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BSEE IV -3

DC Machine ( ELEN 3444)

Prof. Engr. Vilma Perez

1) State the law of electrostatic explains and give example.

COULOMBS LAW (LAW OF ELECTRIC FORCE)

First law of electric force:

Like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other.

Second law of electric force:

The force of attraction or repulsion between charges is directly proportional to the

product of two charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance

between them.

Q1 &Q2 = Charge In each body (SI unit: Coulomb and CGS unit:

Statcoulomb)

1 Coulomb = 3 x

10

Statcoulomb

1012

d = r = distance between the two bodies (SI unit: meter and CGS

unit: centimeter)

k = constant in SI units equal to 9 x

109

What is electrostatic induction?

Modification in the distribution of electric charge on one material under the

influence of nearby objects that have electric charge. Thus, because of the electric

force between charged particles that constitute materials, a negatively charged

object brought near an electrically neutral object induces a positive charge on the

near side and a negative charge on the far side of the neutral object. The neutral

object, furthermore, may sometimes become charged positively by induction, if its

negative part is grounded momentarily to permit the negative charge to escape.

Electrostatic induction occurs whenever any object is placed in an electric field.

The force per unit charge that will act at a point in the field on a very small test

charge placed at that location.

Electric field intensity exerts an electric force on any other charged object within the

field.

d = distance in meters of the test charge (1C) to the charge (Q) body

Field intensity outside an isolated sphere in free space

It is the field intensity of a summation of charge that creates a sphere like figure.

Where: E = electric field intensity (volt per meter) at a distance r (meter) from the

center of an isolated charged sphere located in free space.

Q = total charge (coulomb) which is distributed uniformly on the sphere.

Electric field intensity created by an isolated, charge long cylindrical wire

in free space

- It is the field intensity of a summation of charge that creates a cylindrical like

figure.

= charge per unit of length (coulomb per meter) distributed uniformly over

the surface of the isolated cylinder.

r = distance in meter from the center of the cylinder to the point at which the

electric field intensity is evaluated.

What is potential and potential difference?

Potential difference defined as the work done in transferring a unit positive charge

from one point to other.

A positive charge q in an electric field of intensity E experience a force, when q is

moved from one point A to another B in the field work is done. If this field work done

it is divided by the charge, the result is the potential difference A and B.

Potential at point can be defined if some arbitrary point is taken as a reference

having zero or definite potential.

3) State the laws of magnetic force. Define pole strength, permeability, absolute

permeability, magnetic potential, magnetizing force, flux density.

LAW OF MAGNETIC FORCE

- The magnetic field B is defined from the Lorentz Force Law, and specifically

from the magnetic force on a moving charge:

1. The force is perpendicular to both the velocity v of the charge q and the magnetic

field B.

2. The magnitude of the force is F = qvB sin where is the angle < 180 degrees

between the velocity and the magnetic field. This implies that the magnetic force on

a stationary charge or a charge moving parallel to the magnetic field is zero.

3. The direction of the force is given by the right hand rule. The force relationship

above is in the form of a vector product.

When the magnetic force relationship is applied to a current-carrying wire, the righthand rule may be used to determine the direction of force on the wire.

From the force relationship above it can be deduced that the units of magnetic field

are Newton seconds /(Coulomb meter) or Newtons per Ampere meter. This unit is

named the Tesla. It is a large unit, and the smaller unit Gauss is used for small fields

like the Earth's magnetic field. A Tesla is 10,000 Gauss. The Earth's magnetic field at

the surface is on the order of half a Gauss.

POLE STRENGHT

- A quantity that corresponds to the amount of magnetic flux emanating from a

given magnetic pole and expressed in terms of the unit magnetic pole.

\

PERMEABILITY

- It is the measure of the ability of a material to support the formation of a

magnetic field within itself. Hence, it is the degree of magnetization that a

material obtains in response to an applied magnetic field. Magnetic

permeability is typically represented by the Greek letter .

- The ability of a material to conduct a magnetic flux through it.

= magnetic flux density (tesla)

H = magnetic flux intensity (ampere turn per meter)

ABSOLUTE PERMEABILITY

- It is the ratio of the magnetic flux density to the intensity of the magnetic

field in a medium. The measurement is in webers per square meter in the

meter-kilogram-second system. It is also known as induced capacity.

MAGNETIC POTENTIAL

- A magnetic dipole moment in a magnetic field will possess potential

energywhich depends upon its orientation with respect to the magnetic field.

Since magnetic sources are inherently dipole sources which can be visualized

as a current loop with current I and area A, the energy is usually expressed in

terms of the magnetic dipole moment:

where

The energy is expressed as a scalar product, and implies that the energy is

lowest when the magnetic moment is aligned with the magnetic field. The

difference in energy between aligned and anti-aligned is

The expression for magnetic potential energy can be developed from the

expression for the magnetic torque on a current loop.

MAGNETIC POTENTIAL

- It is the part of the magnetic induction that is determined at any point in

space by the current density and displacement current at any point

independently of the magnetic or other physical properties of the surrounding

medium.

FLUX DENSITY

- It is a measure or rate of flow of a fluid, particles or energy per unit area.

4) What is electromagnetism, force on the current carrying conductor in the magnetic field, magnetizing

force of a long straight conductor, magnetizing force of a long solenoid, force between two parallel

conductors.

4.1 Electromagnetism

-In the relationship between electricity and magnetism, magnetic flux exists in

circles around the conductor (where there is no other magnetic field in the

vicinity).These circles have their centers at the axis of the conductor, and their

planes are perpendicular to the conductor. The direction of this magnetic field

depends on the direction of the current. If a cylindrical conductor carrying current is

brought vertically downwards through the sheet of cardboard, iron filings sprinkled

on the cardboard from circles from circles concentric with the conductor. There are

two simple rules by which the relationship between direction of the current in a

conductor and the direction of the magnetic field surrounding the conductor are

determined:

4.1.1 Hand Rule

-Grasp the conductor in the right hand with the thumb pointing in the

direction of the current. The fingers will then point in the direction of the lines in

flux.

4.1.2 Corkscrew Rule

-The direction of the current and that of the resulting magnetic field are

related to each other as the forward travel of a corkscrew and the direction in which

it rotated.

4.2 Force on the current carrying conductor in magnetic field.

-Conductor carrying currents in the same directions tend to be drawn together;

conductors carrying currents in opposite directions tend to be repelled from one

another. All electric circuits tend to take such a position as will make their currents

parallel and flowing in the same direction.

Where: F = force (newton)

= flux density (tesla)

I = current (ampere)

L = length of conductor (meter)

4.3 Magnetizing force of a long straight conductor

-Current running through a wire will produce both an electric field and magnetic

field. For a closed curve and magnetic field related to current as in Amperes law.

This can be related to the Biot-Savart law. For a straight length of conductor this law

generally generates partial magnetic field as a function of current for a segment of

wire at a point distance away from the conductor.

F=(2 x 107 )( I )( I )

L

d

4.4 Magnetizing force of a long solenoid

- A solenoid is a coil of wire designed to create a strong magnetic field inside the

coil. By wrapping the same wire many times around a cylinder, the magnetic field

due to the wires can become quite strong. The number of turns refers to the number

of loops the solenoid has. More loops will bring about a stronger magnetic field.

Ampere's law can be applied to find the magnetic field inside of a long solenoid as a

function of the number of turns per length and the current. The magnetic field

inside a solenoid is proportional to both the applied current and the number of turns

per unit length. Theres no dependence on the diameter of the solenoid or even on

the fact that the wires were wrapped around a cylinder and not a rectangular shape.

The magnetic field is constant inside the solenoid.

F=

L

Where: N = no. of turns of solenoid

I = current carrying on solenoid (ampere)

4.5 Force between two parallel conductors

- Parallel wires carrying current produce significant magnetic fields, which in turn

produce significant forces on currents. The force felt between the wires is used to

define the standard unit of current, known as an ampere. If the currents are in the

same direction, the force attracts the wires. If the currents are in opposite

directions, the force repels the wires.

F=

2 KI I L

r

Where: F = force (newton)

K=

107 w/amp-m

R = distance between the two conductor

Permeance, Reluctivity, Dynamically Induced Emf, Statically Induced Emf and Self

Induced Emf.

Magnetic circuit, closed path to which a magnetic field, represented as lines of

magnetic flux, is confined. In contrast to an electric circuit through which electric

charge flows, nothing actually flows in a magnetic circuit.

In a ring-shaped electromagnet with a small air gap, the magnetic field or flux is

almost entirely confined to the metal core and the air gap, which together form the

magnetic circuit. In an electric motor, the magnetic field is largely confined to

the magnetic pole pieces, the rotor, the air gaps between the rotor and the pole

pieces, and the metal frame. Each magnetic field line makes a complete unbroken

loop. All the lines together constitute the total flux. If the flux is divided, so that part

of it is confined to a portion of the device and part to another, the magnetic circuit

is called parallel. If all the flux is confined to a single closed loop, as in a ring-shaped

electromagnet, the circuit is called a series magnetic circuit.

In analogy to an electric circuit in which the current, the electromotive

force(voltage), and the resistance are related by Ohms law (current equals

electromotive force divided by resistance), a similar relation has been developed to

describe a magnetic circuit.

The magnetic flux is analogous to the electric current. The magnetomotive force,

mmf, is analogous to the electromotive force and may be considered the factor that

sets up the flux. The mmf is equivalent to a number of turns of wire carrying an

electric current and has units of ampere-turns. If either the current through a coil

(as in an electromagnet) or the number of turns of wire in the coil is increased, the

mmf is greater; and if the rest of the magnetic circuit remains the same, the

magnetic flux increases proportionally.

The reluctance of a magnetic circuit is analogous to the resistance of an electric

circuit. Reluctance depends on the geometrical and material properties of the circuit

that offer opposition to the presence of magnetic flux. Reluctance of a given part of

a magnetic circuit is proportional to its length and inversely proportional to its crosssectional area and a magnetic property of the given material called its

permeability. Iron, for example, has an extremely high permeability as compared

to air so that it has a comparatively small reluctance, or it offers relatively little

opposition to the presence of magnetic flux. In a series magnetic circuit, the total

reluctance equals the sum of the individual reluctances encountered around the

closed flux path. In a magnetic circuit, in summary, the magnetic flux is

quantitatively equal to the magnetomotive force divided by the reluctance.

Permeance, in general, is the degree to which a material admits a flow

of matter or energy.

Permeance is the inverse of reluctance. Permeance is a measure of the quantity

of flux for a number of current-turns in magnetic circuit. A magnetic circuit almost

acts as though the flux is 'conducted', therefore permeance is larger for large cross

sections of a material and smaller for longer lengths. This concept is analogous

to electrical conductance in the electric circuit.

Magnetic permeance

the reciprocal of the permeability of the circuit.

When a flux linking a coil or conductor changes, an EMF is induced to it.

Methods of Inducing EMF in a conductor

1. Dynamically Induced EMF

-Self Induced EMF

If the conductor is moved in a stationary magnetic field in such a way that the flux

linkages with it changes, then its Dynamically Induced EMF.

Statically Induced EMF The EMF is induced in the conductor when the conductor

is in stationary and the field is changing.

Self-Induced EMF It is the EMF which is induced in the conductor by changing in

its own. When current is changing the magnetic field is also changing around the

coil and hence Faraday law is applied here and EMF are induced in the coil to itself.

Any electrical circuit in which the change of current is accompanied by the change

of flux and thereby induced EMF is said to be inductive or to possess selfinductance.

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