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2. Diagram of different network topologies.Department of

3. IntroductionA topology refers to both the physical and

logical layout of a network. The physical topology of a network refers to

the actual layout of the computer cables and other network devices.
The logical topology of a network, on the other hand, refers to the way
in which the network appears to the devices that use it.Department of

4. TypesSeveral topologies are in use for networks today.

Some of the more common include.Bus topologyRing topologyStar
topologyMesh topologyTree topologyDepartment of CE/IT

5. Bus TopologyAll devices are connected to a central cable,

called the bus or backbone. Department of CE/IT

6. Advantages Compared to other topologies, a bus is cheap

and easy to implement.Requires less cable than other topologies.Does
not use any specialized network equipment.Department of CE/IT

7. DisadvantagesThere might be network disruption when

computers are added or removed.Because all systems on the network
connect to a single backbone, a break in the cable will prevent all
systems from accessing the network.Difficult to
troubleshoot.Department of CE/IT

8. Ring TopologyAll devices are connected to one another in

the shape of a closed loop, so that each device is connected directly to
two other devices, one on either side of it. Department of CE/IT

9. AdvantagesCable faults are easily located, making

troubleshooting easier.Ring networks are moderately easy to
install.Department of CE/IT

10. Disadvantages Expansion to the network can cause

network disruption.A single break in the cable can disrupt the entire
network.Department of CE/IT
11. Star TopologyIn the star topology, all computers and other

network devices connect to a central device called a hub or switch.

Each connected device requires a single cable to be connected to the
hub, creating a point-to-point connection between the device and the
hub.Using a separate cable to connect to the hub allows the network to
be expanded without disruption to the network. A break in any single
cable will not cause the entire network to fail. Department of CE/IT

12. Star TopologyDepartment of CE/IT

13. Advantages Star networks are easily expanded without

disruption to the network.Cable failure affects only a single user.Easy
to troubleshoot and isolate problems.Department of CE/IT
14. Disadvantages Requires more cable than most of the other

topologies.A central connecting device allows for a single point of

failure.More difficult than other topologies to implement.Department of

15. Mesh TopologyThe mesh topology incorporates a unique

network design in which each computer on the network connects to
every other, creating a point-to-point connection between every device
on the network. The purpose of the mesh design is to provide a high
level of redundancy. If one network cable fails, the data always has an
alternative path to get to its destination.Department of CE/IT

16. Mesh topologyDepartment of CE/IT

17. AdvantagesProvides redundant paths between devicesThe

network can be expanded without disruption to current
users.Department of CE/IT

18. Disadvantages Requires more cable than the other LAN

topologies.Complicated implementation.Department of CE/IT

19. Tree topologyTree topologies are comprised of the multiple

star topologies on a bus. Tree topologies integrate multiple star
topologies together onto a bus. Only the hub devices can connect
directly with the tree bus and each Hub functions as a root of a tree of
the network devices. This bus/star/hybrid combination supports future
expandability of the computer networks, much better than a bus or
star.Department of CE/IT

20. Tree TopologyDepartment of CE/IT

21. Advantages It is the best topology for a large computer

network for which a star topology or ring topology are unsuitable due to
the sheer scale of the entire network. Tree topology divides the whole
network into parts that are more easily manageable.Tree topology
makes it possible to have a point to point network.All computers have
access to their immediate neighbors in the network and also the
central hub. This kind of network makes it possible for multiple network
devices to be connected with the central hub.Department of CE/IT

22. AdvantageIt overcomes the limitation of star network

topology, which has a limitation of hub connection points and the
broadcast traffic induced limitation of a bus network topology.A tree
network provides enough room for future expansion of a
network.Department of CE/IT

23. DisadvantageDependence of the entire network on one

central hub is a point of vulnerability for this topology.A failure of the
central hub or failure of the main data trunk cable, can cripple the
whole network.With increase in size beyond a point, the management
becomes difficult.Department of CE/IT