Sie sind auf Seite 1von 7

Physics assignment 2

Raman scattering or the Raman effect /rmn/ is the inelastic scattering of a photon. It was
discovered by C. V. Raman and K. S. Krishnan in liquids,[1] and by G. Landsberg and L. I.
Mandelstam in crystals.[2] The effect had been predicted theoretically by Adolf Smekal in
1923.When photons are scattered from an atom or molecule, most photons are elastically
scattered (Rayleigh scattering), such that the scattered photons have the same energy
(frequency and wavelength) as the incident photons. A small fraction of the scattered photons
(approximately 1 in 10 million) are scattered by an excitation, with the scattered photons having a
frequency different from, and usually lower than, that of the incident photons. Man effect, change

in the wavelength of light that occurs when a light beam is deflected by molecules.
When a beam of light traverses a dust-free, transparent sample of a chemical
compound, a small fraction of the light emerges in directions other than that of the
incident (incoming) beam. Most of this scattered light is of unchanged wavelength. A
small part, however, has wavelengths different from that of the incident light; its
presence is a result of the Raman effect.The phenomenon is named for Indian
physicist Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, who first published observations of the
effect in 1928. (Austrian physicist Adolf Smekal theoretically described the effect in
1923. It was first observed just one week before Raman by Russian physicists Leonid
Mandelstam and Grigory Landsberg; however, they did not publish their results until
months after Raman.)aman scattering is perhaps most easily understandable if the
incident light is considered as consisting of particles, or photons (with energy
proportional tofrequency), that strike the molecules of the sample. Most of the
encounters are elastic, and the photons are scattered with unchanged energy and
frequency. On some occasions, however, the molecule takes up energy from or gives
up energy to the photons, which are thereby scattered with diminished or increased
energy, hence with lower or higher frequency. The frequency shifts are thus measures
of the amounts of energy involved in the transition between initial and final states of the
scattering molecule.The Raman effect is feeble; for a liquid compound the intensity of
the affected light may be only 1/100,000 of that incident beam. The pattern of the
Raman lines is characteristic of the particular molecular species, and its intensity is
proportional to the number of scattering molecules in the path of the light. Thus, Raman
spectra are used in qualitative and quantitative analysis.The energies corresponding to
the Raman frequency shifts are found to be the energies associated with transitions
between different rotational and vibrational states of the scattering molecule. Pure
rotational shifts are small and difficult to observe, except for those of simple gaseous
molecules. In liquids, rotational motions are hindered, and discrete rotational Raman

lines are not found. Most Raman work is concerned with vibrational transitions, which
give larger shifts observable for gases, liquids, and solids. Gases have low molecular
concentration at ordinary pressures and therefore produce very faint Raman effects;
thus liquids and solids are more frequently studied. Raman spectroscopy employs the
Raman effect for substances analysis. The spectrum of the Raman-scattered light depends on the
molecular constituents present and their state, allowing the spectrum to be used for material
identification and analysis. Raman spectroscopy is used to analyze a wide range of materials,
including gases, liquids, and solids. Highly complex materials such as biological organisms and
human tissue[14] can also be analyzed by Raman spectroscopy.For solid materials, Raman scattering
is used as a tool to detect high-frequency phonon and magnon excitations.Raman lidar is used in
atmospheric physics to measure the atmospheric extinction coefficient and the water vapour vertical
distribution.Stimulated Raman transitions are also widely used for manipulating a trapped ion's
energy levels, and thus basis qubit states.Raman spectroscopy can be used to determine the force
constant and bond length for molecules that do not have an infrared absorption spectrum.Raman
amplification is used in optical amplifiers.For high-intensity continuous wave (CW) lasers, SRS can
be used to produce broad bandwidth spectra. This process can also be seen as a special case
of four-wave mixing, wherein the frequencies of the two incident photons are equal and the emitted
spectra are found in two bands separated from the incident light by the phonon energies. The initial
Raman spectrum is built up with spontaneous emission and is amplified later on. At high pumping
levels in long fibers, higher-order Raman spectra can be generated by using the Raman spectrum as
a new starting point, thereby building a chain of new spectra with decreasing amplitude. The
disadvantage of intrinsic noise due to the initial spontaneous process can be overcome by seeding a
spectrum at the beginning, or even using a feedback loop as in a resonator to stabilize the process.
Since this technology easily fits into the fast evolving fiber laser field and there is demand for
transversal coherent high-intensity light sources (i.e., broadband telecommunication, imaging
applications), Raman amplification and spectrum generation might be widely used in the near-future.

In physics, an inertial frame of reference (also inertial reference frame or inertial
frame or Galilean reference frame or inertial space) is a frame of reference that describes time
and space homogeneously, isotropically, and in a time-independent manner. All inertial frames are in
a state of constant, rectilinear motion with respect to one another; an accelerometer moving with any
of them would detect zero acceleration. Measurements in one inertial frame can be converted to
measurements in another by a simple transformation (the Galilean transformation in Newtonian

physics and the Lorentz transformation in special relativity). In general relativity, in any region small
enough for the curvature of spacetime to be negligible, one can find a set of inertial frames that
approximately describe that region. Physical laws take the same form in all inertial frames.[4] By
contrast, in a non-inertial reference frame the laws of physics vary depending on the acceleration of
that frame with respect to an inertial frame, and the usual physical forces must be supplemented by
fictitious forces.[5][6] For example, a ball dropped towards the ground does not go exactly straight
down because the Earth is rotating. Someone rotating with the Earth must account for the Coriolis
effectin this case thought of as a forceto predict the horizontal motion. Another example of such
a fictitious force associated with rotating reference frames is the centrifugal effect, or centrifugal
force. A non-inertial reference frame is a frame of reference that is undergoing acceleration with
respect to an inertial frame.[1] Anaccelerometer at rest in a non-inertial frame will in general detect a
non-zero acceleration. In a curved spacetime all frames are non-inertial. The laws of motion in noninertial frames do not take the simple form they do in inertial frames, and the laws vary from frame to
frame depending on the acceleration. To explain the motion of bodies entirely within the viewpoint of
non-inertial reference frames, fictitious forces (also called inertial forces, pseudo-forces[4] and
d'Alembert forces) must be introduced to account for the observed motion, such as the Coriolis
force or the centrifugal force, as derived from the acceleration of the non-inertial frame. Bodies
in non-inertial reference frames are subject to so-called fictitious forces (pseudo-forces); that
is, forces that result from the acceleration of the reference frame itself and not from any physical
force acting on the body. Examples of fictitious forces are the centrifugal force and the Coriolis
force in rotating reference frames. How then, are "fictitious" forces to be separated from "real"
forces? It is hard to apply the Newtonian definition of an inertial frame without this separation. For
example, consider a stationary object in an inertial frame. Being at rest, no net force is applied. But
in a frame rotating about a fixed axis, the object appears to move in a circle, and is subject to
centripetal force (which is made up of the Coriolis force and the centrifugal force). How can we
decide that the rotating frame is a non-inertial frame? There are two approaches to this resolution:
one approach is to look for the origin of the fictitious forces (the Coriolis force and the centrifugal
force). We will find there are no sources for these forces, no associated force carriers, no originating
bodies.[39] A second approach is to look at a variety of frames of reference. For any inertial frame, the
Coriolis force and the centrifugal force disappear, so application of the principle of special relativity
would identify these frames where the forces disappear as sharing the same and the simplest
physical laws, and hence rule that the rotating frame is not an inertial frame.
Newton examined this problem himself using rotating spheres, as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3.
He pointed out that if the spheres are not rotating, the tension in the tying string is measured as zero
in every frame of reference.[40] If the spheres only appear to rotate (that is, we are watching stationary
spheres from a rotating frame), the zero tension in the string is accounted for by observing that the
centripetal force is supplied by the centrifugal and Coriolis forces in combination, so no tension is

needed. If the spheres really are rotating, the tension observed is exactly the centripetal force
required by the circular motion. Thus, measurement of the tension in the string identifies the inertial
frame: it is the one where the tension in the string provides exactly the centripetal force demanded
by the motion as it is observed in that frame, and not a different value. That is, the inertial frame is
the one where the fictitious forces vanish. So much for fictitious forces due to rotation.


Spherical aberration is an optical effect observed in an optical device (lens, mirror, etc.) that occurs
due to the increased refraction of light rays when they strike a lens or a reflection of light rays when
they strike a mirror near its edge, in comparison with those that strike nearer the centre. It signifies a
deviation of the device from the norm, i.e., it results in an imperfection of the produced image. A
spherical lens has an aplanatic point (i.e., no spherical aberration) only at a radius that equals the
radius of the sphere divided by the index of refraction of the lens material. A typical value of
refractive index for crown glass is 1.5 (see list), which indicates that only about 43% of the area
(67% of diameter) of a spherical lens is useful. It is often considered to be an imperfection
of telescopes and other instruments which makes their focusing less than ideal due to
the spherical shape of lenses and mirrors. This is an important effect, because spherical shapes are
much easier to produce than aspherical ones. In many cases, it is cheaper to use multiple spherical
elements to compensate for spherical aberration than it is to use a single aspheric lens."Positive"
spherical aberration means peripheral rays are bent too much. "Negative" spherical aberration
means peripheral rays are not bent enough. The effect is proportional to the fourth power of the
diameter and inversely proportional to the third power of the focal length, so it is much more
pronounced at short focal ratios, i.e., "fast" lenses.

In lens systems, the effect can be minimized using special combinations of convex and concave
lenses, as well as using aspheric lenses.
For simple designs one can sometimes calculate parameters that minimize spherical aberration. For
example, in a design consisting of a single lens with spherical surfaces and a given object distance
o, image distance i, and refractive index n, one can minimize spherical aberration by adjusting the
radii of curvature


of the front and back surfaces of the lens such that

For small telescopes using spherical mirrors with focal ratios shorter than f/10, light from a distant
point source (such as a star) is not all focused at the same point. Particularly, light striking the inner
part of the mirror focuses farther from the mirror than light striking the outer part. As a result the
image cannot be focused as sharply as if the aberration were not present. Because of spherical
aberration, telescopes shorter than f/10 are usually made with non-spherical mirrors or with

The amount of spherical aberration in a lens made from spherical

surfaces depends upon its shape. When the concept of principal focal length is used,
the presumption is that all parallel rays focus at the same distance, which is of course
true only if there are no aberrations. The use of the lens equation likewise presumes an
ideal lens, and that equation is practically true only for the rays close to the optic axis,
the so-called paraxial rays. For a lens with spherical aberration, the best
approximation to use for the focal length is the distance at which the difference
between the paraxial and marginal rays is the smallest. It is not perfect, but the
departure from perfect focus forms what is called the "circle of least confusion".
Spherical aberration is one of the reasons why a smaller aperture (larger f-number) on
a camera lens will give a sharper image and greater depth of field since the difference
between the paraxial and marginal rays is less.
correcting lenses.

In physics, thermal conductivity (often denoted k, , or ) is the property of a material to conduct
heat. It is evaluated primarily in terms of Fourier's Law for heat conduction. Heat transfer occurs at a
higher rate across materials of high thermal conductivity than across materials of low thermal
conductivity. Correspondingly, materials of high thermal conductivity are widely used in heat
sink applications and materials of low thermal conductivity are used as thermal insulation. The
thermal conductivity of a material may depend on temperature. The reciprocal of thermal
conductivity is called thermal resistivity.In SI units, thermal conductivity is measured in watts per
meter kelvin (W/(mK)). The dimension of thermal conductivity is M1L1T31. These variables are
(M)mass, (L)length, (T)time, and ()temperature. In Imperial units, thermal conductivity is measured
in BTU/(hrftF). Other units which are closely related to the thermal conductivity are in common use
in the construction and textile industries. The construction industry makes use of units such as the Rvalue (resistance) and the U-value (conductivity). Although related to the thermal conductivity of a
material used in an insulation product, R and U-values are dependent on the thickness of the
product. Likewise the textile industry has several units including the tog and the clo which express
thermal resistance of a material in a way analogous to the R-values used in the construction
industry. There are a number of ways to measure thermal conductivity. Each of these is suitable for a
limited range of materials, depending on the thermal properties and the medium temperature. There
is a distinction between steady-state and transient techniques. In general, steady-state techniques
are useful when the temperature of the material does not change with time. This makes the signal
analysis straightforward (steady state implies constant signals). The disadvantage is that a wellengineered experimental setup is usually needed. The Divided Bar (various types) is the most
common device used for consolidated rock solids. The reciprocal of thermal conductivity is thermal
resistivity, usually expressed in kelvin-meters per watt (KmW 1). For a given thickness of a material,
that particular construction's thermal resistance and the reciprocal property, thermal conductance,
can be calculated. Unfortunately, there are differing definitions for these terms. The effect of
temperature on thermal conductivity is different for metals and nonmetals. In metals conductivity is
primarily due to free electrons. Following the WiedemannFranz law, thermal conductivity of metals
is approximately proportional to the absolute temperature (in kelvin) times electrical conductivity. In
pure metals the electrical conductivity decreases with increasing temperature and thus the product
of the two, the thermal conductivity, stays approximately constant. In alloys the change in electrical
conductivity is usually smaller and thus thermal conductivity increases with temperature, often
proportionally to temperature. On the other hand, heat conductivity in nonmetals is mainly due to
lattice vibrations (phonons). Except for high quality crystals at low temperatures, the phonon mean
free path is not reduced significantly at higher temperatures. Thus, the thermal conductivity of
nonmetals is approximately constant at low temperatures. At low temperatures well below theDebye
temperature, thermal conductivity decreases, as does the heat capacity.