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Deflections in beams

Dr Alessandro Palmeri
Senior Lecturer in Structural Engineering
<A.Palmeri@lboro.ac.uk>

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Learning Outcomes

When we have completed this unit (3 lectures + 1


tutorial), you should be able to:
Use the double integration technique to
determine transverse deflections in slender
beams under distributed and/or concentrated
loads

Schedule:

Lecture #1: Double integration method


Lecture #2: Macaulays notation
Lecture #3: Numerical application
Tutorial

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Lecture #1

DOUBLE INTEGRATION
METHOD

Introduction
Structural

members must have:

Strength (ULS: Ultimate Limit State)


Stiffness (SLS: Serviceability Limit State)
Need

to limit deflection because:

Cracking
Appearance
Comfort
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Engineering Structures,Volume 56, 2013, 1346 - 1361

Introduction

Standards typically limit deflection of beams by fixing


the maximum allowable deflection in terms of span:
e.g. span/360 for steel beams designed according to
Eurocode 3

Deflections in beams may occur under working loads,


where the structure is usually in the linear elastic
range

Theyare therefore checked using an elastic analysis

no matter whether elastic or plastic theory has been used


in the design for strength
Well introduce some basic concepts of plastic analysis for ductile
beams in bending later this semester

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Introduction
Many

methods are available for calculating


deflection in beams, but broadly speaking
they are based on two different
approaches
a) Differential equation of beams in bending

This approach will be considered in this module

b) Energy methods

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e.g.Virtual Work Principle

Curvature
From

the simple theory of bending we

have:

1
M
=
R EI
where
E is the Youngs modulus of the material
I is the second moment of area
1/R is referred as beams curvature
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Curvature

For a plane curve uz(x) in the xz plane, the curvature 1/Ry


(about the orthogonal axis y) is given by:
x
d 2uz

dx 2
1
=
Ry du 2
1+ z
dx

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y
Ry

z
If duz/dx is small, then (duz/dx)2 can be considered negligible
d 2uz
1
Thus:

Ry
dx 2
And so:

My
E I yy

d 2uz
=
dx 2

Sign convention

Mostly vertical loads act vertically


Downward deflection uz is +ve

Already chosen bending moment convention


Sagging moment My is +ve

We must reconcile these two choices:


load

slope

x
z

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duz
>0
dx

curvature

x
z

d 2uz
2

>0

dx
But this is the
shape of hogging
bending moment,
i.e. My<0

Differential equation of slender


beams in bending

Taking into account the correct sign convention


for deflection and bending moment, we have:

d 2uz (x)
E I yy
= M y (x)
2
dx
This is the starting point of the double integration
method, which enables one to evaluate slope duz/dx
and deflection uz in a slender beam in bending
Note that in the above equation:
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Iyy means second moment of area about the horizontal axis y


My means bending moment about the same axis (depends on x)
uz is the vertical deflection (also depends on x)

Double integration method

The differential equation of beams in bending


must be integrated twice with respect to the
abscissa x
The minus sign in the right-hand side is crucial

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Since the bending moment My usually varies along


the beam, therefore we need to write the
mathematical expression of My=My(x)

As we are solving a 2nd-order differential


equation, 2 integration constants, C1 and C2, will
arise

Boundary conditions
The

integration constants C1 and C2 are


determined from the known boundary
conditions, i.e. conditions at the supports
Simple support
No deflection
uz=0

Fixed support
No deflection and no slope

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uz=0 and duz/dx=0

Worked example
Determine

deflection and slope at the free


end B of a cantilever beam of length L
subjected to a uniformly distributed load qz
subscript z means that the load acts vertically
qz
MA

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A
z
RA

B
L

Worked example

qz
MA

A
z
RA

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B
L

1st, determine the


supports reactions:

V = 0
RA qz L = 0
RA = qz L ()
M (A) = 0
L
M A qz L = 0
2
qz L2
MA =
()
2

Worked example

qz
MA

A
z
RA

B
L

2nd, write down the


expression of the
bending moment My as
a function of the
abscissa x along the
beams axis:

qz x 2
M y = M A + RA x
2
qz L2
qz x 2
=
+ qz L x
2
2

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Worked example
The

differential equation for the beams


deflection reads:
d 2uz
qz L2
qz x 2
E I yy 2 = M y =
qz L x +
2
2
dx

3rd, we

can integrate twice:


2

duz qz L
qz L x
qz x
E I yy
=
x
+
+ C1
dx
2
2
6
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qz L2 2 qz L x 3 qz x 4
E I yy uz =
x
+
+ C1 x + C2
4
6
24

Worked example

4th, the known boundary conditions at the fixed support (i.e.


no deflection and no slope at left-hand side end A):

duz
= 0 @ x = 0 C1 = 0
dx
u z = 0 @ x = 0 C2 = 0

Substituting now the values of the integration constants C1


and C2, the expressions for slope and deflection throughout
the beam become:
2
duz
qz L x 2 qz x 3
1 qz L
=
x
+

dx E I yy 2
2
6

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2
3
4
1 qz L 2 qz L x qz x
uz =
x
+

EI 4
6
24

Worked example

5th, intuitively we
know that slope and
deflection in the
cantilever beam take
the maximum values at
the free end B

By substituting x=L in
the general expression
of the slope along the
beam, we get:

qz
MA

A
z
RA

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B
L

2
duz
qz L L2 qz L3
qz L3
1 qz L
(> 0, )
dx = E I 2 L 2 + 6 = 6 E I
yy

yy
B

Worked example

qz
MA

A
z
RA

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B
L

Similarly, by
substituting x=L in the
general expression of
the deflection, we have:

2
3
4
1 qz L 2 qz L L qz L
yB =
L
+

E I yy 4
6
24
4
4
q
L
q
L
6 4 +1 z
1 z
=
=
(> 0, )
24 E I yy 8 E I yy

Lecture #2

MACAULAYS
NOTATION

Beams under point loads


E.g. simply

supported beam with a single


concentrated load
2m

4m
Fz

B
C

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RA

6m
RB

Beams under point loads

2m

M (A) = 0
Fz 2 + RB 6 = 0

4m
Fz

B
C

RA

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Support reactions

6m
RB

2 Fz Fz
RB =
=
()
6
3
M (B) = 0
RA 6 + Fz 4 = 0
4 Fz 2
RA =
= Fz ()
6
3

Beams under point loads

0<x<2
A
RA

2
Fz
A
RA

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In principle, we need
two expression for
the bending moment
My:
one for 0<x<2

M y = RA x
C
2<x<6

one for 2<x<6

M y = RA x Fz x 2

Beams under point loads


In

principle, we need to integrate two


differential equations:

RA x , 0 < x < 2
=
2
dx
RA x Fz x 2 , 2 < x < 6
2

E I yy

d uz

This

is possible, but four integration


constants arise, i.e. two for each differential
equation
For more than one points load, the procedure
becomes quite cumbersome

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Macaulays notation

It would be much more effective to have a single


mathematical expression for the bending moment
My along the beam

This is possible with the help of the so-called


Macaulays notation, i.e. square brackets [ ] with a
special meaning:

If the term within square brackets is +ve, then it


is evaluated

If the term within square brackets is ve, then it


is ignored

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Macaulays notation
That

is:

x , if x > 0
[ x] =
0 , if x 0
Lets
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try the following examples:

2.3 = 2.3

0 = 0

3 / 4 = 0

Macaulays notation

2m

4m
Fz

B
C

RA

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It is possible now to
write down a single
expression for the
bending moment
along the beam:

M y = RA x Fz x 2

6m
RB

Macaulays method

The differential equation of bending becomes:

E I yy

d 2uz
dx

= M y = RA x + Fz x 2

This expression can be integrated twice,


importantly, without expanding the term into
square brackets:
2

2x Fz x x 2x 2
dyduz
= A + W + Fz
+ C1
E I yy = R
2
dxdx
23 2
2
2

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x 2
Fz x
E I yy uz =
+ Fz
+ C1 x + C2
9
6
3

Macaulays method

Since we are integrating a single 2nd-order differential


equation, just 2 integration constants appear in the solution,
C1 and C2:
These quantities can be determined by using the boundary
conditions, i.e. conditions at the supports
Importantly, the square bracket term is only included if the
quantity inside is +ve

uz = 0 @ x = 0
3

2
0 = 0 + Fz
+ 0 + C2 C2 = 0
6
uz = 0 @ x = 6
3
3
4
Fz 6

32
0=
+ Fz
+ C1 6 6 C1 = 24 Fz
9
6
3

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20 Fz
1 72 32
C1 =
Fz =

6 3
9

Macaulays method

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Starting from a single expression of the bending


moment My, we obtained a single expression
throughout the beam for the deflection uz, in which
we have the Macaulays brackets:
3

3
Fz
x x 2 20 x
+

uz =
+
EI 9
6
9

We can now evaluate the deflection of the beam at


the position of the point load uz(C), i.e. uz @ x= 2 m
3

0
Fz
2 20 2
40 8 Fz
+
=
uz (C) =
+
E I yy 9
6
9
9 E I yy

32 Fz
=
()
9 E I yy

Macaulays method

We have also a single expression throughout the beam for


the slope duz/dx:
2

2
duz
Fz
x
+ 20
+
=
dx E I yy 3
2
9

The slopes at the supports A and B, i.e. duz/dx @ x= 0 and


x= 6 m take the values
2

2
duz
Fz
F
20
0 + + = 20 z ()
=
dx
E I yy
2
9 9 E I yy
A

4
duz
Fz
6 20
216 + 144 + 40 Fz

+
+
=
dx
EI 3
2
9
18
E I yy
B

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16 Fz
()
9 E I yy

Lecture #3

NUMERICAL
APPLICATION

Numerical example

Find position and value of the maximum deflection in


the simply supported beam shown below

z
RA
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20 kN

2m

60 kN

1m 2m

5m
RB

The beams flexural rigidity is EIyy= 2.58104 kN m2

Support reactions

z
RA

20 kN

2m

60 kN

1m 2m

D
5m

The first step is to


evaluate the support
reactions at points A
and B:

RB

M ( A) = 0 Q
60 1 20 3 + RB 5 = 0
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60 + 60
RB =
= 24 kN (#)
5

Support reactions

z
RA

20 kN

2m

60 kN

1m 2m

D
5m

The first step is to


evaluate the support
reactions at points A
and B:

RB

A) = 0 Q
M (B
60
RA 15+20
6034++R20
B 52==00
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60
240++6040
= =2456kN
kN (#(#) )
RBA =
55

Bending moments expression

z
RA

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20 kN

2m

60 kN

1m 2m

D
5m
RB

Once we have all the


external forces
applied to the beam
(external forces and
support reaction),
the second step is to
write down the
expression of the
bending moment My
along the beam

M y = 56 x 60 x 1 20 x 3

Double integration
d 2uz
EI yy 2 = M y = 56 x + 60 x 1 + 20 x 3
dx
2

x 1
x 3
duz
x
EI yy
= 56
+ 60
+ 20
+ C1
dx
2
2
2
28

30

10

x 1
x 3
x
EI yy uz = 28 + 30
+ 10
+ C1 x + C2
3
3
3
3

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10

Boundary conditions (simply supports at points A and B) gives:

uz = 0 @ x = 0 C2 = 0

uz = 0 @ x = 5 C1 = 100

Abscissa of maximum deflection

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Within a span, the maximum deflection will occur where the


slope of the beam is zero. So to find the position of the maximum
deflection, we can determine the value of the abscissa x that gives
duz/dx=0.
We have the mathematical expression of the slope, but it contains
two square brackets, and we must decide which of them should
be retained.
As the position of maximum deflection is never very far away
from the centre of the span, we can guess that it occurs between
x=1 and x=3 m. In this region the expression for the slope
becomes:
2
2
duz
2
= 28 x + 30 x 1 + 10 x 3 + 100
dx

Abscissa of maximum deflection

We can now solve the quadratic equation:

duz
2
2
= 0 28 x + 30 ( x 1) + 100 = 0
dx
28 x 2 + 30x 2 60x + 30 + 100 = 0
2x 2 60x + 130 = 0

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60 602 4 2 130
3,600 1,040
x=
= 15
4
4

27.65 Root unacceptable

xmax = 15 12.65 =
(outside the beam)

2.35 Root consistent with the

assumption 0 x 3

Maximum deflection

We can now evaluate the deflection at x=2.35 m:

uz ,max

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3
3

xmax 3
xmax
3
1

=
28
+
10
x

1
+
10
+
100
x

max
max
EI yy
3
3

2.35

3
3
1
2.35

+ 235

=
28
+
10
2.35

1
+
10

3
3
2.58 104

121.13+ 24.60 + 235


138.47
4
=
=
=
53.7

10
m = 5.4mm
4
4
2.58 10
2.58 10

So maximum deflection is 5.4mm at 2.35m from the left


support

Now check that you can show that the deflections under the
60kN and 20kN loads are 3.5mm and 5.0mm, respectively.