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Importance of Theories

-they explain things

-they predict
-yung mga inaaral natin ay based sa theories
-ginagamit natin to para magjustify (hal. ethical theories
na ginagamit din natin for decision making)
If the foundation of theory is wrong, then the whole
theory is wrong
Theory should have:
-logical consistency (di dapat kinocontradict sarili nya)
-consistency (fits well with established facts)
-testability (same result lagi)
Personal experiences = prejudices kaya di tayo
makarecognize ng ok na theory
Types of Statements
-1. empirical statements (facts, nagdedescribe, pwede
-2. religious statements (belief, faith)
-value statements (3. aesthetic-ganda mo; 4. ethics-bait
- 5. Logical statements (statement that can be or
cannot be = contingency), can be absurd
Ethical theories
-descriptive theory
-they tell us what to do
-(considerations) benefits, outcomes, nature of the act
-make sense of human actions
-explanations, understanding, justification
[1]Erklaren explain (science is about explanation:
human action physiologically)
[2]Verstehen special class of making sense;
understanding; di sya scientific pero basic knowledge
nung mga bagay na natututunan sa culture
[3]Prediction di predictive ang ethical theories
Statement truth claim
Sentence can be a question
Any claim when stated will have value (Contingency)
Tautology true in every possible interpretation

Murder intentional, Killing accident (permissible)

Absolute Relativism untenable, you cannot sustain it;
extreme form of relativism which asserts that all truths
are equal and completely dependent upon some
external or contextual factors. Most forms of relativism
are not this extreme
Ethics perspective prescriptive, making decision on
certain standards
[1]Inductive (Matters of fact, statistics, pattern)
[2]Deductive (umulan therefore basa ang lupa)
Is Morality Subjective or Relative?
-indeterminate meaning, (ambiguous words-multiple
meanings), (vague-unclear)
-obscure (definite meaning but you dont know what it
-ambivalent: andami kasing ibat ibang tingin dun sa
tao; di sure pero nilulook forward
-kung subjective pseudoquestion to
-may homogenous idea
-argument stopper sya (pwede iresolve)
*We have diff conceptions of what is right and wrong
(finite ang value)
Justification: (logical or moral)
[2]Passion (Act more when you appeal to desire and
Moral: judgement, smooth transition between premise
and conclusion
Ethical Value transcend practices and everything else
Value valuable in itself or dahil may something good
sa kanya?
[1] empirical (true or false)
[2] aesthetic (scarcity, effect)
[3] moral (sharedness, public truth, life)
[1] Inductive Reasoning -Reasoning, conclusion not
inescapable, conclusion characterized by probability

-I think therefore(type of expression) I am(conclusion)

[2] Analog like, something similar
[3]Moral more or not analogous, sabi ng moral school
its just a matter of certainty daw

[3] Negative contrast (di ka nagdedefine talaga)

[4] Analytic/Theoretical logical definition
[5] Precising measure
[6] Stipulative not content with dictionary definition

Standards of Judge
[1]Relevance of Similarities
[2]Number of Similarities(Characteristics)
[3]Degree of Similarity
[4]Number of primary analogates(experiences)
[5]Diversity among primary analogates
[6]Specificity of conclusion(weaker)

Student learns, apply, studies

Virtuous student ka? Valid lang yan kung Virtuous
student ka rin. (All or Nothing) Pero di ibig sabihin
perfect ka kasi may room for error ka pa e.
Virtue walang extremes, tapos pwede may ibat ibang

Pagtaas ng disanalogy, pagbaba nung argument

Bet ng mga tao na makita ang halaga ng purpose ng


Consequences not enough to hold moral judgment

Issue of causality (moralhappy or happymoral)

Reasoning (Moral)
[1] Inductive moral argument (specific to general)
[2] Deductive bet natin to kasi gusto natin na yung
moral argument ay perfect or inevitable (general to

*Association NOT Causation

Degree of Certainty and Degree of Specificity

approxat least (bolder,strengthen)

Avoiding consequences leads to seeing purpose.

-ethics hinges on proper function(purpose, final cause)
-Happiness = human flourishing
-someone chosen by a virtuous person(?)
Virtue ethics is a broad term for theories that
emphasize the role of character and virtue in moral
philosophy rather than either doing ones duty or acting
in order to bring about good consequences.
Division of Definition
Deferendum word being described
Defenient expression used to describe
Virtuous person do the right action (may moderation
unlike nung sa vices na puro indulge lang)
Types of Definition
[1] Lexical dictionary
[2] Oxtensive point

Being moral doesnt really mean that you are virtuous

(Avoid pain not because you see the good in itdoing

Practice compassion compassionate