite to the
Wind or liquid entry side to the turbine.

VERTICAL AXIS WIND


TURBINE WITH FLOW
CONTROL

if GATE

WELL
LEVELaw

TELESCOPIC PISTONS

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
FOR RAISING OR
LOWERING THE
VERTICAL AXIS WIND
TURBINE WITH FLOW
CONTROL

US 20140054895Al

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2014/0054895 A1
STEEL
(54)

(43) Pub. Date:

WINDTRACKER TWIN-TURBINE SYSTEM

(76) Inventor:

Dennis Patrick STEEL, Moers (DE)

Feb. 27, 2014

Publication Classi?cation

(51) Illt- Cl
H02K 7/18
(52) US. Cl.

(2006.01)

(21) Appl. No.:

13/990,043

(22)

PCT Filed:

Dec. 3, 2011

(86)

PCT No.:

PCT/EP2011/006062

(57)

371 (c)(1),
(2), (4) Date:

Jun. 18, 2013

A turbine system for Wind and/or Water poWer is character


iZed in that tWo radial turbines (1, 2) aligned next to each other
and in parallel are arranged having a vertical axis of rotation,

CPC .................................. .. H02K 7/1823 (2013.01)

(30)

Foreign Application Priority Data

USPC .......................................................... .. 290/54

ABSTRACT

said radial turbines being connected to each other and being


pivotable about a pivot axis (3) parallel to the turbine axes

Dec. 13, 2010


Feb. 2, 2011
Aug. 3, 2011

(DE) .................... .. 10 2010 054 365.9


(DE) .................... .. 10 2011 010 177.2
(DE) .................... .. 10 2011 109 217.3

(18), wherein the pivot axis and a V-shaped Wind distributor


(3) are located outside the connecting line between the tur
bine axes and both on the same side of the connecting line.

US 20140375060A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. N0.: US 2014/0375060 A1
Lin et a].
(54)

(43) Pub. Date:

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE

(52)

Dec. 25, 2014

US. Cl.
CPC .............. .. F 03D 3/005 (2013.01); F 03D 9/002

(71) ApplicantszChun-Shuan Lin, Zhubei (TW);

(2013.01)

Jung-Hsi Su, Zhubei (TW)


(72)

Inventors: Chun-Shuan Lin, Zhubei (TW);

Jung_Hsi s, Zhubei (TW)

USPC .......................................................... .. 290/55


(57)

ABSTRACT

vertlcal ax1s Wmd turbine mcludes a W1nd guide module


mstalled at the perlphery of a vane module for tummg ax1ally,
and a magnetic ?eld module and a coil module installed at the

(21)

Appl. No.: 13/924,915

periphery of a turntable of the vane module for generating

(22)

_
Flledi

induced electromotive forces, such that When the vane mod


ule is rotated by the action of air current, the magnetic ?eld
module is driven to rotate a coil of the coil module generates

Jun- 24: 2013

an electric current by the magnetic induction of the magnetic


element of the magnetic ?eld module. In particular, the Whole
Pllblication ClaSSi?catiOIl

(51)

Illt- Cl-

F03D 3/00
F03D 9/00

(2006.01)
(2006.01)

vertical axis power generator can guide and concentrate the


surrounding air current at ?aps of the vane module by the
action of the Wind guide module, so that the vane module is

capable of starting an operation easily, providing a high oper


ating performance, and featuring an easy manufacture.

Nov. 18, 1947.

R, DU BRlE
WIND MOTOR

Filed Dec. 16'. 1943

2,431,111

June 6, 1950

c. H. JOHNSON

2,510,501

WIND TURBINE '

Filed July 22, 1946

2 Sheets-Sheet 1

Inventor

Carl H. Johnson
.

By WWW 8mm

June 6, 1950

2,510,501

C. H. vJOHNSON
WIND TURBINE

2 Sheets-Sheet 2

l Filed July 22, 1946


Q

mm.
Carl

Johnson

B)1 QM

WW 1?M518];

and

(o Model.)
'

M.

2 Sheets-.Sheet 1.

COLONEY.

WIND BOWER MACHINE.

No .260 ,085
F

Patented June 27, 1882.`


Q

2 Sheets-Sheet 2.v

M. COLONEY.

wim) ~OWBR MACHINE. _

'N0. 260,085.v

Patented June 27 ,

N, PETERS, Phalo-uxhngmphor. washington, D. c.

1882.`

March 5, 1968

H. s. BACON

3,371,718

ROTARY JET REACTION MOTORS

Filed Sept. 7, 1966.

2 Sheets-Sheet l_

\\\\ \ \'

/ /// /

INVENTOR.
f/zf'A/AV .5: EACH/V
BY
l '

March 5, 1968

H. s. BACON

3,371,718

ROTARY JET REACTION MOTORS

Filed Sept. 7, 1966

2 Sheets-Sheet 2

H/ /
INVENTOR.

A E E /V T

United States Patent 1191

1111

3,743,848

Strickland

[45]

July 3, 1973

[54]

[76]

WIND DRIVEN POWER PRODUCING

1,782,280

11/1930

Willenbring .................... .. 290/55 X

APPARATUS

1,369,596

2/1921

Yanacopoulos .................... .. 290/44

Inventor:

Nathaniel Strickland. 1105 Ortega


SL, Carlsbad, N. Mex.

88220

122]
[21]

Flledl
Fb~ 25 1972
App|_ N0: 26,346

[52]

US. Cl. ................................... 1. 290/55, 290/44

[51]

Int. Cl. ............................................ .. F031;! 9/00

[58]

Field of Search ................. .. 290/50, 55, 54, 42,

290/43, 44
[56]

References Cited
UNITED STATES PATENTS

1,181,988

5/1916

Breitung ............................. .. 290/50

1,423,514

7/1922

Butusou .......................... ,. 290/55 X

1.633.460

6/1927

Silvestrin ......................... .. 299/55

1,654,165

12/1927

Felt . . _ . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . .. 290/55 X

1,930,390

10/1933

Jacobs

..... _. 290/55 X

1,212,109
2,329,675

9/1917
9/1943

Rodwick.
......... .. 290/55 x
Albers ............................. .. 290/44 X

7 Primary Examiner-G. R, Simmons

[57]

ABSTRACT

A device for generating electric current by the force of


the wind. This device consists primarily of a turntable
with arm and ,vane means for transferring the force of
the wind to rotate a generator.
4 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures

26,

Z6
Z3

United States Patent H91

[111

Magoveny et al.

[451- Feb. 17, 1976

[541 HORIZONTAL MULTIDIRECTIONAL

593,840

6/1925

3,938,907

France .................................. ., 415/2

TURBINE WlNDMlLL

[75] Inventors: George S. Magoveny; Eric J. Forgo,


both of North Haven, Conn.

[73] Assignee: Windsunwatt, Inc., New Haven,

[57]

Conn.

[22]

Filed:

Primary E.\aminer-Henry F. Raduazo


Attorney, Agent, or FirmDeLio and Montgomery

ABSTRACT

A horizontal multidirectional turbine windmill com

June 24, 1974

prising a housing having apertures on all sides for in


gress and egress of air and a rotor on a drive shaft

[21] Appl. No.: 482,355

within the housing, each aperture being the larger end


of a funnel-shaped passage, the smaller ends of said

[52]
[51]
[58]

1.1.8. Cl. ............... .. 415/141; 415/4, 416/136 A


Int. Cl.2 ...................... .. F011) 7/00;FO1D 7/02

passages being positioned to deliver air at relatively


high velocities against the rotor buckets, the air enter

Field of Search ............. .. 415/2, 3, 4, 141, 140,

ing the housing through one or more apertures on the

415/30; 290/44, 55; 416/186 A

windward side thereof and being exhausted through


apertures on the leeward side. The housing is prefera

[56]

References Cited
UNITED STATES PATENTS

87,585
1,811,185

bly so shaped that ambient air impinging on the hous


ing surface without entering an aperture will flow

Mewlin ............................. .. 415/141


Lambeth....
................ .. 415/141

jacent the exhaust funnel apertures, and the housing is

Gunn

also preferably so shaped that a plurality of units can

1,954,811

4/1934

2,337,861

12/1943

2,351,516
2.719.000

6/1944
9/1955

. . . . . . . .. . . . .

Adamtchik

. . . . . . . . ..

416/186

415/141

be stacked vertically with their drive shafts coupled

Jandasek ...... ..
415/141
Thevenaz .......................... .. 415/141

together. The rotor buckets are ?exible and their pro~


?les are varied automatically as a function of wind and

FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATiONS


[00,913

around the housing and create a low pressure zone ad

3/1869
8/1876

9/1925

Austria ............................. .. 415/141

rotational speed.
2 Claims, 14 Drawing Figures

United States Patent [191


Bogie

[111

[45] Nov. 30, 1976

[54] WINDMILL
[76] Inventor: Townsend Bogie, 1151 Hoyt Ave.,
[22] Filed:

Indianapolis, Ind. 46203


July 9, 1975

trically disposed in the housing and a rotor ?xedly at


tached to the shaft and comprising a plurality of

equally peripherally spaced, vertically extending

US. Cl .................................... .. 415/186; 415/2


Int. Cl.2 .......................................... .. F0313 3/18
Field of Search .................................. .. 4l5/24,

4l5/183,'185, 186, 202, 203, 211


[56]

[57]
ABSTRACT
A windmill comprising a generally cylindrically shaped
housing having a vertical axis, a vertical shaft concen

[21] Appl. No.: 594,221


[52]
[51]
[58]

3,994,621

References Cited

trough-shaped wind scoops. Each scoop has a closed


back surface with vertically extending leading and fol
lowing edges and a vertically extending open front ex
posed to the wind. Each scoop is attached at its edges
to the adjacent scoops to form a generally cylindrical
scoop assembly. The housing comprises a plurality of

equally peripherally spaced apart stationary wind

UNITED STATES PATENTS

directing and concentrating vanes, each vane having a

578,759

3/1897

McElroy ........................... .. 415/186

proximal end forming a cylindrical surface substan

1,062,099

5/1913

Hoglund

1,234,405
1,441,774

7/1917
l/l923

Solomon....
Adams ........ ..

tially concentric with the axis of rotation of the scoop


assembly, the cylindrical surfaces and the scoop as

1,503,061

7/1924

Pendergast ...... ..

415/4

2,096,119

10/1937

Lensch et al.

415/4

2,431,111

11/1947

Dubrie .................................. .. 415/4

415/202
...... .. 415/3
415/4

FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS


25,009

3/1920

545,003

7/1922

France .................................. .. 415/2

France...

415/2

576,980

5/1924

France ..... ..

415/2

729,533

12/1942

Germany

415/4

169,733

9/1921

United Kingdom ................... .. 415/2

Primary Examiner--C. J. l-lusar


Attorney, Agent, or Firm.1enkins, Hanley & Coffey

sembly being of substantially equal diameter for


closely spacing the scoop assembly and vanes, and
each of the vanes projecting outwardly generally tan
gentially from the cylindrical surfaces of the proximal
ends of thevanes and scoop assembly. The length of
the arc of the cylinder formed by the proximal end of
each vane exceeds the/length of the arc of the cylinder
described by the open front of each of the wind

scoops for preventing the escape of air impinging


upon the inner surfaces of the scoops from between
the scoop and the proximal end of the stationary vane.

10 Claims, 8* Drawing Figures

US. Patent

Nov. 30, 1976

Sheet2 of2

3,994,621

United States Patent [191

[111

Graybill

[45] Nov. 30, 1976

[54].
"

WIND ENERGY CONVERSION DEVICE

'-

[76] Invent

rll'bfgstybsllglg-zo- BOX 396

[22] Filed:

Feb. 26, 1975

3,995,170

2,633,921

4/1953

Monney .............................. .. 290/55

3,743,848

7/1973

Strickland . . . . .

3,793,530

2/1974

Carter ................................. .. 290/55

. _ . . ..

290/55

Primary Examiner-Robert S. Macon

[211

App] No _ 553 255

Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Wells, St. John & Roberts

[52]

US. Cl ................................... .. 290/55; 290/44;

..

57
v

[51]
[58]

Int GL2
Fieid of

60/398

F031) 3/00_ H021, 9 l0 4


"""""" "f - 290/55 54 53 42
""""""""" " 290/43 44: 602398

[56]
"
'
704,507
,

Reierences Cited

A Wll'ld energy conversion device for converting direc

tional wind force to torque along on a vertical rota


tional axis. The device includes a plurality of ?exible
vanes mounted to a framework for rotation therewith
about a vertical axis. The vanes are mounted to up

right posts on the framework. Axial vane side edges

UNITED STATES PATENTS


7/1902 BIIII'l?ElU .............................. .. 290/55

extend to opposite radial sides of the posts and are


connected in a speci?c manner to the frame in order
to produce a positive effect on rqta?on of the device

l2;

in a prescribed direction, in response to wind currents.

2,431,111

ABSTRACT

ll/l947

gallsblllfy - . - - -

- ~ ~ - - ~ - ~ - ~~

avomus . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . ._

Du Brie .............................. .. 290/55

10 Claims, 5 Drawing" Figures

United States Patent H9,

H1,

4,004,861

Soules

{45]

Jan. 25, 1977

[54]

WIND DRIVEN PRIME MOVER


I

[76]

Invent

afar soules 37 Kmgsdale AW"

264.219

1/1927

United Kingdom ............... .. 416/41

270.1158

5/1927

United Kingdom

304,514

1/1929

United Kingdom ........... .. 416/119

............ ..

416/119

wlllowdale, Ontario, Canada, M2N


_

[22]

Filed:

3W3

Primary ExaminerEverette A. Powell, Jr.

June 13, 1975

Attorney, Agent, or Firm~George H. Riches

[21] Appl. No.: 586,541


[52]

us. Cl. ............................... .. 416/41; 416/1 19;

[57]

[51]

416/140
Int. Cl.2 ......................................... .. F03D 7/06

A wind driven prime mover which is driven by a plural


ity of arcuately shaped wind vanes pivotally mounted

[58]

Field of Search ............ .. 416/41, 42, 119, 140,

on a rotatable turntable. The wind vanes are pivotally

[56]

416/197, 197 A. 9, 14, 17, 32, 37; 415/141, 2


References Cited

mounted on the turntable with their pivot axle disposed


in a vertical plane. The pivots are positioned adjacent
the periphery of the turntable, with the pivots being
spaced equidistant from each other and equi-distant

UNXTED STATES PATENTS


1399] 5
134L045
3,093,194
3,942,909

4/19;
5/1920
6/1963
3/1976

Ebert ___________________________ H
Currey
___ __
Rusconi ..
.... ..
Yengst ......................... ..

416/] 19
416/197
416/119
416/119

X
A
X
X

FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS


24,121 10/1936
35,860 3/1930
701.036 3/1931

ABSTRACT

from the axis of rotation of the turntable. The bottoms


of the vanes are areuately shaped, with the length of the
are being slightly longer than the space between the
pivots so that there is an overlap between adjacent
vanes. The convex surface of the vanes face outwardly
to provide a concave inner surface.

Australia ......................... .. 416/119

France ......................... .. 416/197 A


France ......................... .. 416/197 A

6 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures

U.S. Patent

Jan. 25, 1977

Sheet 1 of2

4,004,861

U.S. Patent

Jan. 25, 1977

Sheet 2 of2

4,004,861

United- States Patent 1191

[11]

4,048,947

Sicard

[45]

Sept. 20, 1977

[54]
[76]

ROTARY DEVICE DRIVEN BY A 'MOVIN

1,524,712

2/1925

FLUID

1,650,702

11/1927

Folmer

...... .. 115/3

1,654,165

12/1927

Felt

. . . . ..

3,212,470
3,743,848

10/1965
7/ 1973

Wiggin
...... .. 115/3
Strickland .......................... .. 416/119

Inventor:

Charles Andre Sicard, 29 rue


Dierville, 6211 Bucquoy, France

[21] App]. No.: 650,742


[22]

.
Flled:

[30]

. ....... ..

290/55

Primary Examiner-Trygve M. Blix

Jan 20 1976 '

Foreign Application Priority Data


Jan. 22, 1975

Hurd .................................. .. 416/119

Assistant ExaminerStuart M. Goldstein


Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Finnegan, Henderson,

Farabow & Garrett

France .............................. .. 75.01907

[57]

ABSTRACT

[51]
[52]

Int. C1.2 ........................................... .. 8631! 13/00


US. Cl. ..................................... .. 115/3; 180/2 A;

A rotary device driven by a moving fluid, such as water


or air, for generating a rotary movement comprises a

290/55; 416/119; 416/240

cylindrical or frusto-c'onical rotor having a vertical axis,

[58]

Field of Search ............. .. 416/111, 119, 139, 240;

the rotor having a plurality of identical blades distrib

180/2, 7; 115/3; 290/55

uted around the periphery of the rotor, each blade hav

_
References Clted

[56]

ing a symmetrical aerodynamic pro?le and being


mounted so as to freely rotate about a substantially

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

vertical axis parallel to its leading edge. The device may

247,266

9/1881

Miller, Jr. .......................... .. 416/119

be used to WW"? screw drive mat a wheeled vehi'

279,066

6/1883

Witherspoon .

.... .. 416/119

C16 r her machmery

535,120

3/1895

Norberg

. . . . ..

1,024,066

4/1912

Fletcher ................................. .. 180/2

. .. .... . .

416/119

'

13 Claims, 9 Drawing Figures

13

13 o
/,

D '

,,

- 13

13

United States Patent [19]

[11]

4,057,270

Lebost

[45]

Nov. 8, 1977

[54] FLUID TURBINE


[76] Inventor: Barry Alan Lebost, 3224 Grand
Concourse, Bronx, NY. 10468

to a ?uid source, such as a liquid or gaseous current.

[21] Appl. N0.: 565,025

which are connected to coaxial shafts. One of the shafts


is connected to the ?eld windings of an electric genera
tor while the other shaft is connected to the armature

[22] Filed:

Apr. 3, 1975

[51]

Int. Cl.2 .............................................. .. F03D 1/02

[52]

US. Cl. ...................................... .. 290/54; 290/42;

[58]

Field of Search ..................... .. 290/42, 43, 44, 53,

290/44; 290/ 53; 290/55

The turbine has two substantially annular rotor hous

ings spaced in parallel, horizontal planes. Each housing


is provided with a plurality of radially extending blades

windings. The radial blades in each rotor housing when


exposed to the liquid or gaseous current rotate in oppo
site directions causing the ?eld and armature windings
of the generator to rotate in opposite directions to in

1,504,085

8/1924

Birrell .................................. .. 290/44

1,677,745

7/1928

Bonneto ..

290/55

crease the power output of the generator. Fluid scoops


are located at the entrance to each housing to accelerate
the ?uid current and deliver it to curved stator blades
which form a series of ?uid jets which further acceler
ate the incoming ?uid and bend the ?uid so as to direct
it to impinge on the radial rotor blades in a direction

1,936,233 11/1933
3,513,326 5/1970

Groves
Potts

290/55
290/55

providing increased starting torque while also increas


ing the effective force of the ?uid. Thisincreased effec

3,697,765

10/1972

Carini ..

290/55

3,720,840

3/1973

Gregg

290/44

tive force is added to the internal force of the ?uid once


operation is commenced so that the scoops and stator

3,740,565

6/1973

Wesley ................................. .. 290/55

290/ 54, 55

[56]

References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

Primary ExaminerRobert S. Macon


Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Allen D. Brufsky

[57]

blades insure power output in light ?uid currents and


multiply power output in heavy currents.

ABSTRACT

A turbine for generating electric power when exposed

.45 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures

United States Patent [191

[11]

4,115,027

Thomas

[45]

Sep. 19, 1978

[54]

VERTICAL WINDMILL

[76]

Inventon

Robert Nmn Thqm?s, 80 Lmcoln


.

544,922

8/1895

Lundquist .......................... .. 416/119

4,012,163
2,625,929

3/1977
1/1953

Baumgartner
Love et al. ......................... .. 415/2

Dr" Venmm Cahf' 93003

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

[21] Appl. No.: 758,022


_

[22]

32,996 10/1922

Flled:

Jan. 7, 1977

Denmark ................................... .. 415/4

169,358 9/1921 United Kingdom ................... .. 126/247


.

Primary Examiner-C. J. Husar

Related U'S' Apphcahon Data

Attorney, Agent, or FirmLyon & Lyon

63

Continuatio -i - art of Ser. No. 649,827, Jan. 16, 1976,

51

Int. Cl.2 ..............................................


.. F03D 7 06

An omnidirectional windmill emp10ying lift type air

E52} U.S. c1. ...................................... .. 415/2; 126/2/4729o/55; 415/183; 415/123

foils mounted abm" a vertiwl axis- The Windmill i


cludes a support frame which de?nes the vertically

[ 1

abandoned. n n p

[57]

ABSTRACT

[58] Field of Search ...................................... .. 415/2-5,

oriented axis about which the elongate ail'foils rotate

415/18 123 151, 159, 208, 183', 135, 216;

Five vertically oriented stators are positioned out

56
[ I

416/9-14, 119; 126/247; 122/26; 290/43, 44,

wardly of the airfoils about the windmill to form an

I 54, 55

omnidirectional diffuser. These stators extend radially

R f
Cited
e erences
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

250,806

12/1881

Hamel .................................... .. 415/2

- 372,300
387,424

11/1887
8/1888

Chubbuck
Koeppe
.................................. .. 415/4

from the vertical axis to substantially enhance the ef?


ciency of the windmill. The stators also make the wind
mill self-starting. A friction heater is also disclosed in
assciatin with the Windmill

8 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures

United States Patent [191

[11]

- 4,118,637

Tackett

[45]

Oct. 3, 1978

[54] INTEGRATED ENERGY SYSTEM


[75] Inventor: Louis Eugene Tackett, Grandview,
Tex.

[73] Assignee: UNEP3 Energy Systems Inc.,


Grandview, Tex.

Sep. 30, 1976

Related US. Application Data


Continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 579,131, May 20,

[63]

1975, abandoned.
Int. Cl.2 ............................................. .. H02P 9/04

[52]

US.

[58]

Field of Search ................... .. 290/1, 4, 44, 43, 54,

[56]

290/55; 60/398, 413, 415; 417/336, 382


References Cited

................

. . . . . . ..

290/55;

60/398

U.S_ PATENT DOCUMENTS


874,140

12/1907

943,000

l2/ 1909

Valiquet ............. .._ ................ .. 60/ 398


Busby ..... ._
..

2,539,862
3,996,741

12/
1/1951
1976

Rushing ..... ..
Herberg

4,004,427

1/1977

..

Butler, Jr. ............................ .. 60/ 398

Primary ExaminerRobert K. Schaefer


Assistant Examiner.lohn W. Redman
Attorney, Agent, or FirmJames L. Bean

[57]

commercially available size pipe to keep the pressure


drop to a minimum, and from which the compressed air
is withdrawn at multiple points of need; when and as

needed, through synchronized dual-precision-controls


to turn, at optimum RPM speed regardless of varying
work loads, air motor drives for operation of conven

[51]

Cl.

tem: which includes system air pressure compensated


variable pressure and volume delivery of compressed
air from multiple air compression stations which dis
charge and store compressed air into an included inter
connecting collection storage and distribution conduit

multiple module grid system; of largest needed and

[21] Appl. No.: 728,064


[22] Filed:

driven energy integration and multiple use-point sys

tional electrical generating equipment with varying


customer-use-demand output work loads. The conduit

pipe systems are arranged in interconnecting, but isola-,


ble, multiple module grids ranging in size from those
needed, for example, for a small town or a large individ
ual user of electricity to large metropolitan areas and
which may ultimately be interconnected into a large
regional, national, or continental system. Natural en
ergy sources including wind, tide, wave, thermal and
solar power, as well as conventional fuels, may be uti
lized to provide the energy required to drive compres

sors to supply the air into the system. An improved


wind turbine is included for the recovery and use of

wind-power for compressing air on a vast scale in multi

ple installations.

ABSTRACT

This invention is a multiple diverse energy source

21 Claims, 25 Drawing Figures

U.S. Pateht

FIGZ

Oct. 3, 1978 I

Sheet10f13

4,118,637

US. Patent

05:. 3, 1978

Sheet 2 of 13

4,118,637

H63
22

99999??? 9%

9999999999
0000000000000000000

my;

Ln, 16, I8

99199999P999999P999

15/; 5 5 5 5 5 5 <5 5 5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 5 <5 <5 563:
10 L 90 1 10 1 90 1 10 1 10 1 90 1 90 1 90 1 10 1 10 1 90 1 10 1 10 1 10 1 10 1 90 1 10 1 90 1 10 1 T23
9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9@_

28-30'

24

0M10
190 09010 0190 019010 0190. 0190 01.90 0190 0190 010 0190 0190 0190 0190 0190 010 01 0 0190 0190 0190
99999999999999999999
5 <5 <5 <5 5 <5 <5 <5 5 <5 <5 <5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5@{
99 9 99 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9C}
55555555555555555555 V

99999999999999999999
00000000000000000000
99999999999999999999

00000600000000000000

TI

n m444|1

[1444f]

[1444!1

II

,7 Cbvs

' 253

US. Patent

FIG?

FIG.25

Oct. 3, 1978

Sheet 3 of 13

4,118,637

US. Patent

Oct. 3, 1978

Sheet 4 of 13

4,118,637

US. Patent

Oct. 3, 1978

Sheet 5 of 13

4,118,637

US. Patent

Fm. IO

Oct. 3, 1978

Sheet 6 of 13

4,118,637

US. Patent

0a. 3, 1978

Sheet 7 of 13

4,118,637

FIG. H
I24

I23

F5

I22

26%

{87 -

J53

US. Patent

Oct. 3, 1978

Sheet 8 of 13

FIG. l2

4,118,637

U.S. Patent

Oct. 3, 1978

Sheet 9 of 13

4,118,637

US. Patent

Oct. 3, 1978

Sheet 10 of 13

4,118,637

US. Patent

h_.Qfn

0111.3, 1978

Sheet 11 of 13

4,118,637

US. Patent

Oct. 3, 1978

Sheet 12 of 13

4,118,637

09

United States Patent [191

[11]

4,134,707

Ewers

[45]

Jan. 16, 1979

[54] WIND TURBINE APPARATUS


[76] Inventor: Marion H. Ewers, PO. Box 526, La
Veta, Colo. 81055

[21] Appl. No.: 791,100


[22] Filed:
Apr. 26, 1977
[51]
[52]
[58]

Int. Cl.2 .............................................. .. F03D 7/00


US. CL ................... ..
415/4; 290/55
Field of Search ...................................... .. 415/2-4.

415/60; 290/54, 55
[56]

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS


1,640,269

8/1927

Ellison .......... ..

415/2

1,810,113

6/1931

Schlotzhauer ..

415/2

1,974,008

9/1934

Biehn ............. ..

415/2

2,032,651

3/1936

Donovan

415/2

2,059,356

11/1936

James .... ..

415/2

2,431,111

11/1947

Dubrie ................................... .. 415/2

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS


535624 10/1931 Fed. Rep. of Germany ..; ......... .. 415/2

2405767 8/1975 Fed. Rep. of Germany


513279

2/1955

Attorney, Agent. or Firm-Charles E.

[57]

415/3

Italy ........................................... .. 415/2

Primary Examiner-C. J. Husar

this means the smaller diameter rotors that are more

easily handled and that put the minimum of stress on the


wind turbine apparatus can be used in series to achieve
the power output desired. Each segment has a venturi
means incorporated into the elements of the apparatus
to enhance the apparent wind speed. Also disclosed are

novel means for operatively supporting the moving


parts of the apparatus.
In a preferred embodiment an exoskeletal frame is made
in segments that can be stacked one upon the other.

References Cited

which can be added to incrementally to increase the

driving force and power generation of the machine. By

ABSTRACT

The Speci?cation discloses a segmented wind turbine

Each segment of frame has arms which converge in


wardly toward the axial center of the apparatus. There
a hoop connects the ends of the inwardly converging
arms and de?nes an axial aperture. Inside this axial
aperture a segment of drive shaft and a concentric collar

are supported by thrust bearings which are in turn sup

ported by the concentric hoop attached to the arms of


the frame. Each set of arms and the associated bearings
support the drive shaft, a rotor on the drive shaft, and a

wind shield surrounding the rotor immediately above


the arms. The wind shield is of a novel structure, having

two spaced side walls which de?ne openings for receiv


ing wind through the rotors and discharging the wind.
One of the walls forms a venturi with the rotor.

15 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures

United States Patent [19]

[11]

4,143,992

Crook

[45]

Mar. 13, 1979

'

[54] WIND OPERATED POWER GENERATOR

1,851,513

3/1932

Holmstrom ............................ .. 415/2

'

2,517,135

8/1950

Rudisill ........ ..

2,701,526

2/1955

Rotkin . . . . . . .

4,021,135

5/1977

Pedersen ............................ .. 415/209

176]

Invenwn

Charles W- Crook, Rte- 1. Box 35.

Earle, Ark. 72331

'

4l6/DIG. 4

. . . . .. 415/500

[21] App]. No.: 855,912

Primary Examiner-C. J. Husar

.
[22] Filed:

Attorney, Agent. or Firm-Clarence A. OBrien' Harvey


B . Jacobson

Nov. 29, 1977

[51] Int. Cl.2 .............................................. .. F03D 7/00


[52] us. 01. ......................... .._. ............ .. 415/2; 290/55;

[57]

ABSIRACT

416/D1G_ 4

A convergent intake duct has a radial out?ow opening

[58] Field of Search ...................................... .. 415/2-4,


415/203; 290/44, 55; 416/1313 4

through which air accelerated in the duct impinges 0"


airfoil shaped vanes to induce rotation of the rotor on

[56]

which the vanes are mounted. The duct is formed inter

References cued
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

nally of a tubular airfoil body so that the low pressure


region formed on the trailing edge portion of the exter

nal airfoil surface increases the pressure differential

across the vanes in the radial direction of out?ow of the

1,313,457

8/1919

Bowman ................... .. 416/168

1,329,668 '

2/1920

Lee ........... ..

1,433,995

10/1922

11' fmm the duct:

416/185

Fousle .................................... .. 415/2

14 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures

US. Patent

Mar. 13, 1979

Sheet 1 of2

US. Patent

Mar. 13, 1979

Fig.3

Sheet 2 of2

4,143,992

72

28

32
70

68

Fig.4

United States Patent [19]

[11]

4,156,580

Pub]

[45]

May 29, 1979

[54] WIND-TURBINES
[76] Inventor:

Lothar L. P0111, Toronto Dominion

3,203,182
3,732,032

Centre, Ste. 3800-Cermak, Toronto,


Ontario, Canada
[21] Appl. No.: 825,860
[22] Filed:
Aug. 18, 1977
[51]
[52]

290/55; 416/197 A

416/DIG. 4, 197 A; 290/43, 44, 54, 55


References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

2,431,111

2,812,823

12/1906
11/1943
11/1947
"/1957

Neumann ....................... .. 415/213 R


Topalou
..... .. 416/197 A
Du Brie ...... ..

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS


810500
2451751

[58] Field of Search ............... .. 415/2, 3, 4, 60, 213 R;

839,312
2,335,817

Pohl ................................... .. 415/202


Dawee] .......................... .. 415/213 R

384349 IV 1923 Fed. Rep. of Germany ............ .. 415/2

Int. Cl.2 .............................................. .. F03D 3/02


U.S. Cl. ........................................ .. 415/2; 415/60;

[56]

8/1965
5/1973

8/1951 Fed. Rep. of Germany


5/1976 Fed. Rep. of Germany

973968 2/1951
2300235 10/1976

412772

2/ 1946

France ................................. .. 415/60


France ............................... .. 415/2

Italy ........................................... .. 415/4

Primary Examiner-C. J. Husar

[57]

ABSTRACT

The invention relates to an energy conversion system

for converting kinetic energy possessed by the wind


into mechanical energy, using a particular compact
design for vertical axis rotors in combination with a
specially adapted tower structure.

.. 416/197 A

De Ouiedo .................... .. 416/197 A

2 I
I,
v

IIIII'II.

..... .. 4'15/2
..... .. 415/2

4 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures

US. Patent

FIG-'7

May29, 1979

Sheet 1 of2

F/G.3

4,156,580

United States Patent [191

[11]

4,180,367

Drees

[45]

Dec. 25, 1979

[54]

SELF-STARTING WINDMILL ENERGY


CONVERSION SYSTEM

860930 12/1952 Fed. Rep. of Germany ......... .. 416/119

[76] Invenw?

1135;101:111;I M- 18523? Box-7, Marstons


1 s,

ass.

416/119

502616 5/1920 France ................. ..

416/111

416/119

530231 12/1921 France

701036

[21]

APPl- N~ 5481435

[22]

Filed:

[51]
52]

Int. C1.2 .............................................. .. F03D 3/06


US. Cl. ......................... .. 416/119 416/140

[58]

Field of Search ............... .. 416/41, 108, 109, 111,


416/116, 119 135 139 140

Feb. 10, 1975

416/139

822092 12/1937 France

..... .. 416/111

929721

References Cited
Us. PATENT DOCUMENTS

3/1931

416/135

France

264219

1/1948

France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1/1927 United Kingdom ..

. . . ..416/52

296736 9/1928 United Kingdom .... ..


319963 10/1929 United Kingdom .... ..

416/111

416/108
416/116

416/ 119
301091 V1930 Umted Kl?gdom 150066 2/1962 U.S.S.R. .................................. .. 416/41

[56]

892130 10/ 1953 Fed. Rep. of Germany

2051579 4/1972 Fed. Rep. of Germany

Primary Examiner-Everette A. Powell, J r.


Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Robert F. OConnell

177,057

5/1876

Bowes .................... .. .......... .. 416/119

[57]

1,139,103

5/1915

Glade

6/ 119

A wind turbine apparatus in which a plurality of wind

1,190,629

1,430,406

9/1922

7/1916

Clade

416/119 x

416/108

repnslYe elements are mvably mumed, such ,by

1,618,549

2/1927

OToole ......... ..

416/111

belng Plvotally mounted, on a movable means whlch

1,639,908
1,753,252

8/1927
4/1930

Strandgren
Strandgren

. 416/109
. 416/108

produces
rotary motion. The P ositions of the wind re
I
sponsive elements are arranged to provide a drag force
on at least one of the elements in response to the wind

1g;

.. ... .. ....

. . . . . . ..

Schulthes et a1.

------ -

ABSTRAQT
.

1:880:302 10/1932 Lammereii";

416/109

wien the speed of Mary mum is. belw a pridfa'ier'

1,885,640 "/1932

416A08

mined level so as to produce a starting force to initiate

416/118

and maintain the rotary motion. When the speed of the

2,044,794

6/1936

Strandgren

Kisevalter

2,413,460 12/1946

Main .............. ..

416/116 X

rotary motion exceeds such predetermined level the

3,332,931

Pontcarral et a1. ..

416/116 X

positions of such wind responsive elements are such that

a lift force is provided thereon in response to the wind

5/1968

5951901998
.a Cy "" " ------ -

'

4,048,947

9/1977

4,052,134

10/1977

SICard .... ..

so that the rotary motion can achieve speeds which are


. 416/ 119 X

Rumsey .............................. .. 416/ 119

.
.
.
.
considerably
higher
than those achieved
by the startmg

orce.

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS


24121 10/ 1936 Australia ................... ..- ........... .. 416/119

15 Claims, 24 Drawing Figures

'- WIND

GROUND
OPERATING PHASE

US. Patent

Dec. 25, 1979

Sheet 1 of 7

4,180,367

R ETREATI N G SECTG R

ADVANCING SECTOR

GROUND

STARTING PHASE

FIGZ)

GROUND
OPERATING PHASE

U.S. Patent

Dec. 25, 1979

Sheet 2 of7

F|G.6
GROUND

GROUND

4,180,367

FIG.6A

US. Patent

Dec. 25, 1979

Sheet 3 of 7

4,180,367

US. Patent

Dec. 25, 1979

Sheet4 0f7

OPERATING

4,180,367

PHASE

U.S. Patent

Dec. 25, 1979

Sheet 5 of7

4,180,367

U.S. Patent

Dec. 25, 1979

Sheet 6 of7

4,180,367

73

FIGSIBA
74
WIND
78

STARTING PHASE

0 PERATI NG PHASE

US. Patent

Dec. 25, 1979

Sheet 7 of7

4,180,367

FIG. I5
STARTING PHASE

OPERATING

PHASE

all States Patent [191


Chen et

[54] WIND TURBINE


[76] Inventors: Jimmy M. Chen; Signor Y. Chen;

4,047,833

9/1977

4,118,637

10/1978

4,134,708

1/1979

1111

4,208,168

[45]

Jun. 17, 1980

Decker ................................... .. 415/2

Tackett

416/196 A X

Brauser .............................. .. 415/2 X

Vincent S. Chen, all of No. 10, 3rd


FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

Fl., Alley 20, Lane 125, Chung 12th


Rd.,, Shih Lin District, Taipei,
Taiwan

[21] Appl. NO.: 906,924


[22] Filed:

396368

1/ 1933

United Kingdom ............ .. 416/DIG. 6

Primary Examiner-Everette A. Powell, Jr.


Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Shoemaker and Mattare, Ltd.

May 1a, 1978

[57]

ABSTRACT

[51]

Int. 01.2 .............................................. .. F03D 3/06

The present invention is related to an improved wind

[52]
[58]

us. 101. .... ..


416/132 B; 416/197 A
Field 611 Search .- ...... .. 416/132 B, 240 A, DIG. 6,

turbine particularly with the provision of a strength


ened network axle pivoted upon an elevated lattice steel

416/197 A

[56]

References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

19,383 2/1858
215,035 5/1879
802,144 10/1905
924,909 6/1909
1,298,247 3/1919
3,743,848 7/1973
3,810,712 5/1974

Shaw ............................. .. 416/240 A

tower; and a few upper and lower rotor arms horizon

tally ?xed onto said strengthened network axle-re


spectively onto upper portion and lower portion
thereof; and a few blades which, being V shaped in
cross section, are provided between said upper and
lower rotor arms; and a transmission mechanism; being
thus constructed that wind power is liable to be con
verted into mechanical power therefrom.

12 Claims, 9 Drawing Figures


60

53

54

U.S., Patent

Jun.17,1'980

FIG.

Sheet 1 of5

60

4,208,168

53

54

54

55 55

US Patent

11111.17, 1980

Sheet2of5

FIG.2

4,208,168

U.S., Patent

Jun. 17, 1980

Sheet 5 of5

FIG

.00
.
.

. 7

4,208,168

United States Patent [191

[11]

Car enter
[54]

Invento?

4,086,498

4/ 1978

Szoeke ............................... .. 415/2 X

5/1978

Kronmiller ..

...... .. 415/2 A

Robert D_- Fitment, 16214 Pasada

4,132,499

1/1979

Igra ............ ..

.. 4l5/DIG. 1 x

Dn, whlttler, Calif. 90603

4,143,992

3/1979

Crook ................................ .. 415/2 A

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

[22]

Filed:

[51]

Int. Cl.2 .............................................. .. F03D 1/04

Nov. 28, 1978

76475 12/1948 Czechoslovakia ....................... .. 415/75


33383

6/1924

Denmark ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '

' ' ' " 4152 A

801772

8/1936

France

. . . . . ..

416/176

1011132

6/1952

France . . . . .

. . . .. 415/2 A

Field of Search ...................................... .. 415/2-4,

1031023

6/1953

France _ _ , _ .

. . . . . . . .. 415/4

415/72, 73, 75; 416/176, 177, 176 A


[56] '

Primary Examiner-Everette A. Powell, Jr.

l/l86l

Holmes .................................. .. 415/2


Austin

833,184 10/1906

ABSTRACT
.

Terzian

_____ __ 5/2

A wmd turbine is provided consisting of a cone or the

,__ ,_

frustum of a cone, on which are mounted in a more or

931,077

1/1911

Feldner _ _ _ _ _ _

1,002,833

9/1911

Giddings

l,136,239

6/ 1916

Dale" -_- ---- -~

3/

[57]

415/129

415/73

415/121 A

Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Stuart W. Knight

3/1880

gomemcok - - - -

1,816,971

8/1931 11211105210

2:195:902

4/1940

3,339,078

162999 5/1921 United Kingdo

References Cited

31,121

.. ...

U_S_ PATENT DOCUMENTS


231,253

Au . 19 9 1980

4,087,196

[21] Appl- No: 964,344

[58]

4,218,175

' [45]

WIND TURBINE

[76]

415 /2

415/2 A
415/2
~-~-

less helical fashion, a plurality of blades having a vary


ing pitch angle. The blades are arranged in a manner to
utilize the initial force of the wind and to continue to

4/l5/75

utilize the diminishing force of the wind after it passes

Pezzillo

WI: 41'5/72

We the leading end f the vanes

gllltgl ~ - - - - - - - -

- - - -- 4153/92/57:

Provided also is a shroud which enhances the wind

if

C .. .. ..

8/1967 Crompton

. . . . . . . ..

415/2 x

4,021,135

5/1977

Pedersen . . . . . . .

. . . . . .. 415/2

4,075,500

2/1978

Oman et a1. ..

415/147 X

4,079,264

3/ l978

Cohen ........................... .. 415/2 A X

tab!

ff

:2: 52116:: 2:68 e d1 user augmen er 0


P

'

3 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures

United States Patent [191

[11]

4,218,183

Dall-Winther

[45]

Aug. 19, 1980

[s4] WINDMILL
[76] Inventor: Dennis P. Dall-Winther, RR. #4,

4,134,708

[22] Filed:
[51]
[52]

'

Int. Cl.3 .............................................. .. F03D 7/06


US. Cl.
.................. ..
416/41; 416/119;

416/132 B
416/119, 139 A, 240 A,

[58] Field of Search .........

416/197 A, 140 R, 142, 37, 41, 42, 132 B,.l35


A, 142 B

[56]

References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
247

4/ 1799

Dearborn ........................... .. 416/ 119

32,428
19,383

2/1858
5/1861

Maag
Shaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

105,915

8/1870

Coleman et al.

153,237

7/1874

Candee ......... ..

215,035

5/1879

Alden

... .. .

242,211

5/1881

McIlvaine ..

428,495

5/ 1890

Kittinger

593,170

11/1897

White

555175

6/1923

France ................................... .. 416/119

745869

5/1933

France ..

1081481 12/1954
244147 1/1927

Jul. 31, 1978

. . . . .. 416/17

416/ 119
416/41
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

416/41

......... .. 416/119 X

..... .. 416/142

416/132 B

Brauser et a1. ............. .. 416/132 B X

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

Mason City, Iowa 50401

[21] Appl. No.: 929,254

l/l979

France ..
Italy ............... ..

.,

416/119

18482 of 1897 United Kingdom

416/119

21503 of 1904 United Kingdom

.. 416/119

1486338

9/ 1977

United Kingdom .................... .. 416/41

. Primary ExaminerEverette A. Powell, Jr.

Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Morton S. Adler

[57]

ABSTRACT

A multi-vane windmill rotating in a horizontal plane on


a vertical shaft includes frame supported fabric type
vanes with the frame hingedly attached at one end to
support arms to swing closed and catch the wind in one

position and to swing open under centrifugal and wind


forces in another position when coming into the wind to
reduce air resistance. Vanes are releasably attached in
part to the frame for support in operating position and
otherwise slidably secured thereto so as to release and

collapse on the frame under extreme wind pressures

.... .. 416/41

when the frame is closed and thus spill the wind. Stops

416/119

on the support arms provide a limit of movment of the

842,054

l/ 1907

Barker .

928,097

7/1909

Barker

1,075,060

10/1913

OToole ..

416/17

vane frames. A second embodiment of the vanes in

1,266,472

5/1918

Howe .... ..

416/119 X

cludes two overlapping sections normally held in over

1,319,766 10/1919
1,469,064 9/ 1923
1,626,314 4/1927

Gracey
Zucker
Tuckey

2,107,690
2,677,344
3,897,170

Clark .............................. .. 416/119 X


Annis ......................... .. 416/132 B X
Darvishian ......................... .. 416/119

2/1938
5/1954
7/1975

416/132 B X
416/ 197 A
416/140 X

lapped or closed position by yielding means that permit


the sections to separate under high winds to provide an
air passageway through the vane.

7 Claims, 10 Drawing Figures

United States Patent [191

[ll]

4,245,958

Ewers

[45]

J an. 20, 1901

[54] VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE

Primary Examiner-Everette A. Powell, Jr.

[76]

[57]
ABSTRACT
The disclosure teaches improvements in vertical axis
wind turbine apparatus. The improved apparatus has a
vertically rising exoskeletal frame which permits modu
lar addition of supplemental turbine components to the
apparatus. The apparatus is self-supporting, needing no
bracing external of the frame, is relatively small and
light weight, has vertical standards in the frame, a plu
rality of sets of horizontal stretchers integrating the

Inventor:

Marion 1'1. Ewers, P.O. Box 526, La


Veta, Colo. 81055

[21] Appl. No.: 962,859


[22] Filed:

Nov. 22, 1978

[51]

llnt. 1131.3 ............................................ .. F031) 11/04

[52]

US. Cl. .................................. .. 4116/1197 A; 416/9;

[58]

Field of Search ................. .. 415/2 R; 416/197 A,

416/124; 415/2 R

416/DIG. 6, 121 A; 52/654, 655

[56]

References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

1,521,422

12/1924

1,974,008

9/1934

Boyd .................................... .. 52/654

Biehn

2,059,356

11/1936

James

2,224,851

12/1940

Lea

2,431,111

11/1947

Du Brie

2,436,747

2/1948

2,658,776

11/1953

3,938,907

2/1976

4,118,637

10/1978

4,134,707

l/l979

.. 415/2 R

4l6/D1G. 6 X

.. . . . .

. . . . ..

Du Brie
Wilcox

416/197 A

............ .. 415/2

.. 416/197 A X
. . . .. . . . . .. .

Magoveny et a1.

. . . . . . ..

52/655

cally to accommodate longitudinal expansions of the

. 290/55

frame.
The turbine is self governing and requires no separate

Tackett

Ewers .................................... .. 415/4

3/1949

Canada .............................. .. 416/197 A

2715919 10/1978

Fed. Rep. of Germany .... .. 416/121 A

365643

3/1907

exoskeletal frame. Non-bearing guide means are pro


vided to prevent lateral movement of the shaft and
associated turbines. The apparatus may be provided in
kit form which can be readily assembled or disassem
bled according to need.
The guide bearings permit the drive shaft to move verti

.. 415/4 X

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS


455463

standards and means for bracing the frame elements.

The speci?cation teaches the support of the axially


disposed drive shaft and associated turbines by means of
upwardly and radially inwardly extending arms which
distribute the weight of the operating structure to the

France ....................................... .. 416/9

speed governing apparatus, and grossly equalizes pres


sures on the tower on the windward and leeward sides.

10 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures

Unlted States Patent [191

[11]

4,288,200

OHare

[45]

Sep. 8, 1981

[54]

WIND TOWER TURBINE

[76]

lnventor:

Louis R. OHare, 1041 Ponderosa


Apt- 2, Fort Collins, (3010- 80521

[21]

APPL NO 331195

[22] Filed'

821930 of 1951

Fed. Rep. of Germany ........ .. 415/2

575587

France

8/1924

. . . . . . . . . .. . . . ._ . .

. . . . ..

415/2

900038 6/1945 prance


973968 2/1951 France

____ __ 1115/2
...... .. 415/60

977561

. 416/121 A

4 1951

France

2286954 471976 France .......................... .. 416/197 A

Am" 25 1979

Primary Examiner-Everette A. Powell, Jr.

[51]

Int. CL-l .............................................. .. F03D 3/04

[52]
[58]

11.5.1131. ...................................... .. 415/2 R; 416/9


Field Of Search ................................. .. 415/2 R-4;

[57]
ABSTRACT
A wind powered turbine drive for an electric generator

416/9

is disclosed in which both the generator and the turbine


driving it are stationary and remain in a ?xed position
irrespective of wind direction. This turbine facilitates
electric power generation by wind power in those

1,096,057 5/1914 Rees ...................................... .. 415/2


1'674 169 5/1928 Flame "
416/4

higher pcwer ranges where the greater generator and


turbine weights otherwise make it difficult and costly to

[56]

References Cited
Us. PATENT DOCUMENTS

. . . .. . . . .. .

1,808,874

15/1931

Wilson

1,810,113

6/1931

Schlotzhauer I

________ __ 45/2

support and to rotate the generator to face the drlvmg

1'812741 6/1931 Espinosa ______ N


2,569,983 10/1951 Favre ....... ..
3,895,882 7/1975 Moyer

415/2
416/4
.... .. 415/2
415/2 X

wind because this present generator obviates the neces


sity of the generators changing direction in that this
present turbine receives wind energy from any direc
tion by the use of a weather vane which weathercocks

3970309

7/1976 Luchuk ---- '~

41084918

V1978

Pavlecka ' ' ' ' ' '

4,088,419

5/1978

Hope

. . . . . .. . . . .. . .

. . . . ..

415/2

' ' ' " 5/2 X


. . . . ..

415/2

4,156,580 5/1979 P0111 ...................................... .. 415/2

to rotate a wind inlet to the direction from which the


.

"d 5 b1wmg and thereby exposes my the recedmg

turbine blades to the force of the incoming wind.


FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS
497835 112/1950

Belgium ................................ .. 415/4

2 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures

United States Patent [19]

[11]

4,293,274

Gilman

[45]

Oct. 6, 1981

[54]

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE FOR


GENERATING USABLE ENERGY

[76] Inventor:

Frederick C. Gilman, 4th and Market,


Box 395, Osceola, Mo. 64776

are connected to each other by a plurality of support


and transmission assemblies in the form of articulated
members and to the main or driven shaft for driving
engagement thereof. The coacting vane members may

[21] Appl.No.: 78,643

either have straight side edges or preferably have spi


ralled or helically shaped side edges which in the closed

[22] Filed:

position are aligned and in abutment with each other to


de?ne and form a right circular cylinder in side eleva

Sep.24, 1979

[51]

1111. (:1.3 .............................................. .. F03D 7/06

[52]

us. (:1. ...................................... .. 416/51; 416/88;

[58]

Field of Search ........ .. 416/87, 88, 197 A, 176 A,

416/176; 416/197 A
416/139 A, 43 A, 44 A, 51 A, DIG. 9, 88

[56]

References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
1,697,574

2,596,726

1/1929
5/1952

Savonius .................. .. 416/197 A X


Rydell ...................... .. 416/197 A X

tion. The vanes are movable between a normally open

starting position and a closed position to vary the total


vane surface available for contact by the wind forces
acting at any given time when the wind turbine is in
operation. Articulated members of the support and
transmission assemblies are pivoted to permit transla
tional or side wise movement to and fro of the comple
mentary vanes transverse relative to each other and the

vertical axis through the main shaft, and pivotal cross


members on each of the articulated support and trans

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS


103819

7/1926

Austria ................................ .. 416/87

187865

6/1906 Fed. Rep. of Germany

416/197 A

Ad.35860

3/1930

France .......................... .. 416/197 A

1518151

7/1978

United Kingdom ......... .. 416/176 A

Primary ExaminerEverette A. Powell, Jr.


Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Daniel H. Bobis; Norman N.

mission assemblies are' vertically linked together to

simultaneously alter the articulated members during


such movement. The respective complementary and
cooperating vanes have their weight so distributed that
centrifugal forces will act to move the complementary
vanes towards the closed or right circular cylindrical

form automatically as high rotational speeds result from

Popper

excessive wind.

[57]
ABSTRACI
A wind turbine for converting wind forces into usable

Additionally the wind turbine as above described with


resilient means to move the coacting cooperating vanes

energy has a main shaft rotatably mounted in the axis of

rotation for the wind turbine, and a pair of coacting


complementary longitudinally extending vane members

to the normally open starting position.


11 Claims, 13 Drawing Figures

United States Patent [19]

[11]

4,303,835

Bair

[45]

Dec. 1, 1981

[54]

WIND POWERED GENERATOR WITH

4,048,947

CYCLIC AIRFOIL LATCHING

4,050,246 9/1977 Bourquardez ..

290/55

4,066,911

290/44

[76] Inventor:
[21]

4,113,408 9/1978 Wurtz er a1,

416/17

4,115,027

290/44

1m. (:1.3 ......................... .. F01D 7/00; F03D 7/06


US. Cl. .......... ., .......................... .. 290/55; 290/44;
416/17; 416/119
l

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS


2807092
2289769

4162/91)7/4131 144115 119

..................... ..

Gagnebin

1,075,060 10/1913

OToole ........................ .. 416/142 B

11/1939

Claytor

2,363,827

11/1944

2,373,207

4/1945

. . . . . . . ..

2,667,589

axis. A plurality of vertically disposed airfoils are pro


vided, the airfoils being rotatable about a vertical axis

. . . ..

290/44

. . . ..

290/44

290/55

King .... ..

290/55

parallel to the axis of the generator. The airfoils are

416/111

selectively latched to be disposed perpendicularly of


the wind direction during one phase of their revolution
about the generator axis and are selectively unlatched to

l/l954 Levrero

290/55

3,222,533 12/1965 MacKay

290/55

3,730,643 5/1973 Davison

416/17

3,743,848

290/55

7/ 1973 Strickland .

3,793,530

2/1974

Carter .......... ..'. .................... .. 290/55

3,874,816

4/1975

Sweeney et a1. .................. .. 416/139

3,883,750 5/1975 Uzzell, Jr.


3,895,236

7/1975

3/1976

Carter

electronic means which determine the point of latching


and'unlatching as a function of the wind direction mea

.. 290/55

3,902,072 8/1975 Quinn


3,942,026 3/1976 Carter
3,944,839

be permitted to rotate into a position generally parallel


to the wind direction during other phases of their revo
lution. The latching and unlatching of the airfoils is
determined by the wind direction and is effected by

290/55

Herron .... ..

290/44
290/55
.......

. . . ..

sured by a wind vane. The airfoils may comprise sails

290/55

3,995,170 11/1976 Graybill

290/55

4,031,173

6/1977

Rogers ' .... ..

290/55

4,039,848

8/1977

Winderl ...... ..

290/55

composed of a ?exible material stretched into a prede

termined shape on aframe.

31 Claims, 10 Drawing Figures

4,039,849 8/1977 Mater et a1. ........................ .1 290/55

it

121

ABSTRACT

A wind powered generator rotatable about a vertical

. . . ..

2,542,522 2/1951 Hing's


7/1952

[57]

290/44

.......

2,388,377 11/1945 Albers


2,603,300

Attorney, Agent, or FirmWeingarten, Schurgin &

2,178,679

Albers

Fed_ Rep of Germany ______ __ 290/55


France ........................ .. 416/DIG. 5

Assistant ExaminerShelley Wade

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS


.....

2/1978
4/1974

Primary Exam1nerJ. V. Truhe

, 54, 55;

References Cited

Touhey

290/55
290/55

4,178,126 12/1979 Weed .................................. .. 416/17

[51]

[58] F1? d of Search

9/1978 Thomas ..... ..

4,129,787 12/1978 Palma


4,156,580 5/1979 Pohl

[52]

[56]

Sarchet ......... ..

Plain, Mass. 02.130

Mar 31, 1980

'

l/1978

Puran Bair, 49 Ell1ot-St., .lamalca

APPI- NO-= 135,343

[22]

9/ 1977 Sicard ................................. .. 290/55

United States P 21161111 [19]

{11]

4,309,146

Hein et a1.

[45]

Jan. 5, 1982

[54]

AMPLIFIED WIND TURBINE APPARATUS

[75] Inventors: Leopold A. Hein, Fayetteville, Tenn.;


_

Asslgnee-

3/ 1925 France ........................ ,. 415/DIG. S

30331

5/1926

1062631

4/ 1954 France ......... ..

.... .1 415/3 A

France .................... .1

416/123

.. 415/4 A

1086320

2/1955

The Umted States of APeflca as

1231581

5/1971 United Kingdom ......... .. 415/2 A

i'?prleqsegted
11):eronau
the Adtmlmstttiatsor
of
e a ona
165 an
pace

1519774 8/1978 United Kingdom ............. .. 415/2 A

Administration, Washington, DC.

415/2 A

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

[21] APPL NO; 129,780

Aoigiagon gNeek issplace Technology Mar. 1, 1976; vol.


;

[22] Filed:

343432 7/1939 F222:

William N. Myers, Huntsville, Ala,

[731

28797

Mar. 12, 1980

0.

pp_

Primary Exammer-Everette A. Powell, J r.


[51]

Int. Cl.3 .............................................. ., F031) l/04

Attorney, Ageng, 0r Firm_J05eph H. Beumer; John R

[52]

U.S.

Manning; L_

[58]

Field of Search ....... .. 415/2 A, 3 A, 4 A, 2-4 R,

.............

. . . . . . . . ..

R;

415/DIG_ 8
[56]

Woffofdy Jr_

[57]

References Cited

ABSTRACT

The invention relates to the utilization of wind energy

and increasing the effects thereof for power generation.


Ampli?ed wind turbine apparatus is disclosed wherein

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS


129,567 7/1872
145,214 12/1873
1,519,447 12/1924
1,545,633 7/1925
3,302,552 2/1967
3,345,931 10/1967
4,017,205 4/1977
4,018,543 4/ 1977
4,070,131 1/ 1978
4,154,556 5/1979
4,236,866 12/1980

ambient inlet air is prerotated in a ?rst air rotation

chamber (B) having a high pressure pro?le increasing


the turbulence and Reynolds number thereof and a

second rotation chamber (C) adjacent and downstream


of the turbine has a low pressure core pro?le whereby
flow across the turbine is accelerated and thereafter
exits the turbine apparatus through a draft anti-interfer
ence device (D) which eliminates interference with
ambient winds at the outlet of the turbine apparatus.
Pivotable vanes 12 controlled in response to prevailing
Wind direction admit air to the chambers and aid in
imparting rotation. A central core 20 may be utilized for

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS


463711 8/1928 Fed. Rep. of Germany
2402647 7/1975 Fed. Rep. of Germany

creating the desired pressure pro?le in chamber B.

415/4 A
415/2 A

539099 6/ 1922 France .............................. 1. 415/3 A

4 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures

A!
36

IV 326!

2261

CN

22

2a

4'

15d

{5e

' Z0

/5

29

A,

[5a

25a.

l2

'1 5

22

76
I 250.

Z5

26

702/ K10

States
[54]

atet [191

MODULAR WINDMILL INSTALLATION


_

[76]

Inventor:

Jerimiah B. Black, 2065 Church


Creek Dr-, Charleston, SC. 29407

[21]

APPL NO" 109,253

[22]

Filed:

[51]
[52]

Int. Cl.3 .............................................. .. F03D 7/06


U.S. C1. ........................................ .. 415/4; 416/32;
416/197 A
Field of Search ...................................... .. 415/2-4;

[45]

Mar. 23, 1982

4,134,708

I/ 1979 Brauser et a1. ................ .. 416/1'19 X

4,161,658

7/1979

Patrick

.... ..... ...

. . . . . . ..

416/48

_ 416/121 A X
....... .. 415/4 R

4,213,734

7/1980' Lagg

415/4 A

4,245,958

l/l98l Ewers ........................... .. 416/197 A

4,237,384 12/1980 Kennon

Jan. 3 1980

. 415/4 R X

Primary Examiner-Everette A. Powell, Jr.


Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Wigman & Cohen
[57]

416/ 197 A, 32, 169 B, 121 A

[56]

4,321,005

4,165,468 8/1979 Fry ct a1_


4,204,126 5/1980 Diggs

[58]

[11]

ABSTRACT

A windmill installation adapted to extract energy from

References Cited

natural wind currents is disclosed wherein a plurality of

U'S' PATENT DOCUMENTS

1nd1v1dualw1nd wheel modules are stacked vert1cally 1n


a tower-like structure and are interconnected with one

692,714

2/1902 Sala et al. ..................... .. 416/ 197 A

another to operate in a unitary manner. Each module

930,794

8/1909

. . . . . . . . . . .. 416/32

has a rotor assembly

4l6/DI4G1-6437;

rotor assemblies of other modules without interrupting

Pierson

...

1,027,501 5/1912 Pearson ..


1,411,137

3/1922 Toborg

1,441,774

1/1923

..................... ..

Adams ................. ..

416/32

abe wmdslneld 1s provldeld about the rotor assembly

Biehn _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _. 415/2 R

for lmprovmg output ef?clency of the w1nd wheel and

2,094,603 10/1937 Keene .


2,224,851 12/1940 Lea ----- ~-

416/ 119 X
416/DIG- 6

protecting the rotor assembly from damage in the event


of excessively high wind speeds. The angular position

9/1934

the generation of power from the installation. A rotat_

415/4X

1,804,493 5/1931 Benjamins


1,974,008

is disengageable from the

1;;

31113116
1.111111

5 ii

........... ..

3,938,907 2/1976 Magoveny et al

415/2 R X

4,113,408

9/1978

416/117 X

4,134,707

1/1979 Ewers ................................... .. 415/4

Wurtz et a1. ..... .1

22

I8

of the windshield is determined by an automatic control


.

64 204

202 '00
f

.f .

36

I8

'

'
I

s4

>10

I00l f

,26

\_

j I4

\
1551

2422

'6\ 55\

>50
\/'4

2,

1 l8

. . ..-

I5
I5

I9,

-22

I00

4;

T26;
_

"

\
I5
20

5
22

.-_J

I6
/
26

I4

\\

55

24 l

14 Claims, 10 Drawing Figures

'

system responslve to w1nd speed and directlon.

I001 /-

at

'50!

"g \ _
..

11M

1 .

\fs
m

24

,2

United States Patent [191

[111

4,350,900

Baughman

[45]

Sep. 21, 1982

[54]

WIND ENERGY MACHINE

[76] Inventor:

Harold E. Baughman, PO. Box 6506,


Santa Rosa, Calif. 95406

[57]

[21] App]. No.: 205,428


Nov. 10, 1980
[22] Filed:
[51]

Int. Cl.3

..

F03D 7/06

front of the housing to direct ?ow against a plurality of

55;

vertical vanes carried on and around a cylindrical rotor

185

within the housing. The ducts on one side of the front

References Cited

to-back centerline project air streams directly in, in the

direction of rotation, while those on the other side of


the centerline reverse the stream so that they will also

Us PATENT DOCUMENTS
l
l
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

semi-cylindrical back wall and horizontal top and bot


tom walls. A plurality of intake ducts open across the

415/2 R
290/43, 44, 54,

415/2; 416/179, 133 ,

[56]

ABSTRACT

A rotary machine to be driven by a ?ow stream, such as


wind or a water stream, including a housing with a

[52] Us. c1. .......................I...II.II.II:I 290/55; 290/44 ,


[58] Field of Search

Primary ExaminerJ. V. Truhe


Assistant Examiner-W. E. Duncanson, Jr.
Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Melvin R. Stidham

' impinge upon the vanes in the same rotational direction.

The vanes are con?gurated asairfoils so that, in addi


tion to the reaction to the flow impingement, there will
be a lift vector in the direction of. rotation. In one em
bodiment, the airfoil vanes are disposed in rows of two
or more from outside to inside, closely spaced to form
venturi slots between them.

5 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures

.
\\. .
1/
, I..
./

3
a
l

a
w
K.
2M.

Umted States Patent [191

[111

4,357,130

Forrest

[45]

Nov. 2, 1982

[54]

WIND COLLECTION APPARATUS

4,142,823

3/1979 Nickel] .............................. ._ 415/2 R

[761

lnventorI

4,204,795
4,204,796

5/1980 Forrest
Pack ......................... .. 416/197 A x

William
_ _
J- Forrest, 3400 NW-

Expressway, Oklahoma City, Okla.


73112
[2!]
[22]

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

L N z 131 663
App
0
,
Filed:
Mar. 19, 1980
. .

1'

'

1)

Related U s A man

[63]

.ata

Pat. NO. 4,204,795.

[51]
[58]

1/1958 Belgium ........................ .1 416/240 A


1/1926 Fed. Rep. of Germany
415/2 R
2/1953 France .......................... .. 416/197 A

2289761

5/1976 France

344055 10/1936

Continuation-impart of Ser. No. 835,184, Sep. 21, 1977,

416/197 A; 416/196 A

. 416/197 A

Italy

415/2 R

445080 2/1949 Italy ..................... ..

416/197 A

19491 of 1891 United Kingdom _,

416/196 A

263722

Int. C1.3 .............................................. .. F03D 3/06

[52] 11.5. C1.

56361
423575
1021619

1/ 1927 United Kingdom ......... .. 416/197 A

Primary Examiner-Everette A. Powell, Jr.

Attorney, Agent, or FirmDunlap & CQdding

Field of Search ........ .. 416/197 A, 196 A, 240 A,

416/194 A; 415/2 R

[56]

References Cited

[57]

ABSTRACI

An improved wind collectmg apparatus utilized for


transforming wlnd energy to rotary motion. The rotary

U-S- PATENT DOCUMENTS

motion then can be utilized for driving an electric gen

440,266 11/1890 Meredith ............. ....... .. 416/196 A

1,001,291 8/1911 McKenzie

armor, for example The apparatus generally comprises

416/196 A

four semi-cylindrically shaped wind collecting blades

. . . . . .. 415/2RX

connected to a shaft which is mounted for rotation

1,105,750 8/ 1914 Browne

416/197 A X

about an axis of rotation and includes blade and cable

1,120,930 12/1914 G055 @131

416/196 A X

support systems for reducing the effect of various de

;'3S%499 4/ 919 lsgagel """" "

structive forces and for providing structural integrity,

/
A
415/2 R X
415/2 R X

the apparatus also including ?exibly connected joints to


.
. . .
.
.
provide some ?exibility 1n the supportmg structure

1,055,858

'5 835
1,790,175
1 798 211

3/1913

Bennett . . . . .

3/1926
oth? """ "
1/1931
Spencer
3/1931 Law

..... ..

1:948:458 2/1934 De Lgcnigw _

116/196 A X

2,436,747

416/197 A X

2/1948

DuBrie ....... ..

4,118,637 10/1978 Tackett ..................... .. 416/197 A X

while maintaining the required structural integrity.


15 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures

United States Patent [19;

[11}

4,359,311

Benesh

[45]

Nov. 16, 1982

[54] WIND TURBINE ROTOR

[57]

[76] Inventor:

A turbine apparatus for utilization of the kinetic energy


of moving air or ?uid is disclosed. The turbine appara
tus is comprised of a rotor (20) mounted for rotation

Alvin H. Benesh, 120 S. Adams Ave.,


Pierre, S. Dak. 57501

[21] App]. No.: 267,006


[22] Filed:
May 26, 1981

about a central axis (21) with respect to a support mem

ber (22) and connected to means (23) for converting

[51]

Int. Cl.3 .............................................. .. F03D 3/06

[52]
[58]

US. Cl. ........................ .. 416/197 A; 4l6/DIG. 2


Field of Search ..... _. 416/197 A, DIG. 2, DIG. 9

[56]

References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
2,252,788

8/1941

Baum et a]. ....... ..

416/197 A
416/197 A X

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS


601266

2/ 1926

727519

6/1932 France

416/197 A

797106

4/1936

France ....... ..

416/197 A

596447

3/1978

Switzerland ...... ..

647938_ l2/l950

rotation of the rotor (20) to usable energy. The rotor

(20) includes a plurality of blades (40, 41, 42) disposed


symmetrically about the central axis (21), each of the
blades having an outer edge (43) and an inner edge (44)
with respect to the central axis (21). In addition, each
blade (40, 41, 42) has a curved portion (45) and a second

portion (46), the curved portion (45) beginning at the

Sparr ............................. .. 416/197 A

4,005,947 2/1977 Norton


4,177,009 12/1979

ABSTRACT

France ........................ .. 4l6/DIG. 9

.. 4l6/DIG 6

United Kingdom ............. .. 415/4 R

Primary Examiner-Everette A. Powell, Jr.

outer edge (43) and terminating at the second portion


(46). The curved portion (45) has a surface generally
concave with respect to the central axis (21). The sec

ond portion (46) extends from the curved portion (45)


and terminates at the inner edge (44). The inner edge
lies in a plane containing the central axis, the plane
being disposed at an angle greater than 60 measured
about the central axis (21) from a plane containing the
outer edge (43) and the central axis (21). Variations of
these and other components of the present invention are
also described.

Attorney, Agent, or FirmMerchant, Gould, Smith,


Edell, Welter & Schmidt

11 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures

United States Patent [191

[11]

4,430,044

Liljegren

[45]

Feb. 7, 1984

54

VERTI AL AXIS WIND T RBINE

[ 1

[76]

Inventor:

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

L. Kenyon Liljegren, 1260 SE.

1045038 12/1978 Canada .............................. .. 416/119

Walnut #5, Tustin, Calif. 92680

2827044 12/1978 Fed. Rep. of Germany .


2745862

[21]

4/1979 Fed. Rep. of Germany .

2919328 11/1980 Fed. Rep. of Germany ...... .. 416/17

Appl' NO 324103
_

[22]

F11ed=

Nov- 23, 1981

[51]

Int. Cl.3 .............................................. .. F03D 7/06

2289769

5/1976 France ................................ .. 416/17

2468002

5/1981

301091

[56]

416/119

416/140 R

1/1930 United Kingdom

1468338

[52] US. Cl. .............................. .. 416/119; 4164/l


[58]

France ..

2481756 11/1981 France ................... ..

416/119

9/1977 United Kingdom .............. ._ 416/119

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Field of Search ................... .. 416/119, 17, 139 A,

WINDPOWER, A Handbook On Wind Energy Con

4l6/DIG. 8, 132 B

version Systems, by V. Daniel Hunt, Dir., The Energy

Institute, pp. 553, 104,123-126, 186-187, 246, 241, 192,

References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

194-195.
Primary Examiner~Everette A. Powell, Jr.

1,582,361

4/1926 Welsch .......................... .. 416/119 x

Ammey' Agent 0 Fm_Kbbe Martens 015 &

1,592,242

7/1926 Welsch .......................... .. 416/119 X

Bear

1,835,018 12/1931 Darrieus .


3,874,816

4/1975

57

Sweeney et a1. .................. .. 416/139

3,918,839 11/1975 Blackwell et a1. ..


416/175
3,942,909 3/1976 Yengst .................... .. 416/132

4,003,676 1/1977 Syveeney et a1.


Slcal'd ............ ..

4,052,134 10/1977 Rumsey


4105363 8/1978 Loth

416/132
X

416/119
416/41

A ST
1 _

_ B

around an orbital path. A torque sensitive control

416/119

416/119

an

416/132

range Ofthe turbme

4,334,823

6/1982

4,368,392

1/ 1983 Drees ............................ .. 416/ 119 X

Sharp ..... ..

the pivotal

movement of the blade forms in response to changes in


the rotational speed of the turbine so that high torque

4,180,367 12/1979 Drees

5/1980 Bolie ...... __

_ '

means is provided to progressively

4,204,805

4,248,568 2/1981 Lechner

RACT

A wmd turbmc 1s dlsclosed C0mpr1s1ng blade forms


mounted for limited pivotal movement as they proceed

ff .

e iclency 1s.o talne

d h

t roug out t e operationa

.. 416/119

37 Claims, 17 Drawing Figures

United States Patent [191

[11] Patent Number:


[45] Date of Patent:

Corry
[54] JIBE MILL
Inventor;
21

[ 1

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

Fort Worth
R Con-y,
Tex 76107Mattison,

Primary Examiner-Everette
France A.
................................
Powell, Jr. ..

1 .N .: 94081
S

pp

[22] Filed;

4,457,669
Jul. 3, 1984

Attorney, Agent, or FirmCushman, Darby & Cushman

[57]

Oct, 24, 1978

ABSTRACT

A sail-type windmill providing high torque without

[51]

Int. cl.3 ....................................... .. F03D 7/06

limitations to size. Three sails are mounted to a frame


fr retetieh ehe" an axis generally Parallel he the Planes

[52]

US. Cl. ............................... .. 416/119- 416/132 B

of the sails- In one versien, the Sails are ?exible and

[58] Field of Search _____________ 416/132 13,340 A, 119


416/142 52

sheets are provided for mounting the sails. Roller reef


ing is provided for modifying the effective area each sail
member presents to the wind, including a spring biased

[56]

weight associated with each sail and a line extending

.
References Cited
U5. PATENT DOCUMENTS

from the weight for effecting take-up and let-out of the


sail and the sheet in response to radial movement of the

82,307 9/1868 Goodale ............................ .. 416/119

242,211 5/1881 Mcllvaine .

Weight- 1" anmher versiml, the sails are 0f metal and

416/119 x

Speed governing 1S provlded by hydraqllc _eylinders

257,649 5/1882 Bragdon

....... .. 416/52

operatlvely mounted to the sails for plvotlng them

509,866 12/1893 Bradford


535,602 3/ 1895 Sherman

416/119 X
416/240 A

about their axes of rotation, the hydraulic cylinders


controlled by a aerometer mounted atop the windmill.

Clade . . . . . . . .

1,171,584 2/1916 Bla1$1y_


gal-Tums

. . . . - - . . ..

2,319,286 5/1943 Anr;;;;;"IIIIII. . . .


3,918,839 11/1975 Blackwell et a1.
3,995,l70

11/1976

Graybill

... .........

The frame Structure of the

can be mounted for

416/2:6x
rotation about a central shaft, or about a circular track
"""" " 416218 , with rollers from the frame engaging the circular track,
' ' 116/240 A
.... .. 416/240 A
. . . . . . ..

and a Pwer takwff being asmciated with the circular


track

290/55

4,105,363 . 8/1978 Loth ................................ .. 416/23 X

9 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures

//g

4&20 45/
a/
v

4/
24 1' / /

I|

25 40 // 40

j%r/
/4

/ "

20

Unite

States Patent [19]

[11] Patent Number:

Williams

[45]

[54]

REGULATED HIGH TORQUE FLEXIBLE

4,184,084

1/ 1980 Crehore .............................. .. 290/55

BLADED WIND WHEEL

4,218,183

8/1980 Dall-Winther ............... .. 416/41

4,334,823

6/1982

Inventor:

4,346,305 8/1982 White ............................ .. 416/140 x

[76]

Dennis L. Williams, 1520 E. Canyon

Dr., South Weber, Utah 84403

Date of Patent:

4 9 468 9 169
Aug. 28, 1984

Sharp ..................... ..

416/119

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

[21]

Appl' No" 409231

2033463

3/1972 Fed. Rep. of Germany .... .. 416/119

[22]

Filed:

63806
2426813

7/1864 France ....................... ..


l/l980 France

[51]

111i. GL3 .............................................. .. F03D 7/06

[52]

us. Cl. . ............................. .. 416/119; 416/132 B;

Aug. 18, 1982

2469576
_

416/140
[58] Field of Search ................ .. 416/119, 41 R, 132 B

5/1981

416/117
416/140

France _____________________________ __ 416/119

Primary ExammerEverette A. Powell, Jr.


fsitwmela Agent, 0' FirmDOna1d J- Smear; Bobby D
cearce

[56]

References Cited

[57]

11s. PATENT DOCUMENTS

ABSTRACT
,

41 W119

An improved horizontally mounted wlnd wheel is pro


vided which comprises a framework mounted for rota_
tion in a horizontal plane on a central upright drive
.
shaft, a plurality of secondary shafts supported for rota

498:068 5/1893 LonningIII...................:'4.l6/140 R

111 on Said framework near the Periphery thereof a

335,667 11/1906 Donneny _


1,015,517 1/1912 Snyder .............................. .. 416/118

vane mounted near one end thereof to each secondary


shaft, a plurality of vane stops on the framework posi

'67,041 5/1832 glolman ............................. .. 416/112


22 '357 4/1880

aFcon? '
297,904 4/ 1884 Witherspoon
485 933 11/1892 Herman

1,230,885

6/1917

..................... .. 416/ 119

. . . . .. 416/118

tioned radially inwardly of the secondary shafts for

1,469,064 9/ 1923 Zucker


1,511965 10/1924 Henmsh

Gay . . . . . . _ .

416/41 X
416/ 119 X

limiting the rotation of the vanes, each of said second


ary shafts being mounted for rotation about an axis

2123592 8/1932 Muilhkm


:ne

4161419
41 / 1329905);

which is tilted with respect to a vertical to said horizon


tal plane whereby each vane has a preferred predeter

3,938,907 2/1976

5/141

mined rest position de?ned by the direction of tilting of

3,995,170 11/1976 Graybill .......... ..

290/55

4,039,849 8/1977 Mater et a1.

290/55

each 3X15 frm 1 Sald Vertlc?l

4,048,947 9/1977 Sicard ............................... .. 416/119

T0 LOAD

4 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures

Unlted States Patent [19]

[11] Patent Number:

McVey

[45]

[54] TURBINE-TYPE WIND MACHINE


[76]

Invenw?

[21]

Appl. No.27 413,667

Date of Patent:

P8111 W'Mcvey4039 Gremloch La"


Houston, Tex. 77025

494602 1/1977 Australia ........................... ..


380643 10/1907 France
515331 3/1921 France
104579 8/1980 Japan ................. ..

Sep. 1, 1982

Int. Cl.3 .............................................. .. F03D 3/04


US. 01. ........... ..
415/2 R; 415/162

Field of Search ................................. .. 415/2-4 R,


415/2-4 A, 162, 165, 151, 159, 216

U'S' PATENT
References
DOCUMENTS
l

415/3
415/2
415/2
415/3

R
R
R
R

1025 of 1908 United Kingdom

415/2 R

188653 3/1923 United Kingdom

415/2 R

558929

[51]
[52]
[58]

Dec. 4, 1984

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

[22] Flledz

4,486,143

l/l944 United Kingdom ............. .. 415/3 R

OTHER PUBLICATIONS
W() 8103633; Dec. 1931_
_
_

Primary Examiner-Everette A. Powell, Jr.

63,498 4/1867 Gallup .......................... .. 415/2 R X

A wind machine which includes turbine assemblies


arranged in superposed relationship and wherein the

94,624

turbine assemblies may vary in size and number in ac

Maxwell . . . . . .

. . . . . . .. 415/4 R

194322 9/1377 H099! ----- --

9/1869

415/2RX

cordance with power requirements, together with a

232558

9/1880

SmFh ' ' ' ' ' '

' ' ' ' ' ' HS/4 R

plurality of de?ector panels or sails associated with the

294,943

3/1884

White ..... ..

416/119X

.
turblne
unit- of each assembly for directing
the wind
to

8/1897

Hardaway

588,572

640,901
667,965

.. 415/2 R X

V1900 Hardaway
2/1901 Barwis _______ __

633,935 10/1901 Heme]


864,789

9/1907 Kickoush .

1,008,148 11/1911

d . .

b.

416/DIG_ 6 x

of driving vanes which would tend to interfere with

.......... .. 415/3 R

desired rotation of the turbine unit. The de?ector panels

. . . . .. 415/18

or sails also accurately controlling the volume of air

- 415/4 R

which bypasses each panel or sail to thereby prevent

l-libbs . . . . . , . . . . .

013k - ~ - ~ - ' - - - ~ -

' - ' - - - -- 5/2 R

stacking or turbulence adjacent the driving vanes of

15033061 7/1924 Pendergast "


l,592,4l7
7/1926
Burke ........ ..
.

115/2 R X

the turbine unit. The panels also being arranged to re


capture the major
portion
of the bypassed an
and direct

1,595,578

415/2 R X

1 636 449

3/1923

f h

se ected areas 0 t e rrvmg vanes o eac tur me unit


and at the same time shielding from the Wll'ld other areas

1,332,591 6/ 1921 Ackefmann


1,463,924

0 5/2 R x
416/119 X

8/1926

4l5/2RX

Sovereign

7/1927 Adams __________ __

415/2 R x

it back mto the turbine unit wh1ch increases efficiency

3,938,907 2/1976 Magoveny et al.

415/2 R x

0f 0139mm"

3,994,621 11/1976 Bogie ................ ..

415/2 R X

4,415,814 11/1983 Parra ................................. .. 415/2 R

7 Claims, 16 Drawing Figures

/Z

3!

//

/3

| __

39

,/

73

j!

._

26
r / A
24

'T'

._

a"/'
\

A9

._

._ ' T

4-

.\ 9"

United States Patent [19]

[11]

Patent Number:

4,545,729

Storm

[45]

Date of Patent:

Oct. 8, 1985

[54]

WIND TURBINE APPARATUS .

[76]

Invento?

4,342,539

8/1982

Potter ........................ .. 416/142 B X

4,350,895

9/1982

Cook ..... ..

Joe Storm, 1105 W- Elna Rae,

4,353,702 10/1982 Nagy

Tempe, Ariz. 85281

4,417,853 11/1983

Cook

4,420,692 12/1983

Kos .... ..

[21] Appl' No" 518,047

4,435,125 3/1984 Cook

[22]

Filed;

4,457,669

[51]

Int. Cl.4 .............................................. .. F03D 7/06

U.S
[58]

Jul. 28, 1933

410/132 B

7/1984 Corry ............................ .. 416/132 B

OfGermany

555175

Field of Search ............. .. 416/132 B, 119, 135 A,


416/88, 240 A, DIG. 5, 142 B

2289769
2468002

6/1923

416/41

is???
5/1931 Benjamins __
Belding . . . . . .

2,677,344 5/ 1954 Annis..... ..


graybln ,

umsey

[57]

ABSTRACT

Wind turbine apparatus includes a plurality of sail ele

556:396 3/1896 Alz?dg ____


2,015,777 10/1935

U.S.S.R. ....................... .. 416/24OA

Smythe ............................. .. 416/132

215,035 5/1879 Alden

1,804,493

416/DIG. 5
....... .. 416/119

Primary Examiner-Everette A. Powell Jr.


.
Attorney, Agent, or Firml-l. Gordon Shields

U . S . P A TEN T DOCU M E NTS


9/1874

France .............................. .. 416/119

5/1976 France
4/1981 France

577300 10/1977

155,472

.. 416/41 A X

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

116/142

References Cited

416/240 A x
....... .. 416/132 B

.............................. ..

[56]

4l6/240A X

416/119

ments secured to a circular frame rotatable in response

416/132

to wind reactmg with the sail elements and a control

. . . . . . . . .. 416/ 132

system for the sail elements includes a weight having

416/240 A X
---------

Movement of the weight in response to wind velocity

_ . . _ " 116/132

resucllts 1n a change in the sa1l elements exposed to the

cables extending from the weight to the sail elements.

.... ..

4,191,507

3/1980

DeBerg I I _ _

4,274,011
4,276,033

6/1981
6/1981

Gar?nkle
Krovina

4,341,176

7/ 1982 Orrison ......................... .. 416/119 X

416/132BX
.. 416/240 A X

Wm -

29 Claims, 19 Drawing Figures

United States Patent [19]

[11] Patent Number:

Trigilio

[45]

[54]

Date of Patent:

4,551,631
Nov. 5, 1985

WIND AND SOLAR ELECTRIC

4,370,559

GENERATING PLANT

4,433,544 2/1984

l/ 1983 Langley, Jr. ..................... .. 290/1 R

Invento?

4,486,143 12/1984 McVey ............................. .. 415/2 R

4,474,529 10/1984

[76]

Gaetano T- Trigilio, 5090 Arch St,

..

Maple Hts" Ohm 44137


[21] Appl. No.: 628,271

Primary Examiner--William M. Shoop, Jr.


Assistant ExaminerShik Luen Paul Ip

[22] Filed:

::r,r;i;v,&Aiir:1tg or FirmShlesinger, Arkwright,

JuL 6, 1984

[51]

Int. Cl. ......................... .. F03D 9/00; F03D 7/06

[52]

us. c1. ................................... .. 290/55; 290/1 R;

290/44; 415/3; 415/2 R; 415/4


[58]

[56]

ABSTRACT

Field of Search ................... .. 290/1 R, 1 C, 2, 42,


290/43, 44, 53, 54, 55; 416/132 B, 169 B, 121 A,

cludes a plurality of turbine assemblies. The turbine


assemblies rotate on a common axis transverse of a base.

176 A, 41 A, 50 A, 197 A; 415/2, 2 A, 5, 4, 3 R;


417/330 331 333 332
References Cited

A plurality of shutter assemblies are disposed in a circu


lar orientation around each of said turbine assembly and
are independently operable for causing wind current to
be directed thereby for rotating said turbine assemblies.
Five wall elements extend outwardly tangential to the

U'S' PATENT DOCUMENTS

liaktlef at all -------------------- -- 291x35)?


,

[571

A wind energy collection and conversion system in

en

.. .. .. .- .

. . . . ..

4,119,863 10/1978

K61 1y ' l ' .

4,134,707

Ewers ........... ..

1/l979

I I . . " 290/55

4,142,822 3/1979 Herbert et al


Monk et a1

290/55 X

29055 X

4,289,444

9/1981

4,309,146

1/1982 I-Iein et a1. ........................ .. 415/2 R

periphery de?ned by the shutter assemblies and inter


'

'

cept the w1nd current and d1rect the wlnd currents

toward the shutter assemblies. A roof covers the power


_

plant and thereby 1ncreases the overall ef?clency.

415/3 R

18 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures

United States Patent [19]

[11]

Patent Number:

4,571,152

Tatar

[45]

Date of Patent:

Feb. 18, 1986

[54]

VERTICAL AXIS WINDMILL

[76]

Inventor:

83570 5/1920 Switzerland .................. .. 416/197 A


15646 011892 United Kingdom .
416/197 A

Frank J. Tatar, 6808 Lake Shore Rd.,

13417 of 1912 United Kingdom

Derby, NY 14047

229470

1211 Appl. No-: 546,903


[22] Filedl
[51]

2/1925

415/3 R

United Kingdom ............. .. 415/2 R

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Oct- 31, 1983

Page 3 of The History of Windpower Windfarm Mu

Int. Cl.4 .............................................. .. F03D 7/06

[52l

415/4; 416/197 A

[58]

Field of Search ............................. .. 415/2 R-4 R;

Scum Marthas Vineyard

Primary ExaminerEverette A. Powell, Jr.


Attorney Agent, or Firm_Bean, Kauffman & Bean

416/197 A

[57]
[56]

References Cited

ABSTRACT
_

A vertlcal axis wmdmill features a wmd vane assembly

U'S' PATENT DOCUMENTS


74,687
419,345

V1890

0H0 - - - - - - - - -

588,572

8/1897 Hardaway

Z/ 1903 Pearson
/l9l5
Benbow
1,225,033 5/1917 Jackson
,

1,449,192

freely rotatable relative to an output shaft and having a

2/1868 Hidden ............................. .. 415/2 R

?rst wind de?ecting device for channeling oncoming

- - - ~ 415/ 3 R

wind relatively away from and towards wind reaction

------ " 415/4 R

panel carrying spars, during those portions of rotational

416/ 197 A X
415/4 R
415 R X

movement thereof relatively towards and away from


.
.
.
.
.
the wmd, respectively, a second wmd de?ectlng device

....... ..

3/1923 Richard

_________ " 416/35

for channeling oncoming wind relatively towards such

1,469,064 9/1923 Zucker


1,490,344 4/ 1924 Mukai

416/41 R X
416/ 197 A X

spars, during that portion of rotational movement


thereof relatively away from the wind, and a wind vane

- - - " 115/: R

cooperating with the ?rst and second wind de?ecting

1,935,097 V1933

Nelson ' ~ - - -

ilrzhpasiovnuz

devices for. maintaining same in desired relatively sta

4,O31,4O5 6/1977 Asperger _


______ 290/55
4,260,325 4/1981 Cymara .................... .. 416/197 A X

tionary pos1t1ons relative to thedlrection of the oncom


ing wmd, wherein the ?rst wmd de?ecting devlce is

4,289,444

9/1981

Monk et a1. ........................... .. 415/3

formed with an opening ?tted with an auxiliary panel

432L005

3/ 1982

Black - - - 1 - ~ - ~ - - -

v - ~ - - ~ - ~ -- 415/4

directly responsive to high wind loading conditions to

4,350,900 9/1982 Baughman .................... .. 415/4 R X

permit flow of oncoming Wind through Such op?ning

FOREIGN PATENT DQCUMENTS

145115 12/1949 Australia


84158 12/1895 Fed Rep of Germany
595500 10/1925
2288879

111334

5/1976

for purposes of providing a motion retarding or braking

415/4 R
416/197 A

France .......................... .. 416/197 A


France

.....

. . . ..

effect on the rotational speed of thewindmill through


out a substantial portion-of the rotatlonal movement of
the spars towards the wmd

415/3 R

1/1945 Sweden ......................... .. 416/ 197 A

3 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures

United States Patent [191

[11] Patent Number:

Rogow et a1.

[45]

[54]

FLUID TURBINE SYSTEM

Mar. 11, 1986

4,095,422 1/1978 Kurakake


4,118,637 10/1978 Tackett

[76] Inventors: Bruce I. Rogow,


3709 .Merrimac
_

4,134,708

Ave.,
Brooklyn,
Stemberg,
San Diego,
N.Y.
4702 -11204
16th
Cahf.Ave.,
92117; Fred

1/ 1979

Brauser et al. .

4,260,325
4,278,896
4,187,123 4/1981
7/1981
2/1980 McFarland
Diggs
Cymara
.

[21] Appl. N0.: 203,234


[22] Filed:

Date of Patent

4,575,639

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

Dec. 16, 1980

2289766 5/1976 France

415/2 R

210937 2/1924 United Kingdom


F03D 9/00

[58] Field of Search

290/55; 290/44
60/6413, 641_11i 64115;

290/44,55
[56]

References Cited

7/1974 Demarest

4,047,833 9/1977 Decker

415/4

Primary Examiner-W?ham M. Shoop, Jr.


Assistant Examiner-W. E. Dnncanson, Jr.

ABSTRACT

[57]

A dual solar phenomena exploiting system comprises

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS


1,315,595 9/1919 Clark
2,213,497 9/1940 Kelly
3,730,643 5/1973 Davison
3,822,692

..

two main elements; one represents direct solar heat into

electric power converting media, and the other indirect

24/19M / LM?
%60o

memeomp.rm0%remm1 .3q.1ca0%mm.s, e.m1 td


3
n

0
enLaB.w
% m.
.mem2.maF.m.v1.m.
mmme
DS3.mmmam
n

mm.h.

Unlted States Patent [19]

[11] Patent Number:

Appel

[45]

[54] WIND TURBINE GENERATOR


_

[75] Inventorr
[73]

Gerhard H- Appel, San Pedro, Cahf-

Ass'gnee'

giagrcz?lj?eflggrg?'cveergg?f

'

[21]

APPL No_; 641,016

[22]

Flled:

[51]
[52]

Int. Cl. .............................................. .. F031) 3/02


US. Cl. ..................................... .. 415/2 R; 415/3;

[58]

Field of Search ............................. .. 415/2 R-4 R,

Date of Patent:

4,606,697
Aug. 19, 1986

2451751 5/1976 Fed. Rep. of Germany

415/2 R

2539058

415/4 R

3/1977

Fed. Re . of German

651354 2/1929 France

416/122 A

900038

416/122 A

6/1945

France

2300235 10/1976

France . . . . .

2509384

France

l/l983

. . . . . . . .. 415/3 R

. 416/122 A

2520813 8/1983 France .

'

138466

Aug- 15, 1984

1518151

10/1981

Japan

...

.4l6/122A
. . . . . . . . . .. .

. . . ..

4l5/4R

7/1978 United Kingdom ......... .. 416/176 A

Primary Examiner_Eve1-ette A, Powell, Jr,


Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Georges A. Maxwell

415/60; 416/121; 416/122


415/60, 65, 64; 416/ 122 A

[56]

ABSTRACT

References Cited

elongate, vertically'extending, laterally spaced parallel

U-S- PATENT DOCUMENTS

ally outwardly projecting circumferentially and longi

rotors with a plurality of circumferentially spaced radi

419,345 1/1890 Otto .............................. .. 416/122 A


2,335,817 11/1943 Topalov ..
....... .. 415/2 R

2;
,

[57]

A wind-powered prime mover comprising a pair of

$01111?
opa

3,928,771 12/1975

- 413/1

ov

.. .. ..

4,017,204

4/1977

Sellman

7/1977

Poeta . . . . . . .

2;

pairs of vanes of the other rotor as the rotors rotate. The

. . . .. 415/2 R

{otors are.rtatably supported atop a min table whlch

. . . ..

Straumsnes . . . . .

4,037,983

tudinally extending vanes. The rotors are arranged so


that the vanes of each rotor projects between adjacent

. .. .. ..

. . . ..

4,074,951 2/1973 Hudson


4,084,918 4/1978 Pavlecka

415/2 R

urns to dlspose the lateral plane on WhlCh the axes of


.

. . . . . . .. 415/2 R

the rFr$ Occur at g tangle t Prevallmg wmd- wlnd

416/122 A X
416/122 A X

directing shrouds are engaged about the lateral outside


halves of the rotors and function to direct wind from

4,082,419 5/1978 $0516 61 @11- ~

A i:

said outer halves of the rotors laterally inward toward

4,15 580

5/1979

and between the lateral inner halves of the rotors. The

4:206:126

5/1980 Diggs

_ _ ---------- ~

gilnglzmson "
' ' '

116/; g

windward sides of the shrouds de?ne a wind gate

AX

through which wind moves into engagement with the

''''

4,474,529 10/1984 Kinsey .............................. .. 415/2 R

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS


5/ 1982 Canada ......................... .. 416/122 A
453231 12/1927 Fed. Rep. ofGermany 416/122 A

rotors and are plvotany movable 1 were? and de

crease the lateral extent of the wind gate to throttle the


wind, as desired.

1124181

10

12 Claims, 10 Drawing Figures

Unlted States Patent [19]

[11] Patent Number:

Williams

[45]

[54]

WIND OPERATED APPARATUS

633558
_

[76]

Invento?

Robert A- Williams, 2721 Wh?e

Settlement Rd., Fort Worth, Tex.

76107
Filed:

l/ 1928 France .............................. .. 416/101

2461119

3/1981

598756

10/1959

Oct. 21, 1986

France ..

....... .. 416/17

Italy . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . .. 416/119

Pnmary Exammer-Everette A. Powell, Jr.


Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Arthur F. Zobal

[21] Appl. No.. 695,726


[22]

Date of Patent:

4,618,312

[57]

ABSTRACT

Jan. 28, 1985

A frame supported for rotation about a central vertical


Int. GL4 .............................................. .

[52] U'.S. Cl. .................................. .. 416/119; 416/17


[58]

Fleld of Search -------- " 416/101 119 H6 112 A


416/17 87
References Cited

[56]

US' PATENT DOCUMENTS

axis has an enclosing cylindrical side wall


a plural
ity of openings formed therethrough at spaced apart
angular position around the central axis. A plurality of
vanes are located near the side walls for causing the

frame to be rotated by the wind. Each vane is associated

w1th one of the openings and is supported for pivotal


movement such that it may be moved through 1ts associ

39,248

7/ 1863 Scott ................................. .. 416/116

1753252 M1930 Strandgren ____ I


2,041,103

416A12 A

5/1936 Zegers ............... ..

2,171,732 9/1939 Michaelson et al.


4,260,328

4/1981

Hamel . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3K3 ---- -,

ason

..

4,410,806 10/1983 Belle ----- -4,507,049

3/1985

ated opening between an inward position inside the side

wall and an outward position wherein it extends out


ward beyond the s1de wall. Cams located atthe central

416/101

15 and cam followers are provlded for cycllcally mov

416/116

ing each of the vanes to its inward and outward posi

. . . . .. 416/17

413/11);
.... ..

e- 4W" X

Strandgren ..................... .. 416/ 17 X

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS


2750254 5/1979 Fed. Rep. of Germany .... .. 416/101
2800551 7/1979 Fed. Rep. of Germany .... .. 416/ 101
2826180 12/1979 Fed. Rep. of Germany ...... .. 416/17

tions as the frame rotates such that on one side of the

central axis, the vanes are moved to their outward posi

2335x2132;ihiealv?nilih?plilii113.5335: 13.523
axis, the vanes are moved to their inward positions out
of the wind as the vanes are rotated by the frame to the

opposite side.

31 Claims, 17 Drawing Figures

United States Patent [19]

[11]
[45]

Hsech-Pen

Patent Number:
Date of Patent:

4,649,284
Mar. 10, 1987

[54] WINDMILL
[76] Inventor: Leu Hsech-Pen, PO. Box 16-317,
Taipei, Taiwan

Assistant Examiner-Brian W. Brown

[21] Appl. No.: 699,445

transmission shaft rotatably mounted in the supporting


frame, a plurality of fan blades, each having two bend
ing edges longitudinally formed on the two vertical
edges of the blade, horizontally pivotedly mounted on

[22] Filed:

Feb. 7, 1985

[51]
[52]

int. cu .......................... .. F03D 9/00; FO2P 9/04


US. Cl. .............................. .. 290/55; 416/117

[58]

Field of Search ..................... .. 290/44, 55, 43, 54;

416/117, 197 A

[56]

[57]

ABSTRACT

A windmill includes a supporting frame, a vertical

the vertical transmission shaft, a sweeping cleaner


formed on the lower portion of the transmission shaft to
remove the snow or dirts on a power generator, a

References Cited

power generator formed on the lower end of the trans

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

mission shaft, and a high-speed braking clutch automati


cally braking the rotation of the transmission shaft
under stronger wind pressure for safely protecting the
power generator.

1,111,350

9/1914

Bayley ............................... .. 416/117

4,112,311

9/1978

Theyse . . . . .

4,245,958

1/1981

Ewers ........................... .. 416/197 A

Primary ExaminerL. T. Hix

. . . .. 290/55 X

3 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures

United States Patent [191

[11] Patent Number:

Coombes

[45]

[54] WIND POWERED ELECTRIC GENERATOR


[75]
[73]

Invcnm
Assigneez

Dwald E- Cmmbes, Baker OregLloyd A. smith, Baker 0mg ; a part

interest

Date of Patent:

4,764,683
Aug. 16, 1988

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS


2300235 10/1976 France .................. ..

157071

9/1982 Japan .................... ..

416/197 A
416/197 A

Primary Examiner-William M. Shoop, Jr.


Assistant ExaminerSharon D. Logan

[21] Appl' NO: 80,920


[22] Filed:
Aug. 3, 1987

Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Laubscher & Laubscher


[57]
ABSTRACT

[51]
[52]

Int. cu ......................... .. F03D 7/00; F03D 9/00


US. Cl. ............................... .. 290/55; 416/197 A;

An improved wind powered generator includes a


streamlined housing rotatably connected with a ?xed

416/DIG. 4; 415/2 A; 415/60; 290/44


[58] Field of Search ..................... .. 290/54, 43, 55, 44,

base and a pair of helical rotors rotatably connected


With the housing for driving a pair of electric generators
when the rotors are rotated by the wind. The housing
includes forward and rear nacelles which de?ne vertical

290/; 416/ 197 A, DIG. 4; 415/2 R, 3 R, 2 A,


60, 213 R
.

[56]

side openings in the housing in which the rotors are

References Clted

arranged, with the helical vanes thereof partially pro

U_s_ PATENT DOCUMENTS

truding from the housing. The nacelles serve to direct


the wind stream against the rotor vanes with minimal
disturbance, whereby the helical rotors capture the

1132;? """"""""""""""" "


4265086 V1981 Baht
4,288,200 9/1981
4,293,274 10/1981

4,369,629

"""""""""" "

OHare .............................. .. 415/2 R


Gilman .

I/ 1983 Lockwood ................. .. 4l6/DIG. 4

WIND

maximum amount of kinetic energy from the wind for


nvers1on to elecmmy

10 Claims, 3 Drawing Sheets

Umted States Patent [191

[11] Patent Number:

Benesh I

[45]

[54] WIND TURBINE SYSTEM USING TWIN

May 16, 1989

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

SAVONIUS'TYPE ROTORS
.

Date of Patent:

4,830,570

'

gilgre?lxgishgggls' Adams Ave"

1123341

5/1981

Canada ......................... .. 416/197 A

37015

1/1927

Denmark .............. ..

416/197 A

[76]

Inventor

Fed. Rep. of Germany

416/122 A

[21]

L N _: 132 990
App
0

821930 10/1951 Fed.Rep.ofGermany


1628140 4/1970 Fed. Rep. of Germany

416/197A
416/197 A

[22]

Filed:

1916460 10/1970 Fed. Rep. of Germany


2758447 7/1979 Fed. Rep. of Germany
2819673 11/1979 Fed. Rep. of Germany

416/197 A
415/2 R

'

'

453231 12/1927

Dec. 15, 1987

[51]

Int. (14 ......................... .. F03D 3/02; F03D 3/04

[52]

US. Cl. ............................ .. 415/4.4; 4l6/DIG. 9;


416/121; 416/197 A
Field of Search ............................. .. 415/2 R4 R,

[58]

25023 3/1981 European Pat. Off. .......... .. 415/2 R

658943
727519
797106

1048392 12/1953

4l5/DIG.1A,416/DIG.9,121A,122A,1%Z
56

References Cited

US. PATENT DOCUMENTS


Zwetbel .

Ham .................................. .. 415/2 R

8/1390 Gatlin .

7/ 1889 Tinsley .

4l5/4R

2431041

3/1980 France ..

415/2 R

2468003

5/1981 France ..

416/ 197 A

2522074 8/1983 France ..

415/2 R

415/2 R

7/1985 JaPa

258955 10/1926

Sweden .
.

416/ 97 A
416/197 A

Umted Kmgdcm ---------- " 415/2 R

OTHER PUBLICATION

764,571 7/1904 Fisher .

1(6);

415/2 R

65940 12/1924

3/1883

9/1889

607,608

France ..

2286955 4/1976 France ..

145464

274,541

410 360

434,103

416/122 A
416/197 A
.. 416/197 A
416/197 A

138466 10/1981 Japan

59,828 11/1866 Fay ........................... .. 416/170 A x

6/1929 France ..
6/1932 France ..
4/1936 France --

Chang, Howard H. and McCracken, Horace, Bucket

gerry

Rotor Wind-Driven Generator, from Wind Energy

tamm

1,166,765 6/1930 Savonius ....................... .. 416/197 A


1,300,499 5/1919 slagel .
1,413,411 4/ 1922 Lloyd et a1. .................. .. 415/2 R X

Convemo syslems p127


(List continued on next page.)
Primary Examiner-Everette A. Powell, Jr.

1,455,950 5/1923 willman

Attorney, Agent, or FirmMerchant, Gould, Smith,

1,534,799 4/1925 Maine '

E0611, Welter & Schmidt

1,596,373

8/1926 Preston .

1,790,175

1/1931 Spencer ............................ .. 415/2 R

2O07963 7/1935 Cleveland


3,895,882

7/1975

Moyer

. ... .. .. .

4,005,947 2/1977 Norton et a1

" 416/197 A
. . . . . . . ..

415/2 R

ABSTRACT
.

416/DIG_ 9 X

vertical axis Savomus-type rotors (20,120) mounted on

416/122 A x

a Support structure (210) and a de?ect Plate (201

4,037,983

7/1977 Poeta ........ ..

4,039,849

8/1977 Mater et a1

......... .. 290/55

4,111,594

9/1978 Sforza .... ..

. 415/2 A X

4,115,028 9/ 1978 Hintze

[57]

The present invention relates to a combination of two

The de?ector Plate Serves an an augmentation appara- '

tus which considerably increases the power output of

....... .. 415/2 R

both Savonius-type-rotors and also improves their self

4156,580 5/1979 Pom

116/122 A X

starting ability and smoothness of operation. The sup

4204795

5/1980 Forrest

"" " 415/2 R

4,278,896

7/ 1981

McFarland .

4,288,200 9/198l UHare


4,315,713 2/19g2 Vex-planke

. 290/55

port structure is mounted for rotation about a central


.

4150 R
415/2R

vertical shaft (242) so that the rotor-de?ector combina


tion can be properly positioned. The invention also

4,359,311 11/ 1982 Benesh .......... ..

416/ 197 A

provides a partition plate (236) positioned between the

4,362,470 12/1982 LO Castro et al-

416/197 A

rotors to give rigidity to the de?ector plate.

4,428,711

l/1984

Archer .......... ..

4,449,887

5/ 1984 Mundhenke

4,474,529 10/1984 Kinsey


4,652,206

3/1987

Yeoman ..

415/2A

.. 415/4

415/2 R
.... .. 415/4

4,715,776 12/ 1987 Benesh .............................. .. 415/2 R

23 Claims, 6 Drawing Sheets

United States Patent [191

[11]
[45]

Wight
[57]

[54] WIND-DRIVEN POWER GENERATOR

[76] Inventor:

C. Calvin Wight, 1496 Lakewood


Ave., Lakewood, Ohio 44107

[21] Appl. No.2 304,960


[22] Filed:
[51]

4,963,761
Oct. 16, 1990

ABSTRACT

A wind-driven power generator comprises a substan

tially horizontal roof including upper and lower roof


members each having a peripheral edge and a con
toured pressure reducing surface. The roof members are

disposed in a spaced-apart relationship with the pres

Feb. 1,1989

Int. Cl.5 .............................................. .. F03D 5/00

[52]

U.S. Cl. ...................................... .. 290/55; 415/42

[58]

Field of Search ................... .. 290/44, 55; 415/21,

415/4.l, 4.2, 4.4; 98/34, 42.05, 70, 78


[56]

Patent Number:
Date of Patent:

' References Cited

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

sure reducing surfaces facing each other and de?ning an


air space therebetween. The distance between the pres
sure reducing surfaces varies from a maximum spacing
at the peripheral edges of the roof members to a mini
mum spacing at an intermediate location of the roof
members. The power generator further includes a verti
cal suction pipe having an upper end connected to the
lower roof member in flow communication with the air

4,164,382 8/1979 Mysels

290/55 X

space at the intermediate location of the lower roof


member. The lower end of the suction pipe extends
downwardly from the lower roof member. An impeller
is disposed in the suction pipe at the lower end thereof
and rotates when air ?ows horizontally through the air
space. In accordance with Bernoulli effect, the increase
in speed of the horizontal air ?ow at the intermediate

4,275,309

290/55 X

location creates a pressure reduction in the air space at

290/55 X

the upper end of the suction pipe and draws air up

3,302,552

2/1967

3,345,931

10/1967

Walsh .................................... .. 98/70


Walsh

. . . . . . . ..

4,018,543 4/1977 Carson et a1.


4,047,834 9/1977 Magoveny et al.
4,070,131
4,079,264

1/ 1978
4/ 1978
6/1981

Yen .................. ..
Cohen
Lucier ...... ..

4,379,972 4/ 1983 Sosa et a1


4,508,973

4/ 1985

. . . . . . . . ..

98/78

290/55 X
290/55 X
290/55 X
...... .. 290/55

Payne .................................. .. 290/55

Primary Examiner-A. D. Pellinen


Assistant Examiner-W. E. Duncanson, Jr.

through the suction pipe to rotate the impeller. The


impeller preferably is connected to an electrical genera
tor that generates electricity when the impeller rotates.

Attorney, Agent, or FirmFay, Sharpe, Beall, Fagan,


Minnich & McKee

13 Claims, 3 Drawing Sheets

US. Patent

Oct. 16,1990

Sheet 1 of3

4,963,761

US. Patent

Oct.16,1990

Sheet 3 d3

H64

4,963,761

United States Patent [19]

[11]
[45]

Kato
[54] VERTICAL AXIS WIND POWERED
GENERATOR
[76] Inventor: Shuichi Kato, 8740 W. Leutz Rd.,
Oak Harbor, Ohio 43449

[21] Appl. No.: 581,016


Filed:

Sep. 12, 1990

Patent Number:
Date of Patent:

[57]

5,038,049
Aug. 6, 1991

ABSTRACT

An apparatus for generating electric power from wind


includes a base, a pair of upstanding, generally parallel,
spaced apart walls rotatably mounted on the base and
de?ning an inlet end and an outlet end for wind, an
electric power generator mounted on the base and hav
ing an input shaft, and a vertical axis cylindrical rotor
having a plurality of wind driven vanes and mounted on

[51]
[52]

Int. Cl.5 .............................................. .. F03D 3/04


US. Cl. ............................ .. 290/55; 290/54;

the base between the walls, and having an output shaft


coupled to rotate the input shafts. A curved inner mod

415/21; 415/44; 416/9; 416/197 A

ulator is rotatably mounted on the base inside said rotor

[58]

Field of Search ................... .. 290/54, 55; 415/2.1,

and is selectively movable for controlling wind flow


through the rotor. An inlet modulator is rotatably
mounted on the base at the inlet end and is selectively
movable for controlling wind flow to the rotor. A ?rst
generally planar director is pivotally mounted on an

415/44; 416/9, 197 A

[56]

References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
4,012,163
4,350,900

3/1977
9/1982

Baumgartner et al. ............ .. 415/21


Baughman .......................... .. 290/55

4,571,152

2/1986

Tatar

4,764,683

8/1988

Coombes ............................. .. 290/55

.............

. . . . ..

416/197 A

Primary ExaminerA. D. Pellinen


Assistant ExaminerRobert L. Hoover
Attorney, Agent, or FirmMarsha1l 8L Melhorn

outer surface of one of the walls and a second generally

planar director is pivotally mounted on an inner surface


of the other one of the walls and both directors are

responsive to the wind for positioning the inlet end


toward the wind.
18 Claims, 2 Drawing Sheets

United States Patent 1191

[11] Patent Number:

Rademacher

[45]

[54]

1,494,528
4,383,797

FLUID POWERED ELECTRIC GENERATOR


HAVING HINGED VANE ROTOR

[76] Inventor:

T. Peter Rademacher, 5385 River

102791

40240

Aippl' No" L350

[22] Flled:

Oct' 13 1989

9/1898 Fed. Rep. of Germany .... .. 416/119


3/1980

Japan .................................. .. 4l5/3.1

Primary ExaminerJohn T. Kwon

Int. Cl.5 ............................................. .. B63H 1/34

[52]

us. 01. ....................................... .. 415/7; 415/31;

[56]

5/1924 Clanton et al. ....................... .. 415/7


5/1983 Lee ........................................ .. 415/7

1452483 10/1976 United Kingdom ......... .. 416/197 A

[51]

[58]

Sep. 24, 1991

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

Styx Rd Medma Ohm 44256

[21]

Date of Patent:

5,051,059

[57]

ABSTRACT

416/ 85; 416/ 140

A hinged vane rotor generating power from rivers,

Field of Search ................. .. 415/3.l, 4.3, 4.5, 2.1,


415/906, 905, 903, 7; 416/35, 36, 140, 197 A
References Cited

Streams, tides or wind. A cylindrical drum is supported


sideways in a current by axles at the ends connected to
pulleys which are in turn, connected to a generator(s),
mill wheel, pump or other working device. The rotor is
turned by a series of hinged vanes, each one opening to

us PATENT DOCUMENTS
100,761

3/1870 Heitmann .............................. .. 415/7

catch the current on one side of the drum and closing to

115'660
113,284

51/1871
6A8.

. '. .' "


.. 4l6/l19
415/ 141

avoid
directing
the component
current on the
is incorporated
other side ofto
the
increase
drum_ current
A

....... .. 415/7
........... .. 416/119

.
.d
f h d
d
d
.
. t h
agamst_one 5' e 0 t 6 mm an re Ce agams t 3

302,769 7/1884
774,592 11/1904

Tuder
Folsom' ' ~. '. '. . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . .

Pallausch
Mathews

1,037,269 9/1912 Johnston


Henry

.....

416/119

1,109,839

9/l914

. . . . . . . . . . . ..

1,265,114

5/1918 Riddle ........................... .. 416/197 A

other slde

415/7

8 Claims, 7 Drawing Sheets

US005098264A

United States Patent [191


Lew

UQ..

m
m
P

A
Y
I

.L
.n

N
m
A

pC
o.

W7mm1%

s.mDkw
P0W5
n
.11.yoan

rVa

a,

m
mun.5, "Ms
n
m
Wwho.mm

KC5

u. .

Primary Examiner-Richard A. Bertsch

May 23 1990

Assistant Examiner-David L. Cavanaugh

[57]

Related US. Application Data


Continuation-impart of Ser. No. 375,466, Jul. 5, 1989,
Pat. No. 5,051,078.
F031) 7m6; F04C 2/00

[51] Int. Cl.5

ABSTRACT

An apparatus harnessing energy belonging to ?uid


stream comprises a plurality of elongated ?uid dynamic
force receiving members with cambered cross sections
disposed parallel to and about a shaft and supported by

418/23; 418/268;
416/87; 260 263.

at least one hub member affixed to the shaft wherein the

8*}, 119'
73/189, 861.85, 861.86, 861.87; 416/17,

secured to the hub member in a pivotable arrangement

416/119

[58] Field of Search


[56]

Mar. 24, 1992

4 ,67 918645,3M1786725 VWN 1 9 8 5678 Gwuamwo

mSm
1., E
A

[22] F?ed'

[63]

5,098,264

Date of Patent:

[45]
:
Yt m

[.l.257

[11] Patent Number:

418/23, 268

References Cited
U,S, PATENT DOCUMENTS

about a pivot axis disposed near one extremity thereof in


a parallel relationship to the shaft, and at least one circu
lar cam guide disposed on a plane perpendicular to the
?
.1 n
r.

a0mn fm11mmw? sd
g
u
e
g
e
I
r
.
e
aa
D
u
b
ea
h
i
a
v
c
t
a
m
S
m
d
mww
ww.
s
ff.
8
h
00
l
ewel 1Cr a3.16 .medidmt.wbs,onytg2ammDPPCf h m8. 8cd

4 .2,3M468153190, 48021765 951/ 1 9 78 134 SBPW 3am "8 4 1 way/Ow wm


cmv.ui mnia.@mmmmm Mdm.m

.r31

individual fluid dynamlc force recelving member 15

Yr.
s

6O

62

a;

i
/
.

m
e

llllllllllllllllllllllIllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
US005206537A

United States Patent [191

[11] Patent Number:

Alejandro et a1.

[45]

[54] EPCON ENERGY FIELD SYSTEM AN


ENERGY PRODUCING CONGLOMERATE
(EPCAN) SYSTEM USING WIND ENERGY,
SOLAR PANELS, AND STEAM TURBINES

[75] Inventors: Jose L. A. Alejandro; Serge J. Grant,


both of Galveston, Tex.

[73] Assignee:

ECM International Inc., Tacoma,


Wash.

[51]

Int.

U.S. Cl. ................................... .. 290/1 R; 290/44;

..... ..... ... ..

. . . . . . . . . . . . ..

F03D

>

11/00

290/55

Field of Search ..................... .. 290/56, 52, 44, 55;

126/437, 438

[56]

References Cited
3,892,433

7/1975

4,079,591

3/1978 Derby et a1.

Blake ................................... .. 290/52

4,080,221

3/1978

Manclas

. . . . . . . .. .

4,159,427 6/1979 Wicdcmann

126/438
. . . ..

126/438

126/438

7/1980 Lane

4,551,631 11/1985 Trigilio

Primary Examiner-A. D. Pellinen


Assistant Examiner-Robert Lloyd Hoover

[57]

the kinetic energy of the wind and the thermal energy


of the sun. A novel single shaft con?guration that sup

ports multiple induction generators which are driven by


rotors of four windtraps and/or by steam turbines
which receive steam pressure from solar panels. The

steam is generated by solar lens panels. Solar parabolic

The energy producing ?eld consists of up to a thousand


of these windtrap units supported by a common water
resource. A system controller supports the system by

monitoring wind speeds, sun intensity, and load require


ments and activates or deactivates system elements. An
interconnect to a utility line and/or energy storage

facility is part of the system. The units are mostly pre


fabricated with ?nal installation on site without the

need of any heavy equipment making it possible for

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

4,213,303

glornerate (EPCON) system using wind energy, solar


panels, and steam turbines producing electricity from

collector dish or a natural gas steam boiler are also

[52]

[58]

Apr. 27, 1993

contemplated in the EPCON system.

[21] Appl. No.: 587,051


[22] Filed:
Sep.24, 1990
Cl.5

Date of Patent:

5,206,537

buyers to install the EPCON system on their own. The

windtrap unit along with the solar panels are shipped to


the site via a specialized transporter that assists in the

installation process. The system is further uniquely de


signed to be lowered to a relatively safe harbor in the
event of excessive wind conditions. System mainte
nance is also simpli?ed with this feature.

ABSTRACT

The speci?cation discloses an Energy Producing Con

4 Claims, 16 Drawing Sheets

lllllllllllllllllIllllllllllllllllllllllllIllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
US005332354A

United States Patent [191

[11] Patent Number:

Lamont

[45]

[54] WIND TURBINE APPARATUS

[76] Inventor:

John S. Lamont, 3000-360 Main St.,


Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, R3C

[21] Appl. No.: 91,432

Int. Cl.5 .............................................. .. F03D 3/04

[52]

US. Cl. .................................... .. 415/4.2; 4l5/2.1;

[58]

Field of Search ................. .. 415/2.1, 4.1, 4.2, 4.4,

415/907
415/905, 907

References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
171,962
1,903,307

0380018

9/1923 Fed. Rep. of Germany ..... .. 4l5/4.2

Primary Examiner-Edward K. Look


Assistant Examiner--Mark Sgantzos
Attorney, Agent, or Firm--Burns, Doane, Swecker &
Mathis

[57]

Jul. 15, 1993

[51]

[56]

l/1876 Stephens et a1. ................... .. 415/4.l


4/1933 Gillio .

2,667,589

l/1954

Levrero .............................. .. 290/55

3,944,840

3/1976

Troll

4,031,405
4,047,834

6/1977
9/1977

Asperger ........... ..
Magoveny et a1. .

4,084,918

4/1978

Pavlecka ........... ..

4,162,410

7/1979

Amick

...........

. . . . ..

.........

290/55

290/55
.. 415/3
415/2.l
. . . . ..

290/55

4,179,007 12/1979

Howe ........ ..

4,191,505

3/1980

Kaufman

4,278,896

7/1981

McFarland

4,288,704
4,350,900
4,398,096

9/1981
9/1982
8/1983

Bosard ............................ .. 290/55


Baughman .... ..
415/907
Faurholtz
.... .. 290/55

.........

.....

4,490,623 12/1984 Goedecke

180/65 DD
. . . . . . . ..

. . . . ..

415/2.l

290/55

415/907

4,508,973
5,038,049

4/1985
8/1991

Payne ........ _.
Kato ...... ..

5,083,899

l/l992

Koch .................................. .. 415/2,l

290/55
290/55

ABSTRACT

A wind driven turbine installation has a rotatable enclo


sure with closable inlet and outlet openings. The rotat
able enclosure includes a driving arrangement and a
wind direction sensor arrangement that monitors the

incident wind direction and aligns the enclosure such

that the inlet opening is aligned with the prevailing


wind direction. The inlet opening includes an accelera
tion passage which increases wind velocity and directs
the wind to a wind driven turbine device disposed
within the installation. The turbine device includes a
converging inlet passage, a secondary inlet passage, and
an exhaust passage. A turbine rotor is disposed within

the turbine device such that wind entering the primary


inlet drives the rotor in part by following rotor vanes,
and in part by passing across the rotor vanes. Wind
entering the secondary passage is redirected toward the
primary inlet and drives the rotor in the forward direc
tion. Wind from the secondary passage is con?uent with
wind from the primary inlet that passes through the
rotor. The confluent air ?ow exhausts through the rotor
at the exhaust opening where that portion of the pri
mary air which follows the rotor is also exhausted. The
wind turbine device may be mounted for rotation about
a vertical axis within the secondary housing so as to

adjust itself to the direction of the prevailing wind.

12 Claims, 8 Drawing Sheets

36

......-.mm

Jul. 26, 1994

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

461

[22] Filed:

Date of Patent:

5,332,354

11"

llillllip ;|"

will

till I

Will!)

US 005 6644 1 8A

United States Patent [191


Walters
[54] WHIRL-WIND VERTICAL AXIS WIND AND
WATER TURBINE

[11]
[45]

Patent Number:
Date of Patent:

[56]

5,664,418
Sep. 9, 1997

References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

[76] Inventor: Victor Walters, PO. Box 250, Sechelt,


British Columbia, Canada, VON 2A0

204,481

[21] Appl. No.: 625,103


Apr. 1, 1996
[22] Filed:

6/1878 Cleland .................................. .. 415/4.l

3,994,621
4,031,405

11/1976 Bogie ......... ..


6/1977 Asperger ........ ..

4,560,884

12/1985

Whittecar

. .. .. . ...

4l6/197A
415/4.4
. . . ..

290/42

5,183,386

2/1993 Feldman et a1. ..

415/42

5,503,530

4/1996 Walters ............................. .. 416/197A

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUNIENTS

Related US. Application Data


[63]

Continuation-impart of Ser. No. 156,701, Nov. 24, 1993,


Pat No. 5,503,530.

[51]

Int. Cl.6 ............................ F03B 13/18; F03B 13/24;

F03B 13/26; F03D 3/04


.

[52]

US. Cl. ............................... .. 60/398; 60/500; 60/506;

290/53; 290/55; 415/3.1; 415/4.2; 415/7;


415/8; 415/122.1; 415/123; 415/907; 416/85;
416/169 R; 416/170 R; 416/197 A; 416/DIG. 4;
417/332

[5 3]

Field of Search ............................. .. 41512.1, 3.1, 4.1,

415/42, 4.4, 7, 8, 906, 907, 122.1, 123,


124.1; 416/85, 86, 169 R, 170 R, 197 A,
DIG. 4; 417/332; 60/398, 500, 506; 440/9;
290/42, 44, 53, 55

0167694
3631709

3/1988

l/1986

European Pat. O?. .............. .. 415/42


Germany .......... ..
415/42

7712530

11/1977

Netherlands .......................... .. 415/21

Primary Examiner-Christopher Verdier


Attorney, Agent, or Firm-David J. French

[57]

ABSTRACT

A vertical axis wind turbine is supported by a frame held in

place by an encircling series of crescent-shaped tubular


de?ector vanes. The vanes widen towards the turbine core,

concentrating the Wind. The wind is trapped momentarily on


entering the turbine cavities. Air can be supplied to such
cavities from a compressed air source driven by wave action
on a body of water.

4 Claims, 5 Drawing Sheets

US005852331A

Ulllted States Patent [19]

[11] Patent Number:

Giorgini

[45]

[54]

[76]

Dec. 22, 1998

WIND TURBINE BOOSTER

4,508,973

Inventor:

4,551,631 11/1985 Trigilio


4,764,683 8/1988 COOIIlbeS

290/55
290/55

5,038,049

290/55

Roberto Giorgini, PO. Box 2051, St.


Maarten, Netherlands Antilles

[21]

Date of Patent:

5,852,331

APPI- NO-I 667,405

[22] Filed:

Jun. 21, 1996

4/1985 Payne ...................................... .. 290/55

8/1991 Kato .......... ..

5,391,926
5,457,346

2/1995 Staley et a1. ............................ .. 290/55


10/1995 Blumberg et a1. ...................... .. 290/55

5,664,418

9/1997 Walters ................................... .. 60/398

Primary ExaminerClayton E. Laballe

[51]

Int. Cl.

...................................................... .. F031) 3/04

[52]

US. Cl. .............................. .. 290/55; 290/44; 415/42;

Assistant Examiner_NiCh01a5 Ponomarenko

Attorney, Agent, or FirmMichael I. Kroll

415/44
[58]

Field Of Search ................................ .. 290/43, 44, 54,

290/55; 415/4~2> 44> 907; 416/197 A


_
References Clted

[56]

[57]

ABSTRACT

Abooster (34) for a Wind turbine (12) of the type containing


an impeller (14) having a plurality of radial curved vanes
(16) mounted on a shaft (18) connected to an electric

U_S_ PATENT DOCUMENTS

generator~(20). The booster (34) comprises a structure (36)

mounted in a stationary manner about the impeller (14) for

1,595,578

8/1926 Soverelgh -

3,938,90;

2/1976 Magoveny et al. ................... .. 415/1451;

the Shaft

2835329

$1977

generator (20), to put out more electrical energy therefrom.

/1977

increasing rotation speed of the radial curved vanes (16) on

Asperger ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '

' ' ' ' " 290/

Mater et a1. ..

4,086,498

4/1978

SZoeke

.. ... ... ... ..

4,318,019

3/1982 Teasley et al.

290/55
. . . . ..

290/55

310/156

15 Claims, 2 Drawing Sheets

36 I4
38

and Operate more ef?cien?y the electric

I8 6 34'6

4O

,4L/?\lx\\\\
114x
4

44

,4

PM
\
42

_\

E lilill
lull]: :r' l.

: I'll ',| HI

58 /\-

46

/>

'l

| H [:5 l
:

|l_1_ _ _

/ \\ \\i;/ /

US006016014A

Ulllted States Patent [19]

[11] Patent Number:

Grigorescu et al.

[45]

[54]

[76]

Date of Patent:

6,016,014
Jan. 18, 2000

VERTICAL AXIS WIND ENERGY

4,350,898

CONVERSION DEVICE HAVING PANELS

4,419,587

GUIDED BY CARDIOID RAILS

4,575,639 3/1986 RogoW et al.


290/55
4,792,700 12/1988 Ammons
290/55
5332 925
7/1994
Thomas ................................... .. 290/44

.
Inventors.. Virgil
Grlgorescu,
Anca Grlgorescu,

both of 555 The West Mall #207,

9/1982 Benoit ..................................... .. 290/55


12/1983 Benton ...... ..

290/44

5,463,257 10/1995 Yea ......................................... .. 290/55

Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada, M9C 1G8


[21]

Primary ExaminerSteven L. Stephan


Assistant ExaminerElvin G. Enad

APPL NO; 08/699,444

[22] Filed:

Aug. 19, 1996

[57]
F031) 9/ ()0

ABSTRACT

[ 51 l

Int, C],7 __

[52]

US. Cl. ............................ .. 290/55; 290/44

energy into electrical energy using the cardioid principle

[58]

Field of Search

290/44 55. 415/4 1

The system includes a mobile surface reacting to Wind

415h64 235

poWer and constrained to move by rail guide supports

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii "

[56]

A Wind energy conversion 5 y stem Which converts Wind

having a shape of a cardioid. The system is coupled to an

References Cited

electric generator via belts to the shaft to transmit and


convert the cardioid movement of the mobile surface mov

U-S~ PATENT DOCUMENTS


4,156,580

5/1979

ing on the rail support unto useful electrical energy.

P6111 .......................................... .. 415/2

4,303,835 12/1981 Bair ......................................... .. 290/55

10 Claims, 65 Drawing Sheets

K\

T/\/ 2

"

US006158953A

Ulllted States Patent [19]

[11] Patent Number:

Lamont

[45]

[54]

WIND TURBINE WITH VARIABLE


POSITION BLADES

[76]

Inventor:

John S Lamont, 30th Floor, 360 Main

Date of Patent:

6,158,953
Dec. 12, 2000

5,083,899
5,211,539

1/1992 Koch ...................................... .. 415/2.1


5/1993 McCarty .
416/61

5,332,354

7/1994

Lamont ..... ..

415/4.2

5,967,749 10/1999 Eaves et al. .............................. .. 416/3

Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada,

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

R3C 4G1
[21]

AppL NO: 09/205,604

[22]

Filed:

Dec. 4, 1998

Int. Cl. ...................................................... .. F03D 7/00


US. Cl. .......................... .. 415/4.4; 415/4.2; 415/125;

[58]

Field Of Search ............................. .. 415/41, 42, 4.4,

United Kingdom ................. .. 415/905

Attorney) Agent) Or Firm_Bums, Deane, SWeCker &


Mathis L_L_p_

415/907; 416/17; 416/116; 416/119


415/125

130

144

208.1

907

2.1

ABSTRACT
.

turbine vanes in a circular path betWeen an inlet opening and

532 533 goslsil?jqg 34311928 111065; 111191

53.1

A Wind turbine has an internal rotor carrying a plurality of

'

[57]

3Z944Z84O
470317405

Japan .................................... .. 415/2.1

Assistant ExaminerJames M McAleenan

[51]
[52]

1 903 307
2667589

7/1977

8/1994

Primary ExaminerF. Daniel Lopez

[56]

1251

2275085

an exhaust opening. The inlet opening includes a stationary

References Cited

dividing vane that delivers one portion of the inlet air?oW to

US. PATENT DOCUMENTS

a primary ?oWpath traversing the turbine vanes at two


locations. The stationary dividing vane also delivers a sec

4/1933
1/1954
3/1976
6/1977

G?ho
Levrer) '

ond portion of the inlet air?oW to a second ?oyvpath Which


drives the turbine vanes as those vanes 'move in the part of

Troll _
Asperger _

the circular path from the exhaust opening toWard the inlet
opening. The turbin'e'vanes may be mounted so as to have

4,047,834 9 /1977 Magoveny et a1_ _


4,162,410 7/1979 Amick,
4,179,007 12/1979 Howe.
4,278,896 7/1981 McFarland 472887704 9/1981 Bosard -

variable angular positions in different portions of the circular


path. Turbine vane position can be controlled either mag

netically or mechanically. Where vane position is varied


magnetically, a plurality of permanent magnets With suitable

4,291,235

9/1981 Bergey, Jr. et a1. .................... .. 290/55

controls adjust the turbine vane position. Where vane posi


tion is Varied mechanically, a pair of Cam arrangements may

4,350,900

9/1982 Baughman ............................ .. 415/907

be employed'

4,398,096

8/1983 FaurholtZ.

4,508,973

4/1985 Payne .

5,038,049

8/1991 Kato .

10 Claims, 8 Drawing Sheets

US006191496B1

(12)

(54)

(76)

United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Elder

(45) Date 0f Patent:

WIND TURBINE SYSTEM

Inventor:

Notice:

Feb. 20, 2001

3,902,072

8/1975 Quinn ................................... .. 290/44

3,942,909

3/1976 Vengst ............................ .. 416/132 B

Dillyn M. Elder, 1513 E. Lake St., Fort

3,977,409

8/1976 Luchuk -

Collins CO (Us) 80524

3,994,621

11/1976 Bogle ..... ..

(*)

US 6,191,496 B1

4,031,405

Under 35 U.S.C. 154(b), the term of this


patent shall be extended for 0 days.

6/1977

416/145
.. 415/186

Asperger .............................. .. 290/55

(List Continued on next page)


FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

(21)

Appl. N0.: 09/452,734

867380

Flledl

Dec. 1,
_

Related US. Appl1cat10n Data


(60)

Provisional application No. 60/110,519, ?led on Dec. 1,

2/1953 (DE) .

167694

1/1986

0216384

4/1987

515652

4/1921

(FR) .

727519

3/1931 (FR) _

61140

1998

2231805

(EP) .................................... .. 415/42

3/1955 (FR) ................................... .. 416/236


11/1990 (GB) .

(51)

Int. c1.7 ...................................................... .. F03D 3/04

(52)

US. Cl. ............................................... .. 290/55; 290/44

Primary ExaminerNicholas Ponomarenko

(58)

Field of Search ................................ .. 290/43, 44, 54,


290/55

(74) Attorney, Agent, or FirmSantange10 Law Offices,


PC

(56)

References Cited

5/1980 (JP) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ " HG/197A

(57)

U S PATENT DOCUMENTS

ABSTRACT

The present invention relates to a Wind turbine used to

' '

143,100
175,530
201,400

69701

convert Wind energy into

9/1873 Sheplar et a1. .


3/1876 Vernor 3/1878 Evefhaft -

mechanical energy, more

speci?cally, a long axis type of vertical-axis turbine allowing


large columns of air to be harnessed. These devices differ
from horizontal-axis (propeller) type Windmills Which typi

485933
535193

3/
gownsend '
416 197 A
1892 Hititrilegn """""""""""""" "
/
3/1895 ChapmaI'l

cally rotate about a vertical axis in order that they may face
directly into a Wind. The present invention is designed to be
employed as a cost effective alternate poWer source in any

537,494

4/1895 Stevens et' a1. .................... .. 415/907

Wthd condition from a breeze to a gale Wthd~ To increase the

588372

8/1897 Hardaway _

structural integrity, the torque generating elements, namely,

600,893
640,901
993,120
1a523a295

3/1898
1/1900
5/1911
1/1925

the rotor blades, are not directly attached to the shaft but
rather, they attach to the round top and bottom rotor cage
plates through Which torque forces generated can be trans
fered to the shaft. The unique design of an open cover on the

1,582,162

5/1926 N1C1Cl1O1SOI1 ...................... .. 416/436 R

1?; sggo
1835018
1,935,097
2,067,542

Schmucker,
Hardaway .
Sterner Ryan -

girrlrizr '

top of the Wind turbine allows Wind from the direction above

416/236 R

the Wind turbine to be harnessed. The top shield structure has

12/1931 Danieus' """""""""""""" "


11/1933 Nelson ............................... .. 170/15
1/1937 Penton
.... .. 170/12

created a calm Wind area betWeen the shield and the top of
the rotor Cage that helps reduce turbidity and greatly tacth'
Wes Wind @Xhaust from the System

2,406,268

8/1946

3,339,078

8/1967 Crompton ............................ .. 290/44

Terhune

.....

. . . . ..

170/26

72 Claims, 11 Drawing Sheets

10A
7
1o

3
6

2 \\

\\
5 ~\
8 '/

US006352473B1

(12)

(54)
(76)

United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Clark

(45) Date of Patent:

WINDJET TURBINE
Inventor:

Mar. 5, 2002

4,759,272 A

7/1988 Zaniewski

5,326,313 A

7/1994 Miniat ....................... .. 454/18

Thomas L. Clark, 2809 Rio Branco,

5,332,354 A

7/1994 Lamont

Suite 1024) Dallas TX (Us) 75234

5,336,050 A

8/1994 Guida et a1.

5,447,412 A

9/1995

( * ) Notice:

US 6,352,473 B1

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this

5664418 A

U'S'C 154(k)) byo days

416/186 R

Lamont

2 *

patent is extended or adjusted under 35

~~~~~~ ~~ 415/42
...... .. 415/42

Yalters """""""" " 4116:3551];


9/1997

"""""""""""" " 60/398

a ers ..................... ..

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS


(21)

APP1- N91 09/523,258


-

(22)

Med

Mar 10 2000

(51)

Int. c1.7 ............................................... .. F23L 17/10

(52)

US. Cl. .......................................... .. 454/19; 454/18

(58)

Field of Search .................................... .. 454/18, 19

(56)

GB

21885 A

* of 1896

GB

26938 A

12/1906

4515549 A

5/1970

JP

References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

.... ..

454/18

................ .. 454/18

4 Cited by examiner
_

Primary Examine/A9914 Joyce

(74) Artorney, A gen,r

0r

(57)

ABSTRACT

FzrmD enn1s T. G nggs

A roof-mounted Wind turbine includes turbine vanes that are

linear-shaped and do not have the conventional convex

1,857,762 A

1,977,934 A

* 10/1934

2,013,244 A

9/1935 LaVergne ..

mon With one another or With a common turbine component,

2,469,096 A

5/1949

Wilson .... ..

so that each vane does not require individual handling nor

3,460,855 A

8/1969

Belden ................... .. 454/18 X

3,797,374 A
3,893,383 A
3,952,638 A

5/1932 Meadows ..

................ .. 454/18

Bolton

.... ..

3/1974 Jones
7/1975 Jones
4/1976 Felter et 81.

4,086,028 A

4/1978 Felter ................... .. 416/227A

4,303,375 A
4,379,972 A

12/1981 Foglesong et a1. ........ .. 416/167


4/1983 Sosa et a1. .................. .. 290/44

4,641,571 A
4,648,312 A

2/1987 Anderson et 81.


3/1987 Schad

curvature. Additionally, the turbine vanes are made in com

individual attachment to the turbine assembly as is required


in the construction of conventional Wind turbines that are

commercially available today. This is accomplished by


producing the vanes by molding or extruding techniques that
are commonly used in making plastic assemblies or com

ponents.
19 Claims, 9 Drawing Sheets
10

US006409467B1

(12> Ulllted States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Gutterman

(54)

(76)

(45) Date of Patent:

WIND-GENERATED POWER SYSTEM

Inventor:

4,739,179 A

4/1988 Stites

5,038,049 A

8/1991 K310

Howard Gutterman, PO. Box 230881

5,134,305 A

Ansonia Station New York NY (Us)

5,272,378 A

10023

5,386,146 A

Notice:

Sub'ect
to an y disclaimer, the term of this
J

patent is extended or adjusted under 35

U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days.

7/1992 Senehi
*

(51)

U-S-

(56)

Cl-

. ... ... .. ... ... .

ABSTRACT

AWind-generated poWer system for producing supplemental


~ ~ ~ F031) 1/00_ H021) 9/04

(58)

* cited by examiner

(57)

Mar. 9, 2001

Int- Cl? ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

1/1995 Hickey
3/1998 Shuler .................. .. 290/1 R X

Primary ExaminerJohn E. RyZnic

(21) Appl. No.: 09/802,574


(22) Filed:

Jun. 25, 2002

12/1993 Wither ..................... .. 290/1 R

5,734,202 A

US 6,409,467 B1

. . . . . . . . . . ..

electrical poWer from Wind-producing resource. The Wind

generated poWer system includes a subWay system tunnel


R

having a Wall and Support Structure

being gener_

Field Of Search ......................... .. 290/1 R; 415/4.1,

ated by Subway trains passing or traveling at high rates of

415/4~2> 43> 44> 45

speed therethrough; and also includes Wind-collecting ducts


being spaced throughout the subWay system tunnel and

References Clted
U_S_ PATENT DOCUMENTS
27616506 A * 11/1952 Mathias ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ 415/45 X
3,720,840 A * 3/1973 Gregg """""""""" " 415/4'3 X
3,876,925 A

4/1975

3,883,750 A

5/1975 UZZell, Jr. ............. .. 415/45 X

4,012,163 A
4,516,907 A

being attached to the Wall and support structure; and further


includes shrouds being mounted to the Wall and support
structure and being connected to the Wind-collecting ducts;
and also includes turbine generators being mounted in the
shrouds and being adapted to transform Wind to electrical

Stoeckert ............... .. 415/4.4 X

power

3/1977 Baumgartner et 211.


*

5/1985 Edwards ................... .. 415/4.5

7 Claims, 2 Drawing Sheets

US006417578B1

(12) United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.2

Chapman et al.

(54)

(45) Date of Patent:

4,264,278 A

4/1981 Weingart ................... .. 290/43

SYSTEM AND RELATED METHODOLOGY

4,285,481 A

8/1981 Biscomb .................... .. 290/43

4,415,306

Asslgnee' Pnme Energy Corporatlom Mmden

Notlcel

11/1983

subtect to any d1sc1a1mer> the term Ofthls

Cobden

.......

. . . ..

ghffilok 9t a1~

415/2A

----- -

4,452,562
,
,
A

6/1984

Hsu
u c ..........................
er ..... ..
.. 290/43

4,452,568 A

6/1984

Andersson

4,490,093 A

NV(US)
_

Jon A Peterka Ft Colhns


~
CO (Us)
.

Jul. 9, 2002

POWER-TRANSDUCER/CONVERSION

(75) Inventors: Jamie C. Chapman, Boston, MA (US);


(73)

US 6,417,578 B1

................. ..

290/43

12/1984 Chertok et al. ..

290/43

4,494,007 A

1/1985 Gaston ......... ..

290/43

4,518,312 A

5/1985

290/43

4,525,633 A

6/1985 Wertheim et al. ........... .. 290/43

Jacobs et al.

..... ..

patent is extended or adjusted under 35

USC 154(k)) by 0 days_

(List continued on neXt page.)


FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

(21) Appl. No.: 09/334,110


(22)

Filed:

Jun. 16, 1999


Related US. Application Data

(63)

(60)

CA

2223902

11/1999

DE

3222007

12/1973

FR

745869

5/1933

FR

909378

5/1946

FR
FR
GB

9/1953
2/1979
2/1984
5/1986

Continuation of application No. 08/961,048, ?led on Oct.


30, 1997.
Provisional application No. 60/029,387, ?led on Oct. 30,

JP

1038090
2394689
2 123 487 A
59-126084

1996.

SU

1231-251 A

(51)

Int. Cl.7 ................................................ .. F03D 9/00

(52)

US. Cl. ........................... .. 290/44; 290/43; 290/54;

290/55
290/42 43 53
290/54> 44

(58) Field of Search

(56)

References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

OTHER PUBLICATIONS
,

GoldsWorthyVert1calaX1s Wind Turbine, Nevada Green


Energy Project/Green Power Initiative, Oct. 1999, 2 pp.
Primary ExaminerNicholas Ponomarenko
(74) Attorney, Agent, or FirmKolisch HartWell Dickinson
Mccormack & Hellser
(57)

7/1984

ABSTRACT

Asystem and method (several variations) for interconverting

1,502,433 A

7/1924 Johanson

290/43

moving ?uid poWer and electrical poWer, involving, in one

1,536,968 A
1,766,765 A

5/1925 Palm ......................... .. 290/43


6/1930 savonius ___________________ __ 290/43

embodiment, an aerodynamic rotor integrated With an 9199


trical rotor Without an interconnecting rotating shaft, Where

1,835,018 A
4,048,947 A

470647403 A

12/1931 Darrieus
9/ 1977

Sicard - - - - - - -

12/1977 Miller
Yen ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '

290/43

the aerodynamic rotor can either take the form of (a) a

- - - -- 290/43

selected style (several discussed herein) hoop-type rotor or

290/43

(b) a fan-blade-type rotor, and in another embodiment, a

' ' ' " 290/43

hoop-like aerodynamic rotor coupled directly to the rotor in

4970431 A

1/1978

T105362 A
4,134,707 A
4,168,439 A

8/1978 Sforza
1/1979 EWers
9/1979 Palma

4,220,870 A

9/1980 Kelly ........................ .. 290/43

290/43
290/43
290/43

an electrical generator through a rotating shaft.


51 Claims, 17 Drawing Sheets

US006448668B1

(12) United States Patent

(16) Patent N6.=


(45) Date of Patent:

Robitaille

(54) VERTICAL-AXIS WIND MILL SUPPORTED

4
4
4
4
5
6

BY A FLUID

(76)

Inventor: Armand Robitaille, 1075, 2 "me Rang,


St. Roch des Aulnaies (CA), GOR-4E0

Notice:

US 6,448,668 B1

Sub'ect
to an y disclaimer, the term of this
J

patent is extended or adjusted under 35

U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days.

551
070
313
610
356
336

A
A
A
A
A
A

Sep. 10, 2002

8/1986 Wood

*
*

6/1988 Werner
8/1988 Cameron et al.

60/325
.. 261/35

WIN"WTMs

O E
DE

60/496

2938496 A

415/3

74/60
310/74

4 / 1 9 O0 0

* cited by examiner

(21) Appl. No.: 09/607,714


Jun. 30, 2000
(22) Filed:

Primary ExaminerNestor Ramirez


Assistant ExaminerJulio R. Gonzalez

Related US. Application Data


Provisional application No. 60/141 ,259, ?led on Jun. 30,

(60)

1999.

(51) Int. Cl?

F03B 13/00; H02P 9/04;


F03D 9/00

(52) US. Cl.

290/54; 290/55; 290/44;

(58) Field of Search

(56)
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

cylindrical shape foundation carried over tWo ?oors, and


comprising a basin located across the higher ?oor and an
alternator room located underground. One or more rotors are

290/55, 44_ 417/7


416/11, 3.1, 117, 119; 415/42, 907

by Water in the basin. The turbine has a roof in the form of

29O/44

8/1975 Quinn

* 10/1977 Rumsey

* 12/1979 Drees

6/1980 Rainey

* 12/1983

De Waal

9/1984 Hojo et al.

a plane Wing (Naca), a collecting section having a number


of blades spread over all the circumference of the section

leaving a series of openings by Which the air strikes each


blade, and a ?oor Which receives the blades, level With the
top of the hillock. A buoy Wherein the Water supports the

* 10/1976 Kalpins

Avertical-aXis Wind turbine installed at the top of a hillock,


in a crater, is constituted of a turbine, a buoy and a

suspended from the turbine but the Weight thereof supported

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS


072
367
134
367
741
880
665

ABSTRACT

290/43

References Cited
3
3
4
4
4
4
4

(57)

..

61 16AH 0109

416/119
60/496

Weight of the~turbine~ and rotor creates a state of'Weight


lessness. By violent Wmds, the buoy may be ?lled With Water
to create inertia and the Water in the basin be lowered by
gravity, into an adjacent tank, to bury the turbine Within the
crater.

.. .. 244/199

74/5.9

9 Claims, 5 Drawing Sheets

US006448669B1

(12) United States Patent


Elder

(54)

WATER POWER GENERATION SYSTEM

(76)

Inventor:

GB
JP

Dillyn M. Elder, 1513 E. Lake St., Fort

Notice:

2231805 A
55-69701

11/1990
5/1980

........... ..

416/197 A

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Collins, CO (US) 80524

(*)

US 6,448,669 B1
Sep. 10, 2002

(10) Patent N0.:


(45) Date of Patent:

US. patent application Ser. No. 09/452,734, Improved

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this


patent is extended or adjusted under 35

Wind Turbine System, ?led Dec. 1, 1999, 28 pages and 11

U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days.

US. Provisional Application, 60/110,519, Improved Wind

drawings.
Turbine System, ?led Dec. 1, 1998, 11 pages and 11

(21) Appl. No.: 09/789,961


Feb. 20, 2001
(22) Filed:

drawings.
Primary ExaminerNicholas Ponomarenko

Related US. Application Data

(63)
(60)
(51)
(52)
(58)

(57)

Continuation-in-part of application No. 09/452,734, ?led on


Dec. 1, 1999, now Pat. No. 6,191,496.
Provisional application No. 60/110,519, ?led on Dec. 1,
1998.

ABSTRACT

The present invention relates to a turbine used to convert


wind or ?uid energy, and in some embodiments the kinetic

energy of water, into mechanical energy, more speci?cally,

a long axis type of vertical-axis turbine allowing large

Int. Cl.7 ................................................ .. F03D 3/04

columns of air or water to be harnessed. These devices differ

US. Cl. .......................................... .. 290/54; 290/43

from horizontal-axis (propeller) type windmills or water


mills which typically rotate about a vertical axis in order that
they may face directly into a wind. The present invention is
designed to be employed as a cost effective alternate power

Field of Search ............................ .. 290/43, 44, 54,

290/55
References Cited

source in any wind or water current condition from a breeZe


to a gale wind, to a slow to moderate to fast water currents.

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

To increase the structural integrity, the torque generating


elements, namely, the rotor blades, are not directly attached

(56)
143,100 A
175,530 A
201,400 A

9/1873 Sheplar et a1.


3/1876 Vernor
3/1878 Everhart

to the shaft but rather, they attach to the round top and

bottom rotor cage plates through which torque forces gen


erated can be transferred to the shaft. The unique design of

(List continued on next page.)

an open cover on the top of the wind or water turbine allows

wind or water from the direction above the turbine to be


harnessed. The top shield structure has created a calm wind
or water area between the shield and the top of the rotor cage

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS


867380

2/1953

167694

1/1986

0216384
515652
727519

4/1987
4/1921
3/1931

61140

3/1955

............... ..

415/4.2

that helps reduce turbidity and greatly facilitates wind or


water exhaust from the system.

............... .. 416/236

10A

70 Claims, 12 Drawing Sheets

US006538340B2

(12) United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Elder

(54)

WIND TURBINE SYSTEM

(75) Inventor:

6,448,669 B1 *

Dillyn M. Elder, Fort Collins, CO (US)

(73) Assignee? l'gesdwinds Corporation, Dallas, TX


( )
(*)

US 6,538,340 B2

(45) Date of Patent:

Notice:

USC' 154(k)) by 22 days

9/2002 Elder ........................ .. 290/54

* Cited by examiner

Primary ExaminerNicholas Ponomarenko


(57)
ABSTRACT

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this

patent is extended or adjusted under 35

Mar. 25, 2003

The present invention relates to an improved turbine used to

convert ~Wmd mto mechanical energy, more ~speci?cally, a

long axis type of vertical-axis turbme alloWmg large col

umns of Wind to be harnessed. These devices differ from

(21) Appl' NO: 09/923043

horizontal-axis (propeller) type Windmills Which typically

(22)

rotate about a vertical axis in order that they may face


directly into a Wind. The improvement includes constructing
the components of the invention from lightweight materials

Filed;

Aug 6, 2001

(65)

Prior Publication Data

Us 2OO3/0025335 A1 Feb 6 2003

vvhich allow 'the enhanced conversion of Wind kinetic energy

mto mechanical energy by the Wind turbme. The preferred

(51)

Int. Cl.7 ................................................ .. F03D 3/04

materials include honeycomb sandwich panels manufac

(52)
(58)

US. Cl. ............... ..


290/55; 290/44
Field of Search ............................ .. 290/43, 44, 54,
290/55

tured from non-metallic materials such as aramid ?ber. The


Present invention is designed to be employed as a Cost
effective alternate poWer source in any Wind from a breeZe

to a gale Wind. To increase the structural integrity, the torque

(56)

References Cited

generating elements, namely, the rotor blades, are not


directly attached to the shaft but rather, they attach to the
round top and bottom rotor cage plates through Which torque

Us PATENT DOCUMENTS
4,224,528 A *
4,494,007 A *

9/1980 Argo _________________________ __ 290/55


1/1985 Gaston ...................... .. 290/44

forces generated can be transferred to the shaft. The unique


design of an open cover on the top of the Wind turbine allows

4,857,753 A *

8/1989 MeWburn-Crook et a1.

Wind from the direction above the turbine to be harnessed.

5,038,049 A

8/1991 K810 ......................... .. 290/55

290/55

53917926 A * 2/1995 Stf11eYta1~

290/55

The [Op

Structure has Created a Calm

area

betWeen the shield and the top of the rotor cage that helps

5,852,331 A

* 12/1998

Glorgml ' ' ' ' ' ' '

' ' ' " 290/55

reduce turbidity and greatly facilitates Wind exhaust from

6,172,429

B1

1/2001

Russell . . . . . .

. . . ..

the System

6,191,496

B1

2/2001

Elder

. . . ..

290/55

6,320,273

B1

11/2001

. . . ..

290/55

6,448,668 B1 *

Nemec

.....
......

9/2002 Robitaille .................. .. 290/54

10A

1
10

2 \

\\\

5 \\

B 4

290/54

1
I

51 Claims, 14 Drawing Sheets

US006674181B2

(12> Ulllted States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Harbison

(54)

(45) Date of Patent:

WIND-DRIVEN TWIN TURBINE

4,764,683 A
4,960,363 A

(76)

Inventor:
Notice:

Jan. 6, 2004

8/1988 Coombes
* 10/1990 Bergstein .................. .. 415/3.1

Charles C. Harbison, 5001 Jay Ave.,

5,038,049 A

Las Vegas NV (Us) 89130

5,457,346 A * 10/1995 Blumberg et al. .......... .. 290/55

(*)

US 6,674,181 B2

6,448,669 B1 *

Subject. to any disclaimer,_ the term of this

8/1991 Kato
9/2002

Elder

........................ .. 290/54

* cited by examiner

patent is extended or adJusted under 35

(22) Filed:
(65)

U.S.C. 154(b) by 100 days.

Primary ExaminerNicholas Ponomarenko


(74) Attorney, Agent, or FirmEdgar W. Averill, Jr.

Dec 31 2001
Prior Pubhcation Data

AWind-driven turbine assembly useful for the generation of


electricity. The turbine assembly has a frame Which holds
tWo parallel turbines supported by the top and ?oor of the

Us 2003/0122380 A1 Jul 3 2003

frame. Each turbine has a central support pipe With turbine

(51) Int. c1.7 ................................................ .. F03D 3/00

veihe eXtehehhg ehtwerdly- The Wind ehters the front of the

(52) US. Cl. .......................................... .. 290/55; 290/44

gaffe Ed lshsplflthlhte two Etteams WhICh Ethke the Outer

(58)

Field Of Search ............................ .. 290/43, 44, 54,

290/55

(56)

a 65 C

O t e W0 H mes Causmgt em to rotate 1

opposite directions. The frame has side doors Which tend to


open as Wind velocity increases. The frame also has a back

References Cited

panel Which also may be adjusted betWeen open and closed


positions. Electrical generators are operably connected to

Us. PATENT DOCUMENTS

shafts of the turbine to convert the energy absorbed from the

3,876,925 A

4/1975 Stoeckert ..................... .. 322/1

4,088,419 A * 5/1978 Hope et al.


415/4.4
4,295,783 A * 10/1981 Lebost ..................... .. 415/4.4

Wmd mm elecmclty'

8 Claims, 4 Drawing Sheets

US006688842B2

(12) United States Patent


Boatner

(54)

Bruce E. Boatner,

Notice:

Pebble Beach

Sub'ect
to any disclaimer, the term of this
J

patent is extended or adjusted under 35

U.S.C. 154(b) by 5 days.


(21)

APPL N05 10/178209

Jun_ 24 2002

(65)

PriOI PubliCatiOIl Data

(52)
(58)

ABSTRACT

Avertical axis Wind engine, also referred to as a vertical axis


Wind turbine (VAWT) includes a support structure, a rotor
mounted rotatably on the support structure for rotation about
a vertical axis, and at least one airfoil for causing the rotor

and trailing edges, an angle-of-attack axis extending hori


. 25

2003

/
e0

Int. Cl.7 ................................................ .. F03D 7/00

US. Cl. ................... .. 415/4.002; 415/44; 415/907;


416/140
Field of Search ........................ .. 415/4.2, 4.4, 907;
416/119, 140

(56)

(57)

Or Firm_LOya1 McKinley Hanson

the Wind engine. The airfoil has vertically extending leading

(51)

Attorney)

to rotate about the vertical axis in response to Wind passing

(22) Filed,

US 2003 0235498 A1 D

Feb. 10, 2004

Primary ExaminerEdWard K. Look


Assistant ExaminerKimya N McCoy

Dr., Murrieta, CA (US) 92563


*

US 6,688,842 B2

(45) Date of Patent:

VERTICAL AXIS WIND ENGINE


IIIVGIIIOIT

(10) Patent N0.:

References Cited

Zontally through the leading and trailing edges, and a pivotal


axis
extending vertically
intermediate the leading and . trail
.
.
.
.

mg edges. The airfoil is mounted on the rotor for pivotal


movement about the pivotal axis and the rotor includes

Components for limiting pivotal movement of the airfoil to


?rst and second limits of pivotal movement. The airfoil is
free te Pivet abeiit the Pivetal axis intermediate the ?rst and
second limits of pivotal movement as the rotor rotates about
the vertical axis in order to thereby enable the airfoil to align

the angle-of-attack axis according to the Wind. Preferably,

U'S' PATENT DOCUMENTS


2267357 A
4/1880 Saccone

the Wind engine has more than one free-?ying, self


positioning airfoil, and the rotor includes ?rst and second
stops for each airfoil that augment virtual stop effects to limit

232,205 A

9/1880 Preston ..................... .. 416/119

pivotal movement to a radially aligned ?rst limit and 4

2,038,467 A

4/1936 Zanoski

tangentially aligned second limit. According to another

4,184,084 A *

1/ 1980 Crehore --------------------- -- 290/55

aspect of the invention, multiple Wind engines are stacked.

43837801 A
44O8956 A

5/1983 Pryor
10/1983 mice Sr'

Yet another aspect provides an exponentially shaped struc


ture surrounding the vertical axis that funnels Wind toWard

4,474,529 A
D300,932 S

10/1984 Kinsey
5/1989 Sikes

the rotor

* cited by examiner

2 Claims, 10 Drawing Sheets

US006740989B2

(12)

United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:


US 6,740,989 B2
(45) Date of Patent:
May 25, 2004

Rowe

(54)

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE

(75) Inventor: John Rowe, Whitby (CA)

5,044,878 A

9/1991 Wilhelm

5,336,933 A

8/1994 Ernster

5,391,926 A
5,664,418 A

(73) Assignee: Pacifex Management Inc., Ontario


(CA)

( * ) Notice:

(Gag/Ct
Subjectiisiggngegg
to any disclaimer,
adjusted
the term
under
of this
35
.

2/1995 Staley ct a1~


*

9/1997

Walters ..................... .. 60/398

57852331 A
6,015,258 A

12/1998 Giorgini
1/2000 Taylor

6,109,863 A

8/2000 Milliken

2002/0047276 A1 i 4/2002 glieerrts'


Elder """""""""""" "

ays.

* cited by examiner

(21) Appl' NO': 10/224463


(22) Filed:
Aug. 21, 2002

Primary ExaminerNicholas Ponomarenko


(74) Attorney, Agent, or FirmOglivy Renault; Paul J.

(65)

F' 1d
16

Prior Publication Data


US 2004/0036297 A1 Feb. 26, 2004

(57)

"""""""""""""""
(

' '
_

' """""""""""""" "

Fleld Of Search ............................ ..

415/ 4;
'

44, 54,

290/55 415/42 4'4


(56)

ABSTRACT

A vertical axis Wind turbine With a turbine rotor With rotor


blades disposed for rotation about a substantially vertical
axis. The turbine includes multiple vertically extending
stator vanes circumferentially spaced apart about the rotor in
an annular array Each Vane has a radially inward facing

surface, a radially outWard facing surface and a ?ange on an

References Cited

outer edge of each vane. The ?ange serves to create a

US. PATENT DOCUMENTS

rotates in a direction that draWs and redirects air ?oW into


the air ?oW channels de?ned by the stator vanes that is then

turbulent sWirling boundary layer on the vane surfaces that


1,578,835 A

3/1926 Kothe
8/1977 Mater

compressed by the narroWing of the channels and directed to

4,039,849 A

4,551,631 A

* 11/1985 Trigilio ..................... .. 290/55

4,684,817 A
4,686,376 A

et al. ................ .. 290/55

the rotor blades to drive the turbine.

8/1987 Goldwater
*

8/1987

RetZ .......................... .. 290/42

14 Claims, 7 Drawing Sheets

US006749394B2

(12)

(54)
(76)

United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Boatner

(45) Date of Patent:

ROTATING DISPLAY APPARATUS


Inventor:

Bruce E. Boatner, 29507 Pebble Beach

US 6,749,394 B2

4,474,529 A

10/1984 Kinsey

D300,932 S

5/1989 Sikes

Jun. 15, 2004

* Cited by examiner

Dr., Murrieta, CA (US) 92563


Primary ExaminerEdWard K. Look
(*)

Notice:

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this

Assistant Examiner_DWayne J _ White

patent is eXIended 0r adjusted under 35

(74) Attorney, Agent, or FirmLoyal McKinley Hanson

U.S.C. 154(b) by 22 days.

(57)

ABSTRACT

(21) Appl- NO-I 10/254,204

A rotating display apparatus includes a support structure, a

(22)

rotor mounted rotatably on the support structure for rotation

Filed

SEP 25 2002

'

(65)

about a vertically disposed rotational axis, and at least tWo

Prior Publication Data

(preferably more) Wind-reactive elements on the rotor on


Which a user may display promotional, political, or other

US 2004/0057830 A1 Mar. 25, 2004

information,
including
using
the shape of the Wind-reactive

(51)
(52)

Int. Cl.7 ................................................ .. F03D 7/06


US. Cl. ........................ .. 415/4.2; 415/44; 415/140;

elements as the displayed information The Wind-reactive


elements (airfoil or non'airfo?) Cause the rotor to rotate

(58)

415/907
Field of Search ............................... .. 416/119, 140;

about the rotational axis in response to Wind passing the


rotating display apparatus Each is free to pivot between a

415/41, 42, 44, 907; 40/479

respective one of ?rst and second pairs of stop positions as


the rotor rotates about the rotational axis in order to self

(56)

References Cited

align according to Wind direction and impart rotational


movement to the rotor, moving through ?ve phases per

US PATENT DOCUMENTS
226 357 A
4/1880 Saccone

482:178 A
704,002
1,232,895
1,511,965
1,534,634
15347635

9/1892 Irish

A
A
A
A
A

7/1902
7/1917
10/1924
4/1925
4/1925

2
2O76784 A

spring arranged to constrict radially against a cylindrical

Cribbs et a1_
Cauthorn et al.
Hennigh
Correll
Cone

portion of a pivot tube in order to inhibit pivotal movement


of the tube (and thereby the associated Wind-reactive ele
ment of Which the tube is apart) When the Wind-reactive
element reaches a predetermined stop position. Another
embodiment includes a moveable stop that restricts the free

gg?gnsrligiren
4/1937 Knipp

3j292:319 A

movement of the Wind-reactive element in relation to the


rotational speed of 'the rotor by means of centrifugal force.

12/1966 M ccarthy

4,383,801 A

Yet another embodiment includes a'dampener mechanism

5/1983 Pryor

4,408,956 A
4,415,312 A

revolution as they orbit the rotational axis. One embodiment


includes a constricting dampener mechanism that includes a

that disengages in heavy Wind conditions.

10/1983 Price, Sr.


* 11/1983 Brenneman ............... .. 416/119

10

SUPPORT

28 Claims, 13 Drawing Sheets

US006824348B2

(12)

(54)
(76)

United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Alexander et al.

(45) Date of Patent:

WIND ROTOR OPERABLE IN SLOW WIND

1,535,585 A

SPEEDS

2,247,929 A
3,743,848 A

Inventors: Barton D. Alexander, 244 21 Ave.

378977170 A

James
NW C. Helfrich,MT20065>
Choteau St.,

Sun R1Ver>MT(US)59483

(*)

Notice:

Nov. 30, 2004

4/1925 Dyer
*
*

7/1941
7/1973

Terhune ..................... .. 416/46


Strickland .................. .. 290/55

7/1975 Dawishian

252242;:
4406584
A * 9/1983
211222 Ste

US 6,824,348 B2

Sub]ect to any disclaimer, the term of this

416/41
pp

........................ ..

4,468,169 A

8/1984 Williams

4,530,642 A

7/1985

5,642,983 A

7/1997 Chung

Yang

patent is extended or adjusted under 35

U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days.

cued by examlner
Primary ExaminerNinh H. Nguyen

(21) Appl. N0.: 10/420,397


(22) Filed:
Apr. 22, 2003

(74) Attorney, Agent, or FirmJerry Johnson


(57)
ABSTRACT

(65)

A Wind rotor comprises a base, a rotor frame rotationally


supported on the base for movement about a substantially

Prior Publication Data


Us 2004/0213670181 Oct 28 2004

vertical axis in one of a clockwise or counter clockwise

(51)
(52)

Int. c1.7
........................ .. F03D 3/00
US. Cl. ....................... .. 415/4.2; 415/4.4; 415/907;

direction, and a plurality of Wind receiving vanes pivotally


disposed on the rotor frame for movement about a Substan

416/111; 416/132 B; 416/140

tially vertical axis in a clockwise and counter clockwise

(58)

Field of Search ........................ .. 415/4.2, 4.4, 907;

direction between a ?rst Closed position and a Second Open

416/111, 132 B, 140; 290/44, 55

position. The movement of each vane from the ?rst closed

position to the second open position further being indepen


(56)

References Cited
Us PATENT DOCUMENTS
148 100 A
3/1874 White
279:066 A
6/1883 witherspoon

dent of the other vanes. A variable resistance damping


mechanism assembly is disposed between each vane and the
rotor frame. The variable resistance damping mechanism is
con?gured to provide damping in both the clockwise and the

counterclockwise directions, and to dampen a greater

5887143 A

8/1897 Hall

amount in one of the clockwise or counterclockwise direc

755,497 A

3/1904 Hyatt

tions than in the other.

1,015,517 A

1,314,232 A

1/1912 Snyder ..................... .. 416/118

8/1919 Wohr

59 Claims, 4 Drawing Sheets

1 2

740 729700 60C 76C 0 C

400

T
W

US006841894B2

(12)

(54)

United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Gomez Gomar

(45) Date of Patent:

4,365,929 A * 12/1982 Retz ........................ .. 415/53.1

CHANNELING BODY WITH

4,383,801 A

PROGRESSIVELY REDUCED SECTION

4,414,477 A * 11/1983 MeWburn-Crook et al.


4,508,973 A * 4/1985 Payne

290/55
290/55

4516907 A : 5/1985 EClWaFdS '


4,551,631 A
11/1985 Trigilio

415/4'5
290/55

4,609,827 A

290/44

Notice:

5/1983 Pryor ........................ .. 416/17

9/1986 Nepple

4,834,610 A
2 *i 5/1989 Bond, 111

U-S-C- 154(b) by 27 days~

4,890,976 A *

1/1990 Jansson

5,038,049 A

8/1991

5,044,878 A

9/1991 Wilhelm ................... .. 415/42

5,133,637 A

7/1992

Appl.NO.Z10/335,839

(22)

P116011

Jall- 2, 2003
.

(65)

Patent
Subject15toextended
any disclaimer,
or adlusted
the term
under
of this
35

(21)

5,391,926 A *
.

Pmr Pubhcatlon Data

Us 2004/0130161 A1 JUL 8 2004

(51)

Jan. 11, 2005

WIND POWER GENERATOR HAVING WIND

(76) Inventor: Josep Lluis Gomez Gomar, Major, 15


10 1a 08783 Masquefa (ES)
(*)

US 6,841,894 B2

Im. c1.7 ........................... .. H02P 9/00- H02P 9/04-

Kato

415/44

.... ..

Wadsworth ............... ..

2/1995 Staley et a1.


ODell

* 10/1995

5/1996 Kivilammi .

........ ..

5,553,996 A

9/1996 Farrar ...................... .. 415/2.1

ES

554984

5/1986

ES

2 107 324

11/1997

3,883,261 A

5/1975

3,883,750 A

5/1975 UZZell, Jr. ................. .. 290/55

3,920,354
3,970,409
3,988,072
4,017,204
4,052,134

* 11/1975 Decker
* 7/1976 Luchuk
* 10/1976 Sellman
* 4/1977 Sellman
* 10/1977 Rumsey
*

4,086,498 A *
4,134,710 A

4,164,382 A *

SaXmann ..................... .. 415/7

416/117
416/145
415/21
415/4.4

416/119

4/1978 Pavlecka .

415/1

4/1978 SZoeke

290/55

1/1979 Atherton ..

416/117

8/1979 Mysels

415/4.4

4,177,009 A

* 12/1979 Baum et al.

4,186,314

1/1980

4,208,168 A

6/1980 Chen et al. ..

. 416/132 B

. 416/197A
290/44

4,209,281 A
4,220,870 A

Diggs

416/45

... ... ... .

. . . . ..

6/1980 Edmunds

*
*

9/1980 Kelly .... ..


7/1981 McFarland .... ..

4,292,540 A *

9/1981 Thompson et al

4,278,896 A

4,303,835 A

* 12/1981

4,318,019 A

3553322 2; i @1323 ~~~~~~~~~~~ -- ggggggg

Primary ExaminerNicholas Ponomarenko

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

4,084,918 A

290/55

290/55

290/55

Assistant ExaminerPedro J. Cuevas

(74) Attorney, Agent, or FirmMichael J. Striker

(57)

ABSTRACT

AWind poWer recovery device has a toWer, a rotor arranged


on the toWer and including a plurality of blades rotatable

under the action of Wind, the rotor also having an axis for
transmitting the rotation of the rotor to another apparatus, a

Wind channeling body provided With a series of Walls Which


form channelings With a section Which is progressively
reduced from an entry side of the Wind channeling body to
an exit side of the channeling body toWard the rotor to affect
tangentially the blades of the rotor at a speed higher than at

the entry side of the body, the Wind channeling body having
a side face, and a blind protecting the side face of the

channeling body.

Bair .......................... .. 290/55

3/1982 Teasley et a1. ....... .. 310/156.35

14

\y

416/197A

..... .. 415/21

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

55

A
A
A
A
A

415/4.4

...... .. 290/55

5,518,362 A

(52) US. Cl. ....................................................... .. 290/55


References Cited

290/55

5,454,694 A

(58)

(56)

(List Continued on next page)

F03D 9/00; F03D 9/02; F03D 3/02

Field of Search .......................................... .. 290/55

.. 415/533

10

~44]

13 Claims, 4 Drawing Sheets

US006849965B2

(12) United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:


(45) Date of Patent:

Le Nabour et al.

US 6,849,965 B2
Feb. 1, 2005

(54) WIND MACHINE WITH SLANTED BLADES

4,140,433 A

(75) Inventors: Marcel Le Nabour, Maisons La?tte

4,258,271 A
4,291,235 A

*
*

3/1981
9/1981

Chappell et al. ............ .. 290/54


Bergey et al.
...... .. 290/55

4,684,316 A
4,720,640 A

*
*

8/1987
1/1988

Karlsson ......... ..
415/211.1
Anderson et al. ........... .. 290/43

(FR); Christophe Hagopian, Creteil

(FR)

4,781,523 A
5,080,553
5,910,688
6,452,287
6,786,697

(73) Assignee: Compagnie Internationale de


Turbines Atmospheriques, Alfortville

(FR)
(*)

Notice:

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this


patent is extended or adjusted under 35

USC 154(b) by 0 days.

DE
DE

JP

Jan. 26, 2004


Prior Publication Data

US 2004/0160063 A1 Aug. 19, 2004

Related US. Application Data


(62)

Division of application No. 09/868,971, ?led as application


NO. PCT/FR99/O2705 OIl NOV. 5, 1999.

(30)

Foreign Application Priority Data

May 12, 1999

(FR) .......................................... .. 99 06076

(51)

Int. Cl.7 ................................................ .. F03D 9/00

(52)
(58)

US. Cl. .......................... .. 290/55; 290/54; 416/189


Field of Search ............................ .. 290/55, 54, 44,

290/43; 415/211.1; 416/189

A
A
B1
B2

11/1988 Aylor
*
*
*
*

1/1992
6/1999
9/2002
9/2004

Armel ...................... .. 415/42


Li ........ ..
290/55
Looker ........... ..
290/55
OConnor et al. ........ .. 416/189

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

DE
DE

(21) Appl. No.: 10/764,942


(22) Filed:
(65)

2/1979 Eckel

804 090 C
757 548 C

4/1951
8/1953

4437972 A1 *
19802574 A1 *
20030120509 A

4/1996
3/1999

H02K/7/18
F03D/11/00

4/2003

......... .. F03D/11/00

* cited by examiner

Primary ExaminerJoseph Waks


(74) Attorney, Agent, or FirmBaker & Daniels

(57)

ABSTRACT

AWind machine mounted on a vertical mast (2) and having


a Wind-driven turbine (1) co-operating With an alternator to

generate electrical poWer, this turbine (1) being ?tted With


slanting blades (6) mounted on a large-diameter hub (7) With
a horizontal axis, the generators of Which are located along
the trunk of a cone facing the Wind, characterised in that the
alternator comprises, on the one hand, a magnetic rotor (4)
secured to the hub (7), preferably on a level With the
maximum available diameter, and on the other hand a stator

(5), adjacent to the rotor (4), With magnetic coils distributed


in a partial or full circle, and secured to a stationary frame

(56)

References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
3,209,156 A
4,021,135 A
4,086,498 A

9/1965 Struble
5/1977 Pedersen et al.
*

4/1978

SZoeke ...................... .. 290/55

(22) joined to an encircling hood (9) extending the hub (7)


coaxially, the blades (6) being shrouded in the vicinity of
their ends (55) by a relatively short, divergent, circular
fairing (8) mounted concentrically With the hub
4 Claims, 5 Drawing Sheets

US006870280B2

(12)

United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Pechler

(45) Date of Patent:

(54)

VERTICAL-AXIS WIND TURBINE

(76)

Inventor;

Elcho R, Pechler, 573 Jason Dr

Notice:

Mar. 22, 2005

6,015,258 A * 1/2000 Taylor ...................... .. 415/4.4


6,465,899 B2 * 10/2002 Roberts
290/44
6,705,838 B1 * 3/2004 Bak et al. ................. .. 416/243

Debary FL (Us) 32713


(*)

US 6,870,280 B2

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this

DE

2740235 A *

3/1979

____ __ F03D/3/04

patent is extended or adjusted under 35


U_S_C_ 154(k)) by 0 day5_

DE
EP
GB

2918181 A * 11/1979
957265 A2 * 11/1999
2100687 A * 1/1983

.... .. F03D/3/04
.... .. F03D/3/04
F03D/11/00

GB

2100688 A

1/1983

F03D/11/00

(21)

Appl' No" 10/141160

GB

2146572 A * 4/1985

B29C/33/52

(22)

Filed.

JP

May 8 2002

'

(65)

PT

Prior Publication Data

W0

US 2003/0209911 A1 Nov. 13, 2003


(51)

Int. C].7 . . . . .

(52)

US. Cl.

2000337244 A
71735 A

* 12/2000
*

.... .. F03D/3/00

2/1981

.... .. F03D/0/00

W0 9119093 A1 * 12/1991

........... .. F03D/3/04

* cited by examiner
. . . ..

F031) 3/04

Primary Examiner]oseph Waks

...............

. . . . . . . . . . .. 290/55; 290/44

(74) Attorney, Agent,

(58) Field of Search ..

.. 290/44, 55; 211552853,

(57)

(56)

or FirmDale J. Ream

ABSTRACT

A vertical-axis Wind turbine includes upper and lower hubs

References Clted

de?ning an imaginary vertical axis therebetWeen. A rotor


assembly is rotatably coupled to the hubs and includes a

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

plurality of rotor blades. Each rotor blade includes an


588,572 A *
1,595,578

3,938,907 A

3,994,621 A
4,260,325 A

4,486,143 A
4,551,631 A

5,126,584 A
5,380,149 A
5,391,926 A
5,454,694 A

5,463,257 A
5,852,331 A

415/4.2

dicular to a radial edge of the rotor assembly and a second

2/1976 Magoveny et al. ....... .. 415/141

vertical edge spaced inwardly toWard the imaginary vertical

Sovereigh

.......

. . . ..

4/1981 Cymara .................... .. 415/4.4

5/1981 Sharak et al.


*
*

annular con?guration having a ?rst vertical edge perpen

415/186

8/1926

11/1976 Bogie

4,269,563 A
4,313,710 A
4,457,666 A

8/1897 Hardaway

2/1982 La Ferte .................... .. 415/4.2


7/1984 Selman, Jr. ............... .. 415/203

12/1984 McVey
* 11/1985 Trigilio ..................... .. 290/55

6/1992 Ouellet
1/1995 Valsamidis
2/1995 Staley et al.
* 10/1995

ODell ................. .. 416/197A

axis. No rotor blade touches any other blade and an air?oW

is obstructed only by respective rotor blades When passing


through the rotor assembly. A plurality of stationary stator
blades are circumferentially arranged about the rotor

assembly, each stator blade being positioned tangentially to


the rotor assembly such that air that Would cause propulsion
relative to the rotor blades is unrestricted Whereas air that
Would cause drag is blocked. Aplurality of rotor assemblies
may be included Within a single housing.

10/1995 Yea
* 12/1998 Giorgini .................... .. 290/55

18 Claims, 14 Drawing Sheets

US006926491B2

(12) United States Patent


Migler

(54) VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE WITH

(10) Patent N0.:


US 6,926,491 B2
(45) Date of Patent:
Aug. 9, 2005
(56)

References Cited

CONTROLLED GYBING
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
(76)

Inventor:

Bernard ,Miglen 1405 Autumn La"


Cherry H111, NJ (Us) 08003

232,205 A *
2,038,467 A *

(*)

Notice?

Subject to any disclaimer, the term Ofthis

6,116,178 A * 9/2000 McCabe

patent is extended or adjusted under 35

6,688,842 B2 *

5,844,323

9/1880 Preston ..................... .. 416/119


4/1936 Zanoski ..
416/119
12/1998

Hung

... ... ..

. . . . . . ..

290/54

114/102.13

2/2004 Boatner .................... .. 415/42

U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days.


* cited by examiner

(21) Appl' NO" 10/681755


(22) Filed.
Oct. 8, 2003
(65)

Prior Publication Data

US 2004/0228729 A1 NOV- 18, 2004

Primary ExaminerNinh H. Nguyen


(57)
ABSTRACT
_

A device for generating electricity in WhlCh Wind bloWmg


from any direction causes the rotation of sails around a

vertical toWer. As the sails rotate the sails moving toWard the

(60)

Related U-S- Application Data


Provisional application NO- 60/469240 ?led on May 12
2003'

Wind are automatically feathered, and the sails moving aWay


from the direction of the Wind are prevented from being

(51)
(52)

Int. Cl.7 ................................................ .. F03D 5/06


us. Cl. ........................ .. 415/44, 415/907; 416/17;

each sail so that the sail gybes at an earlier time than Would
Otherwise eeeur- An Outer sail restraint Catches the sail as

416/119; 416/132 A; 416/132 B; 416/146 R

it gybes, Capturing mueh 9f the energy of the gybe, adding

(58)

Field Of Search ....................... .. 415/44, 907, 150;

416/17, 119, 132 A, 132 B, 146 R, 155,


108111, 197 A, 197 R; 290/42_44, 55,
54, 53

feathered b y sail restraints. An inner sail restraint P ositions

additional rotational force The device may be used to

extract energy from the Wind to produce electricity.

10 Claims, 8 Drawing Sheets

US006942454B2

(12) United States Patent

(16) Patent N6.=

Ohlmann

(54)

(45) Date 0f Patent:

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE

(76)

Inventor:

Hans-Armin Ohlmann, 166 Piper St.,


Ayr Ontario (CA), NOB 1E0

(*)

Notice:

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this


patent is extended or adjusted under 35

USC 154(1)) by 0 days_


21
(

pp

(22) Filed:

DE

20006959

7/2000

DE

10054700

5/2001

DE
EP

19957141
0064440

5/2001
11/1982

FR

2509384

1/1983

* Cited by examiner

Primary ExaminerEdWard K. Look

Borden Ladner Gervais LLP

Dec. 1, 2003

(65)

Sep. 13, 2005

Assistant ExaminerRichard A. Edgar


(74) Attorney, Agent, or FirmR. Craig Armstrong;

A 1' N 110724146
)

US 6,942,454 B2

(57)

Prior Publication Data

The vertical axis Wind turbine has tWo counter-rotating


rotors mounted on ?rst and second spaced apart vertical

US 2004/0141845 A1 1111- 22, 2004


_

ABSTRACT

axes. Each rotor has a plurality of rotor blades extending

(60)

_ _ Related
Apphcatlon Data
PTOVlSlOnal apphcatlon NO- 60/430974: ?led on Dec- 2:
2002'

rotatable on a third vertical axis on a platform. The third axis

(51)

Int. Cl.7 ................................................ .. F03D 3/02

is spaced from a point midway betWeen the ?rst and second

(52)

us. Cl. .................... .. 416/11; 416/132 B; 415/42;

axes in a direction at 90 degrees to and forward from a line

415/151; 290/55

betWeen the ?rst and second axes. The vertical axis Wind

Field Of Search ........................... .. 290/55; 415/42,

turbine further has a guide vane mounted on the support

415/44, 907, 21, 41, 8, 60, 70, 1213,


151, 156, 183, 1981; 416/120, 122, 9_17,

structure; having a vertex forWard of the third vertical axis


in the direction at 90 degrees from a line betWeen the ?rst
and second axes. The guide vane has left and right sym

(58)

146 R, 197 A, DIG 4, 132 B

generally inWardly from an outer circumference, the vertical


axes being mounted on a support structure Which is in turn

metrical vane portions extending toWards the rotors so as to

(56)

References Cited

direct air?oW from Wind primarily toWards portions of the


rotors outboard of the ?rst and second axes. The guide vane

U~S~ PATENT DOCUMENTS


419 345 A *

2,335,817 A 4 11/1943 Topalov

415/44

With the guide vanes axis of Symmetry Pointing forwardly

into the Wind. Movable de?ector ?aps pivotally mounted

4,047,833 A *

9/1977 Decker ..................... .. 415/44

adjacent opposite ends of the vane portions can de?ect air at

4,156,580 A

5/1979 Pohl

least partially aWay from the rotors. The structure of the

8/1988 COOmbeS ------------------- -- 290/55

Wind turbine can support an unrelated structure such as a

4,764,683 A

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

DE

also tends to keep the vertical axis Wind turbine oriented

1/1890 Otto ......................... .. 415/42

3403657

8/1985

restaurant

8 Claims, 7 Drawing Sheets

US006966747B2

(12)

(54)

United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Taylor et al.

(45) Date of Patent:

WIND TURBINE HAVING AIRFOILS FOR


BLOCKING AND DIRECTING WIND AND
ROTORS WITH OR WITHOUT A CENTRAL

3,986,786 A
4,031,405 A
4,037,983 A
4,047,833 A
4,057,270 A

GAP

(76)

(*)

Inventors: Ronald J. Tay lor, 1169 Lon g Valle y


_

Notice:

4O7O131 A

Nov. 22, 2005

10/1976 Sellman
6/1977 Asperger
7/1977 Poem
9/1977 Decker
11/1977 Lebost

1/ 1978 Yen

4 , 079 , 264 A

3 /1978

Rd., Cheyenne, WY (US) 82009, Scott


J. Taylor,
Holland CL, Cheyenne,

4,084,918 A
4,088,419 A

4/1978 Pavlecka
5/1978 Hope et aL

WY (US) 82009

4,115,027 A

9/1978 Thomas

4,115,028 A

9/1978 HintZe

Cohen

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this


patent is extended or adjusted under 35

4,116,581 A
4,119,863 A

U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days.

4,132,282 A

1/1979 Sparks

4,154,556 A

5/1979 Webster

4,156,580 A

5/1979 Pohl

(21) APPL No: 10/831,515


_
(22) Filed:

US 6,966,747 B2

9/1978 Bolie
10/1978 Kelly

(Continued)

Apr. 23, 2004

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

(65)

Pnor Pubhcatlon Data


US 2004/0219019 A1
Nov. 4, 2004

Volta Torrey, Wind-Catchers American Windmills of Yes


terday adn TomorroW.

Related US. Application Data


(60)

(Continued)

Provisional application No. 60/467,773, ?led on Apr.

30, 2003'

P''ima"y ExaminerNinh H- Nguyen

(74) Attorney, Agent, or FirmCochran Freund & Young


LLC; William W. Cochran

(51)

Int. Cl.7 ............................................... ..

(52)

US. Cl. ........................ .. 415/1; 415/186; 415/191;

F03D 3/04

415/2112; 415/908; 416/197 A; 441fgfg 49;


_
Fleld Of Search ........................ ..

'

415/191 211'2 908 1; 416/197 A 197 B


416/DIG' 4 DIG 9 290/44 55
,

(56)

3876925 A
3,895,882 A
3,922,012 A

ABSTRACT

A Wind turbine device of increased efficiency is comprised


of a set of ?xed airfoils that direct Wind into a rotor having
a plurality of blades The ?xed airfo?s may extend to the

ground to increase the amount of Wind directed into the rotor


and may be manufactured from concrete. The rotor blades
have a vented portion near the aXis of rotation that has been

References Clted
Us PATENT DOCUMENTS

(57)

found to increase efficiency for certain blade geometries. For


other blade geometries, increased efficiency is observed With

_ d

5; 3:11:02 """"""""""" " 41 / 129


4/1975 Stoeckert
7/1975 Moyer
11/1975 HerZ

no gap at the aXis of rotation. The rotor may also be

manufactured from composite materials to increase strength


While decreasing the moment of inertia for the rotor.

16 Claims, 13 Drawing Sheets


RETURN
PORTION
312 ROTOR BLADE
302

AIRFOIL

301 E
320
ROTOR

314
AXIS

SPAC E
308

DRIVE
PORTION
306 AIRFOIL

ROTOR
BLADE

300
WIND
TURBINE

US007056082B1

(12) United States Patent


Taylor

(45) Date of Patent:

(54)

FOUR CYCLE WIND IMPLOSION ENGINE

(76)

Inventor:

(56)

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS


561,040

sutbletclto altly ((lllsfllalmeithf 3311115101212


.

5/1896

ZWiebel . . . . . . . . .

4,005,947 A *

2/1977

Norton et a1.

4,031,405

6/1977

Asperger

. . . . . ..

415/42

.. 416/197 A

................... ..

290/55

4,362,470 A * 12/1982 Locastro et a1. .. .. 416/197 A

$5? llssibinbe 0C; a Jus 6 un er


.

Jun. 6, 2006

References Cited

John B. Taylor, 5640 Encore Dr.,


Dallas TX (Us) 75240

( ) Nome

US 7,056,082 B1

(10) Patent N0.:

5,038,049 A *

8/1991 Kato ......................... .. 290/55

ays.

* cited by examiner
(21)

Appl. N0.: 10/906,235

(22) Filed:

Primary ExamlneriEdWard K. Look

Feb 10, 2005

Assistant ExamineriNathan Wiehe~


(74) Attorney, Agent, or FirmiDavid V. Thompson

(51) Int. Cl.


F03D 3/04
F03D 7/06

(57)
(200601)
(200601)

A Wind energy machine has four rotor chambers formed by


perpendicular Walls. Each rotor chamber has an intake

US. Cl- ....................... ..

(58)

ABSTRACT

portion a reversal portion a parallel portion and an exhaust

416/197 A

portion. Air How is reversed in each chamber for every 90

Field of Classi?cation Search ............... .. 415/4.2,

degrees of rotation, such that the intake portion becomes an

415/44, 13, 907; 416/31, 37, 41, 175, 197 A,


416/197 R, 203, 228
See application ?le for complete search history.

exhaust and the exhaust portion becomes and inlet.

13 Claims, 3 Drawing Sheets

42

44

US007084523B2

(12) United States Patent


Noguchi
(54)

(10) Patent N0.:


(45) Date of Patent:

Aug. 1, 2006

WINDMILL FOR WIND POWER

4,264,279 A *

4/1981

Dereng ................. .. 416/227A

GENERATION

4,285,636 A *

8/1981

Kato et al. .

4,303,835 A *

12/1981

Bair .......................... .. 290/55

4,976,587 A *
5,057,696 A *

12/1990
10/1991

Johnston et al. .......... .. 416/230


Thomas ..................... .. 290/44

(76) Inventor:

Tsuneo Noguchi,
abankohto-Minamikarasuyama 301 ,

24-20, Minamikarasuyama 6-chome,


Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (JP) 157-0062
(*)

US 7,084,523 B2

Notice:

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this


patent is extended or adjusted under 35

5,198,156 A *

3/1993 Middleton et a1.

5,203,672 A *

4/1993

5,252,029 A *

10/1993

.. 416/197 A

261/87

Wolf .............. ..
Barnes

5,316,443 A *

5/1994 Smith

5,332,925 A *

7/1994

415/2.1
..... .. 416/142

416/197 R

Thomas ..................... .. 290/44

U.S.C. 154(b) by 45 days.

(Continued)
(21) Appl. No.:

10/505,451

(22) PCT Filed:

Sep. 19, 2003

(86)

PCT/JP03/12031

PCT No.:

371 (0X1)
(2), (4) Date:
(87)

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS


JP

54-17439

2/1979

(Continued)
OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Sep. 1, 2004

Reynolds Number, http://scienceWorld.Wolfram.corn/phys


ic s/ReynoldsNumber.html.*

PCT Pub. No.: WO2004/027259

Primary ExamineriDarren Schuberg

PCT Pub. Date: Apr. 1, 2004

Assistant ExamineriPedro J. Cuevas

(65)

US 2005/0099013 A1

(30)

(52)
(58)

Maier & Neustadt, PC.

May 12, 2005

(57)

Foreign Application Priority Data

Sep. 20, 2002

(51)

(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm4Oblon, Spivak, McClelland,

Prior Publication Data

Int. C].
F01D 7/00
F03D 7/06
F03D 7/02

(JP)

........................... .. 2002-275032

A Windmill for highly ef?cient Wind poWer generation is


provided by enabling one to ef?ciently rotate the Windmill
even in starting or at a loW Wind speed region by improving

(2006.01)
(2006.01)
(2006.01)

a blade of a vertical shaft type Windmill of a lift type. In the


Windmill for Wind poWer generation, a plurality of blades are

US. Cl. ......................................... .. 290/55; 290/54


Field of Classi?cation Search ................ .. 290/44,

290/ 55

See application ?le for complete search history.


(56)

ABSTRACT

References Cited

provided in parallel With a rotating shaft in a face orthogonal


to the vertical rotating shaft at constant angles centering on
the rotating shaft, Wherein the blade is of a blade type having
a high lift coef?cient at loW Reynolds number and a notch
portion is formed at a rear edge portion of a loWer face of the
blade.

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS


1,467,699 A *

9/1923 Vinding et a1. ........... .. 416/226

7 Claims, 7 Drawing Sheets

US007189050B2

(12)

(54)

(75)

United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Taylor et al.

(45) Date of Patent:

CROSS-FLOW WIND TURBINE

2,812,823 A

Inventors: Scott J. Taylor, Cheyenne, WY (US);


Ronald Taylor, Cheyenne, WY (US);

US 7,189,050 B2

11/1957 Oviedo

2,896,882 A

7/1959 Nelson

3 876 925 A

4/l975 Stoecken

Mar. 13, 2007

Brad C. Cochran, Fort Collins, CO

(US); David Banks, Fort Collins, CO

(Us)

(Continued)

(73) Assignee: Terra Moya Aqua, Inc., Cheyenne,


WY (U S)

OTHER PUBLICATIONS
CPP Wind Engineering and Air?ow Solutions for the built envi

(*)

Notice:

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this

ronment; Cermak Peterka Petersoen, Inc.

patent is extended or adjusted under 35

U.S.C. 154(1)) by 0 days.

(Con?rmed)

Primary ExamineriNinh H. Nguyen

(21) Appl' NO" 11/284774

(74) Attorney, Agent, or FirmiWilliam W. Cochran;

(22)

Cochran Freund & Young LLC

Filed:

N0 21, 2005

(65)

Prior Publication Data


US 2006/0110243 A1

Disclosed are various embodiments of cross-Wind turbines

Related Us Apphcatlon Data


Continuation-in-part of application No, 10/831,515,

that are capable of providing high efficiencies over a Wide


range of Wind velocities. An airfoil stator causes Wind to

?led on Apr, 23, 2004, now Pat, No, 6,966,747 _

accelerate along its surface and creates a loW pressure area

_ _

on the leading face of the rotor blade during the poWer

(60) 520321821211 aPPIICFUO? NO'10/6_394I38 131421;


?ld
e

(51)

A M28535): app lcanon

on

pr

0'

stroke. A blocking stator blocks Wind from impeding the

movement of the rotor blades during the return cycle and

'

directs Wind onto the trailing face of the rotor blades during

Int C1

the poWer cycle. A large pressure diiferential is created

F0gp /04

(2006 01)
'

(52) US C14
_

(58)

ABSTRACT

May 25, 2006


_

(63)

(57)

between the leading face of the rotor blade and the trailing
_

'
_

'

face of the rotor blade during the poWer cycle Which creates

2/1D5I9 19

a large amount of force that rotates the rotor blade about the

'

central shaft. In some embodiments, gaps are provided

Field of Classi?cation Search .................. .. 415/1,

between the inside edge of the rotor blade and a Stationary

415/186 191 211'2 908 4'2 4'4 907; 416/197 A

shaft Which vents Wind collected by the rotor blade during

_ _
416/DIG' 4 BIG 9; 290/44 55
See apphcanon ?le for Complete Search hlstory'

certain portions of the rotation cycle. The vented Wind


increases the pressure on the trailing face of the rotor blades

(56)

References Cited

during the return cycle to further assist in the efficiency of


this system.

US. PATENT DOCUMENTS


1,697,574 A *

1/1929

12 Claims, 40 Drawing Sheets

Sigurd ...................... .. 416/110

8/132 DIRECTION
PRIMARY
WIND FLOW
DIRECHON
I16

STATOR
06

83.0

GAP

GAP

IP26

128\
33,0
112 ROTOR BLADE \
114 SHAFT

TRAILING FACE 122 p110 ROTOR BLADE


12o LEADING FACE

13
DIRECTION

SURFACE
I I8

1 0O
CROSS-F LOW
WI N D TURBI NE

US007314346B2

(12)

United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:


(45) Date of Patent:

Vanderhye et a1.
(54)

THREE BLADED SAVONIUS ROTOR

(76) Inventors: Robert A. Vanderhye, 801 Ridge Dr.,


McLean, VA (US) 22101-1625; Michael
H. Dexter, 7535 Thistledown Trail,
Fairfax Station, VA (US) 22039; Aaron
L. Aldrich, 697 N. Creek Rd., Little

Falls, NY (US) 13365; Brad A. Rotsky,


11 Forsyth Ave., Somerset, MA (US)

Jan. 1, 2008

4,191,507 A

3/1980 DeBerg

4,274,011 A

6/1981 Gar?nkle

4,359,311 A *
4,362,470 A *

11/1982
12/1982

4,371,346 A *
4,715,776 A *
4,784,568 A *

2/1983
12/1987
11/1988

Benesh ................. .. 416/197A

Locastro et al. ...... .. 416/197A

(Continued)
FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

02726; Justin R. Hascup, 354

Columbus Ave., Boston, MA (US)

US 7,314,346 B2

DE

4016622

11/1991

02116

(Continued)
Notice:

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this


patent is extended or adjusted under 35

USC 154(b) by 148 days.

OTHER PUBLICATIONS
Blackwell et al, Wind Tunnel Performance Data for Two and Three

Bucket Savonius Rotors, Sandia Labs, SAND76-0131, Jul. 1977,


pp. 1,3,10-21 & 29-34.

(21) Appl. No.: 11/265,278


(22)

Filed:

(65)

Prior Publication Data

US 2007/0098558 A1

(51)

(57)

May 3, 2007

operational characteristics superior to those of conventional

(2006.01)

three bladed rotors. The blades have high curvature and a

US. Cl. ................ .. 415/4.2; 415/907; 416/DIG. 2;

416/DIG. 9

(58)

Field of Classi?cation Search ............... ..

415/2.1,

415/4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 905, 907; 416/197 A,


416/243, DIG. 2, DIG. 9; 290/55
See application ?le for complete search history.

high skew factor, for example a curvature of greater than 7:1

(e.g. 2:1-5:1), and a skew factor of greater than 0.6 (e.g.


078-09). The rotor also includes at least one vertical shaft,
the blades operatively connected to the shaft. The rotor
typically has an aspect ratio of at least 2:1. The rotor
typically has a maximum power coefficient (Cp) of at least

References Cited

twice that of an otherwise identical rotor with a skew factor


of 0.5 or less. The rotor can drive a generator with a drive

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

which automatically increases the effective gear ratio as the


rotational speed of the rotor increases; or the rotor can be
connected to a propeller of a multihull wind powered boat.

(56)
1,697,574
1,768,765
2,677,344
4,156,580

ABSTRACT

A Savonius three bladed vertical axis wind turbine rotor has

Int. Cl.

F03D 3/06

(52)

(Continued)
Primary Examinerilgor Kershteyn

Nov. 3, 2005

A
A
A
A

1/1929
6/1930
5/1954
5/1979

Savonius
Savonius
Annis
Pohl

21 Claims, 7 Drawing Sheets

US007329965B2

(12)

(54)

United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Roberts et a].

(45) Date of Patent:

AERODYNAMIC-HYBRID VERTICAL-AXIS

6,020,725 A
6,172,429 B1*

1/2001

Russell ...................... .. 290/54

6,280,144 B1*

8/2001

Powers ................. .. 416/236A

6,800,955

Subject to any d1scla1mer, the term of this

290/44
s

..................... ..

Elder

120003 Themel
5/2004 Rowe

B2

10/2004

6,809,431 B1

McDavid, Jr.

10/2004 schippmann

patent is extended or adjusted under 35

6,841,394 B2

1/2005 Gomez Gomar

U.S.C. 154(b) by 183 days.

6,850,821 B2

2/2005 Weitkamp

6,853,096 B1
6,870,280 B2*

2/2005 Yu et al.
3/2005 Pechler ...................... .. 290/55

6,916,150 B2*

7/2005

(21)

Appl. NO.Z 11/145,523

(22)

Filed;

Jun_ 3, 2005

(65)

2004/0164561 Al*

Prior Publication Data

US 2006/0275105 A1

(51)

3/2003

6,666,650 B1

6,740,989 B2

Not1ce:

2/2003 McDavid, Jr. ............. .. 290/54

6,538,340 B2

ID (Us)

gugln

6,518,680 B2 *

(73) Asslgnee. Novastron Corporation, Montpel1er,


_

2/2000 Roberts

Davld W Roberts Montpeher ID (Us)

Feb. 12, 2008

WIND TURBINE

(75) Inventors: Gary D. Roberts, Montpelier, 1D (US);

US 7,329,965 B2

Dec. 7, 2006

Int_ CL
F03D 9/00

(200601)

H02P 9/04

(2006.01)

Liang ............. ..

415/115

8/2004 NagaWa et al. ............. .. 290/55

2005/0006904 A1

1/2005 Bayer

2006/0056967 A1*

3/2006 Liang ..................... .. 416/97 R

* Cited by examiner

Primary Examinerilulio C. Gonzalez


(74) Attorney, Agent, or FirmiThorpe North & Western,
LLP

(52)

US. Cl. ......................................... .. 290/55; 290/44

(58)

Field 61 Classi?cation Search ................ .. 290/55,


290/54, 44, 43; 415/907, 4.2, 2.1;

416/7,

416/119 132 B
See application ?le for Complete Search history

57

ABSTRACT

)
_

An aerodynamlc-hybnd, vert1cal-ax1s W1nd turbme Which


includes a rotor airfoil and stator blade combination Which

maximizes energy production by increasing Wind velocity


(56)

References Cited

and pressure While eliminating back pressure and improving


the laminar How of Wind both around and through the

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS


250,806 A

12/1881 Hamel

3,050,007 A *
4,236,866 A *

8/1962 Rydz ......................... .. 415/69


12/1980 Zapata Martinez ........ .. 415/4.4

5,075,564 A
5,254,876 A

12/1991 Hickey
10/1993 Hickey

5,380,149 A *

1/1995

5,391,926 A *

2/1995 Staley et al. .

5,463,257 A *

10/1995

5,664,418 A *

9/1997

Valsamidis ................ .. 415/2.1


Yea ........... ..

Walters

290/55

device. The rotor airfoils have a horizontal cross-section


With a crescent shape including a convex leading side and a
concave trailing side With a thicker middle section that
tapers to narrower sections at ends. The stator blades have a
horizontal cross-section With a planar side and a convex
side. Rotor airfoil and stator blade combinations are secured

between upper and loWer annular sails.

290/55

..................... .. 60/398

38 Claims, 17 Drawing Sheets

2-2

23a, 23b

US007344353B2

(12) United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:


(45) Date of Patent:

Naskali et al.

(54)

HELICAL WIND TURBINE

1,835,018
4,012,163
4,115,027
4,142,822
4,180,367

(75) Inventors: Pertti H. Naskali, Oakville (CA);


Angus MacLean, Oakville (CA); Neil
C. C. Gray, Oakville (CA); J. Harry

4,260,325 A

Lewis, Dorchester (CA); A. Patrick

11/1982 Benesh
12/1987 Benesh
2/1995 Staley et a1.

Ontario (CA)

5,852,331 A

12/1998 Giorgini

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this


patent is extended or adjusted under 35

6,481,957 B1
6,740,989 B2
6,849,965 B2

11/2002 Brill
5/2004 Rowe
2/2005 Le Nabour et al.

(51)

Prior Publication Data

(57)

Nov. 16, 2006

Int. C].

F03D 7/06

(52)
(58)

Primary ExamineriEdWard K. Look


Assistant ExamineriDWayne J White
(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm4GoWan Intellectual Property

May 13, 2005

US 2006/0257240 A1

(2006.01)

U.S. Cl. ........................................ ..

415/4.2; 415/71

Field of Classi?cation Search ............... ..

415/4.2,

415/4.5, 31, 4.7, 907; 416/176,196 A


See application ?le for complete search history.

(56)

References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
250,806 A
1,697,574 A
1,766,765 A

Gilman ...................... .. 416/51

* cited by examiner

(21) Appl. No.: 11/128,251


(65)

4/1981 Cymara

4,359,311 A
4,715,776 A
5,391,926 A

U.S.C. 154(b) by 217 days.

Filed:

Darrieus
Baumgartner et al.
Thomas
Herbert et a1.
Drees

10/1981

(73) Assignee: ArroWind Corporation, Oakville,

(22)

12/1931
3/1977
9/1978
3/1979
12/1979

Mar. 18, 2008

4,293,274 A *

NeWall, Victoria (CA)

Notice:

A
A
A
A
A

US 7,344,353 B2

12/1881 Hamel
1/1929 Savonius
6/1930 Savonius

ABSTRACT

A vertical axis Wind turbine Wherein the blades of the rotor


section of the Wind turbine comprise at least sections
Wherein the blades have a non-linear con?guration in the Z
axis. In a preferred embodiment, the blades of the rotor
section have a linear trailing edge With a non-linear, and

preferably helical, surface con?guration. This particular


design alloWs the blades to provide both a rotational force

and a positive or negative lift component. Further, the blades


de?ne an open area in the center of the rotor section through
Which air How can pass in order to create a vertical vortex
of air. As such, a more efficient vertical axis Wind turbine

provided.
21 Claims, 8 Drawing Sheets

US007360995B2

(12) United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Suzuki
(54)

(45) Date of Patent:

VERTICAL AXIS WINDMILL

(58)

(73) Assignees; Global Energy Co, Ltd, (JP);


Kabushiki Kaisha FJC (JP)
Notice:

Field of Classi?cation Search .......... .. 416/210 R,

See application ?le for complete search history.


(56)

References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
*

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this


patent is extended or adjusted under 35

2,224,851 A * 12/1940 Lea ...................... .. 416/200 A

USC' 154(1)) by 0 days

4,065,225 A
4,255,085 A *

(21)

Appl' NO:

10/576960

(22)

PCT Filed:

Oct. 21, 2004

(86)

PCT No.:

PCT/JP2004/015597

(2), (4) Date:

12/1977 Allison

416/200 A

3/1981 Evans

416/197A

4,264,279 A *

4/1981

Dereng ................. .. 416/197A

4,362,469 A *

12/1982

van Holten ............... .. 416/191

4,530,644 A *

7/1985 Van Holten ............... .. 416/175

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

371 (c)(1),

(87)

Apr. 22, 2008

416/210 A, 211, 200 R, 200 A, 201 R, 201 A,


416/175, 203, 191, 223 R, 228, 235, 236 R,
416/236 A, 237, 197 A, DIG. 2; 415/42,
415/44, 907

(75) Inventor: Masahiko Suzuki, Hamamatsu (JP)

(*)

US 7,360,995 B2

May 24, 2006

PCT Pub. No.: WO2005/038251

JP

53-113940

9/1978

JP

57-146066 A *

9/1982

JP

63-154865 A * 6/1988

JP

2000-234582 A

8/2000

JP

2002-235656 A *

8/2002

PCT Pub. Date: Apr. 28, 2005

(Continued)
(65)

Pnor Pubhcatlon Data


US 2007/0071604 A1

(30)

Primary Examiner4Christopher Verdier

Mar. 29, 2007

(74) Attorney, Agent, or FirmiOstrolenk, Faber, Gerb &


SoiTen, LLP

Foreign Application Priority Data


(57)

Oct. 22, 2003

(JP)

........................... .. 2003-362284

ABSTRACT

Dec. 10, 2003

(JP)

2003-412043

Dec_ 26 2003
Jan 26 2004

(JP)
(JP)

2003433854
2004016436

Jun 30 2004

(JP)

2004494381

installation sections, and in Which a plurality of vertically

Oct. 20, 2004

(JP)

........................... .. 2004-305014

long blades each of Which has a tilted Part at the upper and

A vertical axis Windmill in Which a support frame is pro


vided as a Wind poWer dam to form a plurality of shaft

loWer ends respectively are disposed in multi-levels to

(51) Int_ CL

improve Wind-receiving poWer thereby providing a Wind

F03D 3/06
(52)

us. Cl. ................ ..

(200601)
416/211; 416/175; 416/200 R;

416/201 A; 416/203; 416/210 R; 416/223 R;


416/228; 416/237; 416/DIG. 2

poWer generator With loW installation cost and increased


total POW?r generation P?r a main area

1 Claim, 11 Drawing Sheets

US007494315B2

(12) Unlted States Patent

(10) Patent N0.2

Hart
(54)

(45) Date of Patent:

HELICAL TAPER INDUCED VORTICAL


FLOW TURBINE

4,718,821 A
5,405,246 A
6,015,258 A

(76) Inventor: James R. Hart, 3612 Cheshire Ave.,


.

(21)
(22)

Nome:

6,465,899 B2

10/2002

R b It

6,923,615 B2 *

8/2005 clinic; .................... .. 415/41

6 935 841 B2

800% Rainbow

U-S-C- 154(1)) by 371 days-

6,984,899 B1 *
7,040,859 B2

1/2006 Rice ......................... .. 415/42


5/2006 Kane

7,344,353 B2

3/2008 Naskali et al.

2004/0061337 A1
2005/0106023 A1*

May 5, 2006

Prior Publication Data


US 2007/0258806 A1

4/2004 Becker
5/2005 Palley ...................... .. 416/176

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

NOV. 8, 2007

Mehta, R., et al. Design rules for small low speed Wind tunnels,.
Technical Notes, TheAeronautical Journal ofthe Royal Aeronautical

Int, Cl,

Society, 443-49 (Nov. 1979).

F03B 3/12

(200601)

Nam, K., et al. Stability of spiral Wave vortex ?laments with phase
_

twists,

52) 8' C" """" 'ii5771'?'ii's/iiziliikligiifi$13911


_

(58)

sublectto any dlsclalmer. the term Ofthls

(65)

(51)

Sorlov

8/2002 Jaakkola

patent is extended or adjusted under 35

Appl- No: 11/418,786


Filed:

13;

6,428,275 B1

Feb. 24, 2009

1/1988 Clancy
4/1995 Goldberg
1/2000 Taylor

i
,

Carlsbad CA (Us) 92010


(*)

US 7,494,315 B2

Fleld 0f Classl?catlon Search ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ 415/42:

415/4.4, 64, 71, 176, 907; 416/197 A


See application ?le for complete search history.

(56)

References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
274,541 A
1,027,501 A
1,100,332 A
1,519,447 A *

3/1883 Zwiebel
5/1912 Smith
6/1914 Pearson
12/1924

Fortier-Beaulieu ........ .. 415/186

1,697,574 A
1,766,765 A

1/1929 Savonius
6/1930 Savonius

3,941,504 A *
4,218,175 A *
4,236,866 A *

3/1976
8/1980

12/1980

Snarbach .............. .. 416/197A


Carpenter .............. .. 415/219.1
Zapata Martinez ......... .. 415/4.4

4,293,274
4,357,130
4,652,206
4,715,776

10/1981
11/1982
3/1987
12/1987

Gilman
Forrest
Yeoman
Benesh

A
A
A
A

Physical

ReviewiThe

American

Physical

Society,

89g
Umur, H., et al Laminar and turbulent forced convection in accel

erating and decelerating curved ?ows, Research Articles, Current

Science, 87(9):1237-43 (Nov. 2004).


_

(Continued)
Primary ExamineriIgor Kershteyn
(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm4Gordon & Rees, LLP

(57)

ABSTRACT

A turbine generator system, having: a rotatable base; and a


plurality of rotor vanes extending from the rotatable base,
Wherein each of the rotor vanes have helical tapered inner and
outer surfaces, and Wherein each of the rotor vanes is curved
to catch ?oW perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the
rotatable base and to direct the How into a vortical ?oW
between the inner surfaces of the rotor vanes.

10 Claims, 12 Drawing Sheets

US007633177B2

(12) Ulllted States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Platt
(54)

(75)

(45) Date of Patent:

REDUCED FRICTION WIND TURBINE

5,852,331 A
6,147,415 A

11/2000 Fukada

6,158,953 A *

12/2000

6,160,336 A

12/2000 Baker, Jr. et a1.

Inventor:

Michael D. Platt, Yates C1ty, IL (US)

(US)
.

Not1ce:

Subject to any d1scla1mer, the term of th1s

patent is extended or adjusted under 35

(21) APP1- NO-I 11/747,531


.

Flled:

May 11, 2007

(65)

Prior Publication Data

US 2007/0241567 A1

Oct. 18, 2007

t .................... .. 415/44

amon

2/2001 Elder

6,215,199 B1

4/2001 Lysenko e161.

6,224,338

5/2001

B1

Ch ' t 111'

Us a l

5/2001 Roskey

6,239,507 B1

5/2001 Douthit

6,242,818 B1

6/2001 Smedley

6,246,125 B1

6/2001 Axtell

6,254,034 B1

7/2001

6,270,308 B1*

8/2001

Groppel .................... .. 415/43

6,285,090 B1

9/2001 Brutsaert et al.

6320273 B1

Related US. Application Data

12/1998 Giorgini

6,191,496 B1

6239506 B1

U_S_C_ 154(1)) by 337 days_

(22)

Dec. 15, 2009

APPARATUS AND METHOD

(73) Assignee: Natural Forces, LLC, Edelstein, IL


(*)

US 7,633,177 B2

Pen er

0001 Name

6,361,275 B1

3/2002 Wobben

6,400,039 B1

6/2002 Wobben

(63) Continuation-in-part of application No. 11/105,945,


?led on Apr. 14, 2005, noW Pat. No. 7,235,893.

(51) Int Cl

(Continued)

F03D 3/04

(2006-01)

Primary ExamineriNicholas Ponomarenko

(52)

US. Cl. ............................ .. 290/54; 290/43; 290/55

('74) Allgrney Agent, or FirmiRobert C, Haldiman; Husch

(58)

Field of Classi?cation Search ................. .. 290/42,

Blackwell Sanders LLP

290/43, 44, 52, 53, 54, 55


See application ?le for complete search history.
(56)

(57)

ABSTRACT

References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

1,233,232 A
1,352,960 A

7/1917 Heyroth
9/1920 Heyroth

4,015,911 A

4/1977 Darvishian

4,031,405 A
4,350,900 A

6/1977 Asperger
9/1982 Baughman

4,551,631 A *

4,589,970
4,720,640
5,038,049
5,044,878

A
A
A
A

5,083,899 A *

11/1985

Trigilio ..................... .. 290/55

A ?uid ?oW energy capture device for poWer generation has a


rotor With a substantially vertical axis and a plurality of vanes.
A mount for the rotor alloWs the rotor to rotate in response to

?uid ?oW such as Wind contacting the plurality of vanes, and


the mount puts the rotor in rotationally driving communica
tion With a generator. The rotor has an open center Which
alloWs ?uid communication from spaces betWeen the vanes to

5/1986
1/1988
8/1991
9/1991

Ligtenberg et a1.

above the rotor. A plurality of guide surfaces de?ne channels

Anderson et a1.
Kato
Wilhelm

that bias ?uid ?oW to be tangential to the rotor.

1/1992

Koch ........................ .. 415/21

22 Claims, 12 Drawing Sheets

100

1,113

US007677862B2

(12) Ulllted States Patent


Boatner
(54)

(10) Patent N0.:


(45) Date of Patent:

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE WITH

4,087,202 A *

ARTICULATING ROTOR

4,184,084 A
4,299,537 A

(76) Inventor: Bruce E. Boatner, 1212 E. Riversong

2
,

Dr" Eagle ID (Us) 83616

( * ) Notice:

US 7,677,862 B2

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this


.

patent is extended or adjusted under 35

Appl. N0.: 11/635,308

(22)

Filed:

(65)

Us 2008/0095608 A1

1(5);

gryor S
rice,

gmsey
lkes

11/2001 Nemec
6/2002 Hogue et a1. .......... .. 416/132A
4/2003

6,688,842 B2

2/2004 Boatner

Polen ........................ .. 416/17

6/2004 Boatner
10/2006 Hartman .................... .. 416/17

* cited by examiner

APr- 24, 2008

Primary ExamineriEdWard Look

Assistant ExamineriRyan H Ellis

Related Us Apphcatlon Data

r.

11/1983 Brenneman

6,402,472 B1 *

7,118,341 B2 *

Prior Publication Data

1/ 1980 Crehore
11/1981 Evans

6,543,999 B1*

6,749,394 B2
Dec. 7, 2006

5/1978 Musgrove .................. .. 416/41

SA

6,320,273 B1

U-S-C- 154(1)) by 698 days-

(21)

4,415,312 A

Mar. 16, 2010

(74) Attorney, Agent, or FirmiLoyal McKinley Hanson

(63) Continuation-in-part of application No. 11/501,088,


(51)
(52)
(58)

?led on Aug. 7, 2006, noW abandoned.

(57)

Int. Cl.
F03D 7/06
(2006.01)
us. Cl. ....................... .. 415/42; 415/907; 416/144

AVAWT Wind engine includes a support structure, an articu


lating rotor mounted on the support structure for rotation
aboutavenically extending axis, andatleast one airfoil onrhe

Field of Classi?cation Search ................ .. 415/42,

rotor for rotor-Powering Purposes The articulating rotor is

415/44 907; 416/110 111, 117, 118, 132 R


416/132 B 148
See application ?le for Complete Search history

mounted in a manner enabling tilting movement of the rotor


during rotation so that the airfoil produces rotor rotation and
rotor tilt as the airfoil orbits the rotational axis. At least one
mechanical linkage is included to actively vary airfoil pitch
according to rotor tilt. The partially articulating rotor of a

(56)

References Clted
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
226,357 A
232,205 A
237,851 A *
1,800,470 A *

1,835,018 A
2,038,467 A

ABSTRACT

teetering-rotor embodiment seesaWs up and doWn about a

horiZontally extending pivotal axis. The fully articulating

4/1880 Saccone
9/1880 Preston

rotor of another embodiment supports three airfoils as it tilts


in any direction by virtue of a gimbal or other rotor hub

2/1881
4/1931

assembly providing a 360-degree sWiveling action, While


furling hinges help protect the airfoils against damaging

Foskett ...................... .. 416/80


Oehmichen ................ .. 416/40

12/1931 Darrieus
4/1936 Zanoski

2,465,285 A *

3/1949

2,481,750 A

9/1949 Hiller et a1.

Winds during Wind engine shutdoWn.

Schwickerath ............. .. 416/41

22 Claims, 19 Drawing Sheets

US007679206B1

(12) United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Green
(54)

(45) Date of Patent:

WIND POWER APPARATUS

(76)

Inventor:

0 Raymond Green, PO BOX 1045,


Jackson, CA (Us) 95642

( ) Nome"

subleclto any 3531mm? the germgftglg


'

(22) Filed:

'

'

( )

ays'

Related US. Application Data


e

(51)

981,077 A *

1/1911

Feldner ................. .. 415/2101

11/1978

Loeb .................... .. 244/153 R

4,218,175 A *

8/1980 Carpenter .............. .. 415/2191

4,276,033

6/1981

Krovina . . . . .

5,669,758

9/1997

Williamson

7,044,718 B1 *

6/2005 Mercier et a1. .

. . . . . . . . ..

440/8

416/4

290/44

5/2006 Platts ....................... .. 417/405

2002/0033019 A1 *

3/2002

Mizzi ........................ .. 60/398

2008/0303285 A1*

12/2008

Bondhus .................... .. 290/54

Feb. 7, 2007
* Cited by examiner

Continuation-in-part of application No. 11/233,112,

?ld

Mar. 16, 2010

4,124,182 A *

6,903,466 B1 *

1??? llssixgelt 6350f; Juste un er

(63)

US 7,679,206 B1

on

ep

.23 2005

Int. Cl.
F03D 9/00
H02P 9/04

now

Pt.N .7176584.
a

(2006.01)
(2006.01)

Przmary Exammerilulio C. Gonzalez

(74) Attorney, Agent, or FirmiTheodore J. Bielen, Jr.

(57)

ABSTRACT

(52)

U..S. Cl. ...... .... ...... ... ........................ .. 290/44; 290/55

A Wind power apparatus utilizing an anchor which is romp

(58)

Field of Classl?catlonsearch ................. 290/43,


290/44 54 55 415/7 2'1 4'2 4'5 606%

ably ?xed to a Surface A Chute attaches to the anchor and is


provided With a chamber. A restrictor is located in the cham

(56)

4_16/7 132 B

See apphcanon ?le for Complete Search hlstory'


References Cited

her to concentrate the WindWithin an annular area of the chute

and direct it to a poWer generator Via one or more nozzles. The


poWer generator is then used to produce electricity, move an

object, and the like.


US PATENT DOCUMENTS
833,184 A *

10/1906

Terzian ..................... .. 415/4.5

10 Claims, 4 Drawing Sheets

US007744338B2

(12) United States Patent

(10) Patent No.:

DeRuyter et al.
(54)

(45) Date of Patent:

FLUID TURBINE SYSTEMS

3,895,882 A
3,918,839 A

(75)

US 7,744,338 B2

Inventors: William DeRuyter, Norco, CA (US);

3 970 409 A

Michael AllaWos, Glendora, CA (US);

Peter L COye Claremom CA (Us)

Jun. 29, 2010

7/1975 Moyer
11/1975 Blackwell et al.

7/1976 Luchuk

3,995,170 A

11/1976 Grayb1ll

(73) Assignee: California Energy & Power, Glendora,


CA

(*)

Notice:

(U )

(Continued)

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this


patent is extended or adjusted under 35
USC. 154(b) by 73 days.

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

JP

2005-113896 A

4/2005

(21) Appl.No.: 12/268,274


(22) Filed:

NOV. 10, 2008

(65)

(Continued)

Prior Publication Data


Us 2010/0054910A1

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Mar- 4: 2010

PCT International Search Report, Application No. PCT/US2009/


053934; dated Mar. 29, 2010.

Related US. Application Data


. .

Primary ExamineriRichard Edgar

(60) 51023131801181 appl1cat1on No. 61/094,386, ?led on Sep.

'

(51)

Int. Cl.
F03D 7/06

(52)

US. Cl. ..................................................... ..

(2006.01)

(57)

415/3 1 41 4 2
See a lication ?le for Com lete Search ilis'to ' '
pp
p
1y

(56)

References Cited
US. PATENT DOCUMENTS
600,893 A

3/1898 Schmucker

698,409 A *

4/1902

767,080 A

8/1904 Phillips

A
A
A
A
A

2,335,817 A *

l/l929
6/1930
6/1931
6/1931
8/1939
11/1943

ABSTRACT

415/21

(58) Field of cfllzs/igcaltimbselagcil 1451/3?

1,697,574
1,766,765
1,808,874
1,810,113
2,169,149

(74) Attorney] Agent] or FirmiKnObbe Martens Olson &


Bear, LLP

Neuser ..................... .. 415/21

Savonius
Savonius
Wilson
SchlotZhauer
Johanson
Topalov .................... .. 415/42

Various ?uid turbine systems and methods are described. The


turbine can be a Vertical axis Wind turbine con?gured to
generate poWer from Wind energy. The turbine system can
have a blade assembly. The blade assembly can have a plu

rality of blades rotatable about an axis. The turbine system


can have a concentrator positionable upWind and in front of a
return side of the blade assembly. The concentrator can de?ne
a convex surface facing the Wind. The turbine system can also
have a Variable concentrator positionable upWind of a push
side of the blade assembly. The Variable concentrator can be

adjustable betWeen a ?rst position and a second position, the


Variable concentrator being capable of de?ecting more Wind
toWard the turbine in the ?rst position than in the second

position.
18 Claims, 14 Drawing Sheets

US007744345B1

(12) United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Pohribnak

(45) Date of Patent:

(54) WIND POWER GENERATOR


(76)

Inventor:

US 7,744,345 B1

(56)

Victor E. Pohribnak, PO. Box 400,

Jun. 29, 2010

References Cited
US' PATENT DOCUMENTS
5,038,049 A *

Bismarck, ND (US) 58502

8/1991

Kato ........................... .. 416/9

* cited by examiner

Notice:

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this


patent is extended or adjusted under 35

U.S.C. 154(b) by 644 days.

Primary ExamineriRichard Edgar

(57)

ABSTRACT

A vertical axis Wind turbine provides a rotor assembly Which


rotates on bearing assemblies af?xed to a rotor shaft sup

(21) Appl. No.: 11/818,855


(22)
(51)

Filed:

means to provide poWer by direct mechanical linkage or to


drive an electrical generator. The rotor assembly is partially
enclosed by a housing. Attached to the side of the housing is

Jun. 18, 2007

Int. C].

a Wind vane. Attached to the bottom side of the housing are

F03D 3/04

(52)
(58)

ported by a base, the rotor assembly having vertical blades


mounted betWeen top and bottom plates, and poWer takeoff

(2006.01)

US. Cl. .......................................... ..

416/9; 415/4.2

Field of Classi?cation Search ................... ..

416/9;

rollers. The Wind vane, in combination With the rollers, act to


rotate the housing to a position that Will permit the Wind to act

upon the exposed vertical blades.

415/4.2, 4.4, 48, 49


See application ?le for complete search history.

5 Claims, 3 Drawing Sheets

40

20

12
28

14
58

60

US007759812B2

(12) United States Patent


Taylor et al.
(54)

(10) Patent N0.:

US 7,759,812 B2

(45) Date of Patent:

INTEGRATED POWER PLANT THAT

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

UTILIZES RENEWABLE AND ALTERNATIVE

ENERGY SOURCES

Jul. 20, 2010

Ben Kroposkl and Carolyn Elam,- Renewable Electrolysls Integrated

System Development and Test1ng, Nat10nal Renewable Energy

(75) Inventors: Ronald J. Taylor, Cheyenne, WY (US);


Scott J. Taylor, Cheyenne, WY (US)

Laboratory May 25 2004'

(73) Assignee: Terra Moya Aqua, Inc., Cheyenne, WY


(Us)

(Continued)
Primary Examinerilulio Gonzalez
(74) Attorney, Agent, or FirmiWilliam W. Cochran;

(*)

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this


patent is extended or adjusted under 35

Cochran Freund & Young LLC

U.S.C. 154(1)) by 415 days.

(57)

Notice:

(21) Appl' NO: 11/747857


(22)

Filed:

A large pressure differential is created between the leading

May 11, 2007


.

(65)

face of the rotor blade and the trailing face of the rotor blade
.

during the power cycle which creates a large amount of force

Pnor Pubhcatlon Data

US 2007/0267874 A1

ABSTRACT

that rotates the rotor blade about the central shaft. In some

Nov 22, 2007

embodiments, gaps are provided between the inside edge of

the rotor blade and a stationary shaft which vents wind col

Related Us Apphcatlon Data

lected by the rotor blade during certainportions of the rotation

(63) continuation_in_pan of application NO 11/685,365,


?led on Man 13, 2007, HOW Pat NO_ 7,347,660, which

cycle. The vented wind increases the pressure on the trailing


face of the rotorblades durmg the return cycle to further ass1st

is a continuation of application No. 11/284 774- ?led


on
1:0
i1
ZQOSaIrItOWfPat'
I1\.IO'
t718iI0501
87811501115115
5
Con mua lon'm'p
O app lea Ion 0'

1n the ef?clgnfiy1sc01fose
thlds tlslystem'
addmon a1} lmegragid
at prov1 es a source 0 renewa e
energy
in the form of a cross-?ow wind turbine that includes
solar cells mounted on south facing surfaces of the stators.

power p ant 1s

?led on Apr 23 2004 HOW Pat NO 6966747'

The stators can be used to store liquids and fuels generated by

(60) Provisional application No. 60/467,773, ?led on Apr.


30 2003, provisional application No_ 60/639,448

the renewable energy Sources~ Elecmcal Power generate/(Thy


the renewable energy sources 'can be used 1n a desahnatlon

?led on Dec 23 200 4


'

(51)

process to generate pure drmkmg water that can be stored 1n


'

the stator devices. Electrical energy generated by the renew

IIlt- Cl-

able energy sources can be used in an electrolysis device to

F03D 9/00

(2006.01)

generate oxygen and hydrogen gases. The oxygen and hydro

H02P 9/04

(2006.01)

gen gases can be used to operate a fuel cell to generate

(52)

us. Cl. ......................................... .. 290/44; 290/55

electricity When neede<_1~ The hydrogen 04119150 be used to

(58)

Field of Classi?cation Search ................. .. 290/44,

Operate a hyimgen engine that ms an auxlhary generator to

290/55- 60/398 698 641 ' 12 659- 416/132


B'
_
415/191 4'4 126 907 2'1 4'1 4'5 1 210/153
_

(56)

210/170 2623 172'1 252

See apphcanon ?le for Complete Search hlstoryReferences Cited


US. PATENT DOCUMENTS
201,400 A

SUPPIY auxlhary electncil POW?rawlhen


need?1~ A bilqfuei
gas engme, or
1ese

englne, propane gas engme, na

engine can also be used to run the auxiliary generator.


Mechanical power from the wind turbine can be used to run

mechanical pumps to pump water to a reservoir at a higher


elevation, which can then be used to run a water turbine that
is connected to the auxiliary generator to generate electrical
power when needed.

3/1878 Everhart

25 Claims, 53 Drawing Sheets

(Continued)
AIRFOIL
STATOR/TANK

STATOR/TANK
3014

3010

STATOFVTAN K
3006

j
5

@3003
~

SOLARCELLS

\aooz
ROTOR
SOLAR CELLS
3009

3000
INTEGRATED
POWER PLANT

3004

HOUSING FOR

EQUIPMENT

US007766600B1

(12) Umted States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Vanderhye et a].
(54)

US 7,766,600 B1

(45) Date of Patent:

SAVONIUS ROTOR WITH SPILLOVER

2,677,344 A

(75) Inventors: Robert A. Vanderhye, 801 Ridge Dr.,


McLean, VA (US) 22101; Mike Augello,
Troy, NY (US); Terrance Nicol, Troy,
NY (US); Chris Rees, Troy, NY (US);
James Shedd, lntervale, NH (US);

Aug. 3, 2010

5/1954 Annis

(Continued)
FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

William ZbytnieWski Troy NY (Us)

CH

147730 A

9/1931

........... .. 416/197 A

(73) Assignee: Robert A. Vanderhye, McLean, VA

(US)
(*)

Notice:

(Continued)

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Patent 15 extended or adJusted under 35

Khan, Model and Prototype Performance Characteristics of

U~S~C- 15403) by 1230 days

Savonius Rotor Windmill; Wind Engineering, vol. 2, No. 2, 1978,


pp. 75-85.

(21) Appl. No.: 10/854,280

(Continued)
(22)

Filed:

May 27, 2004

Primary ExammeriNinh H Nguyen


(57)
ABSTRACT

Related US. Application Data

(63) Continuation-in-part of application No. 10/443,954,


?led on May 23, 2003.

(60) Provisional application No. 60/386,569, ?led on Jun.

A Savomus Vemcal axls -W1nd turbme rotor has ?rst and

(51)

tially vertical edges


more closely horizontally
spaced
from
.
.
.
.

7 2002

'

Int. Cl.

F03D 3/00

(200601)

second curved vanes having remote substantlally vert1cal


edges Widely spaced form each other, and proximate substan

eagh otherland horizolntally olverllaptping are 2158061211101? W11I111Ia


su stant1a y vertica

centra

s a

constructlon.

e s a t

(52)

US Cl """""""""""" " us/4Z1

(58)

Field of Classi?cation Search ........... .. 416/132 A,

Construction may comprise a perforated Shaft (eg a Single

416/132 B 142 194 195 196 A 197 A


416/93 R 198 R 198 A 200 R _200 A 210 R
416010 A 211 240 DIG 6 415/42 4'4

perforated shaft), or multiple shafts. In any event, the shaft


construction, and mounting of the rotor vanes, alloW, during
use, spillover ofWind from the proximate edge of one vane to

(56)

construction is operatively connected to the vanes and mounts

'

415/907

the vanes and adjacent the proximate edges. The central shaft

another vane during poWered rotation of the vanes in response

See apphcanon ?le for Complete Search hlstory'


References Cited

to Wind. The rotor is preferably omni-directional. The rotor


may have a third set of vanes, and different vertically spaced

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

other. The rotor may be in combination With a mount to

sets of vanes circumferentially offset With respect to each


683,935 A *

10/1901

Hensel ..................... .. 415/4.4

1,602,853 A *

10/1926

Maher .................. .. 416/197A

1,697,574 A
1,766,765 A

1/1929 Savonius
6/1930 Savonius

provide a Wind turbine, and may be in combination With a


driven device such as a generator, propeller, or pump.

19 Claims, 4 Drawing Sheets

[38
Generator,
pump, etc.

US007811060B2

(12) United States Patent

(10) Patent No.:

Vanderhye
(54)

US 7,811,060 B2

(45) Date of Patent:

VAWT CLUSTER AND INDIVIDUAL

4,830,570 A *

Oct. 12, 2010

5/1989 Benesh ..................... .. 415/4.4

SUPPORTING ARRANGEMENTS

(76)

Inventor:

Robert A. Vanderhye, 801 Ridge Dr.,

McLean, VA (US) 22101-1625


(*)

Notice:

(Commued)
FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this


patent is extended or adjusted under 35

SE

521083

9/2003

U.S.C. 154(b) by 839 days.

(21) App1.N0.: 11/701,480


(22)

Filed:

OTHER PUBLICATIONS
_

Feb. 2, 2007

(65)

Johnson, Gary L.; Wind Energy Systems; Chapter 1, Sec. 5, Innova

Prior Publication Data

Us 2007/0212225 A1

Sep. 13, 2007

Related US. Application Data

(60) Provisional application No. 60/781,342, ?led on Mar.

tive Wind Turbines; Nov. 20, 2001; pp. 1-16 thru l-l8.

Primary ExamineriEdward Look


Assistant ExamineriRyan H Ellis
57
ABSTRACT

( )

13, 2006, provisional application No. 60/796,542,


?led on May 2 2006'

(51)

9/26

One or more vertical axis Wind turbines (VAWT), preferably


of the Savonius type, are mounted in a relatively simple and
inexpensive manner. For a single VAWT a center pole may be

(2006 01)
'

disposed Within a holloW shaft of the VAWT With at least

(52)

US. Cl. ...... .... ......

416/120; 415/907; 416/D1G. 6

upper and lower bearings acting between the Sha? and Center

(58)

Field of Classi?cation Search ................. .. 52/146;

pO1e_ Alternatively a Short tower or platfonn may mount a

_60/_398; 4l5/2-li4-5s 905*908; _416/DIG- 6


(56)

See aPPhCallOn ?le for Complete Search hlstoryReferences Cited


US. PATENT DOCUMENTS
1,008,148 A *

11/1911

Hibbs ........................ .. 415/18

1,471,870 A

10/1923 Tust

2,252,523 A

8/1941

Plotkin ..................... .. 415/4.4


Kurakake

4,095,422 A *

6/1978

4,156,580 A

5/1979 Pohl

4,165,468 A *

8/1979

Fry et a1. .................... .. 290/55

4,184,084 A *

1/1980

Crehore ..................... .. 290/55

4,359,311 A
4,496,847 A
4,500,259 A
4,764,683 A *

.................. .. 60/398

11/1982 Benesh
1/1985 Parkins
2/1985 Schumacher
8/1988

Coombes ................... .. 290/55

loWer bearing (e. g. about 4-14 feet off the ground) for the
VAWT shaft, and an upper bearing for the shaft may be
mounted by an outrigger. The outrigger is connected at a
number of different points (e. g. different arms) by strands
(such as steel cables) to stationary supports. Where multiple
VAWTs are provided, them may be in a cluster. Each VAWT
in the cluster has a structural support in common With at least

one otherVAWT of the cluster, and each VAWT is operatively


connected to a separate useful driven mechanism (such as an

electricity or fuel gas generator). EachVAWT typically has an


outrigger mounting an upper bearing, With strands, rods, or

bars, connecting outriggers of adj acent VAWTs together. Dif


ferent VAWTs in the cluster preferably rotate in different
directions.

20 Claims, 6 Drawing Sheets

US007816802B2

(12) Ulllted States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Green
(54)

(76)

(*)

(45) Date of Patent:

ELECTRICITY GENERATINGASSEMBLY

Inventor:

Notice:

2,240,290 A *

4/1941

Du Brie ..................... .. 415/4.2

5/1972

ThOeIl ...................... .. 74/102

WilliamMGreen, PO BOX 278,

3,793,530 A

2/1974 Carter ....................... .. 290/55

ROberSOnV111e,NC (U$)27871

4,012,163 A

3/1977 Baumgartner et a1.

4,088,419 A *

5/1978 H

4 115 027 A *
4,134,710 A *

9/1978 T5521;
41563 1
1/1979 Atherton ................... .. 416/117

4,156,580 A *

5/1979

P6111 ......................... .. 415/42

8/1984

Schwarz

Subject to any disclaimer, the term ofthis


llatselg llssixgeltdegoo7rdadlusted under 35
'

'

ays'

Filed;

4,464,579 A

()ct_4,2007

(65)

'

Related U_s_Application Data

4,551,631 A

11/1985

415/164

Trigilio ..................... .. 290/55

4,606,697 A *

8/1986 Appel ...................... .. 415/4.4

4,725,194 A

2/1988 Bartsch .................... .. 415/42

4,834,610 A *

5/1989

4,864,152 A *

9/1989 Pedersen

5,038,049 A

8/1991

5 126 584 A

@1992 0331a

Provisional application No. 60/849,842, ?led on Oct.

415/44

. . 290/44

12/1984 McVey .... ..

Jul 17 2008

415/2083

111.

4,486,143 A *

Prior Publication Data


Us 2008/0169652A1

(60)

Oct. 19, 2010

3,662,610 A *

'

(22)

US 7,816,802 B2

6, 2006, provisional application No. 60/915,591, ?led

Bond, 111 ................. .. 415/533

Kt

. 290/53

......................... .. 290/55

290/55
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ "

on May 2, 2007.

(51) Int. Cl.

(Continued)

F03D 9/00

52

(2006.01)

H02P
9/04
(2006.01)
us. Cl. .......................... .. 290/55- 290/44- 415/4.2-

( )
(58)

31 0/1 5 4 01

Field ofClassi?cation Search ................. .. 290/44,

290/55' 415/4.2' 310/154.01

See application ?le for complete search history.


(56)

References Cited

9/1869

Piher ......................... .. 415/45

5/1870 Heald

415/33

169,051 A

10/1875 Short

. 4l5/4.2

177,597 A
222,256 A *
232,558 A *

5/1876
12/1879
9/1880

Ward ..... ..
4l5/4.2
DeWees .................... .. 415/155
Smith ....................... .. 4l5/4.2

250,806

12/1881

Hamel

273,642 A *
485,933

.....

. . . ..

3/1883 Toombs

4l5/4.2

4l5/4.2

ll/l892

1,382,591 A *

6/1921

Ackermann ..

4l5/4.2

1,396,172 A *

ll/l92l

Fear .......... ..

429/64

1,966,352 A

Herman

(74) Attorney, Agent, or FirmiRoylance, Abrams, Berdo &


GOOdmaHL'L'P'
57

ABSTRACT

( )

rotatable fan blades. A generator is connected to the plurality

103,742 A

Zrl/WW
ifam"?er*TPCdFatJe1Cuevas
mam mmmerf e O

A electricity generating assembly includes a plurality of

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS


94,641 A *

... .. ..

. . . ..

416/119

of fan blades to convert rotation of the fan blades into elec

tricity. A plurality of shutters surround the plurality of fan


blades. The plurality of shutters are movable between a ?rst
position in Which said plurality of shutters are open to alloW
access to the plurality of fan blades and a second position in
Which the plurality of shutters are closed to prevent access to

the plurality of fan blades. A motor is connected to the plu


rality of shutters to move the plurality of shutters between the

?rst and second positions.


59 Claims, 26 Drawing Sheets

7/1934 Mahony .................... .. 416/75

30
4

2s
7

s\

I
|\

41

( 52

2a

61
e1

5
8
55

_/-25

16
1.1

13

as
15
7:1

65

"\,a0

53

US007866938B2

(12) United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Kariya
(54)

(75)

US 7,866,938 B2

(45) Date of Patent:

Jan. 11, 2011

VERTICAL AXIS WINDMILL WITH

4,047,834 A

9/1977 Magoveny et a1.

GUIDING DEVICES

4,269,563 A

5/1981 Sharak et a1.

Inventor:

Vinod Kumar Chamanlal Kariya,

Gujarat (IN)
(Continued)

(73) Assignee: Anandbhai Chunilal Vora, Gujarat (IN)


(*)

Notice:

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this


patent is extended or adjusted under 35

/
FR

2432102 A1

2 1980

U.S.C. l54(b) by 672 days.


21

( )

pp

1. No.:

11/813 966

(Continued)
OTHER PUBLICATIONS

(22)

PCT Frled:

Feb. 27, 2006

(86)

PCT NO

PCT/IN2006/000064

International Search Report for PCT/IN2006/000064.

371 (OX1),
(2) (4) Date:

Jul 13 2007

Primary ExamineriNinh H Nguyen


(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm4Caesar, Rivise, Bernstein,

(87)

PCT Pub. N0.: W02007/010551

Cohen & Pokonlow Ltd

PCT Pub. Date: Jan. 25, 2007

(57)

(65)

Prior Publication Data

ABSTRACT
_

The mstant mvent1on deals W1th the solut1on to technical

Us Zoos/0131281 A1
_

(30)

(IN)

?aWs of existing vertical axis Windmills in Which the Wind

strikes simultaneously on inward and outward facing sides of

rotor blades Which reduce e?iciency. Hence, this invention,

................................. .. 326/2005

Int Cl

F033 3/04

(58)

Forelgn Apphcatlon Prmnty Data

Mar. 22, 2005


(51)

Jun 5 2008
_

i.e., the vertical axis Windmill With Wind guiding device,


includes vertical plates Which are ?xed from the bottom of a
base structure to the top of a rotor in an annular array. In

(200601)

betWeen any tWo vertical plates, inclined plates are ?xed from

U-S. Cl. ...................... ..


_
_
_ 416/197 A; 416/243; 416/244 R
Field of Classi?cation Search ................ .. 4l5/4.4,

the bottom Of the base Structure to the top Of the base Struc_
ture. These plates are tilted toWards the concave side of the
rotor blades_ The Vertical and inclined plates are ?xed in

415/183 224 907; 416/197 A 243 244 R;

angular and radial directions so that Whenever the Wind bloWs

_ 290/44 55

from any direction, it gets compressed and then is diverted

See apphcanon ?le for Complete Search hlstory'

toWards the Wind receiving blades. Also the vertical plates

References Cited

protect the convex side of the rotor blades from Wind While

(56)

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

1,595,578 A

diverting the Wind toWards the Wind receiving blades.

8/1926 Sovereign

3 Claims, 10 Drawing Sheets

)5

W 1i 17/

.7_8

n- 6
-- 3

Pers e tive Vie

f Windmill

with Wind Guidinq Device

US007946802B1

(12) Ulllted States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Iskrenovic
(54)

US 7,946,802 B1

(45) Date of Patent:

WIND TURBINE UTILIZING WIND

(56)

May 24, 2011

References Cited

DIRECTING SLATS
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

(75)

Inventor:

Zoran Iskrenovic, Nis (RS)

772,786 A

10/1904 Clifford

4,015,911 A *

(73) Assignee: Seven International Group, Inc., Los


a

(*)

Notice:

4/1977

Darvishian ................. .. 416/119

gilt h

SC

Angeles CA (Us)

4,935,639 A

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this

6,962,478 B2
7,591,635 B2

6/1990 Yeh

patent is extended or adjusted under 35

2009/0066088 A1

11/2005 Tsipov
9/2009 Ryu et a1.
3/2009 LiaI_1g
_

USC' 1546)) by 0 days'

2009/0315332 A1

12/2009 ShelkhreZal

(21)

Appl. No.: 12/910,580

(22)

Filed:

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS


56113068 A * 9/198l

JP
*

Oct. 22, 2010

ted by exammer
_

Primary Examiner * Richard Edgar

Related U's' Apphcatlon Data

(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm * Fish & Associates, PC

(60) Ilgoigilznal application No. 61/323,500, ?led on Apr.

(57)

ABSTRACT

Various embodiments of a Wind turbine are disclosed having

(51)

Int_ C]_
F03D 3/04

a plurality of pivotable slats disposed about a rotor coupled to


(200601)

one or more blades. Each of the plurality of slats can be


_

(52)
(58)

pivoted such that the open slats on a Windward side redirect

US. Cl. ...... .... ...... ... ....... .. 415/4.2, 415/909, 416/119
Field of Classl?catlon Search ................ .. 415/909,

415/2.1, 3.1, 4.1, 4.3, 4.5, 905, 906, 907;

the Wind to Cause rotation Ofthe rotor and the Closed slats on
a leeward Side retain at least a Substantial portion of the Wind

Within the interior.

416/DIG.9,142,143,119,17,55,132 B

See application ?le for complete search history.

11 Claims, 7 Drawing Sheets

LEEWARD

962

902A

WINDWARD

US007948110B2

(12) United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Morgan et al.
(54)

(45) Date of Patent:

WIND-DRIVEN ELECTRICITY

5,261,801 A *

GENERATION DEVICE WITH SAVONIUS

5,405,246 A

ROTOR

5,463,257

(76)

Inventorsi Ken Morgan, San Dlegof CA (US);

11/1993

May 24, 2011


Stone ............................ .. 418/69

4/1995 Goldberg
*

10/1995

Yea

. ... ... ..

416/227 A
. . . . . . . ..

290/55

5,494,407 A

2/1996 Benesh

5,760,515 A *

6/1998

6,172,429 B1 *

1/2001 Russell ......................... .. 290/54

Micheal Slattery, San Diego, CA (US)


( * ) Notice:

US 7,948,110 B2

Burns

416/197 A
310/115

(Continued)

Subject' to any disclaimer,~ the term of this

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

patent is extended or adjusted under 35

U.S.C. 154(1)) by 820 days.

EP

0993551

"2000

(Continued)
(21) App1.N0.: 11/705,844
(22)

Flled:

(65)

Wind Tunnel Tests on a Different Phase Three-Stage Savonius Rotor

Prior Publication Data

Us 2008/0191487 A1
(51)

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Feb 13 2007

Hayashi, et.al., JSME Intl. 1., Series B: 48 (1), 9-16 (2005).

Aug. 14, 2008

(Continued)

Int Cl

Primary Examiner * T. C. Patel


ASSl'SZLlIlZ Examiner i Pedro J Cuevas

H02P 9/04

74

(2006.01)

Allorn9, A genl, or Firm T Thibault Patent Grou P ;

(52)

us. Cl. .......................................... .. 290/55; 290/44

Thomas Thlbauh

(58)

Field of Classl?catlon Search .................. .. 2299(14/5454,

(57)

See application ?1e for comp1ete Search history

A vertical Wind-driven electricity generation device is

ABSTRACT

described, Which utilizes a unique segmented Savonius rotor

(56)

References Cited

and Which is easily handled, transported, assembled and

US. PATENT DOCUMENTS

maintained, even by a single person. The blades of the rotor


are segmented into a plurality of modest size blade pair seg
ments, each of Which comprises tWo (or optionally, three or

1,100,332 A *
1,697,574 A *

6/1914
1/1929

1,835,018 A *
2,020,900 A *

12/1931
11/1935

Smith ......................... .. 416/175


.
..

Savonius

four) loW height, helically curved blade portions. The blade

Darrieus ..
Methvin

pair segments are preferably of the same height and diameter.


..

3,208,722 A *

9/1965 Rodriquez et al.

3,672,017 A *

6/1972 Nielsen et al. ............. .. 407/49

3,918,839 A *
3,967,507

11/1975 Blackwell et a1.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

415/1221
.. 416/175

7/1976

Emms

4,039,849 A *

8/1977

Mater et al. ........ ..

290/55

4,236,866 A *

12/1980 Zapata Martinez ..

415/4.4

4,293,274 A *

10/1981

Gilman .............. ..

. . . . . . ..

74/6

416/51

4,606,697 A

8/1986 Appel

415/4.4

D300,932 S *

5/1989 Sikes

D15/1

4,915,580 A

4/1990 Obidniak ..

415/21

The rotor is mounted on a central vertical shaft connected to

a generator. When the plurality of blade portions are installed


on the devices central shaft, the overall blade con?guration
functions as an unitary Savonius rotor. FloW of gas (normally
air in the form of Wind) causes the segmented Savonius rotor
to move, turning the shaft and rotating member of the gen

erator to rotate, causing the generator to generate electricity.

16 Claims, 6 Drawing Sheets

USOO7948111B2

(12) Unlted States Patent

(10) Patent No.:

Nigam et a1.
(54)

(45) Date of Patent:

VERTICALAXIS WIND SYSTEM


.

--

Ann

(75) Inventors 3111111: K 211%; El sArbTirlgin?ld


_

me

' aye

00m 6

Assignee: Analytical Design Service

Corporation AnnArbor MI (US)

(*)

Notlce:

2,959,384 A *

11/1960 Pavlecka ..................... .. 244/124

3,002,567 A *

10/1961

Stulen etal. ..... ..

3,918,839 A

11/1975

Blackwell etal. .

416/226
416/175

4,037,989 A

7/1977

4,082,479 A *

4/1978 Rangi et a1. .

4,112,311

9/1978

Huther ...... ..

Theyse

4/1979 Belko et 81~ ~

4,281,965 A

8/1981 Stjernholm

4,285,636 A

8/1981

Kato etal.

9/1981

Kirschbaum

416/197A

416/23

.. ... ...

4,150,920 A *
4,291,233

416/145
. . . ..

290/44

416/145

416/227A
416/197A
..

..... ..

290/1c

Subject to any d1scla1mer, the term ofth1s

4,324,528 A

4/1982 Svenning """ n

patent 1s extended or adjusted under 35

4,329,116 A *

5/1982 Ljungstrom .................. .. 416/19

U.S.C. 154(b) by 9 days.

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS


DE

Nov. 26, 2008


(Under 37 CFR 1.47)

(65)

40 O7 017 A1

5/1992

(Continued)

Prior Publication Data


US 2010/0007144 A1

416/132 B

(Continued)

(21) App1.No.: 12/324,235


(22) Filed:

May 24, 2011

3,999,888 A * 12/1976 Zincone ....... ..

H1115,M1(U$)

(73)

US 7,948,111 B2

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Jan. 14, 2010

International Search Report and Written OpinioniPCT/US07/


69956imailed on Jul. 28, 2008.

(51)

(52)

Int. Cl.
F03D 9/00
H02P 9/04
B64C 27/48
F03B 3/12

(2006.01)
(2006.01)
(2006.01)
(2006.01)

F03D 11/00
F04D 29/34

(2006.01)
(2006.01)

Primary Examiner * Pedro J Cuevas

(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm *Brinks Hofer Gilson &


Lione

(57)

US. Cl. ..... .. 290/55; 248/125.7; 248/131; 248/690;

248/692; 416/204 R
(58)

Field of Classi?cation Search ............. .. 248/125.7,

248/131, 690, 692; 419/204 R; 290/55;


416/204 R

See application ?le for complete search history.


(56)

References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
1,427,736 A *
2,177,801 A
2,473,134 A *

8/1922
10/1939
6/1949

Hendricks .................. .. 24/698.1


Erren ..... ..
290/55
Bonnett ...................... .. 416/226

ABSTRACT

A vertical axis wind system for use in electrical power gen


eration. The system includes a stationary base including a

generator and has an elongate shaft rotatably coupled the


base. The elongate shaft extends vertically from a lower end
to an upper end along a vertical central axis and engages the
generator. At least two arcuate blade assemblies are attached

between the lower end and the upper end of the elongate shaft
such that aerodynamic forces acting on the at least two arcu
ate blade assemblies rotate the elongate shaft for the genera
tion of power.

27 Claims, 12 Drawing Sheets

US008007235B1

(12) Ulllted States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Lyatkher
(54)

(45) Date of Patent:

ORTHOGONAL POWER UNIT


.

'

(U )

2009/0016887 A1*

1/2009 Vettese et a1. ........... .. 416/198 R

2009/0140528

A1*

6/2009

Ireland

. . . . . . . .

2009/0180878

A1*

7/2009

Alunni

...... ..

Neier
Manley
et et
ala1.N.

8/2010

Bailey et a1.

Subject to any disclaimer, the term ofth1s

2010/0225118 A1*

9/2010 Micu

patent is extended or adjusted under 35


U_S_C_ 154(1)) by 0 days_

2010/0230972 Al*
2010/0233919 A1*

9/2010 Haar
9/2010 Ersoy .... ..

(21) APP1-NO-I 12/769597


22

F1 d:
16

10/2010

290/55

.. 290/55
440/8

Linet a1. ....................... .. 290/55

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS


W0

A .28 2010
Pl
2

WO 2009010736 A2 *

1/2009

* cited by examiner

(2006 01)

Primary Examiner * EdWard Look

(52)

U 5 Cl

416/1: 416/198 R_ 416000 R_

Assistant Examiner * Aaron R Eastman

(58)

Field of Classi?cation Search .................. .. 415/66,

415/68; 415/908
.

415/684; lgg/ggg Iii l2g9soi22a23 2431 5A5


lication ?le for Com lete Search histo
pp
p
ry'

(56)

416/200

290/55

(51) 21031513712

See a

290/55

416/132 B

4/2010

2010/0253084 A1*

. . . . . . . ..

2010/0104441 A1*
>i<

Not1ce:

Aug. 30, 2011

2010/0213720 A1*

(*)

US 8,007,235 B1

(57)

ABSTRACT

Orthogonal poWer unit contains a turbine With a shaft and

blades of hydrofoil pro?le ?xed around and along the shaft


and the poWer generator. The turbine has six layers, and each
layer has one blade ?xed at the shaft. The blades of turbine

References Cited

layers are located uniformly in the peripheral direction


around the turbine shaft forming three pairs of the adjacent

U_S_ PATENT DOCUMENTS

blades. In each pair the blades are located at the opposite sides

2,224,851 A * 0/1940 Lea ttttttttttttttttttttt 416170 R


366/298
3,638,920 A *
2/1972 Davis ..... ..

relative to the shaft, the blades in the utmost pairs have the
same length L and the blades in the middle pair have the

,, 399/254
290/55

bigger length LOIL 20'25 each. The traverse masses of the


middle and utmost blade pairs have the same ratio. The same

5,835,827 A *

11/1998 Kishimoto

6,492,743 B1*

12/2002 Appa ............. ..

7,358,623 B2*

4/2008 Richards et a1. .

7,360,995

4/2008

B2 *

Suzuki

........... ..

290/55
..

balancing effect achieved by having the uniform length of all

416/211

2007/0297284 A1,. 120007 Neier et a1

366/299

blades'W1th the relatlve sh1ft ofbalanced pairs ofblades at 60

2007/0297906 A1 *

12/2007 Wu

416/198 R

and W1th the umform traverses masses.

2008/0203731 A1*

8/2008 Dulcetti Filho ..

290/44

2008/0303288 A1* 12/2008 Hamann ....................... .. 290/55

12 Claims, 2 Drawing Sheets

21b
21c
Y

Y
27

23

US008100650B2

(12) Ulllted States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Siege]
(54)

(45) Date of Patent:

CYCLICAL WAVE ENERGY CONVERTER

4,048,947 A
4,137,005 A

(75) Inventor.

-.

4,180,367 A

Segfan Gunther Siege], Pueblo, CO

4,210,299 A

4,221,538 A

(73) Ass1gnee: Atargis Energy Corporation, Colorado


Springs, CO (US)

(*)

US 8,100,650 B2

Notice:

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this


patent is extended or adjusted under 35

Jan. 24, 2012

9/1977 Sicard
1/1979 Comstock
12/1979

Drees

7/1980 Chabonat

9/1980 Wells

4,247,253 A

1/1981

4,264,279 A

4/ 1981 Dereng

Seki et a1.

4,285,636 A

8/1981 Kato et al.

4,313,711 A
4329l 16 A

2/1982 Lee
5/1982 Ljungstrom
(Continued)

U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days.


FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

(21)

APP1- NO-I 12/711,106

(22)

Filed:

WO

Feb. 23, 2010


_

(65)

WO0040859

7/2000

OTHER PUBLICATIONS
_

Hermans, A]. et al., A Device to Extract Energy FromWater Waves

Pnor Pubhcatlon Data


US 2010/0150716 A1
Jun. 17,2010

Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands (1990) pp.


1-5.

Related US. Application Data

(Continued)

(63)

Continuation of application No. 11/484,241, ?led on


Jul. 10, 2006, noW Pat. No. 7,686,583.

Primary Examiner i Edward Look


Asa-SumZ Examiner i Dwayne J White

(51)

Int Cl

(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm * David T. Millers

B64C 11/00
(52)
(58)

(2006.01)

US. Cl. .......... .. 416/53; 416/111; 415/3.1; 415/906


Field of Classi?cation Search ................. .. 415/31,

(57)
ABSTRACT
Systems and methods use Cyclical Propellers With dynamic

415/4_1, 4Q, 43, 44, 7, 906, 907, 908; 416/111,


416/53
See application ?le for complete Search history,

blade angle control to extract poWer from Waves. A control


system for such implementations can adapt pitching sched
ules for the blades of the cyclical propellers for ef?cient

(56)

energy extraction and/or to control reactive forces. The cycli


cal propellers may be installed on the ?oor of a body of Water

References Cited

or other liquid, on a submarine, or on a surface ?oat, and

US. PATENT DOCUMENTS


1,835,013 A
12/1931 Darrieus
3,258,074 A
6/ 1966 Blickle et a1.
3,326,296 A
6/1967 H111 et a1~

blades may extend vertically or horizontally depending on the


character of the Waves. Several cyclical propellers can be
combined into a single unit operated to minimize net reactive
force or torque, to propel the unit horizontally or vertically,

33:1; et a1

339023072 A

55/1975 Quinn

3,995,972 A

12/1976 Nassar

4,024,409 A

5/1977 Payne

and/or to stabilize the unit. Such units can be installed With


m1n1mal or no moorings.

22 Claims, 6 Drawing Sheets

200 \i

235

f 212
m _

BLADE m

CONTROL SYSTEM
m

_
---- --+ m _

l
SENSORS
&

245

220
|
N

215

GENERATOR

__

__

m I

u_

| |

BLADEm

US008167533B2

(12) Ulllted States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Lucy et a].
(54)

(45) Date of Patent:

WIND ENERGY SYSTEM


.

(75)

(21)

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this


patent is extended or adjusted under 35
U.S.C. 154(b) by 110 days.

App1_ NO; 12/77L898

(22) Filedr

May 5,2011

Related US. Application Data

(60)

10/1995

6,755,608 B2

6/2004 Boughton
9/2005

7,744,338 B2:

6/2010 DeRuYter et al' "

HS/2'1

2008/0085179 A1

4/2008 Klnkald et a1.

415/4.1

2010/0213720 A1*

8/2010

2010/0187828 A1*

JP

Ohlmann ...................... .. 416/11

7/2010 Reldyet a1.


Baile

290/55

et a1. .................. .. 290/55

y
FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS
2001-289148 A
10/2001

JP

2003-193955 A

7/2003

JP

2005-299621 A

10/2005

JP

2009-085090 A

4/2009

Robert L. Smith, The Wind Accelerator Dome, http://Windac


celeratordome.com/Windfacceleratoridomeiairevoluti.htrn
[retrieved on Aug 23, 2011]

* cited by examiner

Provisional application No. 61/256,174, ?led on Oct.

Primary Examiner i JustineYu


.
.
.
Asststant Exammer * Jason Davls

F
Int03D
Cl7/06
F033 3/12

.......... .. 290/44

Blumberg et a1.

29, 2009, prov1s1onal appl1cat1on No. 61/256,474,


?led on Oct 30 2009'

(52)
(58)

Richardson et a1.

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Prior Publication Data

US 2011/0103942 A1

1/1992

6,942,454 B2*

Apr- 30, 2010

(65)

5,850,108 A * 1 2/ 1998 Bernard ........................ .. 290/54

Assignee: The Green Electric Company,


Notice:

4/1986 Ossberger et a1.

5,457,346 A

NeW York, NY (US)

(*)

5/1979 Pohl ............................. .. 415/4.2

4,579,506 A

5,161,952 A * 11/1992 Eggers, Jr. .............. .. 416/223 R

BOZeman MO (Us)

May 1, 2012

4,156,580 A *
5,083,039 A

Inventors gligillilgcgoso?ichael
Green, Victona (CA); Nick Blltterswyk,

(73)

US 8,167,533 B2

(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm *Eric L. Lane; McKenna

(2006.01)
(2006.01)

Long &
(57)

ABSTRACT

US. Cl. ................................... .. 415/4.2; 416/ 197 R


Field of Classi?cation Search ................. .. 415/4.2,

Wind energy systems comprise 21 Wind accelerator having a


Suppert assembly and an Outer Structure Surrounding the Sup

415/4_4, 60; 416/197 R 198 R DIG 9; 290/55


See application ?le for Complete Search history

port assembly. The Wind accelerator has a front region and a


rear region. The rear region is substantially Wider than the

(56)

References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
1,697,574 A *
1,835,018 A *

1/1929
12/1931

Savonius .................... .. 416/110


Darrieus ..
.. 415/224

2,335,817 A *

11/1943

Topalov ....................... .. 415/4.4

front region, and the outer structure tapers from the rear
region to the front region. One or more turbines are mounted
on the support assembly at or near the rear region of the Wind
accelerator or at or near the Widest point of the Wind accel
erator.

20 Claims, 19 Drawing Sheets

US008210817B2

(12) Unlted States Patent

(10) Patent No.:

Iskrenovic
(54)

(45) Date of Patent:

WIND TURBINE UTILIZING WIND

(58)

416/231 A, 231 B, 197 R, 197 A, 197 B;

415/4.2, 4.4, 907


See application ?le for complete search history.

Zoran Iskrenovic, Nis (RS)

(73) Assignee: Seven International Group, Inc., Los


Angeles CA (Us)
(*)

Notice:

(56)

References Cited
US. PATENT DOCUMENTS
2 *

gengsth~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ 416/197 A

patent 15 extended or adJusted under 35

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this

4,209,281 A 4

6/1980 Edmunds ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, H 416/197 A

U-S-C- 154(1)) by 0 days-

4,684,817 A

'

'

arvls

App1_ No; 13,662,455


_

(22)

Jan-31,2012

(65)

9/2009 Ryu et a1.

7,696,635 B2

4/2010 Boone
11/2007

Hsu et a1. ................ .. 416/186 R

2008/0023964 A1

1/2008 Sureshan

2009/0066088 A1

3/2009 Liang

Pm" Pubhcatm Data


US

11/2005 Tsipov

7,591,635 B2
2007/0269312 A1*

Flledi

lan

8/1987 Goldwater

6,962,478 B2

(21)

Jul. 3, 2012

Field of Classi?cation Search ............ .. 416/231 R,

DIRECTING SLATS

(75) Inventor:

US 8,210,817 B2

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

May 17,

WO
2010/048152
* cited by examiner

Related US. Application Data

(63) Continuation-in-part of application No. 13/114,272,


?led on May 24, 2011, Which is a continuation-in-part

4/2010

Prlmary ExammeriRlchard Edger

(74) Attorney Agent or Flrm i Flsh & Assoclates PC

of application No. 12/910,580, ?led on Oct. 22, 2010,

(57)

HOW Pat NO 7946802'

Various embodiments of a Wind turbine are disclosed having

(60)

Provisional application No. 61/323,500, ?led on Apr.


137 2010

(51)

Int CL
F03D 3/06

21 support structure With a rotor disposed about the support


structure and having ?rst and second scoops. Each of the
scoops can have medial and lateral openings, and the medial
opening can include a plurality of apertures that remain open
during a complete rotation of the rotor.

(52)

US. Cl. .............................. .. 416/197 A; 416/231 R

(200601)

1201

ABSTRACT

14 Claims, 12 Drawing Sheets

i210
1214

1208

US008215897B2

(12) United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:


(45) Date of Patent:

Douglass et al.
(54)

(56)

CYLINDRICAL WIND TURBINE

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS


9/1977 Magoveny et al.

4,047,834 A

Francis J. McCabe, Dublin, PA (US);


Robert Dickie, Dublin, PA (US)

4,115,027 A *
4,191,507 A *

4,952,119 A
5,038,049 A
5,463,257 A

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this


patent is extended or adjusted under 35

5,518,367 A

U.S.C. 154(b) by 635 days.

6,688,842
6,808,366
6,872,045
6,984,899

(21) App1.No.: 12/332,461


(22)

Filed:

Dec. 11, 2008

(65)

Prior Publication Data

US 2010/0150728 A1

B2
B2
B1
B1

9/1978
3/1980

Thomas ..................... .. 415/531


DeBerg ....................... .. 416/117

8/1990 Widseth
8/1991 Kato
10/1995 Yea

5/1996 Verastegui
2/2004
10/2004
3/2005
1/2006

Boatner
Sikes
Weaver et al.
Rice

7,084,523 B2
7,186,083 B2

8/2006 Noguchi
3/2007 Bayly

7,215,039 B2
7,230,348 B2

5/2007 Zambrano et al.


6/2007 Poole

2007/0126240 A1
2008/0213083 A1*
2008/0273978 A1*

Jun. 17, 2010

Jul. 10, 2012

References Cited

(76) Inventors: Karl J. Douglass, Dublin, PA (US);

Notice:

US 8,215,897 B2

6/2007 Richards et a1.


9/2008
11/2008

Unno ........................... .. 415/42


Watkins .................. .. 416/197A

* cited by examiner

Related US. Application Data

Primary Examiner * Michelle Mandala

(60)

Provisional application No. 61/014,159, ?led on Dec.

17, 2007.

(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm * Gregory J. Gore

(57)

ABSTRACT

A vertical Wind turbine includes a blade Which has opposite

(51)

Int. Cl.

F03D 7/00
F03D 7/06
F03D 3/00

force producing sides that lie on opposite sides of the longi


tudinal axis along its direction of travel. The aerodynamic
surfaces are driven by the Wind through four phases of rota

(2006.01)
(2006.01)
(2006.01)

tion. Driving torque is produced during three of the four

(52)

US. Cl. ............ .. 415/42; 415/44; 290/44; 290/55;

(58)

Field of Classi?cation Search ................. .. 415/42,

416/197 A

415/44, 907; 416/197 A; 290/44, 55


See application ?le for complete search history.

phases. The blade includes a v-shaped nosepiece With rear


Ward facing surfaces on each side that cup the Wind during
three of the four phases. The split tail of the blade captures the
Wind during a doWn Wind phase of rotation.

9 Claims, 4 Drawing Sheets


12

18

14

PHASE 2

US008258647B2

(12) Ulllted States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Haar
(54)

US 8,258,647 B2

(45) Date of Patent:

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE

6,784,566 B2

3/2004 Thomas

6,831,374 B2 *

(75) Inventor:

Sep. 4, 2012

6,864,594 B2

12/2004

Seki .............................. .. 290/44

3/2005

S k'

Jonathan Haar, Cambr1dge, MA (US)

6,974,309 B2

7,109,599 B2

9/2006 Watkins

(73) Assignee: Eastern Wind Power, Cambridge, MA

7,245,039 B2

7/2007 DuHamel

7,352,076 B1

4/2008 Gabrys

(US )
(*)

(21)

Notice:

7,425,776 B2

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this

9/2008 Ketcham
E;
""""""""""" " 290/55

patent is extended or adjusted under 35


U-S-C- 154(1)) by 0 days-

735823982 131*
8,013,464 B2 *
2002/0105190 A1

90009 Deal 290/55


9/2011 Stern et al. .................... .. 290/55
8/2002 Thomas

2004/0041405 A1

3/2004 Seki

Appl. N0.: 13/077,495

(22) Filed:

(Continued)

Mar. 31, 2011

(65)

Prior Publication Data

US 2011/0262276 A1

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS


9213192
8/1992

W0

Oct. 27, 2011

(Continued)

Related US. Application Data


(62)

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Division of application NO. 12/766,578, ?led on Apr.


23, 2010, HOW Pat. NO. 7,988,413.

Small Wind Certi?cation Council, Small Wind Turbine Certi?cation


Policy, Clifton Park, NY, May 2010, pp. 1-27.

Int Cl-

(Continued)

F03D 7/00

(52)
(58)

12/2005 52k;

2006.01

U 5 Cl
(
)
290/55 290/44
Field of ciig's'i?iililr'lil7...... .......... .. 290/55.

416/31

See appl1cat1on ?le for complete search h1story.

Primary Examiner * Joseph Waks


(74) We Age! or Firm * HOVeY Williams LLP
(57)

ABSTRACT

A Vert1cal ax1s W1nd turb1ne 1ncludes an upstandmg support

(56)

References Cited

structure, a plurality of generators disposed on the support


structure, a central shaft in rotatable communication With the

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS


4,115,027
4,247,252
4,247,253
4,285,636

A
A
A
A

4,430,044 A
4,464,579
5,057,696
5,203,672
5,332,925

A
A
A
A

9/1978
1/1981
1/1981
8/1981

Thomas
Seki et al.
Seki et al.
Kato et al.

2/1984 Liljegren
8/1984
10/1991
4/1993
7/1994

SchWarZ
Thomas
Wolf
Thomas

generators and positioned along a central axis of the Vertical


axis Wind turbine, a plurality of struts extending from the
central shaft, and a plurality of blades, each blade positioned
at an end of a corresponding strut and oriented substantially

Vertically. The Vertical axis Wind turbine optionally includes


strut ailerons, blade extension elements, or blade ailerons to

increase the ef?ciency and duty cycle of the Wind turbine.


1 Claim, 11 Drawing Sheets

US008314508B2

(12) Unlted States Patent

(10) Patent N0.2

Kawas et a].

(45) Date of Patent:

(54)

METHOD
ENERGY SYSTEM
ANDAPPARATUS FORWIND

(76)

Inventors:

(21)

(22)

Notice:

APPLNO;

.
Flled:

Percy C. KaWas, Los Altos, CA (US);

51

' ' ' 290/55

290/55
416/227 A

P211811t
Subjectistoextended
any disclaimer,
Or adjusted
the term
under
of this
35

41663596 A
2 T

9/1979 Mouton,
522k """Jr.
" etal.

U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days.

4,204,799 A
5/1980 De Geus .......... ..
4,231,288 A * 11/1980 Finley

12/968 126

4,287,816

"

244/30
415/45
454/347

9/1981

Riccard . . . . . . .

. . . . . .. 454/4

4,289,444 A *
4,309,146 A *

9/1981
1/1982

Monk et al. .
Hein etal.

415/42
415/44

Dec-14,2010

4,374,534 A *

2/1983

Jespersetal. ..

4,379,972

4/1983

Sosa et al.

415/44

4,486,143 A *

......

.... .. 52/3
. . . ..

290/44

12/1984 McVey ........................ .. 415/164

Jun. 16,2011

(Continued)
FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

Provisional application No. 61/286,959, ?led on Dec.


16, 2009.
Cl

nt'

t l.

5/1978 Hope et a1. ..

Prior Publication Data

3/1978 (3:111:73 ' ' ' '

4/1978 Felter .... ..

Related US. Application Data

2/1978 0

4,079,264 A *

4,086,028 A *

Us 2011/0140450 A1

(60)

4,075,500 A
4,088,419 A *

(65)

Nov. 20, 2012

3,994,621
,
,
2
A i* 11/1976 lFlzlzelL-lnl
Bogie
e ter et..........
a . .....................
. ..
415/186

Gulnar KaWas, Los Altos, CA (US)

(*)

US 8,314,508 B2

GB

2283285

5/1995

OTHER PUBLICATIONS
Davis, G., Jackson Resident Seeks Votes for Pepsi Refresh Chal

'

lenge, May 27, 2010, pp. 1-8, http://WWW.ledger-dispatch.com/

Z Z;

neWs/neWsvieW.asp?c:270164.

(52)

US. Cl. .......................................... .. 290/55; 290/44

Primary Examiner i Pedro J Cuevas

(58)

Field of Classi?cation Search .................. .. 290/44,

(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm * Sughrue Mion, PLLC

290/55

See application ?le for complete search history.


(56)

References Cited

(57)

ABSTRACT

The present invention relates to generating poWer using Wind


energy. According to some aspects, the invention uses a pas

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS


257,484 A *

2,909,113
3,267,833
3,347,147
3,392,659

A
A
A
A

5/1882

Penn ............................. .. 454/18

* 10/1959 Hatcher
* 8/1966 Artis et al.
* 10/1967 Howard
* 7/1968 Rousey

3,590,720 A *

7/1971

454/36
454/18
454/38
454/18

Siegal ........................... .. 454/18

sive device to capture Wind, and accelerate the Wind toWard


off-the-shelf turbines and other fan blades to generate poWer
in a con?ned structure. The passive devices to capture Wind
can have active electronic or mechanical controls to control

the amount of Wind ?oWing in the structure to generate poWer.

12 Claims, 10 Drawing Sheets

US008322992B2

(12) United States Patent

(10) Patent No.:

Fuller

45 Date of Patent:

(54) MODULAR WIND-DRIVEN ELECTRICAL

(76)
*

2
a

gohen
WeIS

4,220,870 A

MANUFACTURE

4,245,958 A
1/1981 EWers
4,288,200 A
9/1981 OHare
4,295,783 A * 10/1981 Lebost ......................... .. 415/44

Inventor:

Adam Fuller, Racine, WI (US)

Notice.

SubJect'tO any d1scla1mer,the term ofth1s


patent is extended or adjusted under 35

App1_ No; 12/104,655

(22) Filed:

4,362,470 A *

12/1982

Locastro et a1. ........ .. 416/197 A

4,474,529

10/1984

Kinsey

4,715,776 A

12/1987 Benesh
12/1988 Coleman

4,857,753 A

8/1989 Mewburn-Crook et a1.

4,926,061 A *

5/1990

Arreola, Jr. ................... .. 290/55

(Continued)

Prior Publication Data


Us Zoos/0258468 A1

4,792,281 A

Apr. 17,2008

(65)

9/1980 Kelly

4,486,143 A * 0/1984 Mcvey tttttttttttttttttttt 415/164


4,609,827 A
9/1986 Nepple

U.S.C. 154(b) by 1234 days.


(21)

Dec. 4 a 2012

POWER GENERATOR AND METHOD OF

US 8,322,992 B2

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Oct 23, 2008

Excerpt from the US. Department of Energy, Wind & Hydropower


Technologies Program. How Wind Turbines Work. 6 pages. Date:

Related US. Application Data

NOV' 30 2006'

(60) Provisional application No. 60/923,862, ?led on Apr.


17, 2007.

(51)

(58)

Primary Examiner * N1nh H Nguyen

In; C]_
F03D 3/02

(52) US. Cl.

(Continued)
(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm * Jansson Shupe & Munger
Ltd

(2006.01)

416/197 A; 415/4.2; 415/44; 416/200 R;


29/889_7

(57)

ABSTRACT

Field of Classi?cation Search ................. .. 415/4.2,

A method of making a vane assembly for use in a modular

415/44, 905, 907; 416/ 194, 197 A, 200 R,


416/D1G. 4, DIG. 5; 290/44, 55; 29/889.7
See application ?le for complete search history.

Wind-driven electrical poWer generator is disclosed. The


method including the steps of: providinganaxial shaft; secur
ing a plurality of spaced-apart plates around the shaft, pro
viding plural sheets of bendable material, each sheet for form

(56)

References Cited

ing a vane; bending each sheet to create a vane; securing the


upper and loWer sides of each vane betWeen tWo plates to
form the vane assembly, each vane extending radially out
Ward from the shaft so that the shaft is balanced during shaft

Us. PATENT DOCUMENTS


200,874 A *

3/1878

Robert ..

rotational displacement about the axis, the closed leading side

1,200,308
727,762 A * 10/1916
5/1903 Edgar
Bunnell

1,234,405 A
1,441,774 A

7/1917 Solomon
1/1923 Adams

1,812,741 A

6/1931 Espinosa

1,974,008 A
2,431,111 A

faces a direction of shaft rotation and the open trailing side


faces a direction opposite to the direction of shaft rotation;
and securing an end cap over each vane outboard end.

9/1934 Biehn
11/1947 Brie

19 Claims, 67 Drawing Sheets

11h

_ No". 839,319.l

` PATENTED DEC. 25,v 1906.

c. NBU'MANN.
PRESSURE BLOWER.
APPLICATION FILED IAE. 28, 1905.

' No'. 840.208. ~

PATENTBD JAN. 1, 1907.

M, V.HART0NG.
WINDMILL.

APPLICATION FILED APB. 27,'1906.


2 SHEETS-SHEET 2.

_ WHA/55555:

[NI/ENTOR
A NORA/E Ys

" THE NaRRls PETERS co.. wasmNcIoN. D. c.

US008419346B2

(12) United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.2

Attey
(54)

(45) Date of Patent:

WIND TURBINE
.

(75) Inventor.

(X'Seme Scott Attey, South Fremantle


( )

21

Notice:

A
)

7/1979 Amick
1/1981

EWers ..................... .. 416/197 A

4,247,251 A

1/1981

Wuenscher

V1983 Sosa et a1
2/1984 Liljegren

12/ 1984 McVey

4,857,753 A *

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this


patent is extended or adjusted under 35
USC' 1549) by 9 days'

1 N
12/940 903
pp ' O"

(22) Filed:

6/1984 Andersson

4,486,143 A

Ltd, Western Austrailia (AU)

4,162,410 A

4,452,568 A

Apr. 16, 2013

4,245,958 A *

4,379,972 A
4,430,044 A

(73) Ass1gnee: Design Licensing International Pty


(*)

US 8,419,346 B2

8/1989 MeWburn-Crook et a1.

290/55

(Continued)

EP

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS


0046370 A1
2/1982

GB

561435 A
5/1944
(Continued)

Nov. 5, 2010
OTHER PUBLICATIONS

(65)

Prior Publication Data


/

European Patent Application No. 078156635 ?led Dec. 4, 2007 in

Us 2011 0070087 A1

Mar 24 2011

the name of Design Licensing International Pty Ltd, Supplemental

Related U 5 Application Data

European Search Report mailed Sep. 22, 2010.

(63) Continuation of application No. PCT/AU2009/

(Continued)

000567, ?led on May 7, 2009.


(30)

Foreign Application Priority Data

Primary Examiner * Edward Look


Assistant Examiner * Jason Davis

May 7, 2008

(AU) .............................. .. 2008902218

May 26, 2008

(AU) .............................. .. 2008902592

(51) Int. Cl.


F03D 3/02
(52)

(58)

(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm * Levine Bagade Han LLP

(57)

ABSTRACT

(2006.01)

us CL

A Wind turbine arranged to operate in con?ned area is dis

USPC ........... .. 415/42; 415/44; 415/907; 416/182;

elesed- The Wind turbine is eehstraihed Within two axially

416/D1G_ 6

displaced end plates and diametrically opposed Wind barriers.

Field of Classi?cation Search ................. .. 415/42,

The Wind barriers are Parallel to the axis and extend between

415/43, 44, 45, 905, 907, 908; 416/182,


416/DIG, 6; 290/ 5 5

end plates. The Wind barriers each having an axially extend

See application ?le for complete search history.

ing inner edge radially spaced from an outer sWept surface of


the turbine blades by less than 20% of the turbine radius. In

References Cited

of Wind turbines, With Wind barriers being arranged between

another embodiment, there is disclosed a 2-dimensional array

(56)

parallel axes.
US. PATENT DOCUMENTS
1,574,171 A
2/1926 Ryan
3,070,287 A
12/1962 Bruno

21 Claims, 10 Drawing Sheets

US008491266B2

(12) Unlted States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Ferenczy
(54)

(45) Date of Patent:

FLUID ENERGY CONVERSION DEVICE


_
.

(*)

Not1ce:

5,285,112 A

2/ 1994 Mann
7/1994 Thomas

6,948,905 B2

9/2005 Horjus

B2 >l<

7,364,406 B2 *

5/2007

ScalZi

4/200g Kinkaid ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, u 416/243

patent is extended or adjusted under 35

2004/0047723 A1

U_S_C_ 154(1)) by 583 days_

2009/0285689 Al* 11/2009 Hall et al. ............... .. 416/197A

Oct. 13, 2008

(65)

3/2004 Horjus

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS


W0

Filed:

Jul. 23, 2013

5,332,925 A
7,215,037

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this

(21) Appl. NO: 12/249980


(22)

US 8,491,266 B2

WO 2007141367 A1 * 12/2007

* Cited by examiner

Prior Publication Data


Primary Examiner * Hung Vu

US 2010/0092296 A1

Apr. 15, 2010

Assistant Examiner i Bryan Junge

(51)

Int. Cl.
F03D 3/06

(52)

US Cl
USPC ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ " 416/200 R; 416/197 R; 416/198 R;
416/243

central drive shaft, Wherein the central drive shaft may be

(58)

Fleld 0f Classl?catloll Search


USPC ---------------- -- 416/197 R, 197 A, 198 R, 200 R,
_ _
416/243; 415/42, 4-4
See aPPhCaUOn ?le for Complete Search 11151013_
References Clted

rotatably secured to a support frame. Each of the plurality of


adjacent ?uid catching modules may comprise tWo intake
elements having a ?rst ?uid capturing aperture, an overlap
portion, and a second ?uid capturing aperture facing a direc
tion opposite to that of the ?rst ?uid catching aperture. Adja
cent ?uid catching modules may be offset from each other by

(56)

(2006.01)

(57)

US. PATENT DOCUMENTS

590,753 A
802,144 A

9/1897 Flaig
10/1905 Harrington

1,200,308 A *

10/1916

2,431,111 A

12/1943 Du Brie

3,645,694 A *

3,877,836 A
3,920,354 A
4,321,005 A
5,057,696 A

2/1972

Bunnell ................... .. 415/2111


Flatau ..................... .. 416/197R

4/1975 Tompkins
11/1975 Decker
3/1982 Black
10/1991 Thomas

95

ABSTRACT

A ?uid energy conversion device cornP rising a P lurality of


adjacent ?uid catching modules that may be disposed about a

a predetermined angular position, thus alloWing for at least


one ?uid catching aperture to be facing a directional ?uid
energy source at all times. The plurality of ?uid catching
modules may comprise different Widths and form an overall

conical con?guration or the plurality of ?uid catching mod


ules may comprise equivalent Widths and form an overall

cylindrical con?guration.
2 Claims, 3 Drawing Sheets

US008529190B2

(12)

United States Patent


Naumenko

(54)

(10) Patent N0.:


(45) Date of Patent:
4,430,044 A

WIND TURBINE ROTOR WITH VERTICAL


ROTATION AXIS

(75) Inventor: Anatoliy Naumenko, CracoW (PL)

4,456,429 A *
4,976,587 A *

US 8,529,190 B2
Sep. 10, 2013

2/1984 Liljegren
6/1984
12/1990

Kelland ...................... .. 416/117


Johnston et a1. ............ .. 416/230

* cited by examiner

(73) Assignee: Anew Institute Sp. Z o.o., Krako'W (PL)


(*)

Notice:

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this


patent is extended or adjusted under 35

Primary Examiner * Dwayne J White


(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm * John Alumit

U.S.C. 154(b) by 634 days.


(57)

(21) Appl. No.: 12/751,844


(22)

Filed:

Prior Publication Data

US 2010/0266413 A1

(51)

Int. C].

(2006.01)

U.S. Cl.
USPC

(58)

Oct. 21, 2010

Which are tightly ?xed blades, each consisting of tWo Wings


joined together, With a symmetrical or concavo-convex airfoil

With the airfoils chord lengths and thickness diminishing


toWard both Wing ends. The rotor blades upper and loWer
Wings are radially de?ected from the central Zone outwards.

F03D 7/06

(52)

A Wind turbine rotor With a vertical rotation axis connected to


a hub having at least tWo horiZontal supports, on the ends of

Mar. 31, 2010

(65)

ABSTRACT

.......................................... .. 415/4.2; 416/203

Field of Classi?cation Search


USPC .............. .. 415/4.2, 4.4, 907; 416/203, 210 R

See application ?le for complete search history.

(56)

References Cited

The chord length of both Wing ends and the chord length in
the central Zone are approximately inversely proportional to
the radii of its location in relation to the axis of the rotors

rotation. The de?ecting angle of the loWer Wing can be greater


than the de?ecting angle of the upper Wing or the length of the
loWer Wing can be greater than the length of the upper Wing.
These speci?cations provide uniform Wind poWer consump
tion along the Wings length, increasing the e?iciency of a
Wind turbine and its service life.

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS


4,130,380 A *

4,264,279 A

12/1978

Kaiser ..................... .. 416/197A

4/1981 Dereng

6 Claims, 2 Drawing Sheets

USOO8552579B2

(12) United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:


(45) Date of Patent:

Richter et al.
(54)

(56)

WIND POWER PLANT

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

Bahnmuller, Dietikon (CH)

PCT Filed:

1/1875

Chesebrough .............. .. 417/147

293,509 A

2/1884

Petersen

485,933 A *

537,494 A *

U.S.C. 154(b) by 476 days.

(22)

158,676 A *

320,482 A *

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this


patent is extended or adjusted under 35

(21) App1.No.:

12/811,133

PCT/CH2008/000549

(2), (4) Date:

1,369,596 A *

2/1921 Yanacopoulos

3/1938

2,454,058

11/1948

US 2010/0283254 A1

(30)

(51)

Int. Cl.

(52)

F03D 9/00
H02P 9/04
F03B 13/00
vs. C].

(58)

Nov. 11,2010

Foreign Application Priority Data


Jan. 4, 2008

(CH) ........................................... .. 8/08

(2006.01)
(2006.01)
(2006.01)

1/1951
4/1974

Moon

Hays

... ... ... ...

.......

417/336
. . . ..

290/55

. . . ..

60/398

Rushing ..
Haanen

62/230

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . ..

2/1976 Magoveny et al.


11/1976
8/1977

Graybill .... ..
Mater et a1.

........

9/1977 Magoveny et a1.

4,052,134 A *

10/1977

4,055,950 A *

11/1977

290/55

415/141
.. 290/55
. . . ..

290/55

.. 415/53.1

Rumsey ........... ..
416/119
Grossman ..................... .. 60/398

(Continued)
FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

PCT Pub. Date: Jul. 16, 2009

Prior Publication Data

416/119

Robbins .... ..
Clade ........... ..

2,112,633

4,047,834 A *

(87) PCTPub.No.: WO2009/086648

(65)

137/121

Herman .... ..

415/164

3,995,170 A *

Jun. 29, 2010

11/1892

417/214
416/108

4,039,849

8371 (0X1)

416/119

7/1915
7/1916

3,938,907 A *

PCT N0.:

..

4/1895 Stevens et al.

2,539,862 A *

Dec. 24, 2008

...... ..

6/1885 Leavitt

1,147,646 A *
1,190,629 A *

3,806,733

(86)

Oct. 8, 2013

References Cited

(76) Inventors: Patrick Richter, Zurich (CH); Karl


Notice:

US 8,552,579 B2

CN
CN

1351228 A
1484734 A

5/2002
3/2004

(Continued)
Primary Examiner * Pedro J Cuevas

(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm * The Webb Law Firm

(57)

ABSTRACT

The invention relates to a wind power plant, comprising a


rotor that can be rotated about a vertical axis, said rotor

between two horizontal bearing planes disposed at a distance


on top of each other comprising a plurality of rotor blades,
which are disposed distributed on a circumferential circle,

can each be pivoted about a vertical pivot axis, and the pivot
range of which is delimited on both sides by a stop. In such a

wind power plant, an improvement in the energy yield, while

USPC ................................ .. 290/55; 290/44; 290/54

simultaneously ensuring another operation, is enabled in that

Field of Classi?cation Search

the width of the rotor blades is smaller than approximately 1/3


the radius of the circumferential circle.

USPC .............................................. .. 290/44, 54, 55

See application ?le for complete search history.

20 Claims, 8 Drawing Sheets

US008556571B2

(12) United States Patent


Cassidy
(54)

(10) Patent N0.:


(45) Date of Patent:

VERTICAL AXIS DUAL VORTEX


DOWNWIND INWARD FLOW IMPULSE
WIND TURBINE

1,248,305 A *
1,531,015 A *

(*)

Notice:

8/1926 Sovereign

415/186

3/1927

Webb .... ..

415/164

7/1927

Adams

2,812,823 A *

11/1957

3,994,621 A *

4,012,163 A *

3/1977 Baumgartner etal.

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this


patent is extended or adjusted under 35

4,039,849 A *
4,047,834 A *

8/1977
9/1977

4,052,134 A

415/18

415/129

415/141
415/208.3

Mater et a1. ................... .. 290/55


Magoveny et al. ........ .. 415/53.1

10/1977 Rumsey

(Continued)
FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS
CA
DE
DE
FR

Aug. 17, 2012

(65)

. . . ..

Bogie ......................... .. 415/186

OR (US)

(21) Appl. No.: 13/588,359


Prior Publication Data

US 2013/0209244 A1

Aug. 15, 2013

2330700
3637831
4317004
2785336

1/2001
4/1987
1/1995
5/2000

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Related US. Application Data

(63)

.. ... ...

De Oviedo ....... ..

2/1976 Magovenyetal.
11/1976

U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days.

(22) Filed:

Gallagher ................ .. 415/149.1


415/4.2

Maine ....... ..

1,619,643 A *

3,938,907 A *

(73) Assignee: Zephyr International, Inc., The Dalles,

Oct. 15, 2013

1,595,578 A *
1,636,449

(75) Inventor: Joe C. Cassidy, The Dalles, OR (US)

11/1917
3/1925

US 8,556,571 B2

Continuation of application No. 12/284,970, ?led on


Sep. 25, 2008, noW Pat. No. 8,262,338, Which is a

http://en.Wikipediaorg/Wiki/Pelton Wheel: Wikipedia, Pelton Wheel,


pp. 1-5, printed May 1, 2009.

(Continued)

continuation-in-part of application No. 12/214,273,


?led on Jun. 16, 2008, noW abandoned, Which is a

Primary Examiner * Ross Gushi

continuation-in-part of application No. 11/652,429,

(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm * ChernoffVilhauer LLP

?led on Jan. 11, 2007, noW abandoned.

(51)

(57)

Int. Cl.

F03D 1/04

(52)

(2006.01)

outlet. Located in the housing is a cylindrical stator array


having a plurality of spaced-apart stators located in it. An
annular cylindrical rotor array having a plurality of cups

US. Cl.
USPC .......................... .. 415/4.3; 415/55.1; 415/224

(58)

Field of Classi?cation Search

rotates about a central axis, ?ts inside of the stator array. The
stators are positioned to cause air Which ?oWs around the
outer periphery of the stator array to impinge on the rotors and

USPC ...................... .. 415/4.141.5, 1, 2.1, 55.1, 224

See application ?le for complete search history.

(56)

an air handling system causes air entering the housing to be


distributed substantially around the periphery of the stator

References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
455,858 A *
588,572 A *

7/1891
8/1897

array.

Pepper .......................... .. 416/41


Hardaway .................... .. 415/4.2

3 Claims, 8 Drawing Sheets

12
ea
47

47

s8

75
4ar-

74
\

78 i
44

28;

30

RI 7

g H 411
s

4,6 j

v43

ABSTRACT

A Wind-powered turbine has a housing With an inlet and an

24
2s

72
r32

{54
I

2a

{1
6

US008672633B2

(12) Ulllted States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Ball
(54)

(45) Date of Patent:

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE

4,784,568 A

Inventor.

'

5,494,407 A

Mar. 18, 2014

11/1988 Benesh

4,838,757 A

(76)

US 8,672,633 B2

6/1989 Benesh
*

2/1996

Benesh

10/2004 Sikes

................... .. 416/197 A

John Bradley Ball, Lakeslde (CA)

6,808,366 B2

subject to any disclaimer, the term ofthis

33383351 31* 11/5882 16111315111111.1111:11111117452133

patent is extended or adjusted under 35


U,S,C, 154(1)) by 560 days_

7,314,346 B2
7,344,353 B2

1/2008 Vanderhye et a1.


3/2008 Naskali et a1.

7,393,177 B2

7/2008 Rahai et a1.

>i<

( * ) Notice:

(22) F1led:

cited by

examiner

Kaneda

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Sep. 10, 2010

(65)

Prior Publication Data


US 2011/0116930 A1

May 19, 2011

Related US. Application Data

Primary Examiner * Edward Look


Assistant Examiner * Juan G Flores
(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm * Brunet & Co. Ltd.; Robert

A_ H Brunet

(60) Provisional application No. 61/241,399, ?led on Sep.


11 2009'

(57)

(51)

A Vertical axis wind turbine comprising at least two rotor

Int' Cl'
F 03D 3/02

(2006.01)

(52) U-s- Cl

USPC ...................... .. 416/197 A; 415/907; 416/243


_

(58)

(56)

ABSTRACT
.

port1ons, each port1on hav1ng a bottom, atop, and a curved


gonzonial Cross Secnon when Seen .1 top VleW' A 9p Cap may
e prov1ded that has a convex port1on correspond1ng to each

Fleld of Classl?catlon Search


_
USPC ................... .. 415/2.1, 4.1, 4.2, 4.4, 905, 907,

rotor portion that extends forwardly in a windward direction.


Each rotor portion may comprise two angled rotor Sections

416/197 R 197 B 197 A 243 178 187


_ _ 416/182 185 186 R 290/44 43 54 55
See apphcatlon ?le for Complete Search hlstory'
References Cited

that meet at substantially a Vertical midpoint of the rotor


portion. The angled sections may be angled rearwardly in a
leeward direction and/or radially and may be angled from 1 to

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS


617,555 A *

4,359,311 A

1/1899

20 degrees w1th respect to vertlcal. There may be three or


more rotor portions and the turbine may be comprised of one
or more Vertically stacked sections.

Blue et a1. ............... .. 416/197R

11/1982 Benesh

20 Claims, 12 Drawing Sheets

USOO8790069B2

(12) United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Anderson

(45) Date of Patent:

(54)

ENCLOSED VERTICAL AXIS FLUID ROTOR

(75)

Inventor:

(56)

U-S- PATENT DOCUMENTS

(Us)

588,572 A *
,

2,431,111 A

A551gnee: No Fossil Energy, LLC, Odenton, MD


(Us)

(*)

Notice:

Jul. 29, 2014

References Cited

Bruce Elliot Anderson, Eugene, OR

(73)

US 8,790,069 B2

Subject to any disclaimer, the term ofthis


patent is extended or adjusted under 35

U.S.C. 154(b) by 845 days.

8/1897 Hardaway .................... .. 415/4.2


11/1947

Du Brie

..... .. 416/130

3,942,909 A *

3/1976 Yengst

4,245,958 A *

1/1981 Ewers

416/132 B
416/197 A

4,357,130 A *

11/1982 Forrest

416/197A

6,952,058 B2 * 10/2005 MCCOiIl


~~~~~ ~~ 416/119
7,362,004 132* 40008 Beeker """""""""""""" " 290/55

* Cited by examiner

(21) Appl' NO': 12/905058

Primary Examiner * Igor Kershteyn

(22)

(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm * Kenneth P. WaszkiewicZ

Filed:

Oct 14, 2010

(65)

Prior Publication Data


US 2011/0142641 A1

(60)

(57)

ABSTRACT

Jun. 16, 2011

A enclosed vertical axis ?uid rotor used as a wind turbine of

two designs having multiple sails that are concave on the

Related U'S'Apphcatlon Data


provisional application NO_ 61/272,626, ?led on Oct

inside and convex on the outer side which allows omni


directional wind or other ?uids to engage sails to create opti

14, 2009, provisional application No_ 61/283,988

mum ?uid momentum. These are sectional segmentation of

?led on Dec_ 10, 2009

each rotor that can be stacked upon one another at locating lug

points to be attached to each rotor to keep radial alignment

(51) Int, Cl,

precise during assembly. The preferred embodiment would

F03D 11/00

(200601)

be of composite materials or plastics that can be molded to a

(52)

us CL
USPC ........... .. 415/42; 415/44; 415/905; 415/907;

(58)

Field of Classi?cation Search

416/169 R; 416/197 A; 416/229 R; 416/240


USPC ...... .. 415/42, 4.4, 905, 907; 416/169 R, 172,

416/197 A, 196 A, 198 R, 201 A, 229 R, 240,


416/241 A, 243
See application ?le for complete search history.
1' 7

given design of three or more stages. The advantage of this


turbine is using the ?uids to their Optimum ef?ciency These

designs have low starting speed, low precession, and low


drag. One design has a central axis that turns with bearings
with the rotor and the other design is a central static (non
turning) axis shaft that allows the turbine to turn on bearings.

19 Claims, 5 Drawing Sheets

7 ' "'5

i
9 We

18
1"! "'"gk ;

{a

15 /$ in J

1' {71(7)}
5

20 (TW;

10

11

USOO8829704B2

(12) United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Grigg
(54)

(71)

US 8,829,704 B2

(45) Date of Patent:

WIND TURBINE GENERATOR AND MOTOR


~

Applicant. Charles Grlgg, Westport, CA (US)

1,465,593 A *

8/1923 Barrett et a1. ................. .. 416/14

1,524,712 A *

2/1925

Hurd ......... ..

416/140

6/1926

Palm ..... ..

415/150

1,586,914

1,654,165

1,636,434 A *

Sep. 9, 2014

7/1927 Pinaud
12/1927

Felt

. ... ... ..

(72)

Inventori

Charles Grlgg, WesIPOIT, CA (Us)

2,128,592 A *
3,976,396 A *

8/1976 Antogini .

( * )

Notice:

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this

4,048,947 A *

9/1977

patent is extended or adjusted under 35


(21)

APPl-NO-Z

4,383,801

Filed:

Feb. 7,2013

(65)

Pmr Pubhcatlon Data


US 2013/0285382 A1
Oct. 31, 2013

omas

..

5/1983

Pryor . . . . . .

4,424,451 A *

1/1984

Schmidt ..

4,494,007

1/1985

Gaston . . . . . . . .

4,507,049 A *

3/1985 Strandgren

4,520,273

5/1985

Rowe

. ... ... ...

4,679,985 A *

7/1987 Worms

4,725,194 A

2/1988

416/119
. . . . . .. 440/8

3115/5131?
..

5/1980 Stepp .... ..


12/1982 Mason

4,534,703 A * 8/1985 Flavell


4,619,585 A * 10/1986 Storm

Related U'SApphcatlon Data


(63)

Sicard . . . . .

Continuation of application No. 12/657,136, ?led on

5,038,049

5,051,059 A *

8/1991

. . . .. 416/17

290/54
. . . .. 290/44

416/51
. . . ..

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

290/54

416/119
416/132 B
416/119

Bartsch ..... ..

Kate

416/119
416/17

415/4.2

4,776,762 A * 10/1988 Blowers, Sr.

Jan. 13, 2010, noW Pat. No. 8,373,297.

416/49

416/117

Emsey ~~

4,203,707 A *
4,365,934 A *

13/761,506

(22)

8/1938 Mushkin .

2 i 18/
,

U'S'C' 154(b)by Odays'

416/52

. . . ..

416/119
~ ~ ~ ~~

290/55

9/1991 Rademmher ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ 415/7

(Continued)
(51) Eggll'3/00

(2006 01)

Primary Examiner * Pedro J Cuevas

H021) 9/04

(200601)

(74) Attorney, Agent, 01 Firm i Howard Cohen

F03D 9/00
(52) us CL

(2006.01)

(57)

USPC ................................ .. 290/54; 290/44; 290/ 55

(58) Field of Classi?cation Search

ity of Wing assemblies having vertical pivot shafts extending

USPC ............................... .. 290/44, 54, 55; 416/119

See application ?le for complete search history.


_

(56)

ABSTRACT

A PAVA (parallel and vertical axis) turbine includes a plural

between two vertically spaced end assemblies that are joined

to a central driveshaft assembly. The Wing assemblies are


rotatable about their respective pivot axes from a drive posi

References Clted

tion in Which they extend radially outwardly from the central

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

axis and transverse to incident ?uid ?ow to maximally cap


ture ?uid ?ow and rotate the turbine, to a glide position in
Which the Wings extend tangentially to the direction of rota
tion and parallel to incident ?uid ?ow to minimize drag. The

4,843 A *

11/1846

113,284 A *

4/1871

247,266
195,114 A *

9/1881
9/1877 Miller,
FolsomJr.

Wings may have articulating ?aps rotating outwardly from the

10/1897
10/1913
6/1884 Martin
Evison
Southwick

Wing assembly in the drive quadrant to capture more of the


passing ?uid ?ow.

1,076,713
299,563
591,962 A *
1,190,629 A *

7/1916

Rowand ....................... .. 415/3.1

Folsom

Clade .......................... .. 416/108

14 Claims, 26 Drawing Sheets

US008864440B2

(12) United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Sauer, Jr.

(45) Date of Patent:

(54) WIND SAIL TURBINE

(75)

Inventor:

(56)

Dieter Sauer, Jr., Westlake Village, CA

References Cited

574,411 A *
.

1,100,332 A

(73) Ass1gnee: Sauer Energy, Incc., Camanllo, CA


Notice:

*Oct. 21, 2014

U-S- PATENT DOCUMENTS

(Us)
.

(*)

US 8,864,440 B2

1,697,574 A

1/1897

Gassett ....................... .. 416/142

6/1914

Smith

M929 Savonius

(US)

1,835,018 A

Subject to any disclaimer, the term ofthis

2,020,900 A
11/1935 Methvin
2,716,460 A * 8/1955 Young ........................... .. 416/24

patent is extended or adjusted under 35

12/1931 Darrieus

(Continued)

U.S.C. 154(b) by 616 days.


This patent is subject to a terminal dis-

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

Claimer~

DE

EP

(21) Appl. No.. 13/134,049


(22) Filed:

.............. .. F03D 3/06

4/2000

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Prior Publication Data

Us 2012/0121416 A1

0993551 A1

(Continued)

May 27, 2011

(65)

10319003 A1 * 11/2004

English Machine Translation of DE 10319003 A1 .*

May 17, 2012

Primary Examiner * Edward Look


Assistant Examiner * Wayne A Lambert

Related US Application Data

(60)

(51)

(52)

(58)

(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm 4 Brooks Kushman RC.

Provisional application No. 61/456,876, ?led on Nov.

15, 2010.

(57)

Int Cl

A vertical axis omni -Wind turbine having a Wind sail centrally


mounted to a turbine drive shaft, the Wind sail consisting of

ABSTRACT

F03D 3/02

(200601)

three generally identical vanes paced 120 degrees apart. The

F03D 3/06

(200601)

vanes each have a generally concave surface for capturing

U-s- Cl-

impinging Wind thrust With an opposite generally convex

CPC ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ F03D 3/065 (2013-01); F053 2240/30

surface to provide minimal Wind resistance. The resulting

(2013-01); YOZE 1 0/74 (2013-01); F053


2240/21 1 (2013-01)
USPC ~~~~~ -- 415/4-2; 416/24; 416/197 A; 416/197 R;
416/213 B; 416/236 R; 416/243
Field Of ClaSSi?catiOIl SeaICh
USPC .............. .. 415/42, 4.4, 907, 144; 416/227 R,
416/231 R, 231 B, 197 R, 197 A, 197 B, 243,

disparate Wind resistance causes a stronger reaction on the


concave side of a vane Which in turn provides rotation about
the vertical oriented drive shaft. The turbine has omni-Wind
characteristics in that regardless of the Wind direction an
adequate portion of the concave surface of a rotor blade Will
always be exposed to impinging wind, The subsequent drive
shaft rotation is transmitted to an electrical turbine.

416/235, 236 R
See application ?le for complete search history.

10 Claims, 5 Drawing Sheets

54:17Q,..
D O oa

06

ix1s4.

1
.

&  

(19)

(11)

EP 2 012 007 A1

EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(12)
(43) Date of publication:

(51) Int Cl.:


F03D 3/00 (2006.01)

07.01.2009 Bulletin 2009/02

F03D 3/04 (2006.01)

(21) Application number: 07013159.4


(22) Date of filing: 05.07.2007
(84) Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR
HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MT NL PL PT RO SE
SI SK TR
Designated Extension States:
AL BA HR MK RS

(74) Representative: Stenger, Watzke & Ring


Intellectual Property
Am Seestern 8
40547 Dsseldorf (DE)

(71) Applicant: Media Ventures GmbH


50999 Kln (DE)

(72) Inventors:

Remarks:
Amended claims in accordance with Rule 137(2)
EPC.

Vucak, Aleksandar
80939 Mnchen (DE)
Tesic, Nenad
78220 Kotor Varos (BA)

(54)

Tesic, Dragan
78220 Kotor Varos (BA)
Tesic, Miroslav
78220 Kotor Varos (BA)

Vertical axis wind turbine


(9) and the bottom plate (10) defining windflow channels,
defined by the inward facing surface of one vane and the
outward facing surface of the neighboring vane. The top
and bottom plates mount the turbine rotor. Also, the principle of serial connection of multiple wind turbines to increase overall wind turbine power is disclosed.

EP 2 012 007 A1

(57)
This invention relates to a vertical axis wind turbine (1) having a turbine rotor (2) and wind leading vanes
(7), which vanes are located symmetrically circumferentially around said turbine rotor. According to the invention
stator vanes (7) extended vertically between the top plate

Printed by Jouve, 75001 PARIS (FR)

EP 2 012 007 A1

EP 2 012 007 A1

EP 2 012 007 A1

EP 2 012 007 A1

EP 2 012 007 A1

10

EP 2 012 007 A1

11

EP 2 012 007 A1

12

EP 2 012 007 A1

13

EP 2 012 007 A1

14

EP 2 012 007 A1

15

EP 2 012 007 A1

16

&   

(19)

(11)

EP 2 108 821 A2

EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(12)
(43) Date of publication:

(51) Int Cl.:


F03D 3/02 (2006.01)

14.10.2009 Bulletin 2009/42

F03D 3/06 (2006.01)

(21) Application number: 08254041.0


(22) Date of filing: 17.12.2008
(84) Designated Contracting States:

(72) Inventors:

AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR
HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MT NL NO PL PT
RO SE SI SK TR
Designated Extension States:
AL BA MK RS

Wu, Gordon Ying Sheung


Hong Kong (HK)
Wu, Thomas Jefferson
Hong Kong (HK)
Wu, Caro
Hong Kong (HK)

(30) Priority: 29.02.2008 HK 08102329


24.04.2008
25.04.2008
14.07.2008
11.08.2008

(74) Representative: Martin, David John et al

HK 08104604
HK 08104651
HK 08107704
HK 08108816

(71) Applicant: Hopewell Wind Power Limited

Marks & Clerk LLP


5th Floor
14 South Parade
Leeds
LS1 5QS (GB)

Tortola (VI)

(54)

Shaftless vertical axis wind turbine

EP 2 108 821 A2

(57)
A shaftless vertical axis wind turbine has a stationary hollow core having inner and outer circular walls
with a void between the inner and outer walls. A rotor is
rotatably supported about the core and has a plurality of
radially extending rotor arms each having a wind engaging rotor blade located at a distal end.

Printed by Jouve, 75001 PARIS (FR)

EP 2 108 821 A2

EP 2 108 821 A2

EP 2 108 821 A2

10

EP 2 108 821 A2

11

EP 2 108 821 A2

12

EP 2 108 821 A2

13

EP 2 108 821 A2

14

EP 2 108 821 A2

15

EP 2 108 821 A2

16

EP 2 108 821 A2

17

EP 2 108 821 A2

18

EP 2 108 821 A2

19

EP 2 108 821 A2

20

EP 2 108 821 A2

21

EP 2 108 821 A2

22

EP 2 108 821 A2

23

EP 2 108 821 A2

24

EP 2 108 821 A2

25

EP 2 108 821 A2

26

EP 2 108 821 A2

27

(19)

&    
(11)

EP 2 317 128 A1

EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(12)
(43) Date of publication:

(51) Int Cl.:

F03D 3/00 (2006.01)

04.05.2011 Bulletin 2011/18

F03D 11/02 (2006.01)

(21) Application number: 10251789.3


(22) Date of filing: 13.10.2010
(84) Designated Contracting States:

(72) Inventors:

AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB
GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO
PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME

WU, Gordon Ying Sheung


Hong Kong (HK)
WU, Thomas Jefferson
Hong Kong (HK)

(74) Representative: Hardy, Rosemary


(30) Priority: 30.10.2009 HK 09110157
(71) Applicant: Hopewell Wind Power Limited
Tortola (VI)

(54)

Marks & Clerk LLP


14 South Parade
5th Floor
Leeds LS1 5QS (GB)

Vertical axis wind turbine


a toothed wheel 41 mounted to the support structure 16.
A transmission 46, 6, 73, 74 is provided for transmitting
torque from the toothed wheel 41 to an electric generator
43.

EP 2 317 128 A1

(57)
A vertical axis wind turbine 10 has a rotor 15
carrying at least one blade 23 and mounted to a support
structure 16 for rotation about an upright rotor axis 29. A
pin wheel 36 fixed to the rotor 15 is drivingly meshed with

Printed by Jouve, 75001 PARIS (FR)

EP 2 317 128 A1

EP 2 317 128 A1

EP 2 317 128 A1

EP 2 317 128 A1

10

EP 2 317 128 A1

11

EP 2 317 128 A1

12

EP 2 317 128 A1

13

EP 2 317 128 A1

14

EP 2 317 128 A1

15

EP 2 317 128 A1

16

EP 2 317 128 A1

17

EP 2 317 128 A1

18

(19)

&   
(11)

EP 2 410 173 A2

EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(12)
(43) Date of publication:

(51) Int Cl.:

F03D 3/04 (2006.01)

25.01.2012 Bulletin 2012/04

(21) Application number: 11405288.9


(22) Date of filing: 18.07.2011
(84) Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB
GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO
PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME

Roth, Jrg Walter


3065 Bolligen (CH)

(72) Inventor: The designation of the inventor has not


yet been filed

(74) Representative: Gygi, Andreas et al


(30) Priority: 20.07.2010 AR P000102666

Keller & Partner


Patentanwlte AG
Schmiedenplatz 5
Postfach
3000 Bern 7 (CH)

(71) Applicants:
Julia, Silvestre Egidio
7600 Mar del Plata (AR)

(54)

Vertical axis wind turbine


tical axis, such that kinetic energy of wind causes rotation
of the vertical axis; and
b) a fairing surrounding the rotor at least partly.

EP 2 410 173 A2

(57)
The invention relates to a vertical axis wind turbine, comprising:
a) a rotor including several blades connected to the ver-

Printed by Jouve, 75001 PARIS (FR)

EP 2 410 173 A2

EP 2 410 173 A2

EP 2 410 173 A2

EP 2 410 173 A2

EP 2 410 173 A2

(19)

&   
(11)

EP 2 447 525 A1

EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(12)
(43) Date of publication:

(51) Int Cl.:

F03D 3/02 (2006.01)

02.05.2012 Bulletin 2012/18

F03D 3/04 (2006.01)

(21) Application number: 10462006.7


(22) Date of filing: 27.10.2010
(84) Designated Contracting States:

(71) Applicant: Komjthy, Mikls

AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB
GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO
PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME

(54)

1118 Budapest (HU)

(72) Inventor: Komjthy, Mikls


1118 Budapest (HU)

Vertical axis wind turbine


providing the rotational energy, while creating low-pressure area in the rotational angle of the returning blades.
As the utilizable wind energy becomes regulated due to
this equipment, so it allows the operation of windmill, wind
power machine and wind generator in case of low and
stormy wind conditions, as well.

EP 2 447 525 A1

(57)
The subject of this invention is to find the solution
of installation of the vertical-axle wind energies utilizer
equipments next to each other. The equipment/invention
is a wind flow control, which regulates the utilizable flow
energies to reach by the most ideal way the blades that

Printed by Jouve, 75001 PARIS (FR)

EP 2 447 525 A1

EP 2 447 525 A1

EP 2 447 525 A1

EP 2 447 525 A1

TEPZZ44956B_T

(19)

(11)

EP 2 449 256 B1

EUROPISCHE PATENTSCHRIFT

(12)

(45) Verffentlichungstag und Bekanntmachung des


Hinweises auf die Patenterteilung:
04.09.2013 Patentblatt 2013/36

(51) Int Cl.:

F03D 3/06 (2006.01)

(86) Internationale Anmeldenummer:


PCT/EP2010/001697

(21) Anmeldenummer: 10710222.0

(87) Internationale Verffentlichungsnummer:

(22) Anmeldetag: 12.03.2010

WO 2010/130315 (18.11.2010 Gazette 2010/46)

(54) SAVONIUS-ROTOR
SAVONIUS ROTOR
ROTOR DU TYPE SAVONIUS
(72) Erfinder: Schul, Karl Dirk

(84) Benannte Vertragsstaaten:


AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR
HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL
PT RO SE SI SK SM TR

(30) Prioritt: 01.10.2009 DE 102009043684


(43) Verffentlichungstag der Anmeldung:

66578 Schiffweiler (DE)

(74) Vertreter: Theobald, Andreas et al


Pateris
Patent- und Rechtsanwlte
Postfach 08 03 05
10003 Berlin (DE)

09.05.2012 Patentblatt 2012/19

(56) Entgegenhaltungen:
(73) Patentinhaber: Schul, Karl Dirk

EP 2 449 256 B1

66578 Schiffweiler (DE)

DE-U1-202007 009 187


US-A- 2 007 963

FR-A- 814 027

Anmerkung: Innerhalb von neun Monaten nach Bekanntmachung des Hinweises auf die Erteilung des europischen
Patents im Europischen Patentblatt kann jedermann nach Magabe der Ausfhrungsordnung beim Europischen
Patentamt gegen dieses Patent Einspruch einlegen. Der Einspruch gilt erst als eingelegt, wenn die Einspruchsgebhr
entrichtet worden ist. (Art. 99(1) Europisches Patentbereinkommen).
Printed by Jouve, 75001 PARIS (FR)

EP 2 449 256 B1

11

EP 2 449 256 B1

12

EP 2 449 256 B1

13

EP 2 449 256 B1

14

(19)

&   
(11)

EP 2 455 610 A1

EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(12)

published in accordance with Art. 153(4) EPC

(43) Date of publication:

(51) Int Cl.:

F03D 3/00 (2006.01)


F03D 11/00 (2006.01)
H02K 9/04 (2006.01)

23.05.2012 Bulletin 2012/21

(21) Application number: 09847209.5

F03D 9/00 (2006.01)


H02K 7/20 (2006.01)

(86) International application number:

(22) Date of filing: 17.09.2009

PCT/CN2009/001041

(87) International publication number:


WO 2011/006284 (20.01.2011 Gazette 2011/03)

(84) Designated Contracting States:

(72) Inventor: DENG, Yunhe

AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR
HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL
PT RO SE SI SK SM TR

(30) Priority: 16.07.2009 CN 200910041159

Guangdong 510460 (CN)

(74) Representative: Carpintero Lopez, Francisco et al


Herrero & Asociados, S.L.
Alcal 35
28014 Madrid (ES)

(71) Applicant: Guangzhou Yatu Wind Energy Co., Ltd


Guangdong 510460 (CN)

(54)

VERTICAL WIND POWER GENERATOR

EP 2 455 610 A1

(57)
A vertical wind power generator comprises a
tower column (1), at least one generator unit (2), at least
two blades (3), an excitation control device (16), a rotation
rectifying device (161), a bidirectional frequency converter (15), flanges (7-13), bearings (4-6), a cooling system,
a crane (80) and a lift system. The generator unit (2)
comprises a bracket (201), a generator (202) and an exciter (203). The bracket (201) comprises an outer bracket
(2011) and an inner bracket (2012). The generator (202)
comprises a stator (2021) and a rotor (2022). The exciter
(203) comprises a stator (2031) and a rotor (2032). The
vertical wind power generator can be manufactured at
reduced cost, be rapidly started, improve the utilization
efficiency of wind power, have a better cooling effect on
the generator (202) and increase its operating life, and
therefore reduce maintenance cost and time.

Printed by Jouve, 75001 PARIS (FR)

EP 2 455 610 A1

39

EP 2 455 610 A1

40

EP 2 455 610 A1

41

EP 2 455 610 A1

42

EP 2 455 610 A1

43

EP 2 455 610 A1

44

EP 2 455 610 A1

45

EP 2 455 610 A1

46

EP 2 455 610 A1

47

EP 2 455 610 A1

48

EP 2 455 610 A1

49

EP 2 455 610 A1

50

EP 2 455 610 A1

51

EP 2 455 610 A1

52

EP 2 455 610 A1

53

EP 2 455 610 A1

54

EP 2 455 610 A1

55

EP 2 455 610 A1

56

EP 2 455 610 A1

57

EP 2 455 610 A1

58

EP 2 455 610 A1

59

(19)

&   
(11)

EP 2 479 424 A1

EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(12)
(43) Date of publication:

(51) Int Cl.:

F03D 3/06 (2006.01)


F03D 9/00 (2006.01)

25.07.2012 Bulletin 2012/30

F03D 3/00 (2006.01)

(21) Application number: 11075117.9


(22) Date of filing: 27.05.2011
(84) Designated Contracting States:

(71) Applicant: Ariznabarreta Garabieta, Joseba

AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB
GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO
PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME

20809 AIA Gipuzkoa (ES)

(72) Inventor: Ariznabarreta Garabieta, Joseba


20809 AIA Gipuzkoa (ES)

(30) Priority: 15.12.2010 ES 201001467


(54)

Vertical axis micro wind generator


bearings 9a, 9b and 9c, and planets 8a, 8b and 8c are
located, a crown gear fixed to base plate 6 and a sun
gear 12 rotating around shaft 3. Sun gear 12, joined to
the magnets plate 4, rotates in the same direction as
helical wing 1 and at a resultant speed as determined by
the planetary gear system (Figure 2).

EP 2 479 424 A1

(57)
A vertical axis micro wind generator is described, as comprising a Savonius type helical wing 1,
(Figure 1), two bearings 10a and 10b on each side of the
the wing, a base 2 joined to wing 1 with shafts 7a, 7b and
7c protruding from the bottom side of base 2 where 3

Printed by Jouve, 75001 PARIS (FR)

EP 2 479 424 A1

EP 2 479 424 A1

EP 2 479 424 A1

EP 2 479 424 A1

EP 2 479 424 A1

EP 2 479 424 A1

EP 2 479 424 A1

EP 2 479 424 A1

10

United States Patent [191

[11]

3,876,925

Stoeckert

[451

Apr. 8, 1975

[54] WIND TURBINE DRIVEN GENERATOR TO


RECIIARGE BATTERIES IN ELECTRIC
VEHICLES
[76] Inventor: Christian Stoeckert, PO. Box 993,
Jetersville, Va. 23083
[221 Filed:
Jan. 2, 1974

[21] Appl. No.: 430,048


[52]

US. Cl. ....................... .. 322/1; 290/55; 180/65


Int. Cl. ........................................... .. B601 11/18

[58]

Field of Search ............ .. 320/2, 61; 322/1, 100;

290/44, 55; 180/1 P, 60, 65


'

vehicles, and particularly an automotive electrically


driven vehicle, the mechanical combination wherein
wind driven vanes of particular design are mounted to
rotate about a vertical shaft disposed in or on the roof

of the vehicle, said vanes being completely enclosed


within a suitable housing of either rectangular or cir
cular con?guration. When of rectangular shape the _

housing has at least four air current receiving open

[51]

[S6]

of batteries utilized as the power source for various

References Cited

UNITED STATES PATENTS


1,152,666

9/1915

Sterner ........................... .. 290/44 X

1,315,595

9/1919

Clark . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.571.303
3,621,930

2/1926
11/1971

. . . ..

290/55

Schafran ...................... .. 290/44


Dutchak ......................... .. 290/5-5 X

ings, one on each side, each of which do in turn serve


as exhaust outlets depending on direction of predomi

nant air pressure, and, when of circular con?guration,


the housing has but one air current receiving vent,
with that vent revolving to face the direction of any
wind current by the impetus ofa wind vane on the top
thereof. In either case the arrangement is such that the
said wind driven vanes rotate while the vehicle is
under way, or, if air currents are prevalent, even while
the vehicle is not in motion, thus to drive a suitably
mounted generator for more or less continuous re

charge of the battery system. Said generator is


mounted within the hub around which said vanes ro

Primary E.\'aminer-J. D. Miller


Assistant Examiner-Robert J. Hickey

tate, and comprises a stationary stator, and rotating


rotor, the latter being wind driven by the rotating
vanes.

[57]

ABSTRACT

In a wind turbine driven generator for the recharging

9 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures

United States Patent [191

[11]

4,179,007

Howe

[45]

Dec. 18, 1979

[54]

WIND OPERATED POWER GENERATING

3,878,913

4/1975

Lionts .......................... .. 1807/65 DD

APPARATUS

4,039,849

8/1977

Mater

4,047,833

9/1977

Decker . . . . .

4,086,498

4/1978

Szoeke ................................. .. 290/55

[76] Inventor:

Robert R- Howe, 4229 Timber Valley

.. .....

. . . . . . . ..

290/44

. . . . .. 290/55

Ct" Decatur Ga 30032


[21] App]. No.: 911,464
[22] Filed:
Jun. 1, 1978

Primary ExaminerDavid M. Mitchell


Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Jones, Thomas & Askew
[57]
ABSTRACT

[51] Int. Cl.2 ............................................ .. B60L 11/00


[52] US. Cl. ........................ .. 180/65 DD; 290/55
[58] Field of Search ..................... .. 180/65 DD, 65 R;

A Wind operated electrical power generating device


mounted on a self-propelled vehicle comprises a wind
rotated rotor mounted on a ?ywheel and at least one

290/44, 55
_

[56]

References cued

?ywheel, in the preferred embodiment, comprises a

US. PATENT DOCUMENTS


1531370

3/1925

Beavers

317131505

1/1973

Haan

generator which is powered by the rotating ?ywheel.


The operative connection between the generator and

wheel mounted on the generator shaft and tracking


'

290/55

'''

' ' ' ' "1.50/65 DD


.......... .. 290/44

3,721,290

3/1973

Butler, Jr, .

3,876,925

4/1975

Stoeckert ..................... .. 180/65 DD

within a continuous grooved channel formed in the


inner r Outer Periphery 0f the ?ywheel

15 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures

U.S. Patent

Dec.

1979

Sheet 1 of 3

4,179,007

US. Patent

Dec. 18, 1979

Sheet 2 of 3

US. Patent

w/

Dec. 18, 1979

Sheet 3 of 3

45

4,179,007

43

US008454312B2

(12) United States Patent


Chen
(54)

WIND POWER GENERATOR APPARATUS

(56)

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

3,876,925 A

Asslgnee: Jetpro Technology, Inc., Ta1nan County


(TW)

Notice:

6,030,173 A *
2004/0115039 Al*

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this


patent is extended or adjusted under 35

U.S.C. 154(b) by 726 days.

(21) Appl.No.: 12/729,390

Jun. 4, 2013

References Cited

Shih-Hsiung Chen, Yongkang (TW)

(*)

US 8,454,312 B2

(45) Date of Patent:

(75) Inventor:
(73)

(10) Patent No.:

4/1975

Stoeckert ..................... .. 415/4.4

2/2000 Bacchiocchi

415/98

6/2004 Botros et a1. ................ .. 415/101

* cited by examiner

Primary Examiner * Richard Edgar

(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm *Chun-Ming Shih; HDLS


IPR Services

(22) Filed:

Mar. 23, 2010

(65)

Prior Publication Data


US 2011/0254278 A1

(30)

Oct. 20, 2011

Foreign Application Priority Data

Jun. 16, 2009

Int. C].
F03D 3/04
(52) US. Cl.

(TW) ............................. .. 98210746 U

ABSTRACT

A Wind poWer generator apparatus includes a housing (10)


having a chamber (11), a Wind generator set (20) in the cham
ber (11) and a Wind collector (30) coupled to the Wind gen
erator set (20). The Wind generator set (20) includes a base

(21) ?xed in the housing (10), a generator (22) mounted on the


base (21) and a blade Wheel (23) coupled to the generator

(51)

(2006.01)

USPC ............................ .. 416/55; 415/102; 415/905

(58)

(57)

Field of Classi?cation Search

(22). The Wind generator set (20) can be installed in a vehicle

(50) for generating electric poWer during driving. The poWer


generated by the Wind generator set (20) can be stored orused
to charge the vehicle (50).

USPC ............ .. 416/55; 415/101, 102, 93, 205, 120,

415/68, 66, 95, 94, 224, 224.5


See application ?le for complete search history.

16 Claims, 5 Drawing Sheets

US. Patent

Jun. 4, 2013

Sheet 1 of5

US 8,454,312 B2

US. Patent

Jun. 4, 2013

Sheet 2 of5

US 8,454,312 B2

US. Patent

Jun. 4, 2013

Sheet 3 of5

US 8,454,312 B2

US. Patent

Jun. 4, 2013

Sheet 4 of5

US 8,454,312 B2

<
o
N

<
N
N

24A

F|G.4

US. Patent

Jun. 4, 2013

Sheet 5 of5

US 8,454,312 B2

Y
r
C
f. I.

US 20 1 0007823 5A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2010/0078235 A1
Tassin
(54)

(43) Pub. Date:

VEHICULAR POWER GENERATION DEVICE


_

(76) Inventor:

Publication Classi?cation
(51)

Jimmy Tassln, St. Louis, MO (US)

Correspondence Address:

Int. Cl.

360K 16/00
(52)

L.C. BEGIN & ASSOCIATES, PLLC


510 HIGHLAND AVENUE PMB 403
MILFORD, MI 48381 (Us)

Apr. 1, 2010

(200601)

US. Cl. ................................................... .. ISO/65.31

(57)
ABSTRACT
One embodiment of a vehicular poWer generating device for
providing electrical poWer to the vehicle includes an air chan
nel for ducting air Within a vehicular compartment and directs

(21) Appl. No.:

12/557,998

the air toWards a housing. The housing includes a rotatably

(22)

Filed.

sep_ 11, 2009

(60)

Related U's' Apphcatlon Data


Provisional application NO_ 61 /194,859, ?led on Oct

poWer for producing vehicles motivational force. The gen


erator also supplies electricity to various electrical compo

1,2008.

nents of the vehicle.

attached Wheel that rotates When the directed air comes in

contact With vanes of the Wheel. The Wheel is further attached


to a generator that rotates conjointly With the Wheel. The

generator creates electrical energy, Which provides electrical

24
20

~21

22

30

Patent Application Publication

Apr. 1, 2010 Sheet 1 0f 6

FIG. 1

US 2010/0078235 A1

Patent Application Publication

Apr. 1, 2010 Sheet 2 0f 6

US 2010/0078235 A1

A \7|

20

10

f2?)

/_

30

A \7|

FIG. 2

Patent Application Publication

Apr. 1, 2010 Sheet 3 0f 6

US 2010/0078235 A1

24
20

w
(AV
i
30

FIG. 3

Patent Application Publication

Apr. 1, 2010 Sheet 4 0f 6

FIG. 4

US 2010/0078235 A1

Patent Application Publication

Apr. 1, 2010 Sheet 5 0f 6

US 2010/0078235 A1

12

FIG. 5

Patent Application Publication

Apr. 1, 2010 Sheet 6 0f 6

FIG. 6

US 2010/0078235 A1