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Manuel, Michael Brian D.

DC Machine ( ELEN 3444)
Prof. Engr. Vilma Perez
1) State the law of electrostatic explains and give example.
First law of electric force:
Like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other.
Second law of electric force:
The force of attraction or repulsion between charges is directly proportional to the
product of two charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance
between them.

Where: F = force (SI units: Newton and CGS units: Dynes)

Q1 &Q2 = Charge In each body (SI unit: Coulomb and CGS unit:
1 Coulomb = 3 x



o =absolute permittivity = 8.854 x


farad per meter

r = relative permittivity or dielectric constant = 1, for free space

d = r = distance between the two bodies (SI unit: meter and CGS
unit: centimeter)
k = constant in SI units equal to 9 x


2) Define the following:

What is electrostatic induction?
Modification in the distribution of electric charge on one material under the
influence of nearby objects that have electric charge. Thus, because of the electric
force between charged particles that constitute materials, a negatively charged
object brought near an electrically neutral object induces a positive charge on the
near side and a negative charge on the far side of the neutral object. The neutral
object, furthermore, may sometimes become charged positively by induction, if its
negative part is grounded momentarily to permit the negative charge to escape.
Electrostatic induction occurs whenever any object is placed in an electric field.

What is electric field intensity?

The force per unit charge that will act at a point in the field on a very small test
charge placed at that location.
Electric field intensity exerts an electric force on any other charged object within the

Where: E = electric intensity (newton per coulomb)

d = distance in meters of the test charge (1C) to the charge (Q) body
Field intensity outside an isolated sphere in free space
It is the field intensity of a summation of charge that creates a sphere like figure.

Where: E = electric field intensity (volt per meter) at a distance r (meter) from the
center of an isolated charged sphere located in free space.
Q = total charge (coulomb) which is distributed uniformly on the sphere.
Electric field intensity created by an isolated, charge long cylindrical wire
in free space
- It is the field intensity of a summation of charge that creates a cylindrical like

Where: E = electric field (volt per meter)

= charge per unit of length (coulomb per meter) distributed uniformly over
the surface of the isolated cylinder.
r = distance in meter from the center of the cylinder to the point at which the
electric field intensity is evaluated.
What is potential and potential difference?
Potential difference defined as the work done in transferring a unit positive charge
from one point to other.
A positive charge q in an electric field of intensity E experience a force, when q is
moved from one point A to another B in the field work is done. If this field work done
it is divided by the charge, the result is the potential difference A and B.

What is potential at a point due to a charge

Potential at point can be defined if some arbitrary point is taken as a reference
having zero or definite potential.

3) State the laws of magnetic force. Define pole strength, permeability, absolute
permeability, magnetic potential, magnetizing force, flux density.
- The magnetic field B is defined from the Lorentz Force Law, and specifically
from the magnetic force on a moving charge:

The implications of this expression include:

1. The force is perpendicular to both the velocity v of the charge q and the magnetic
field B.
2. The magnitude of the force is F = qvB sin where is the angle < 180 degrees
between the velocity and the magnetic field. This implies that the magnetic force on
a stationary charge or a charge moving parallel to the magnetic field is zero.
3. The direction of the force is given by the right hand rule. The force relationship
above is in the form of a vector product.

When the magnetic force relationship is applied to a current-carrying wire, the righthand rule may be used to determine the direction of force on the wire.
From the force relationship above it can be deduced that the units of magnetic field
are Newton seconds /(Coulomb meter) or Newtons per Ampere meter. This unit is
named the Tesla. It is a large unit, and the smaller unit Gauss is used for small fields

like the Earth's magnetic field. A Tesla is 10,000 Gauss. The Earth's magnetic field at
the surface is on the order of half a Gauss.
- A quantity that corresponds to the amount of magnetic flux emanating from a
given magnetic pole and expressed in terms of the unit magnetic pole.

- It is the measure of the ability of a material to support the formation of a
magnetic field within itself. Hence, it is the degree of magnetization that a
material obtains in response to an applied magnetic field. Magnetic
permeability is typically represented by the Greek letter .
- The ability of a material to conduct a magnetic flux through it.

Where: = permeability of material (henry per meter)

= magnetic flux density (tesla)
H = magnetic flux intensity (ampere turn per meter)
- It is the ratio of the magnetic flux density to the intensity of the magnetic
field in a medium. The measurement is in webers per square meter in the
meter-kilogram-second system. It is also known as induced capacity.
- A magnetic dipole moment in a magnetic field will possess potential
energywhich depends upon its orientation with respect to the magnetic field.
Since magnetic sources are inherently dipole sources which can be visualized
as a current loop with current I and area A, the energy is usually expressed in
terms of the magnetic dipole moment:
The energy is expressed as a scalar product, and implies that the energy is
lowest when the magnetic moment is aligned with the magnetic field. The
difference in energy between aligned and anti-aligned is

The expression for magnetic potential energy can be developed from the
expression for the magnetic torque on a current loop.
- It is the part of the magnetic induction that is determined at any point in
space by the current density and displacement current at any point
independently of the magnetic or other physical properties of the surrounding
- It is a measure or rate of flow of a fluid, particles or energy per unit area.
4) What is electromagnetism, force on the current carrying conductor in the magnetic field, magnetizing
force of a long straight conductor, magnetizing force of a long solenoid, force between two parallel
4.1 Electromagnetism
-In the relationship between electricity and magnetism, magnetic flux exists in
circles around the conductor (where there is no other magnetic field in the
vicinity).These circles have their centers at the axis of the conductor, and their
planes are perpendicular to the conductor. The direction of this magnetic field
depends on the direction of the current. If a cylindrical conductor carrying current is
brought vertically downwards through the sheet of cardboard, iron filings sprinkled
on the cardboard from circles from circles concentric with the conductor. There are
two simple rules by which the relationship between direction of the current in a
conductor and the direction of the magnetic field surrounding the conductor are
4.1.1 Hand Rule
-Grasp the conductor in the right hand with the thumb pointing in the
direction of the current. The fingers will then point in the direction of the lines in
4.1.2 Corkscrew Rule
-The direction of the current and that of the resulting magnetic field are
related to each other as the forward travel of a corkscrew and the direction in which
it rotated.
4.2 Force on the current carrying conductor in magnetic field.
-Conductor carrying currents in the same directions tend to be drawn together;
conductors carrying currents in opposite directions tend to be repelled from one

another. All electric circuits tend to take such a position as will make their currents
parallel and flowing in the same direction.
Where: F = force (newton)
= flux density (tesla)
I = current (ampere)
L = length of conductor (meter)
4.3 Magnetizing force of a long straight conductor
-Current running through a wire will produce both an electric field and magnetic
field. For a closed curve and magnetic field related to current as in Amperes law.
This can be related to the Biot-Savart law. For a straight length of conductor this law
generally generates partial magnetic field as a function of current for a segment of
wire at a point distance away from the conductor.

F=(2 x 107 )( I )( I )


Where: d = distance between the two wire (meter)

4.4 Magnetizing force of a long solenoid
- A solenoid is a coil of wire designed to create a strong magnetic field inside the
coil. By wrapping the same wire many times around a cylinder, the magnetic field
due to the wires can become quite strong. The number of turns refers to the number
of loops the solenoid has. More loops will bring about a stronger magnetic field.
Ampere's law can be applied to find the magnetic field inside of a long solenoid as a
function of the number of turns per length and the current. The magnetic field
inside a solenoid is proportional to both the applied current and the number of turns
per unit length. Theres no dependence on the diameter of the solenoid or even on
the fact that the wires were wrapped around a cylinder and not a rectangular shape.
The magnetic field is constant inside the solenoid.

Where: N = no. of turns of solenoid
I = current carrying on solenoid (ampere)
4.5 Force between two parallel conductors
- Parallel wires carrying current produce significant magnetic fields, which in turn
produce significant forces on currents. The force felt between the wires is used to
define the standard unit of current, known as an ampere. If the currents are in the
same direction, the force attracts the wires. If the currents are in opposite
directions, the force repels the wires.


2 KI I L
Where: F = force (newton)

107 w/amp-m

I & I = current carrying of the two conductor

R = distance between the two conductor

5.) Define the following: Magnetic Circuit, Magnetomotive Force, Reluctance,

Permeance, Reluctivity, Dynamically Induced Emf, Statically Induced Emf and Self
Induced Emf.
Magnetic circuit, closed path to which a magnetic field, represented as lines of
magnetic flux, is confined. In contrast to an electric circuit through which electric
charge flows, nothing actually flows in a magnetic circuit.
In a ring-shaped electromagnet with a small air gap, the magnetic field or flux is
almost entirely confined to the metal core and the air gap, which together form the
magnetic circuit. In an electric motor, the magnetic field is largely confined to
the magnetic pole pieces, the rotor, the air gaps between the rotor and the pole
pieces, and the metal frame. Each magnetic field line makes a complete unbroken
loop. All the lines together constitute the total flux. If the flux is divided, so that part
of it is confined to a portion of the device and part to another, the magnetic circuit

is called parallel. If all the flux is confined to a single closed loop, as in a ring-shaped
electromagnet, the circuit is called a series magnetic circuit.
In analogy to an electric circuit in which the current, the electromotive
force(voltage), and the resistance are related by Ohms law (current equals
electromotive force divided by resistance), a similar relation has been developed to
describe a magnetic circuit.
The magnetic flux is analogous to the electric current. The magnetomotive force,
mmf, is analogous to the electromotive force and may be considered the factor that
sets up the flux. The mmf is equivalent to a number of turns of wire carrying an
electric current and has units of ampere-turns. If either the current through a coil
(as in an electromagnet) or the number of turns of wire in the coil is increased, the
mmf is greater; and if the rest of the magnetic circuit remains the same, the
magnetic flux increases proportionally.
The reluctance of a magnetic circuit is analogous to the resistance of an electric
circuit. Reluctance depends on the geometrical and material properties of the circuit
that offer opposition to the presence of magnetic flux. Reluctance of a given part of
a magnetic circuit is proportional to its length and inversely proportional to its crosssectional area and a magnetic property of the given material called its
permeability. Iron, for example, has an extremely high permeability as compared
to air so that it has a comparatively small reluctance, or it offers relatively little
opposition to the presence of magnetic flux. In a series magnetic circuit, the total
reluctance equals the sum of the individual reluctances encountered around the
closed flux path. In a magnetic circuit, in summary, the magnetic flux is
quantitatively equal to the magnetomotive force divided by the reluctance.
Permeance, in general, is the degree to which a material admits a flow
of matter or energy.
Permeance is the inverse of reluctance. Permeance is a measure of the quantity
of flux for a number of current-turns in magnetic circuit. A magnetic circuit almost
acts as though the flux is 'conducted', therefore permeance is larger for large cross
sections of a material and smaller for longer lengths. This concept is analogous
to electrical conductance in the electric circuit.
Magnetic permeance

is defined as the reciprocal of magnetic reluctance

Reluctivity is the tendency of a magnetic circuit to conduct magnetic flux, equal to

the reciprocal of the permeability of the circuit.
When a flux linking a coil or conductor changes, an EMF is induced to it.
Methods of Inducing EMF in a conductor
1. Dynamically Induced EMF

2. Statically Induced EMF

-Self Induced EMF
If the conductor is moved in a stationary magnetic field in such a way that the flux
linkages with it changes, then its Dynamically Induced EMF.
Statically Induced EMF The EMF is induced in the conductor when the conductor
is in stationary and the field is changing.
Self-Induced EMF It is the EMF which is induced in the conductor by changing in
its own. When current is changing the magnetic field is also changing around the
coil and hence Faraday law is applied here and EMF are induced in the coil to itself.
Any electrical circuit in which the change of current is accompanied by the change
of flux and thereby induced EMF is said to be inductive or to possess selfinductance.