Sie sind auf Seite 1von 217

ARCHITECTURE

BY

CHRIST'S

CAMBRIDGE

COLLEGE,

ROYAL

WITH

M.A.

WATERHOUSE,

LESLIE

OF

INSTITUTE

FIFTY-NINE

ASSOCIATE
ARCHITECTS

BRITISH

ILLUSTRATIONS

MK
-

DATE, MAY 3

AND

HODDER
PUBLISHERS

7990

STOUGHTON
LONDON

OF

THE

London

Viney,
Printed

by

Hazellt

Watson

"

Ld.,
a,nd

Aylesbury*

PREFATORY

IN

volume

small

the

upon

those

list

history,

wish

to

it

for

only
is

the

subject
with

fully

more

branches

particular

far

For

the

pursue

this

touch

Paul's.

dealing

with

or

to

story,
St.

to

books

of

its

in

who

in

possible

Pyramids

of

further,
the

points

the

Architecture

been

has

salient

guidance

of

course

it

from

cry

is

the

tracing

NOTE

of

it,

appended.
acknowledgments

My

who

Hart,

for

Morrish

G.

has

his

for

his

to

several

prepared
friendly

due

are

assistance

photographs

of

and

of

Mr.

the

to

H.

A.

tions,
illustra-

H.

Mr.

Canterbury

Cathedral.

P.

9,

STAPLE

INN,

HOLBORN,

W.C.

L.

W.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

PAGE

EGYPTIAN

ARCHITECTURE

CHAPTER

GREEK

II

ARCHITECTURE

AND

34

....

III

CHAPTER

ETRUSCAN

....

ROMAN

ARCHITECTURE
.

CHAPTER

EARLY

CHRISTIAN

IV

ARCHITECTURE
.

CHAPTER

MOHAMMEDAN

57

84

ARCHITECTURE
.

IOI

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

VI
PAGE

Io8

ARCHITECTURE

ROMANESQUE
1.

ITALY

2.

FRANCE

3.

GERMANY

4.

SPAIN

5.

ENGLAND

"

"

"

"

-123

VII

GREAT

3.

ITALY

4.

GERMANY

BRITAIN

SPAIN,

ETC.

FRANCE

3.

ENGLAND

"

164

.165

.165
.183

"

CHAPTER
ARCHITECTURE

"

2.

63

VIII

ARCHITECTURE

ITALY

14"

.156

1.

J34

CHAPTER

RENAISSANCE

.127

"

2.

.122

"

"

5. BELGIUM,

MODERN

I2O

FRANCE

...

ARCHITECTURE

1.

Il6

"

CHAPTER
GOTHIC

I09

"

"

"

.187

IX

2O1

LIST

Norman

ILLUSTRATIONS

OF

Staircase,

Frontispiece

Canterbury
...

...

...

PAGE

FIG,

Section

I.

2.

"

Corbelling
Tomb

3.

Pyramid

...

...

...

...

...

...

13

Chamber

King's

over

"

"

Great

the

through

"

14

Beni-Hasan

at

17

"

'

4.

"

"

6.

"

"

7-

,,

Tomb

through

at

"

Plan

of

from

Capital

"

Section

...

31

...

...

...

...

...

...

the

...

of

Treasury

...

...

Atreus
...

"

Plan

of

Small

12.

Plan

of

the

"

Greek

Temple
...

The

Doric

14.

The

Parthenon

"

...

...

Order

"

Doric

Restored

Capital,

Colour

showing

Decoration
...

16.

"

Ionic

Order
...

Ionic

17-

"

Capital

18.

Corinthian

from

the

Erechtheum

...

Plan

of

Cloaca

20.

...

Capital

"

19."

...

...

...

"

Greek
Maxima

..

Plan

of

"

Roman

Maison

23.

Carree,

"

"

Arch

of

52

...

...

65
...

22.

...

Capital

"

50

58
...

Composite

47

56

"

21."

44

54

...

Theatre

,,

"

41
42

,,

24

...

...

15.

37
39

Parthenon

,,

13."

33

36

Mycenae

through

"

II.

...

28

"

,,

...

...

10.

"

...

...

Persepolis...

Gate,

"

,,

...

Column

Assyrian

Lion

9.

,,

"

...

...

8."

"

...

Columns

Egyptian

19
26

Ramessium

,,

"

Beni-Hasan
...

5.

,,

Section

"

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

66

Temple
...

Nimes

"Ji
...

Constantine

...

75

OF

LIST

ILLUSTRATIONS
PAGE

FIG. 25.

Roman

"

Entablature
...

26.

Plan

"

...

Plan

of Basilica

28."

Plan

of the

29."

Plan

"

of S. Paul's

30.

"

"

Development

31.

"

32.

"

,,

,,

33.

"

34-

"

35-

,,

36.

27.

"

...

...

Plan

"

of Pansa
Outside

82
Walls

the

of Basilica

87
91

dosseret, Ravenna

...

and

...

Leaning

of Notre

Dame

Pisa

Tower,

94

du

112
...

Port
...

Section

"

77

96

Cathedral

"

76
80

Diagram

Notre

through

Dame

...

du

...

Port

117
118

...

Church
Plan

,,

37.

38.

39-

"

40.

,,

41.

,,

42.

43-

.,,

44.

45-

"

"

of the

of the

Window,
of Sainte

Apostles

Earl's

121
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Barton

Chapelle
Contrasted

Romanesque

"

Apostles, Cologne

of Church

Saxon
Plan

"

...

with

Gothic
...

Plan

"

of Amiens

Cathedral
...

Part

"

of

Arcade, Canterbury

Choir, Canterbury

"

"

Plan

of

Salisbury

Durham

"

46.
47-

...

...

Geometrical

Tracery

...

...

...

...

49-

Ball-flower

"

50.

"

51.

"

"

52-

"

"

of

Doges'

Renaissance

Cancellaria

53-

"

"

54.

"

55." Tower,

S^.

,,

57-

"

$",

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Palace

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Azay-le-Rideau
Section

Steeple

"

"

American

of S.

131

136
144

145

146
148
150
151

155

177

179

185
Hall...
...

through

130

174

...

"

124

162

Palace

WTollaton

122

155

Capital

Spinelli Palace

,,

...

Ornament
...

Fa"ade

...

Window

Early English Capital

"

...

Cathedral

48.
"

...

...

Cathedral

Perpendicular

"

...

...

Cathedral

...

"

,,

...

...

Capital with

"

.,

...

Ulpia

House

"

,,

...

cf Pantheon

,,

,,

...

Dome,

...

...

S. Paul's
...

...

Mary-le-Bow

...

...

...

Sky-scraper...

...

...

...

190

197
199
206

ARCHITECTURE

EGYPTIAN

A
to

of

himself
for

constructing
a

and

write

of

his

which,

buildings,
a

of

story

reflection

his

prompt

him
and

to

began

to

form

of

the

been

have

times,
and

as

therefore,

days,

in

earliest

in

began

man

time

character

the

the

field

of
It

of

with

of

mode

his

life.

Unfortunately,
in

and

life
from

of

the

prehistoric

writing,

coeval

he

Before

story

dwelling,

or

elements,

the

the

shelter,

and
shelter

architecture.

reading

would

food

himself

from

protection

perpetrate
of

with

require

as

is

instinct

earliest

provide

time

architecture

for

Man's

of

period

himself,

man

man.

to

great

as

cover

would

Architecture

of

Story

COMPLETE

civilisation,

of

efforts

architecture

was

became

our

earlier

until

mighty

man,

appeared.
dis-

entirely

have

not

ancestors

in

builder,

the

course

and

not

THE

10

that

STORY

only, but

builder

him

life to

future

he

monuments

of

able

was

tell the

to

Thus

ages.

materials

in

that

nature,
behind

ARCHITECTURE

OF

it

perishab
im-

an

leave

to

story of his
about

comes

that

it

is

impossible to trace the growth of the art from


its ment
its earliest beginnings,and
follow
to
developThe
oldest
it grew
in
as
importance.
memorials
and
of

of which
of

temples

records

have

we

ancient

Egypt

the

were

"

primitive men, but of


already attained a knowledge
of

race

had

construction

which

work,

nation

of

the

not

which
of

art

have

builders

later

tombs

the

"

never

surpassed.
The

of

waters

architecture.
cradle

builders

art

while

pyramids, have
thousand

inhabitants

the

of

architecture,so

ever

stream

piles of
wonder

of

the

"

these
all

early
who
the

of them,

unchallenged

these

for

five

works

of the

mysterious
valley begins the history
our
knowledge of it can

Nile
far

this

of

greatest of all architectural

the

With

head-waters

ancient

most

remained

undertakings.
of

the

the

as

years

of

colossal

the

"

the

are

banks

the

still command

them

se-2

On

of the

Nile

the

as

go.

other

No

Egypt

the

to

bears

country

such

testimony

as

of architecture.

great historical value

antiquity have, possibly,been


equally powerful, or as highly civilised ; but they
have
them
failed to leave
behind
enduring
any
Other

nations

monuments

in

to

stone

from
There

of

the
is

or

marble"

pages
a

"

record

of

their greatness"
and
they have

history.

voicefulness

temples along

the

banks

"

in
of

Not

so

these

the

no

literature

disappeared
the Egyptians.

old

Nile

tombs
which

and

gives

STORY

THE

realityand
built

li

Hence

men

who

interest

which

the

history of
the
unique

the

life to

them.

ARCHITECTURE

OF

These
Egypt.
so
long been
walls, that have
temples, these
of
washed
humanity,"
by the passing waves
present a reliable record of the social and religious
wise
otherwould
life of their builders,whose
life-story
have
been
totallylost in obscurity. Egypt

attaches

of

architecture

the

to

"

the

claims

attention

architecture,

of

students

of

having produced monuments


and
which, for massiveness
grandeur, have never
been excelled in the world's history. Yet Egyptian
too,

by

of

reason

architecture

must

remain,

ever

to

some

extent,

subject by itself; it occupies no


very important
which
place in the story of the architecture
It is a
of
that
us
Europe.
chiefly concerns
strange fact that, with the exception of the few
features
which
borrowed
were
by the Greeks, all
the
characteristic
forms
of Egyptian architecture
"

have

become

adopting

any

obsolete

; the

Greeks,

and

modified

feature, so

moreover,

in

improved

Greece,
became, in reality,their own.
the
not
true
Egypt, was
parent of European
of the
architecture; yet the colossal monuments
Nile
valley had weathered
thirty centuries before
it that

it

Grecian
In

architecture
almost

structures

beliefs.

are

Such

left its cradle.

had

all countries
the
was

find

of the

outcome

the

we

case

in

that

nation's

Egypt

the

chief

religious
from

the

of
Nothing reveals the character
the nation
so
clearlyas its religion; nothing has
a
more
permeating influence upon its architecture.
The
Egyptians were
essentiallya religiouspeople,
with
a
lengthy catalogue of deities ; they
very
earliest

times.

THE

12

STORY

themselves

spoke

addition

in

their

of

their

to

many

paid religiousregard
and

of

many

sacred

the

death

at

ARCHITECTURE

Of

to

"

thousand

gods," and,
principal deities,they
animals.
Cats, dogs,
animals

common

bodies

their

held

were

embalmed,

were

tombs.
When
speciallyconstructed
sacred
a
bull, or Apis, died, the funeral would
be on
elaborate
an
scale, costing the equivalent
remains
of ^20,000
of our
The
were
money.
embalmed,
placed in a solid granite sarcophagus
and
or
weighing fiftytons
deposited in
more,
of the long gallerieshewn
of the solid
out
one
and

interred

in

rock.
It
of

be

will

the

architectural

of

amount

importance
of the

in

country

soul

was

the

bodies
its

the

was

for

end
its

of

to

made

of

three

time

the

While

death.

Egyptians
the

bad

migrations into
animals, the good soul,
the companion
of Osiris
round

unclean
was

by

architecture

of

thousand

it returned

years.

At

the

earth, re-entered

to

former

human

when
soul
find

body, and again lived the life of a


desirable
it was
most
that,
being. Thus
the
expired, the
long allotted period had
should
be
able, on
returning to earth, to
the body which
it was
to
re-enter.

The
process
which

of

of

this

upon
belief held

life after

sentenced

reward,
period

the

its influence

regarding man's

as

then, that this phase


productive of a vast
work.
of far greater
But

readily seen,
nation's religionwas

natural

embalming,
might be relied

three

of

thousand

body during

of

outcome

that

and

upon

years,

period.

this

the
to

and

belief

erection
last out
to

was

the

of tombs
the

span
safeguard the

STORY

THE

The

ARCHITECTURE

OF

colossal, and

most

13

almost

oldest,

the

of

the
are
mysterious
sepulchral monuments
of
with
the inhabitants
structures
which, among
the
of
name
Europe,
Egypt has always been
associated
the Pyramids.
The
largest,and the
of
best known,
these
the
three
at
Ghizeh,
are
near
Cairo, built respectivelyby Cheops (orSuphis),
The
and
Chephren,
Mycerinus.
pyramid of
these

"

FIG.

I.

Section

"

Cheops, generallyknown
is the most
important
was

who

to

labour

was

to

pyramid
extent

all the

of

has

area

"

the

Pyramid.

Great

three.

Pyramid,"
builder

Its

dynasty (dr. 3700

this
course

square
of about

Great

the

temples

for years at
in
due
serve

covering an
the

as

tyrant of the fourth

closed

the

through

and

forced

which

giganticstructure,
as

base, 755

of St. Peter's at

his

B.C.),
subjects

his

tomb.

feet

thirteen

acres,

Rome.

The

The

in

length,

or

twice

four

sides

THE

of

STORY

the

OF

form

ARCHITECTURE

of

equilateraltriangles,
sloping
towards
and
meeting at the top, at a height of
the level of the platform. Limestone
481 feet above
was
chiefly used in its construction, upon
of solid rock, but over
this was
exterior
a base
an
facing of polished granite,every vestige of which
has
internal passages
now
disappeared. The
are
still lined
with
highly polished granite slabs,
fitted together with astonishingaccuracy.
were

The

entrance

was

at

the

47

feet

_......

marked

point
above
was

the

original base, and


ordinary
carefullyconcealed, extraprecautions having

been

taken

from

being entered.

entrance
to

rock

natural
2.

Corbelling over
King's Chamber,

is not

apparent

leads

c,

situated

Queen's Chamber,"

for the

The

name.

up
almost

this is

Below

structure.
"

at

chambers

the

ground.
chamber

corridor,
of

centre

called

room,

and

the

royal burial-

the

there

the

possiblyit was

blind.

third

though

this

to

in

below

the

of

of

in

cut

feet

object

the

slopes down

B,

120

tomb

From

passage

The

as

the

prevent

surface

intended

turning off
chamber, D,

to

chamber,

solid
FIG.

about

A,

is

no

the
the

authority

corridors

are

the
interestingconstructionally,for they show
methods
adopted by these early engineers for
openings in order to resist a superbridgingover
incumbent

weight.
feet

high,

masonry

with

which

The

central

corridor

is

28

of
by courses
ceiling formed
another
successively
overhang one
a

OF

STORY

THE

the

until

at
they meet
King's Chamber,"

ARCHITECTURE

the

In

top.

15
of the

case

royal sarcophagus
displayed
ingenuity was
deposited,marvellous
was
in making the roof strong enough to prevent the
Five
from
crushing through.
weight overhead
in the
slabs were
see
stone
fixed,as we
enormous
each
of
chamber
between
with a small
illustration,
surmounted
them
were
by a rudimentary
; these
lintels tilted in such a
arch, formed by two massive
the centre
of the opening.
to meet
over
as
way
carried out in
this colossal enterprisewas
How
excellent subject
to be
all its details continues
an
limestone
for speculation. The
quarries, which
situated at
were
provided the bulk of the stone,
Ghizeh
miles from
of fifty
El Massarah, a distance
;
been
have
not
red
the
quarried
granite could
"

nearer

Nile,

than

in which

Assouan,
miles

500

the

upon

away.

The

the

banks

blocks

of
of

the
stone

the stream
readily floated down
upon
it is probable that they were
rafts ; thence
slowly
of rollers, being
moved
into
position by means
gradually raised to the required height along an
for
constructed
embankment
inclined
plane or

could

be

this purpose.

It is stated

that

100,000

men

were

Pyramid for a period


that
the
of twenty
raising of such
years ; so
embankment,
an
though a gigantic undertaking,
would
portion of this vast
represent but a small
of labour.
amount
Many of the blocks of stone
as
measure"
weigh as much
30 feet in length and
the greatest
with
worked
fiftytons, yet they were
line
exactitude
polished granite slabs which
; the
fitted together with such accuracy
the corridors
are
that it is almost
impossible to detect the joints.
employed

upon

the

Great

16

THE

Similar

STORY

structure.

show

that
feet

755
extreme

Such

in the

Petrie's

Professor

the

the

lengths of

settingout

measurements

varied

sides

from

inches
to
77
755 feet 9*4 inches, the
difference being 1*7 inches only !
work

vast, unremunerative

been

have

ARCHITECTURE

observed

was

accuracy

of the

OF

by

undertaken

utterly regardless of
At this period there
that the burden

were

of the

only

tyrant who

was

sufferingsof his people.


no
prisoners of war, so

task

fell upon

the

shoulders

"

"

of the

the

selfish

could

king's free subjects. The royaloppressor


his
failed,however, in the one
object to which
efforts were
directed
the safe preservationof his
embalmed
remains.
The secret of the prison-house
was
discovered, the tomb rifled,and the royal dust
"

scattered
words

of

Let
Since

four

winds

Byron's doggerel :

"

not

The

the

to

not

of

pinch

In

heaven.

the

give

monument

of

or
you
remains

dust

me

of

hopes,
Che-ops.

embalming led to the erection of


number
of smaller
of which
vast
a
tombs, many
in the neighbourhood of the pyramids,
found
are
for this locality
the necropolis of the
was
originally
ancient
These
tombs
city of Memphis.
were
usually rectangular, with sloping sides, like a
pyramid with the top cut off. Internallythe walls
with paintingsillustrating
decorated
the everywere
day
custom

life which

intention
home
have

"

as

been

of

the

occupant

being to make
possiblein his
invaluable

in

had

him

tomb.

led, the

feel

as

These

evident

much

"at

paintings

enabling us to realise the


of life which
conditions
exact
prevailed at the
period. The material employed in the construe-

THE

OF

STORY

ARCHITECTURE

examples of an important architectural


which
feature
the architecture
subsequently influenced
of Greece, and, through it, of Europe.
of these tombs
The
shows
general view of one
columns.
The
has been
whole
two
a portico with
of the solid stone, and
carved
two
out
piers have
left in order
been
the appearto give support, or
ance
the
of support,
to
It
overhanging rock.
that the portion above
the columns
will be noticed
has been
squared to the form of a lintel. Over
of dentils,or
this appears
tooth-like
row
a
jections,
prowhich
are
eminently suggestive of the
be used
in timber
would
of rafters,such
ends
as
the

first

construction.

The

columns

are

of

form

seldom

the top, and


Egypt: they taper towards
surmounted
slab, or "abacus,"
are
by a square
of
has
the
which
transmitting the
appearance
lintel.
of
them
Some
the
are
weight from
polygonal, with sixteen or thirty-two sides, each
in the manner
of the
side being slightlyconcave,
of the
Greek
shall
flutes
!
we
columns, which
/ be considering in the next
chapter.
shafts be compared
If these
with the columns
Doric
order (p. 42), it will be seen
of the Greek
notable points of resemblance
that there are some
the
the
abacus, the fluted surface, and
square
similar
A
form
of column
was
tapering outline.
used
later date
at
at
Karnak, but it did not
a
the
find
favour
was
Egyptians, and
among
Yet this special
by them.
subsequently discarded
take an
destined
form
to
was
important place in
of
of Europe, for the columns
the architecture
seen

in

"

"

"

Beni-Hasan
columns

of

of the
be the prototypes
to
appear
It is strange
the Greek
Doric
order.

THE

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

discriminatingGreeks should have selected


for further
development the very feature which
the great Egyptian builders had
rejected. Certain
it is, however,
that
the form
reappeared, in a
less crude
temples of
state, in the earliest Doric
about the seventh
the Greeks
century B.C., and that,
that the

in the hands
endowed

of the

with

it became
in

Greek

afterwards

beauty and refinement


perfect architectural

such

the

masters, it was

most

that
feature

existence.

ceilingof

The
cut

of

out

into

of

evident

ceiling.
the

Of

the

that

circle,

of

vaulted,

or

Arched

finds

in

els
lint-

imitation

arched,

an

tombs, although

spaces,
form
of

the

segments

Beni-Hasan

solid

by

three
in

curved

in

the

is divided

rock,

the

struction
con-

place
great buildings FlG.
4._Section through
Egyptians ; but
at Beni-Hasan.

these

no

builders

old

familiar

tomb

with

the

principlesof the arch


has been
proved by the discovery of magnificent
brick vaulting of the sixth dynasty (dr. 3400
B c.),

were

and

the

still earlier

king's tomb
discovered

of

the

true

barrel-vaulted

passage

in

third

dynasty (dr. 4200


B.C.),
Flinders
(1901) by Professor

this

year

the

date of

Petrie.
Between
the

great

nineteenth
"

Theban

period

dynasties

little progress

the

"

an

appears

Beni-Hasan
of

the

interval
to

have

tombs

eighteenth

and
and

of five centuries

been

made

in

THE

20

STORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

architecture.

During part of this period Egypt"


the
in
more
correctly, Lower
Egypt" was
or,
hands
of the
we
invader?, of whom
Shepherd
know
little.
their
Throughout
long rule they
hated
were
by the Egyptians, and they left few
"

"

memorials

permanent

behind

; but

them

with

the

"

"

Shepherd
kings began an era
of
activity lasting for four
great architectural
the period assigned to
hundred
down
to
years,
from
the exodus
of the Jews (i.e.
1700 to 1300 B.C).
This
the
the
was
great temple-building age,
"Theban
the culmination
period,"which witnessed
of
and
artistic greatness, and
Egyptian power
the
noblest
of
produced the greater number
ever,
Constructively, howbuildings in the country.
the
there
from
was
a
falling-off
precision
earlier periods.
work
careful
of the
and
The
was
hastilyand clumsily wrought, angles
masonry
were
inaccurately set out, and columns
irregularly
bears marks
spaced ; in many
respects the work
detract considerably
of carelessness
and haste which
In spite of technical
from
its merit.
defects,
noble
however, the buildings of this period were
which
still remain
chief
the
works
glory of
Egyptian architecture.
of the

expulsion

The

cause

far to seek.

kings, and
the

Nile

But

when

of
Before

during
valley had
Aahmes

architectural

this
the

their

period of

the

rule, the

not

ascended

been
the

revival

"

is

not
"

Shepherd

inhabitants

of

fighting nation.
throne
of Upper

the
task
B.C.),he set himself
Egypt (dr. 1700
of the invaders, and, after
of ridding the country
into
Palestine, completely routed
pursuing them
thousands
them.
As a result of this victory,many

STORY

THE

OF

ARCHITECTURE

21

by the king on
brought back
These
his return
to
advantages, and
Egypt.
the
the
various
successes
over
Syrians, whetted
appetites of the Egyptians for further conquests,
became
nation
and
of cona
querors.
they henceforth
Thothmes
III. (dr. 1600
Under
B.C.)
advanced
their
by leaps
sphere of influence
Each
and bounds.
new
expeditions,
year witnessed
which
brought into the country not only enormous
but
numbers
of
vast
quantities of treasure,
for the
object of the king was
prisoners of war
slaves

of

were

"

"

"

to

importation
the

upon
forced

him

in

of

architecture

other
first rank

hundred-gated Thebes
practicallythe capital of
Nile, vied
its temples

down

are

to

to

the

quarry

north,

farther

us

fact
for

but

its

By

their

to

erect

which

placed

of
the

Homer

country.

in

the

remains

which

was

Memphis,
delta

the

to

nearer

"

the

"

the

of

magnificence

which

have

of

come

comparatively unimportant, owing

that
the

"

Thebes

with

effect

Egyptian builders.
Thebes
period was

of

"

situated

enabled

structures

great city of this

The

wholesale

country.

was

vast

This

immediate

an

the

Thothmes

and
the

kill.

to

captives had

of

labour

temples

than

rather

capture

the

supply

site
of

has

been

materials

to

used
Cairo

as

and

towns.
Thebes, however, was
adjoining modern
more
fortunately situated : no
great city has
sprung
up in its neighbourhood, and its buildings
suffered only from
have
the
of
wasting hand
merciful
than
that of man.
time, more
Theban
The
of the
great building monarchs
Thothmes
period were
III.,Amenhotep III.,Seti I.,

and

Rameses

II., each

of

whom

endeavoured

to

STORY

THE

22

the

surpass
"

fforts of

it will

be

The

most

the

was

long,
another

Luxor,

of

of

Karnak

by

the

Karnak,

at

of the

The

and

included

river

III.

the

"

the

buildings
1,200

several

farther

miles

two

names,

with

Theban

all the

some

era.

grouped

Amenhotep
"

this

palace-temple.

v?."t

opposite bank

temple

of

were

Their

connection

structures

which

at

predecessor with
the last."

imposing of
great temple

around

his

appear

seen,

greatest temple

ARCHITECTURE

than

temple, nobler

new

ones

OF

.feet

smaller

south,

was

the
on
groups
the sepulchral

second

Ramessium,

only
built

to

that

entirely

great Rameses.

The

Thothmes
of
the
was
principal work
rebuilding of a portion of the great temple at
Karnak.
Isolated
examples of this master-builder's
In front of the
familiar to Europeans.
work
are
the
he
to
temple at Karnak
grand entrance
of these, which
erected
two
now
obelisks; one
in
before the church
stands
of S. John Lateran
is the largest and
most
ment
splendid monuRome,
of its kind
He
extant.
built, or added
Denderah,
Heliopolis, Abydos,
to, temples at
other
places both in Egypt
Memphis, and many
and
been

in Nubia.

An

obelisk

of

this

monarch

has

Constantinople ; another, which


afterwards
stood
at
originallyat Heliopolis and
the
Thames
be seen
to
on
Alexandria, is now
it as
know
where
we
Cleopatra's
Embankment,
the Atlantic
has crossed
its companion
Needle";
re-erected

at

"

and

has

been

erected

in

Amenhotep continued
erected
at
Karnak, and
which, however, hardly a

New

York.

building of the temple


vast
new
a
temple, of
trace
remains, for it has

the

suffered

from

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

inundations

the

of

the

23

Nile

but

an

of an
architect
of the king, and
enduring memorial
survives
in
the
two
bearing the same
name,
feet high, of which
mutilated
one
colossi,fifty-six
has been
known, since the days of the Greeks, as

Memnon."

"vocal

the

By far the

greatest and

buildingsof

the

of Ammon

at

this

period

was

was

Like

Karnak.

cathedrals, this

most

the

many
work
of

impressive of all
the grand temple
of

our

mediaeval

successive

kings

columns, covered
generations; its walls and
furnish almost
with inscriptions,
a
complete history
of the Theban
kings.
The
begun by Usertesen
I., the
temple was
B.C.).
great king of the twelfth dynasty (dr. 2400
interval of several centuries,Thothmes
I.
After an
continued
the work, adding a courtyard surrounded
of Osirid pillars. Thothmes
III.
by a colonnade
constructed
a
hall, 143 feet
magnificent columnar
before
which
had
never
by 53 feet dimensions
been approached in a building of this form.
He
and

"

also
of

set

to

work

to

restore

the

ancient

sanctuary

Usertesen, reverently preserving all the

building,and recording the details of


the restoration
in an
inscriptionon the walls.
But
the
the
great glory of the temple was
familiar
Hypostyle Hall of Seti I. (dr. 1350 B.C.),
posing
imall travellers in modern
to
Egypt, the most
of the kind in the world's history.
structure
The
roof
hall measured
340 by 170 feet, its massive
in sixteen rows
being carried by 134 columns
; the
shafts of the two
central rows, which
supported the
60 feet
than
more
higher portion of the roof, were
No language,"
high and almost 1 2 feet in diameter.
of

the

old

lines

"

THE

44

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

"

its
idea of
can
an
Fergusson,
convey
beauty,and no artist has yet been able to reproduce
writes

its form
it

so

to

as

who

those

to

convey

have

not

seen

idea of its

of its central
grandeur. The mass
the
piers, illumined
by a flood of light from
clerestory,and the smaller pillarsof the wings
so
gradually fading into obscurity,are
arranged
and
lightedas to convey an idea of infinite space ;
the same
time the beauty and
of
massiveness
at
the
the
forms, and
brilliancyof their coloured
this as
the
to
decorations, all combine
stamp
architectural
works, but such a
greatest of man's
it would
be
as
one
impossible to reproduce,
an

in

except

such

stylein which,
This

and

climate
for

to

as

added

the

He

south

there

are

distinct
with

compared
ancient

of

used,

built up

we

find

of
at

of

this

at

drums.

of

the

of

on

construction

deterioration

an

of

the

as
more

earlier

date,

have
granite would
period soft sandstone

Thus, in
strength of the columns, it was
them
excessively massive, and
in

Pharaoh

work

the

red

entirely built
his death, it
II., better

columns
fifty-four

evidences

much

columns

the

methods

the

Egyptians. Where,

monolithic

been

In

side.

Upon
Rameses

Bible-readers

Oppression.
the

I.

individual

created."

was

almost

was

during the reign of Seti


was
completed by his son
known

it

which,

hall

wonderful

in that

and

order

to

necessary
by this

insure
to

the

make

they lost
of grace than they gained in dignity.
more
It would
been impossible for the Egyptian
have
such
monarchs
to
erect
stupendous structures
but
for the
fact that they were
able, through
to
their victorious
bring into the country
wars,

26

THE

STORY

ARCHITECTURE

OF

with

practically ended

the

reign of

the

great

Rameses.

Karnak

At

the

chief
in

object

of

each

monarch

and

magnificence,
the
his predecessors, without
regard
But
in the
to
Ramessium
congruity of plan.
at
Thebes, a temple wholly built by the great
the plan of a typical temple of
Rameses, we
see
the
formed
period. The
by two
fagade was
massive
which
between
pyramidal towers
(pylons),
the
this
entrance
was
cases
doorway ; in many
facade was
situated obliquely with regard to the
to

was

surpass,
buildings of

extent

-""""

...TTTT-irp-T----

P.

i
FIG. 5.
"

temple building.
a

Plan

of Ramessium,

The

to
access
doorway gave
great fore-court, flanked by colonnades, which

in

turn

led

first,but

to

more

an

inner

richly

court,
decorated

smaller
with

than

the

statuary.

the

sky.
the Hypostyle Hall
Beyond these
the chief feature in the
larger temples. In the
of loftycolumns
of this,two
centre
rows
supported
of
the higher portion of the roof, the remainder
the
being occupied by ranges of smaller
space
columns.
The
central
portion of the roof was
higher than that at the sides,an arrangement which
allowed
through perforated
light to be admitted
connected
stone
panels, fixed in the wall which
Both

courts

were

to
open
reach
we

"

STORY

THE

the

portion

upper

OF

of

ARCHITECTURE

the

roof

27

with

the

lower,

in

of Gothic
clerestorywindows
this
architecture.
hall
several
were
Beyond
been
have
smaller chambers, which
set
to
appear
by the king or the priests.
apart for use
The
columns
were
coloured, and
brilliantly
their capitals were
varied
suit the
to
positions
in which
they were
placed, with due regard to
the
the
of
light; those
well-lighted
lofty and
central pillarswere
bell-shaped,but the columns
the side had
at
bud-shaped capitals wide at the
the top
base and
which
a form
tapering towards
allowed
the decoration, lighted from
above, to be
to
seen
advantage.
After the Exodus
ensued
a long period of
decay
and
thousand
a
inactivity
lastingfor almost
years,
until the old gloriesof Egypt were,
to some
extent,
revived
their rule and,
Under
by the Ptolemies.
the land enjoyed again a
later,under the Romans,
of great prosperity. Temples
erected
season
were
in size and
vied
which
of
splendour with those
the great Theban
is more
Of
these, none
age.
beautiful
than
the
temple of Isis at Philag,the
is a striking illustration
of the
plan of which
and
of
disregard of accuracy
regularity which
characterised
buildings of the Egyptians.
many

the

of

manner

the

"

"

As
of

evidence

builders,

structures

Roman
or

of

in the

the

it

conservatism

of this old

nation

that
the
interestingto note
of this period bear no
of Greek
trace
or
influence,either in the architectural details
is

decorations

that, until

their true

which

covered
in

the

walls

so

assigned
historywas
them
to
interpretation of the
through the
of the Ptolemaic
hieroglyphic inscriptions,
some
place

28

THE

STORY

buildingswere

ARCHITECTURE

OF

considered

be

to

anterior

of the great Theban


period. The
Romans
accustomed
were
to set
with

great accuracy

but

Greeks

the

those

and

their

out

Philae

at

to

the

works

Egyptians

to their own
evidentlyworked
methods, for there
are
hardly two parallelwalls, or a right angle, in
the building. Imposing temples of this period are

found

also

the

perfectlypreserved temple in Egypt.


have
that
in the temple-structuresof
seen

most

We

at

Denderah

FIG.

the
was

Egyptians
the

column.

buildingswas
add

to

the

priestsmade
extent

one

it

was

6.

and

at

Edfou

"

the

latter

Egyptian Columns.

"

of

the

Its

important

most
constant

within

use

probably encouraged, as
prevailing air of mystery
it their business

to

necessitated

by

the

tending
which

foster.
the

features

To

to

the
some

constructive

slabs which
employed, for the great stone
formed
the roof required strong support at frequent
intervals.
The
the
column
thus graduallybecame
chief medium
for obtainingdecorative
effect.
used ; they were
invariably
Many varieties were

system

OF

STORY

THE

ARCHITECTURE

29

in
six diameters
rarely exceeded
massive, and
the
shaft tapered towards
top, and
height. The
was
usually either circular or clustered ; sometimes
In many
it was
examples
fluted,as at Beni-Hasan.
the base,
in diameter
reduced
at
the column
was
the greatest strength was
the point where
required ;
this,and the use, above the capital,of an abacus of
tended
than
the shaft itself,
dimensions
smaller
to
bulky appearance,
making it
give it an overgrown,
of strength.
through excess
look, as it were, weak
The
chief forms of capitalsin use
were
: (a) the bellshaped capital (centralcolumns, Karnak), which
graceful forms, and to which, as
produced many
shall see
we
later,the early Corinthian
capitalsof,
bore a strikingresemblance;
the Greeks
(b) the
lotus bud, representing a cluster of
the clustered
of the
lotus
buds
flower, (with this
unopened
the
was
used) ; and ("r)
capitala clustered column
derived
of these forms
were
palm capital. Most
from
plant-life.In Egypt, at the present day,
bundles
of reed plasteredwith mud
frequently
may
small bundles,
be seen
columns
in use
as
; several
each
together and form
tightlybound, are banded
a shaft sufficiently
rigid to support heavy weights.
This
was
copied, probably
primitive arrangement
is undoubtedly
first in wood, and later in stone, and
lotus
banded
and
the
origin of the clustered
column.
the

For
than
In
and
and

and

form,
the

dim

interior of
was

the

for
upon
the columnar

relied

lightof

carving could not have


brilliant colouring was
columns

temples, colour, rather

were

covered

decorative

effect.

halls,mouldings
been seen
to advantage,
essential.
with

The

walls

profusion of

THE

30

STORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

hieroglyphicinscriptionsand of paintings,in which


the designs were
either outlined
in low
cut
or
relief before the colour
was
applied. Where
coarse
been

had

sandstone

used

building, a smooth
obtained
by the use
imperfections-of the
in

Next

established
A

of

of

stucco,

stone

along the

erection
the

the

colour

with

was

which

civilisation

the

of

the

of

kingdom

great
banks

of

filled up.

were

the

the

the
for

surface

antiquityto
that

valley was

in

Nile

which

the

was

Euphrates

"

ssyria.
the

Unlike

monumental

Assyrian remains
fragmentary state, for
the

the

is left of

kingdom.

have

the

save

palaces of

Excavations

which

at

Nineveh

the

the

British

Museum.

Egypt,
only in a

survived

little

enormous

of

structures

foundations

this

have

mighty

once

been

carried

at
Khorsabad,
capital,and
almost
have
revealed
complete plans of the royal
of remarkable
dwellings, showing that they were
and
of the great
extent
magnificence. Portions
be seen
gateway of the palace of Khorsabad
may
on

in

The

immense

scale

of

portal, with its human-headed


winged bulls
form
feet high, enables
to
us
some
opinion
19
of
the
characterised
massive
grandeur which
these
vast
buildings of the Assyrians.
Owing
this

to

of

the

extensive

materials, the

harder

durabilityof
can

be

structural
the

sun-dried

of

use

the

Nile

determined

remains,

applied

ornamental

little artistic merit.

bricks

the

architecture
forms

So

the
far

bas-reliefs and

the

"

had

lieu

lacked

structures

valley temples.
from

in

"

apart

as

the
from

comparatively

principlesof

the

by

the

31

stood
under-

Egyptians,

arch

has

gateway, discovered

arched

fine

Assyrians, like the

the

That

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

been

by

proved

M.

Place

of arched
drains
Khorsabad, and by remains
and
of brick vaulting. On
existing bas-reliefs are
found
buildings,from
representations of domed

at

which
not

was

used
The

to

feature

did

"

the

On

the

column,

with

^ented,

which

iprototype

it is

improbable

of

form

not

reveal

in

of

roof
it

that

"

sculptures a
small
volutes,

The

of

trace

no

interior

its
of

form
is

claim
to
may
of the
the column

order.

Ionic

this

Egyptian temples
an
important place
occupy
of the
Assyrians ;
the
the bas-reliefs,

exception of

existing remains
use.

that

extent.

any

architecture

the

with

though

prominent

column

in

assumed

unknown,

was

the

be

it may

reprebe
the

walls

Greek
of

the

height of
FJG
about
slabs, on
10
feet, with alabaster
Assyrian
low
in
which
relief, Column,
were
represented,
and
battle and
logical
mythohunting scenes
subjects. Many of these slabs are to be
of Europe.
found
in the chief museums
palaces

With
became

lined,

were

the

to

the

who, under Cyrus (536 B.C.),


of these older monarchies, another

Persians

masters

style of architecture

was

developed

which

attained

and
Xerxes.
Darius
magnificence under
had
the Persians
Before
their period of conquest
little
of
been
life, with
simple in their mode
architecture
later monarchs,
of their own.
Under

great

very

different in character

from

the

great conqueror

THE

32

STORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

Cyrus, they acquired luxurious habits, and soon


the
surpassed even
Assyrians in the splendour
and
the extent
of their palaces. Persian splendour
and
in
the
luxury culminated
great capital at
of
Persepolis, or
Takht-i-Jamshyd (the Throne
Jamshyd), as it is still called by the inhabitants
of the district,
after its mythical founder
and
ruler.
In the treasury of this great city it is said that
his entry, found
the
wealth
to
Alexander, on
of thirty millions sterling.
amount
Here
the
chief
vast
buildings rested upon
of the
carved
solid
out
terraces
platforms and
rock, which still remain, while almost every vestige
of the
covered
mighty halls and palaces which
them
has
the
disappeared. With
exception of
remains
few
to mark
a
ruins, hardly a monument
the desolate

The
The

Courts

where

Lion

and

Jamshyd

the

Bahrain, that great Hunter


Stamps o'er his head, but cannot

great

Hall

of

Lizard

gloried

And

The

civilisation

site of the old luxurious

Xerxes

"

and

break

at

keep
drank

Wild

the

:"

his

deep

Ass

sleep.

Persepolis

was

of the most
extensive
and
posing
imundoubtedly one
buildings of ancient times, having an area
of the
of 350 by 300 feet,or almost
twice the area
Karnak.
Its roof
at
was
great Hypostyle Hall
supported by lofty columns, no less than 64 feet
in diameter, fluted, and
in height,4 feet 6 inches
of
slightlytapering. Many of the capitalswere
remarkable
design, in the shape of a double
bulls
bracket, formed
by the forepart of two
the
back.
to
Frequently between
placed back
bracket and
the column, as in the illustration,
a

THE

34

STORY

ARCHITECTURE

OF

II
GREEK

civilisation of the

THE

of that

ahead

centuries

had

art

ARCHITECTURE
"

Dark
of

Europe

its zenith

reached

"

Continent
;

was

and,
the

among

many
long after

inhabitants

find
valley, we
Europe still in the
that the
we
mean
prehistoric stage by which
not
people had
yet acquired the art of writing
their history in the form of permanent
architecture.
earliest traces
of European
civilisation
and
The

Nile

the

of

"

"

"

architecture
in

Crete

his

other
the

Of

nothing

Trojan
before

we
civilisation,
all,as Horace

have

lived

Agamemnon
ah

their

all

no
are

bard
lost

of

age

and

architect.
left
their

breath

old,
;

praises told,

nameless

in

of

death.

only the sacred bard,


trustworthyhistorian of antiquity

lacked, however,
more

times

in

But

The

not

brave

men

lived before

who

enduring architecture
history unlike that of
no

Egyptians is a sealed
of Agamemnon's
"

the

(dr. 1180
B.C.).
times, and who
know
absolutely
tells us, passed

war

these

first drew

Agamemnon
them, and

than

Atreus, Agamemnon,

Ere

but also that

discoveries

recent

"

men

And

the

; of

lived

the

further

no

of the

this great
: they have

Brave

"

Troy

who

oblivion

They

back

heroes

men

built up
into

of

except

we

date

"

and

Homer

if

"

"

book

to

period

us.

few

still exist,and

behind
the

old

ments
monu-

supply

THE

STORY

which
only reliable information
history of that time ; but our

the
the
them

must

remain

ever

bravely of
writings of

sang
the

scanty.

deeds

the
the

old

his

very
Pericles ; and
that
confess

the
we

day

it is

is

have

knowledge of
indeed,
Homer,

poets
"The

but

men,

in

impossible

to

age of Homer,"
with
darkness,
Not

of

more

that

so

when

coming

learnt

of

possess

we

these

tells us, "is surrounded


personality with doubt.

Ruskin

35

of

fiction.

separate facts from


as

ARCHITECTURE

OF

of

shall

we

Greece

out

crumbled

the

fragments of her sculpture than


from
her sweet
even
singers or soldier historians."
Although European civilisation germinated in
have
little authentic
Grecian
Greece, we
history
before the date of the first Olympiad
(776 B.C.).
The
few remains
of buildingsof an earlier date than
this are
therefore
of great interest,although they
of

had
to have
not
appear
the architecture
of the
These

called
who

direct

influence

upon

Hellenic, period.

later,or

tions,
consist
chiefly of fortificaearly structures
of a
tombs, and
walls, the work
people
probably Phoenicians,
Pelasgi (i.e.sailors),
the

were

dominant

period assigned to
and who
preceded,
the

any

race

the
and

in

Greece

at

the

(1180
B.C.),
Trojan war
were
totallydistinct from,

Greeks.

found
are
important of these remains
at
at
Tiryns, the mythical city of Perseus, and
of
Homer,
Mycenae, the
capital,according to
Remains
of walls
Atreus
and
are
Agamemnon.
The

found

most

in

many

other

Cyclopean
of

masonry,
construction
was

giants,

and

tradition

as

parts

of

the

country

"

called,for the method


of
suggestive of the work
it is

ascribed

its

origin

to

the

STORY

THE

36

OF

ARCHITECTURE

chief
feature
of the work
is the
Cyclopes. The
blocks of stone, irregularly
employment of enormous
shaped, or coursed, and fitted together without
At
mortar.
Tiryns the acropolis,is surrounded
by a wall of this character ; a similar wall at
Mycenae contains the great Gate of Lions, probably
ancient
the most
example extant of Greek sculpture.
This
monolithic
piers and
gateway consists of two
lintel

massive

such

the

that

way

wall

lintel

the

with

in

sculptured

lions

two

column

which

towards

the

__

Lion

9."

of

Gate, Mycenze.

blocks

massive

builders
the
in

with

over

use

method

supporting
the

top

base.

is

chambers

subterranean

two

kind

of stone

from

seen

as

adopted

with

in

another.

one

shaped like a beehive,


of
of dome, composed

laid without

The

mortar.

differs
in

The

Lion

stones

in

"

the

built in the
a

as

old

in

interior,the
from
arched,

the

domical, construction

in

senting
repre-

been
have
to
unacquainted with
appear
of the arch, for although the roof is domical

form,

laid

group

earliest

larger chamber

roofed

its

being filled

tapers from

communication
The

from

in
existingstructure
architectural
Greece
possessing
merit, and of regular form, is the socalled Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae.
This
is in realitya tomb, consisting

The

FIG.

in

over

relieved

was

thus formed

weight,the triangularspace

"

corbelled

"

was

the
walls

most

of

radiating form

series of horizontal

Gate
the
of

and

true

or

material
other

point.
ings
open-

acropolis are
true
arch, but
"

structural

courses,

so

not
are

that each

THE

overhangs the
graduallynarrowed

course

thus

the

at

meet

roofs

the

over

of

blocks
lintel

top

used

inner

in

the

feet

16

is

the

to

Immense
; the

structure

single block
deep, weighing not less
is

doorway

The

tons.

similar

Pyramids.

the

space

projectingcourses

arrangement

are

long and

27 feet
than
120

37

it ; the

until the

in
galleries

the

below

one

an

"

stone

over

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

architectural

chief

feature

of

the
entrance
doorway, flanked
building was
by columns
entirelycovered with elaborate zig-zag
ornamentation,
showing a fairlydeveloped style,
of Egyptian and
Asiatic
influences.
with
traces

the

These

and

form

break

construction.

civilisation

velopment
de-

ture
architec-

absolute

an

Greece

later

Greek

of true

by

in

the

from

separated

are

works

earlier

in

Hellenic

developed, not by
the Pelasgi,but by the Greeks, or
succeeded
Hellenes, who
them,
and
it was
the
which
art
they
evolved
"

the

"

of

was

the

"

classical

Greece,

parent

of

all

the

io.

Section

through
Treasury of

the

Atreus.

ture
architec-

it is called

as

FIG.

"

which

has

been

styles throughout Europe

in

succeeding centuries.
no
doubt,
Suggestions were,
Egypt and from Asia, but in the
of Greece

creation.
was

the

to

appears

have

The

gathered
been

period during which


a
comparatively short one, for
oldest known
building" a temple

order
For
after

at
two

the

Corinth
centuries

defeat

is

"

of

the

an

tecture
archi-

original

it flourished
the
of

than

date

the

of

Doric

650 B.C.
this, art progressed until,
its
Persians, it reached

not

after

earlier

the

main

from

38

THE

STORY

culmination

at

OF

Athens

(460-400 B.C.)
ensued, followed
by
age

revival

under

Alexander

death

(323 B.C.),by

A
a

ARCHITECTURE

"

during the great Periclean


period of reaction then
short-lived
but
splendid
the
Great, and, on his
decline

which

from

it

recovered.

never

The

which

buildings,throughout
the

ancient

the

Greeks

these

periods, upon
their genius,
lavished
differed from the temples
almost
all points save

temples. These
of the old
Egyptians in
the frequent use
of
the
column
the
one
as
dominant
feature of the design. But the Egyptians
built their temples with
view
to
a
impress the
the
richness, and
worshipper by the mystery,
the grandeur of the interior : for this reason,
and
for constructive
the columns
were
placed
purposes,
inside
the
the
the building. With
Greeks, on
other hand, the temples \yere
comparatively small ;
of
the
built as
memorials
not
vast
they were
of despotic monarchs,
were
nor
they
greatness
of
of crowds
required for the accommodation
the
roofs
had
massive
not
worshippers. The
solidityof the Egyptian structures, and few supports
the
were
buildings
moreover,
necessary;
were
designed for external effect. In the Greek
were
temples, therefore, the principal columns
ranged on the outside.
As
a
rule, the building occupied a conspicuous
position,that it might be visible from all points
The
form
be
Greeks'
and
admired
of
by all.
not
worship was
congregational: it consisted chiefly
were

"

in prayers

offered

point within
whose
image was
any

up outside
view of the

enshrined

the

sanctuary,

temple,
"

in

it.

to

To

"

the

from

deity
provide

THE

for this

shelter
of the
In

image
Thus

was,

in

smaller

the

oblong chamber, the


of the deity.
statue

chief

purpose

simple.
invariably
formed

walls

in which

naos,

39

fact,the

plan was
buildings,four

temple.

the

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

an

placed the

was

portico with columns, the


this chamber;
the whole
to
access
pronaos, gave
covered
stood
a
was
by a
platform, and
upon
In
simple roof terminating in a gable at each end.
the larger temples, as we
later in the Parshall see
thenon,
columns
were
ranged all round, forming a
and at the back of the sacred
cell a second
peristyle,
chamber
sometimes
was
added, to serve
probably as
treasury

the

which

material

the construction
in

except
of

marble
roofs

posit
de-

votive

the

were

to

offerings.
frequently marble,

Stone,
was

in

in

throughout,
roofs, which

the

wood

used

covered

with

have

and

with

the

method

all
them

FIG.

perishable
disappeared,

tiles. The

has

been

u."

Plan

Greek

of

Small

Temple,

lost all evidence

regarding
for the lighting
Greeks
exception the great

adopted by the
of the temples ; for with
one
the
walls
of all known
temple at Agrigentum
windowless.
The
buildings of this kind were
question of the lighting of the Greek
temple has
given rise to much
speculation,the most
able
acceptadmitted
theory being that the light was
of
windows
the
over
through a row
high up
"

"

internal

colonnades.

Reference
order"

Story

has

of Greek
we

shall

"

Doric
to the
already been made
architecture,and throughout this
refer to the
to
constantly have

THE

40
"

classical

words

STORY

OF

orders."

The

ARCHITECTURE

requires

term

few

of

explanation.
the casual
To
observer, Greek
temples would
all bear a strikingresemblance
another ;
to
one
the designs there existed
three
yet among
quite
distinct styles. Each
marked
style was
by the
of its peculiar form
of column,
use
panying
and, accomseries
of
a
this, was
mouldings and
proportions, found
only in conjunction with that
the Greeks
the
column.
three orders
Among
called the Doric, the Ionic,and the Corinthian.
were
The
Doric
order, the earliest of the three, was
marked
by simplicity,
strength,severity; the Ionic
more
was
gracefuland ornate
; and the Corinthian,
"

the

last

make

and

exuberant

to

in

its appearance,
detail.
The

"

still

more

rich
order

Corinthian

hardly established itself before Greece came


under
the sway
but with the Romans,
of Rome;
who
of
the architecture
adopted and remodelled
the most
Greece, it became
popular, as well as
the most
beautiful,of the orders.
order
in
The
earliest example of the Doric
is the temple at
Corinth
Greece
(650 B.C.),the
oldest Greek
temple of which we have any record.
columns
of
this
Several
building, carrying a
portion of the entablature,still stand, and show
the design to be somewhat
crude, yet with all the
had

characteristic

features

of

the

order

; the

columns

and
Later
massive.
monolithic, stumpy,
examples show marked
improvement in proportion
so-called
and
In the Theseum,
or
workmanship.
(465 B.C.),for
temple of Theseus, at Athens
and
the
slender
more
example, the shafts are
are

mouldings

more

refined.

But

it

was

not

until

OF

STORY

THE

42

ARCHITECTURE

"

raised
stylobate,"or
pavement, three steps in height.
this plan, let us
consider
In conjunction with
Doric
constitute
the features which
a design of the
stood

structure

order.

The

shows,

has

upon

order, as the illustration


the
base, but is set directly upon
meter
floor or
stone
platform : its diais greatest at the foot, and
this point it tapers towards
from
in a
the
straight line,
top, not
of this

column
no

but
or

with

subtle

convex

curve,

swelling, called

the

"entasis."

shaft

are

flutes,or

the

Around

channels, twenty, or
sixteen, in number,
them.
sharp edge between

shallow

shaft

the

is

times
some-

with

mounting
Sur-

plain,

of

square

capital, made
up
abacus,"
slab, or

which

the

rests,

sturdy

"

with

the

Doric

The

weignt

by

fr"m
the

carried

tne

face

called

the
from

out

receive

to

abacus.

The

of the column

until

up

fillets

of

band

shaft

the

on

grooves
are

checked

spreading

of

top

tne

13.
Order,

circular cushion

echinus,"

"

FIG.

superstructure

upon

they

just below

are

the

capital.
The

upper

portion of

columns,
consists, first
architrave,"

the

is
of

called
a

design, supported by

the
the

horizontal

entablature.
marble

beam

This
or

weight rests, and


Being
by which it is distributed to the columns.
of the entablature, the
the supportingmember
"

upon

which

the

architrave

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

invariably left plain,

almost

was

should

its surface

of

ornamentation

43

detract

lest

from

the architrave
strength. Above
which, in the Doric
order, was
divided
into square
metopes," separpanels, or
ated
projectingblocks,called "triglyphs
by slightly
of which
the
face
cut
are
(three channels), on
from the sketch,a
As will be seen
vertical grooves.
each column, and
between
over
one
triglyphoccurs
In many
the metopes
each pair of columns.
cases
filled in with
The
were
sculpture in relief.
remaining portion of the entablature, above the
cornice."
frieze,is the
the leading features
of the
We
see, then, that
the
column
and
its entablature, the
order
are
the plain archilatter consisting of three
trave,
parts
and
the
frieze,with its metopes
triglyphs,
of
its appearance
the
frieze,
runs

"

"

"

"

and

cornice.

the

will be

noticed

On

series

having a
resembling wooden
of

the

the

the

ends

of

cornice

underside

of

marble

number

each

At

the

of

of the

slabs
small

(mutules),
projections

pins, or nail-heads.
the building the upper
made

are

to

members

the

follow

cornice

lines

of

in the centre
at
they meet
the top, while
the lower
portion is carried along
the
The
frieze.
horizontally above
triangular
thus
formed
is called
the
pediment; and,
space
the most
as
prominent part of the design,contained
the finest of the sculpture with which
the temples
were
frequently adorned.

sloping

The
to

main

have

beam

until

details

been
in

the

roof

of

derived

timber.

which

would

the
from
The

Doric

early

order
forms

architrave

be

found

appear
of construction

represents
in

similar

OF

STORY

THE

44

ARCHITECTURE

building; the triglyphs


position in a wooden
correspond to the ends of cross-beams, made
up
tive
of three
planks, or perhaps grooved for decoraand

effect ;

doubt

that

sloping

mutules

ends

studded

column

the

of

nails.

with

the

"

to

reason

reminiscences

are

rafters

of

little

seems

feature, however

other

The

the

there

"

does

have
we
prototype ; as
suggest a wooden
of
before
noticed, it is probable that the tombs
Beni-Hasan, or the temples of the Nile valley,
not

FIG.

furnished
evolved

the

The

14."

rough

this, the

Parthenon

models

Restored.

from

which

the Greeks

dignifiedfeature

most

of

their

architecture.
We

noblest

have

mentioned
of

example

Careful

measurements

revealed

the

"

Parthenon
of

temple
of

existence

in its construction

the

of

with

this

number

view

to

the

Doric

building
of

the

as

order.

have

refinements

the correction

of

which
help us to appreciate the
opticalillusions
which
the Greeks
extraordinarythought and care
of
best known
bestowed
their designs. The
on
is the
these refinements
entasis,"or swellingof
"

"

THE

OF

STORY

ARCHITECTURE

45

bounding lines
of the shaft, which
straight,are in reality
appear
the straightline
from
outwards
curved
convex
the extent
to
only of three-quarters of an inch
in
feet.
This
than
a,
height of more
31
noticeable
the eye, but is just
to
is not
curve
the tendency which
exists
sufficient to counteract
in a straight-sidedcolumn
look
hollow
in the
to
the

of

outlines

the

The

columns.

"

"

middle.
of the architrave
Again, the underside
appears
be perfectlystraight. Now
to
a
long, horizontal
is perfectly straight,tends
look
to
line, which
as
or
though it
droops in the centre.
sags
horizontal
lines of
To
for this, the
compensate
the
entablature
all slightly curved
are
upwards
the centre, deviating from
towards
a
straightline
"

"

the

to

the

steps

of

curved

are

in

subtle

Another
vertical

about

of

extent

lines,to

similar

of

lines

way.

applied to the
tendency
apparent

is

correction

counteract

The

inches.

the

the
at
spread outwards
top.
The
columns
set
not
are
truly vertical,but are
with
that
an
inclination, so
they all converge
The
not
the
slightlytowards
slope could
top.
be detected
considered
by the eye ; but it was
that, by affectingthe beholder insensibly,it helped
of
to
give the building the appearance
repose
that
and
of solidity. So slight is the inclination
columns
of the temple deviate
at
opposite ends

building to

the

from

the

inches

meet

ground
The

at

vertical
;
a

that

so

point

to

the

extent

their

axes,

more

than

of
if
a

not

more

produced,
mile

above

than
would
the

Parthenon

is built of

Pentelic

marble

from

THE

46
the

STORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

neighbouring quarries.
laid

were

without

mortar,

probably ground
joints were
only

marble

All the
and

blocks

worked

were

"

together so carefullythat the


visible by occasional
differences
The
columns
built up of cylindrical
of colour.
were
first roughbeen
to have
drums," which
appear
hewn, and then finished and fluted after they had
been
fixed in position.
this wonderful
adorned
Of the sculptures which
in the
fine
now
examples are
building many
the
British
where
they form the chief
Museum,
the
as
Elgin
portion of the collection known
ambassador
marbles.
When
Lord
to
Elgin was
in the hands
of the
was
Turkey in 1800, Athens
were
Turks, who
busily engaged in dilapidating
the buildingson
the Acropolis, in order to dispose
of fragments to travellers.
Seeing that the works
of art
were
Elgin
receiving daily injury, Lord
"

"

induced

was

to

consent

to

removal

the

thus

were
pieces of sculpture, which
destruction, and eventually found

in

national

our

executed

with

battle of
of

the

these, as

which

of

in

the

saved

from

resting-place

well

Pheidias

"

the

colossal

the

as

vigour
and

Centaurs

of

metopes

remarkable

filled the

work

whole

museum.

bas-reliefs

The

of

the

frieze

"

represented the
Lapithae ; many
of

groups

pediments, were
himself.
Among

statuary

doubtless
the

the

pediment
reclining.

of Theseus
sculpturesis a noble statue
eminent
most
of our
I should
say," said one
when
givingevidence before a Committee
sculptors,
"

of
the
In

the

of

House

Theseus

connection

was

Commons,
the

with

that

the

thing in
remark, let us

finest

this

"

the

back

of

world."

remember

STORY

THE

the

that

statue

examined

the

back

wall

of

closelyby
the

the

In

Each

days
wrought

minute

in

find

any

spectator

This

one.

surpassing

cellence
ex-

care

part,

unseen

"

that

all the

work

to

was

as

ously
religi-

as

finished

greatest

Parthenon

invisible

carefully and

in

the

the

with

and

the

spectator

which

the

towards

Art

of

elder

Builders

the

Moreover,

the
thoroughness which marked
Greeks
Truly"
at their best period.

of the

was

by

seen

not

the

and

which

it could

that

from

away

illustrate

to

position some

turned

was

not, therefore, be

we

so

4?

spectator.

any

statue

serves

for

eye,

building and

the

example

for

the

above

of

it could

work

executed

was

feet

60

or

50
be

ARCHITECTURE

OF

as

that

immediately

was

sight!
Colour

was

an

of

the

decoration
essential
Doric

design.

The

at

the

non,

part

temple

FIG.

Parthe-

time

Capital, show-

15. -Doric

ing

Colour

Decoration,

of

dazzling
the
entire
white
marble, for the
building, on
the internal walls,was
exterior as well as on
richly
its
The
with
decorated
colour.
frieze, with
blue
brilliant with
and
triglyphs,was
metopes
and
was
red, the glare of the walls and columns
the
toned
down
to
a
pale yellow tint, and
with frets,
decorated
mouldings and capitalswere
Pericles, did

egg

and

not

dart, and

present

other

ornaments

front

of

in dark

colours,

THE

48

STORY

that the whole

so

richness

of

OF

ARCHITECTURE

design presented an
than
gaiety rather

and

appearance
of
simple

dignity.
if

had

man

have

would

Time

been

dealt

gently with

merciful.

more

the

Parthenon,

Until

the

teenth
seven-

it suffered

chiefly from
neglect;
but in 1687 a terrible calamity overtook
it,while
the city was
being besieged by the Venetians.
in possession of the
time
Athens
that
at
was
the Acropolis into a citadel,
Turks, who converted
and stored the greater portion of their ammunition
in the
Parthenon.
a
During the bombardment
Venetian
shell, fallinginto the temple, exploded
the
a
gunpowder and wrecked
great part of the
commander
followed
building. The Venetian
up
his work
in
of
destruction
a
by breaking up,
effort to
careless
it, a large portion of
remove
century

the

statuary from
made

then

were

to

rain and

front.

west

the

restore

the

protect it from
to

the

damaging

attempts

structure,
of

effects
work

the

weather, and

Few

of

to

or

exposure

decay

went

speedily.

on

Goodly
Soon

buildings
fall to

ruin

the

unprotected parts

the

wet,

and

the

largely used

were

marble

caused

the

century

iron
in
to

later, as

left

without

roof

soon

began

from

suffer

to

and
dowels, which
cramps
and
the construction, rusted

crack

and

fall to

we

have

seen,

prevented the complete destruction


the
sculptures by removing them.
has been
keenly criticised ; but if
be said to justifythe
means,
may

pieces.
Lord
Elgin
of
This

ever

Lord

many

of

action

the

end

Elgin's

THE

50

tombs

beams,

STORY

take the form

planks,and

FIG.

reproduced in
us

it is easy

timber

ARCHITECTURE

OF

of

boat

the

even

16.

"

Ionic

the stone.
to

With

understand

construction have

turned
keel

upside down,
being laboriously

Order.

evidence

such
how

reminiscences

survived

in

the

before
of

designs

THE

of

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

early builders

those

these

inspirationfrom

order

Ionic

The

Greece

of

51

their

drew

who

sources.

consists

of

column

in the
same
entablature, made
up
Doric, but differing in the details

and

way

as

the

and

in

the

slender
general proportions. The shaft is more
is
diameters
and
in height
from
eight to ten
forms
surmounted
by a peculiar capital which
the
most
strikingfeature of the style. It will
is small, and
that the
that the abacus
be noticed
"

"

"

cushion
side

in

which
upon
feature like

"Ionic

the

The

scroll,which

does

column
like

those

from

each

the

Upon

of

the

other

or

Doric

by

triglyphs,but is either
uninterrupted design

an

characteristic
course,

feature

row

which

probably
construction
the

cornice

which
the

took
Doric

The

of

facias ;

like

the

was

the

the

has
with

relief.

is the

or

is

frieze

enriched
in

cornice

"

dentil

tooth-like

Doric

"

jections
pro-

triglyphs are
reminiscences
of
of
primitive forms
in wood.
The
of
crowning member
with
was
frequently enriched
carving,
the place of the colour
decoration
of
"

"

order.

Ionic

not

upon
shaft

architrave

or

carved

blocks

narrow

of

The

plain

in the

the

flutes,rather deeper
order, and
separated

capitalwas richer and


less
though
vigorous, than
awkward
possessed, however, an
it

as

stands

surface

fillet.

three

plain, generally with


no

is known

shaft, but

Doric

twenty-four grooves,

than

each

on

spring directly from

not

the

base.

moulded

are

terminates

volute."

pavement,
a

it rests

four-sided

the

front

elaborate,

more

the

Doric

feature

differed

in

from

it
that
the

STORY

THE

52

and

side,

the

at

sided

capital was
therefore, to treat
on

the

two

exterior

OF

angle
very
the

ARCHITECTURE

of

colonnade

noticeable.
corner

faces, the

the

It

usual,

was

volutes

capitalwith
scrolls at

two-

the

outer

angle of 45",
in the illustration (p. 50).
shown
in the manner
of
remains
More
buildings of the
numerous
Minor
than
Ionic
order exist in Asia
elsewhere;
notable
but the finest and
most
example of the
the
Acropolis at
on
style is the Erechtheum,
This
Athens.
building
much
shows
variety of
angle meeting

one

another

at

an

of

detail

the

order,

the

Erechtheum.

an

in

the

temple

designs

of

the

This

Capital from

"

feature

considerable

"

irregularity
ly.-lonic

and

fined
re-

unusual
Greeks

FIG.

most

the

is

difference

rendered
the

due

uneven

plan.
partly to

of

of

levels,

necessary

by

site; but

it

for by the fact that in the one


chieflyaccounted
shrines
of several deities
included
design were
Athene, Pandrosus, and Erechtheus.
Erechtheum
The
was
begun in 479 B.C., and
not
was
completed until seventy years later, so
of erection
in course
that it was
throughout the
of the Periclean
whole
period. A unique feature
ture
of the design is the little south
porch, the entablais supported by female
which
of
figures
of the
One
in the place of columns.
(caryatids)
some
examples of the carved
caryatids and
the
from
borrowed
Assyrian honeyornament,
is

"

suckle,
ancient

the

use

as

the other
among
Museum.
the British

seen

in

church

Christian

seventeenth

century

at
was

in

alterations

last

built

for

Athens

vestibule

the

which

to

opening

between

up

the

the

at

in

was

century,

been

had

of

temple

Elgin

in

was

wars

which

wall

the

it

powder magazine,
be obtained
only through an

could

access

of

the

the

of

of

treasures

chiefly responsible

Lord

day. When
the
beginning
being used as

present

but

are

condition

mutilated

the

53

plan of this building underwent


early days of Christianity,when

The
in

be
may
Greece

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

the

columns.

of Nike

building to be completed of all those


the Acropolis was
the small
Ionic temple
which
was
Apteros
Wingless Victory

erected

about

first

The
now

on

cella

"

"

"

"

with

466
front

This

B.C.

portico

consists

of

four

of

square
The

columns.

in a
be
of
fair state
to
now
building appears
been
time, however, it had
preservation; at one
completely pulled down, and its details built into
a

Turkish

fortress

or

powder

magazine,

of

some

the

It was
sculptures being fixed upside down.
rebuilt about sixtyyears ago from the old materials.
tures
Perhaps the most
magnificent of all the strucerected
the Ionic
ever
was
by the Greeks
Diana
the great
to
temple at -Ephesus, dedicated
of
the
This
almost
Ephesians."
building was
totallydestroyed, possibly by an earthquake, so
"

that

the

very

site of

discovered

by

in

The

1871.

an

it

unknown

was

until

English architect, Mr.


British

Museum

of one
of
sculptured drum
referred
to
by Pliny, from

the
whom

"

it

was

Wood,

the
possesses
celatce"
columna.
we

know

that

THE

54

there

STORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

thirty-sixof these

sculptured columns,
of them
that one
artist
and
was
by a renowned
named
beauty of the work
Scopas. The
seems
to
justifythe high opinion of the Greeks, who
the great temple of Ephesus among
included
the
were

of the

wonders

seven

the

Although

Doric

world.

and

Ionic

orders

quite
features,

were

distinct in their

they

respectiveproportions and
in the
occasionally combined
same
building,as in the Propylaea,the noble gateway

were

which

the

to

access

gave

In
Acropolisat Athens.
the
of
temple
Apollo
in
Epicurius at Bassse
Arcadia,
designed
by
of the

Ictinus, one
of
the

the

exterior

Doric, but
on

each

8."

Ionic

Corinthian

Parthenon,

columns

side

were

of

row

capitals

piers

the

of

treated

was

FIG.

tects
archi-

and

terior
inwith
tails.
de-

Capital.
The

third

importance

order

in pure

"

the
Greek

Corinthian

"

architecture

was

of

little

it appears
the Roman

used, before the time of


As
conquest, for comparatively small monuments.
resembled
the
used
by the
Greeks, the order
Ionic in all its features,with the exception of the
capital. The most
graceful example is the chorAthens
erected
at
(335 B.C.)by
agic monument
of his victory in
Lysicrates, in commemoration
to

have

been

the

competitions ;

choral

in the

is shown

Corinthian

The

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

55

this

capitalfrom

ment
monu-

illustration.

the

capital was

great creation

Probably
period of Greek architecture.
taken
from
the first suggestions of the form
were
the temples of the
Egyptians, for there exists a
between
of the bellsome
striking resemblance
shaped capitalsof Egypt and the earliest Greek
order; but to the
examples of the Corinthian
the introduction
of the angle
Greek
artists is due
of the

later

volutes

and

combine

to

work

of

acanthus

the

of
make

the

decoration

capital such

which

exquisite

an

art.

of
was
an
era
Although the Alexandrian
age
great magnificence, it was, in reality,a decadent
concerned
after the
period so far as art was
; and
death
of Alexander
never
(323 B.C.) architecture
be remembered
recovered
It must
its lost ground.
that

Greek

true

after

baneful

architecture
the

influence

country
of

ceased
had

under

come

Rome

conquering

diately
imme-

almost

"

the

i.e. about

Among
beginning of the second
century B.C.
the
vast
period
undertakings of this Roman
at
the temple of the Olympian
Zeus
Athens,
was
a
order,
magnificent building of the Corinthian
not
completed until
begun about
B.C., but
170
the

3oo

years

later.

When

Sulla

entered

his army,
he carried off several of the
other portions of this temple to Rome,

probably
Corinthian

Before
of

some

served

the

Romans

as

Athens

with

capitalsand
where
they

models

of

the

order.

be made
must
leaving Greece, mention
remains
exist, other
buildingsof which

56

STORY

THE

than

temples.

theatres

for

OF

The

largest structures
were
representations,which

dramatic

built frequently in

ARCHITECTURE

excavation

an

of

the

the
were

sloping

in the form
shown.
In the centre
hillside,
was
an
altar to Dionysus, the space around
the orchestra
being occupied by the chorus ; the actors
small
a
appeared on
stage, while the audience
marble
circular
or
occupied stone
seats, ranged in semiIn
the
tiers.
of
theatre
Dionysus at
Athens
accommodation
was
provided for about
"

"

spectators.

30,000

The

built few

Greeks
tombs.

celebrated

wonders

19."

Plan

of

Theatre.

B.C.).
splendid

with

the

British

Some
the

horses which
be

may

the

Ionic

of

Greeks

in

seen

was

rated
style,richlydecoof

the

the

"Mausoleum

colossal

pyramidal
room"

of

Museum.
the

memorial

used
(steles)

stones

beautifullycarved,

were

interestingto notice that on


many
found
sculptured representations of
the

by

(dr. 350

tomb

surmounted

the

whose

erected

was

This

"

name

to

Artemesia

sculpture. Portions

chariot and
roof

in

structure

it

seven

its

Mausolus,

memory
his wife

Greek

in

world

received

from
FIG.

of the

the

of

which

leum
mauso-

Halicarnassus

another

"

most

the

was

at

Caria

The

portant
im-

Greek

acquainted with
our
knowledge

the
goes,

builders

the

to

it

them

is
are

arch.

though
Al-

undoubtedly

were

arch, they
never

of

and

by

appear,

so

have

made

far

as

any

STORY

THE

58

foundation
the

date

Etruscans
in

state

of

OF

ARCHITECTURE

certain

it appears

Rome,

that

at

assigned to it (753 B.C.)a people called


were
flourishing in a highly civilised
The
the
immediate
neighbourhood.

Etruscans

appear

origin, who
skill, and

been

have

to

were

possessed

had

FIG.

20.

certain

"

which

considerable

influence

upon

great constructive

of

of

amount

artistic

Maxima.

Cloaca

enabled

perception,

of Asiatic

race

them

to

exercise

the earlier architecture

fact, during the first 500 years of


its existence, Rome,
as
regards its architecture,
of

Rome.

In

virtuallyan

was

The
in

Etruscan

Italy consist

Etruscan
monuments

chieflyof

city.
which
walls

and

still remain
tombs.

Of

find
examples at Volterra,
city walls we
is
Perugia, Cortona, and elsewhere : the masonry
in
cases
some
polygonal, in others, laid in
the

THE

horizontal

being
virue

of

ARCHITECTURE

the

size.

enormous

arch

"

59

is of the character

"Cyclopean,"

as

an

of

form

these

and

courses,

to"

referred

OF

STORY

was

used

A
for

previously
blocks

separate
new

feature

the

gateways

"

in

walls.

This

new

constructional

principle
"

arch

the

"

of
One
by the Etruscans.
fully understood
is the
Cloaca
the earliest examples of its use
executed
Maxima,
a
during the reign
great work
of the Tarquins (about 600
B.C.)for the purpose
lower
of draining the
parts of the city. It is
arch
of large stones
with
roofed
in three
over
an
did the builders
concentric
rings; and so skilfully
their work
that in many
construct
places the arch

was

still intact.

remains

Etruscan

tombs,
found

rock-cut

kinds,

of

two

in

great numbers

and

throughout
Central
contained, as a rule, one
Italy. These
chamber
only, in the form of an ordinary room
;
been
have
for it appears
the
to
object of the
structural,are

constructors

comfortable
were

covered

to
as

make

the

dead

tenant

feel

as

possible in the tomb : the walls


chamber
with
the
paintings, and
provided with furniture cut out of

frequentlywas
the solid rock, and
of utensils of
number
with
a
in everyday life.
use
than
The
tombs
have
proved more
permanent
have
the
the
latter
of
temples, for all traces
about
information
disappeared. We
gather our
them
the
works
of
Vitruvius, a
chiefly from
not
prolific, but
altogether reliable, writer of
the
first century
In
his
A.D.
description he
tells us
that
of
two
the
kinds,
temples were
circular and rectangular,the rectangular buildings

60

THE

having
worship
the

cells

three

three

of

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

being

and

deities.

So

devoted

far

as

to

the

records

our

the temple
important of these was
Jupiter Capitolinus,on the Capitol, begun by
destroyed by fire in
Tarquinius Superbus, and
go,
of

80

most

It

B.C.

of

statues

the

adorned

was

terra-cotta,
made

Etruscans
which

vases,

for

known

in

novel
the

which

terra-cotta

celebrated, are

were

well

of these
day ; on
many
represented, a proof that the

were

under

come

noticed

have
feature

in

of

that

the

and
intelligent

influence

the

the

works

have

(trabs,
covered, and

most

of

the

art

of
use

the

important

and

Etruscans

was

of the

great nations

two

"

trabeated

the

scientific

preceding chapters
were

The

use.

of

Greeks.

architecture

"

clay,

present

myths
designers had
We

great

and

ornaments

many

baked

or

they

the

Greek

of the

with

treated

arch.

of
was

whom

The
the

essentially

beam)" i.e. the openings


the
superincumbent weight

beam
lintel.
or
supported, by a flat horizontal
about
Roman
In
to
are
we
architecture, which
method
of
construction
consider, a new
was
employed ; for the principle of the arch, adopted
the
the art
revolutionised
from
Etruscans, soon
received
this new
Romans
of
building. The
feature, and learnt their early lessons in building,
but
Etruria
their architecture
from
developed
;
into contact
little until
came
conquering Rome
the treasures
and
with
masterpieces of Greece.
The

for

taste

the

manifested

itself in Rome

about

B.C.

200

province

of

architecture

Greece

Macedonia,

in the time
had
and

of

Greece

of the

first

Scipios,
become
practicallya
the victoryof Paulus

Macedonians,

the

over

the

under
when

168

B.C.,

At

dispute had arisen between


Spartans, the latter applied

some

and

in

of Rome.

influence

61

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

the

brought her
later period,
the Achaean
to

Rome

for

settled
Mummius
the Consul
help, and in response
and
the question by landing in Greece
taking possession
of Corinth
(146 B.C.). After carryingoff all
the art treasures, and
stipulating in his ignorance
lost by the
their value
that
if any
to
were
as
be replaced by others of equal
carriers they should
this time
value, he set fire to the city. From
became
the
Greece
happy hunting-ground for
works
artistic treasures
of art : the
were
freely
their
pillaged, and
importation naturally had
immense
influence
the buildings which
were
upon
architects
also were
springingup in Rome
; Greek
stances
circumintroduced
these
under
into
Italy, and
"

"

there
of Grecian
We

was

architecture

modified

that

evolved

soon

"

known

as

Roman."

architecture

then, that Roman


independent creation.
see,

form

was

not

speaking, it
the fusing of
be said to have
resulted from
may
the stylesof the Greeks
and the Etruscans.
Upon
the architecture
of the Greeks
was
grafted the new
constructional
at
once
principle,the arch, which
enlarged its scope ; but the refined, intellectual
work
of the
of place in a city
Greeks
out
was
an

such
no

and

as

time
as

Rome
for

was

the

Broadly

destined

to

be.

"

cultivation

of

the

arts

little sympathy

for

their

gentler

Rome

had

of peace,
influences.

the
Conquest, wealth, and consequent
were
power,
objects of her ambition ; for these she sacrificed
attained
she
a
everything, and by their means
pinnacle of greatness that no nation had reached

THE

62

before

or

STORY

ARCHITECTURE

OF

has since.

Her

of this greatness, ^afid


vulgar grandeur which

arts

have

all the

impress

characterised

by the same
marks
everythingshe did."
such
That
an
authority as Fergusson can
apply
the term
vulgar grandeur to the architecture of
is sufficient evidence
Rome
that,despite the fact
the other, there
that one
from
derived
was
was,
between
the two, a great gulf fixed.
Before
dealing with the forms which architecture
in the hands
of the Romans,
assumed
must
we
words
about
the
one
special feature
say a few
method
of construction
which
had
an
important
bearing upon the architecture of Rome, and which
was
radicallydifferent from that employed by the
are

"

"

"

"

Greeks.
The

Romans,

as

nation, possessed little artistic


an
inventive,and a thoroughly

feeling; but they were


unrivalled
an
they had
practical,people, and
and
of
the
of
use
knowledge of construction
In the earliest periods of their history
materials.
constructed
their buildings were
of solid masonry
;
of an
but, before the first century B.C., the use
artificial material
which

it

was

came

into

vogue,

possible to employ

vast

of

means

unskilled

in the erection
extent, and
with
of building; it became
possible,

to

by

labour

of every

class

this,to build,

cheaply and
only on a vast scale,but at once
speedily. This material was concrete.
is an
artificial conglomerate made
Concrete
by
mixing together lime or cement, sand, water, and
The
lime, in its moist
gravel or small stones.
not

state, absorbs
into carbonate
into

contact

carbonic
of

with

acid from

the

air and

turns

lime, or limestone, which, coming


the

sand

and

stones,

sets

and

THE

forms

solid

the

of
far

mass

as

hard

as

without

it is safe

concrete,

been

the

impossiblefor

63

any
to

ings
build-

the

In

stone.

material

this

Romans

extensively than

more

have

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

employed
other; indeed,
was

it would

that

say

constructors

have

to

takings
gigantic underthe present day, remain
to
which, down
eternal city."
of the
the wonder
concrete
The
Roman
was
exceptionallystrong ;
of its chief ingredientswas
a volcanic
product
one
it has always
called pozzolana (from Pozzuoli, where
broken
been
largely obtained), which, when
up
natural
and
a
incorporated with the lime, made
hardness.
of extraordinary strength and
cement
carried

out

successfully the

so

"

the

From

first century

onwards,

B.C.

this

glomerate
con-

struction
extensively employed in the conRome.
of almost
every building of ancient
used
Brickwork
was
merely as a facing
or
masonry
boast of Augustus
The
for the concrete
mass.
brick
that he found
Rome
recorded
by Suetonius
be interpreted
therefore
not
and left it marble
must
his auspices the citywitnessed
too
literally.Under
marble
was
a
period of great splendour and
other
of the temples and
extensivelyused : many
built solidly
of the Augustan
'structures
age were
works
of the finest marble
; but the majority of the
of this and
the later periods were
nothing more
of
behind
than
concrete
veneer
a
piles, hidden
was

"

"

marble

or

The
who
all
were

brickwork.

sees

among

sides, finds
never

examination

the

ruins

ancient

Rome,
walls, apparently of fine brick-work, on

visitor

used

it difficult

to

of

realise

constructionally.

discloses

the

fact

that

that
Yet
even

bricks
careful
the

64

THE

thinnest

walls

filled in

with

is

posing

STORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

The

concrete.

brick

bricks

and

great domed
of

glaringexample

with

merely cased

were

theon
Pan-

concrete

mass

Externally the wall


tiers
presents a solid face of brickwork, in which
and
arcades
of
brick
arches
are
arranged, as
though concentrating the weight upon piers; yet
the arches
value whatever,
of no
are, structurally,
for the
brickwork
of which
they consist forms
crete
merely a casing of 4 or 5 inches, upon a solid conas

wall

20

We

see,

structure.

feet thick.

then, that

the Romans

constructive

the

differed in most

of

methods

essential

points from
of the
the
those
Greek's
In
Greeks.
building
it was
supposed to
every part did the work which
there
was
do, and which it appeared to do ; never
formed
any attempt at deception. Beauty is truth
part of his artistic creed, and he had a horror of
"

"

deceit

in

any

form.

The

Roman,

on

the

other

it may
hand, openly revelled in it. Of the Roman
lutely
be said that, as regards his architecture,he absocould
tell the truth
not
splendide menhe
dax"
was
But, like
gloriouslyuntruthful.
evil-doers,he prospered, and, by his new
many
methods, was able to build quicklyand on a grand
scale.
for a cheap
He
went
in," says Ruskin,
and
of doing that whose
was
difficulty
easy way
of
its chief honour," and
enabled, by means
was
his inventive
genius, to greatlyenlarge the scope
"

"

''

"

of the
to

architecture

him

from

the

which

Greeks.

been

had
In

his

handed

hands

down

the

art

buildingof temples, but


and
forms
was
adapted, in an
applied to new
the varied requireto
originaland daring manner,
was

not

confined

to

the

66

THE

The

4.

STORY

beautiful

5. The

feature

Composite,
in which

the

with

acanthus

We

that

saw

FIG.

the

not

them

The

temple
of

this

poor
Ionic

portion

proveme
im-

attempt

at

volutes

were

of

Corinthian

the

"

of

story of architecture

22.

the
and

the

of

Plan

"

an

bined
com-

the

Ionic

This

temples.

Roman

"

have

few

been

remains

shows

the

order, the

well

plan

of

so-called

(correctly,of Fors
is some
uncertainty regarding the
building,but it probably belongs to

points out, the date, in

As

Professor

this and

the

not

the

time

supplied

exist.

now

Virilis

B.C.

was

Temple.

temple buildingwas
Romans
though in

city must
very

her

in Greece

part of the first century


ton

the

their architecture.

entirelyby

illustration

Fortuna

There

lower

in Rome

case

Augustus

with

the

the

strong point with


of

of

the

capital.

told almost

was

ARCHITECTURE

Corinthian, the favourite order with


in whose
it developed into
hands

Romans,
most

OF

early
temple
Fortuna).
an

date
the

of

early

Middle-

in other

cases,

approximately

be

may

of

the

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

materials

by

ascertained
used

in

67
tion
examina-

an

construction.

the

used
by the
early period the only stone
which
stone
Romans
"tufa," a soft volcanic
was
brorve
with
tools.
be easily dressed, even
could
volcanic
harder
somewhat
A
"peperino,"
stone,
into
then
and, at a later period,
came
use,
durable, and harder
was
more
travertine,"which
before
Travertine
work.
to
was
sparingly used
the first century
In the temple of Fortuna
B.C.
of
Virilis
the
columns
the
the
portico and
the
cell walls
"engaged" columns
ranged round
the

In

"

travertine ;

of

are

the

remainder

the

of

work

is

built in tufa.
a
temple stood upon
loftypodium, or base,
that a flightof steps in front was
so
required to
ceK
the higher floor level.
The
to
give access
is short and wide, and
is divided
by piers which
The
help to carry the roof.
portico is inordinately
see
deep, and, ranging with its side columns, we
series of
columns
i.e. half-columns
a
engaged
applied to the face of the wall as purely decorative
features.
From
the
earliest
period of Roman
not
buildingthe column
so
was
important a feature

The

"

"

"

their architecture

in

and,

the arch

as

lose

to

its

little more
the

to

The
were
were

the

and

as

it

vault

into

came

structural

details

of

Greeks

use,

it

decorative

accessory,

part of the

design.

the

thoroughly Greek
probably executed

temple
in

began

gradually became

significance,and

than

the

with

was

of

their

tacked

Fortuna

on

Virilis

character,

and

artists ; while
by Greek
deep portico are elements

cell and the


square
in the design due to Etruscan

influence.

68

THE

Greek
details
the

"

at

STORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

probably responsible for the


circular temples of this earlyperiod
of two
so-called
Rome
and
at
temples of Vesta
artists

Tivoli.

In

surrounded

were

each

by

of these

the

circular

cell

was

peristyle of twenty Corinthian


columns, with capitalsof great beauty.
find that, throughout
As
might be expected, we
earlier period, when
much
the
of the designing
Greek
entrusted
to
was
architects, the buildings
of
characterised
Rome
were
by simplicity and
purity of style; but the increasing splendour of
reflected
in its architecture,
the empire was
soon
culminated
which
in the reign of Augustus (27
B.C.
A.D.
14), the golden age of art and of
literature. This period produced the finest,though
the most
means
colossal, of the works
by no
for
the
best of
of Rome,
Augustus employed
Greek
to
extent
helped to some
sculptors,who
architecture.
revive the glories of ancient
Greek
his
workmen
artists and
were
Moreover,
kept
built
busy, for during this emperor's reign were
less than
twelve
no
temples, including those of
the
and
Castor
on
Pollux, of Jupiter Tonans
Capitol, and of Mars Ultor ; in addition to these
he
works
restored
or
helped to complete more
secular buildings.
than eighty others, and numerous
contains
Rome
mains,
comparatively few temple rea

"

for
most

reason

striking

are

to

the

be

mentioned

three

noble

later.

The

Corinthian

temple of Castor and Pollux (about


be the
to
A.D.
6), for a long time considered
stand
remains of the temple of Jupiter Stator, which
The
the ruins of the Forum.
quarries
up among
of Mount
Pentelicus, near
Athens, provided the
columns

of the

STORY

THE

69

ARCHITECTURE

OF

marble, and Greek architects undoubtedly furnished


the
the details,which
the design and
are
among
finest to be found
of the

Most
and

the

even

in Rome.

buildingsof
temples appear

Rome

utilitarian,

were

been

have

to

useful

temple
worship. The
example, served as an
for
office for checking weights and
measures,
bronze
weights exist with the inscription
many
Castor-.'1'' showing that they had been
"ex ad\
amined
exand verified in the temple.

than
of
other
for purposes
and
of Castor
Pollux, for

been

It has
in

the

used

by

How

comes

construction, and

of

art

that the Romans

mentioned

them

of

were

the

that

most

the

materials

enduring

kind.

colossal

the

it, then, that, of

excelled

and

buildings erected at this period, so few


in a fragmentary state ?
remain
to-day,even
The
disappearance of the old monuments
may
be accounted
for in two
Firstly,by the
ways.
of successive
wanton
destruction, at the hands
their
works
of
of the
predecessors.
emperors,
Each
new
ruler, either as a bid for popularity or
in his own
selfish interests,endeavoured
to surpass,
in magnificence,everything that had
been done
by

numerous

before

those

scant

wished
had

in

these

efforts

at

self-

treated
existingbuildingswere
When
Nero, for example,
respect.

aggrandisement
with

and

him,
the

to

carry out an
prepared for the

extensive

scheme

which

he

rebuildingof a portion of the


of the great fire of
city,he cleared a site by means
thus enabled
to
Rome, and was
proceed with the
that
other
work, building, amongst
monuments,
vast

and

Nero,"

wonderful
the

most

palace, the
lavish

and

"

Golden

costly

House

structure

of

that

STORY

THE

70

ARCHITECTURE

OF

Vespasian, in
struction
turn, wishing to please the people by the conof extensive
baths and his huge amphitheatre,
had

Rome
his

few

seen.

concluded

the Colosseum,
Nero's

great palace

later

years

the

was

site of

that the

eligiblefor

most

his

the greater
came
delay, down
House, in order to provide
portion of the Golden
for the new
a space
buildings.
the
Secondly, as Christianityspread in Rome,
temples representing the old Pagan religion
in many
not
were
only neglected, but were,
being reused in
instances, destroyed,the materials
of new
the construction
buildings. This state of
marble
The
affairs lasted for centuries.
temple
and
of Castor
example, was,
Pollux, to take an
during this period, almost carried away piecemeal.
for
column
Michael
Angelo used a portionof one
the equestrian
which
set
the pedestal upon
was
Aurelius ; another
of Marcus
statue
portion was
into the marble statue of Jonah in the church
made
The
del Popolo.
of S. Maria
great Basilica Julia,
another
in the Forum,
Augustan building, was
used as a marble
Ages ; the
quarry in the Middle
Without

purpose.

"

"

greater part of the

structure

building purposes,

and

into

lime

on

excavations,

the

remainder

the

spot.

the

In

lime-kilns

three

carried

was

was

burnt

of

course

were

found

hand

in

for

away

some

in

this

building.
Vandalism
civilisation.

century

have

has
"

often

'i he

done

gone

of

excavators

harm

more

to

the

the

with

hand

sixteenth

antiquities,"

of
than all the barbarians
says Signer Lanciani,
Charles V. visited Rome
the Middle
Ages." When
"

in

1536, the Pope, wishing

to

honour

him

as

the

THE

OF

STORY

ARCHITECTURE

71

Christianity,arranged that he should


the triumphal arches
of
pass successively beneath
With
this object,
Titus, Constantine, and Severus.
Rabelais, who
was
an
eye-witness, "they
says
than 200
demolished
houses, and razed three
more
level with the ground."
four churches
or
Small
wonder, then, that for the finest example
of a typical Roman
temple we have to go out of
avenger

of

FIG.

23.

"

Maison

Carree, Nimes.

and
of Italy, to the Maison
indeed
out
Rome,
This
Carree, at Nimes, in France.
temple differs
in the arrangement
the
of its parts, from
very little,
have
we
Virilis, to which
temple of Fortuna
In each
the edifice rests
case
previouslyreferred.
raised podium, requiring a flightof steps
a
upon
in the front for access
The
to the floor.
portico is
deep in proportion to its width, and the walls of
the
cell are
decorated
with
engaged columns,

which

range

with

the free columns

of the

portico.

STORY

THE

72

Augustan ages, as wealth continued to


the magnificence of the city
Rome,

the

After

into

pour

ARCHITECTURE

OF

in the
method
increased, for the Romans'
was,
words of Pliny, to take everywhere whatever
they
thought worth
taking," and the buildings of the
the natural
of the increasing
outcome
period were
times.
licence and prodigalityof the
A
typical
the
Flavian
building was
amphitheatre, better
known, from its vast proportions,as the Colosseum,
"

begun by the first


Vespasian, in A.D.
70.
the

For

Greeks'

the

of

form

of

Flavian

emperors,

amusement

dramatic

"

cared
little; but they
representation the Romans
and
were
passionately fond of gladiatorialshows
"

Wherever

contests.
"

in

traces

be

Britain,in Gaul,
Rome

settlement

in the

or

of these

found

are

expected,

them

Roman

mother

the

"

would

As

giganticof

most

all.

Colosseum

The

6 10
ellipse,
In
high.

the

wide,

and

180

feet

communicating

with

the

which

the

the

was

to

in

arena

spectators, who

the
was

sun's

rays

with
faced
stone, and
concrete,
planned to allow the whole audience
formed

continuous

the

exterior
arcades

by

built almost

of

On

vast

held
spectacles were
seats, rising in tiers, gave

80,000

partiallyprotected from
structure
awning. The

arena.

of

and
of

rows

accommodation

form

feet

centre,

dens,

this,

the

long, 510

gladiatorialcontests
around

built in

was

feet

beasts'

wild

the

country

amphitheatres.

claimed

existed

the

was
a

three

were

huge
entirely
skilfully
a

clear view
lower

of semi-circular

of

stories
arched

In
front
of
the
openings, eighty in number.
piers which separatedthe openingswere
engaged

THE

74

STORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

surpassed it. No vast building


in Rome
has vanished
so
completely as has this
great circus ; from its mass, no doubt, "palaces, half
cities,have been reared," for almost every vestige
is hardly
has
disappeared,so that its very name
recalled by the visitor to the sights of modern
Rome.
From
comparatively small beginningsin
of the
the time
Tarquins, the Circus Maximus
gradually developed until,after its restoration by
the Emperor Claudius, it held, according to Pliny,
Maximus

no

"

less

which

than

far

250,000
added
by

spectators.

Additional

the
whom
Trajan, under
splendour was
vast
wholly covered, inside and out,
buildingwas
with brilliant mosaics,
with white marble, relieved
It must
Oriental marble
columns, and statuary.
from
its crowd
Middleton,
then," says Professor
of works of art, its immense
size,and the splendour
of its materials, have
been, on the whole, the
In the
most
magnificent building in the world."
"

"

fourth
times

century
that

it covered

of the

an

Colosseum,

area

and

more

than

accommodated

four
"

the almost incredible number


according to records
of 485,000 spectators.
of victories,
Triumphal arches, in commemoration
design. In the
were
strikingfeatures in Roman
less than
second
no
century A.D. the city contained
thirty-eight.Of the few that remain, the arch of
the
A.D.
Titus, erected
71-80, to commemorate
for its fine
of Jerusalem, is best known
conquest
The
of its details.
proportion and the excellence
arch of Septimius Severus
(A.D. 203) in the Forum,
left as
that of Constantine
and
(A.D. 330), are
The
latter,though
examples of the later work.
most
Roman
built at a
art
was
period when
"

STORY

THE

OF

degraded, contains

some

ARCHITECTURE

excellent

75

sculptures and

explained by the fact that the


columns
and
marble
entablatures,the sculptured
and
the
panels (representingTrajan's victories),
This

details.

is

FIG.

colossal
earlier
and

date,

forum

works

of

manner

of

"

of

statues

ruthless
the

24.

Arch

Dacian

for

of

Constantine.

captives,are

of much

taken
from
the arch
they were
Trajan another illustration of the
in which
the emperors
destroyed
their predecessors. At
later date
a
"

76

of* the

one

off for

where

Lateran,

of black

fine columns

carried

was

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

it

in

use

church

the

in the
above

the

give

cornice, is a feature of Roman


of
The
purely decorative
purpose
is shown
by the fact that, in order
of supporting somethe appearance
thing,

them

been

it has

this

specialcase,
afford

support

examples
of

ness

arched

an

the

architrave

column

is too

apparent.

Greek

orders

Erta-

blaturc.

seemed

was

not
so

insert

the

column

of

system

arch
as

the

to

them

of
low
were

the

understand

to

the

that

column

the

ture,
its entabla-

without

it became

the

custom

between

piece of entablature
square
vault
and
the arch
an
or

illogical
by the

"

of

Under

the

Flavian

first century,

errors.

place of the
supporting member
;

was
construction, which
builders of the
Renaissance, and
in the work
of the present day.

piece

strange

not

complete
that

to

construction, the

some

took

FIG
Roman

sence
pre-

Roman

appeared

They

for the

excuse

fell into

Romans

that

capital. In
the great statues
they

adapting the

In

the

; but in many
work the useless-

of

the

out

each

columns

the

of

an

over

break

to

necessary

entablature

and

cornice

to

"

main

columns

to

John

as
attic]^which
frequentlyadded

"

architecture.
the

of S.

stands.

now

story (calledthe
upper
of Constantine
arch
was

The

marble

Numidian

revived
is

towards
emperors,
in Rome
art
was

ebb, although buildings


erected
by these rulers

of
to

evidence

in

the
at

colossal

please

end
very

extent

the

taste

STORY

THE

catch

frieze.

The

almost

of

diameter

votes

of

great

dome

77

the

Under
populace.
a
Hadrian, however
was
(A.D. 117-138), there
in Rome
of taste, not
only, but
great revival
in the provinces,and
especiallyat Athens, where
rebuilt part of the city, and
the
pleted
comemperor
the
great temple of Jupiter Olympius,
begun 300 years before.
time
To
Hadrian's
belongs the great circular
the
noblest
of
of
all buildings
Pantheon, one
earlier
of ancient
the site of an
Rome, built upon
by Agrippa; the
rectangular temple erected
the
materials
portico was, indeed, rebuilt from
of the older
temple, and has
its
Agrippa's inscriptionupon

and

the

ARCHITECTURE

OF

exactly the same


S. Peter's,though

as

apparently much
composed of a
and

vaster

of

mass

affords

like

the

blocks

nation

problem

masonry,
which

master-builders
concrete

dome

the

concrete

mass,

which

and

Plan

built

exerting
was

to

of

Pantheon,

however,

becomes

of

lateral

separate

thrusts
the

"

minds

was

of

of years later. In a
such as the Pantheon,

exercise

no

lateral

consolidated

the
upon
which
should

dome

of

up

exercise

hundreds

vaults

rests

26.

pIG

construction

but

"

many

structure,

the

of that

The

magnitude
of

crete,
con-

of builders

Romans.

such

of

to

is

"

striking

illustration of the value


material

"

walls

like

thrust ;

into

rigid

solid

lid.

be thoroughly grasped
point
why
by the student, for it enables him to understand
the
in constructing their huge vaulted
Romans,

This

is

THE

78

STORY

able

roofs, were

to

necessary

to

the

OF

dispense with
builders

their massive

carry

ARCHITECTURE

of

buttress

the

later

days
simple

vaultingupon

"

so

"

and

to

walls.

admitted
the
in
to
Pantheon
Light was
an
of a circular opening,
impressive manner
by means
feet in diameter, at
the
30
top of the dome.
There
is," says Fergusson,
a
grandeur and a
simplicityin the proportions of this great temple
"

"

it still one

that render

sublime
one

in

most
very finest and
interiors in the world.
It possesses,
over,
moreother
element
of architectural sublimity

having

in
up
which

the

single window,

building. I
this

possess

Buddhist

cut

of the

know

and
of

that
no

the

feature,except

basilicas

of

placed high
other temples

That

India.

great rockgreat

one

heaven
is by far the noblest
opening upon
conception for lightinga buildingto be found in
Europe."

eye

The

interior

of

divided

into

bronze

statuary, and

the

dome

is

"

coffered

"
"

i.e.

originallygilt.
deep panels,which were
The
exterior is less imposing, though, in its best
the
lower
days, when
portion of the walls was
encased in marble, the pediment and attic filled with
the

roof

covered

with

bronze

gilt tiles,few buildings surpassed the Pantheon


in magnificence.
Space will permit only of a passing reference
at
to the
thermae, or colossal baths, which
were,
of
one
period, the most
conspicuous feature
remarkable
of
Roman
architecture,and the most
all buildingsin magnitude and splendour. These
vast
comprised public and private
structures, which
baths
of all kinds, gymnasia, libraries,theatres,
all fitted up
more
lecture-halls,
lavishly than

the

luxurious

most

simply as
other, to
The

by

the

and

others

the

after

one

emperors,
and favour

built

were

of the

people.
Agrippa, Nero, Vespasian,
have
appeared
almost
entirely dis-

of

"

79

clubs,

modern

the vote

baths

earlier

Trajan,

of

bribes
secure

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

"

remain
only, of the later emperors,
tion
a
sufficiently
perfect condition to allow a restorawith any degree of certainty.
to be made
The
baths of Caracalla
(A.D.211) covered a site
; two

in

little less
form

now

Rome,

the

quarter of

carried
the

at

of

of

the

mass

in the

much,
Pope

quantitiesof

construction

baths

The

hands

the

off vast

suffered

and
square,
in
of ruins

mile

extensive

most

though they

century,
in

than

the

sixteenth

Paul

III., who

material

Farnese

for 'use

Palace.

Diocletian, built a century later,


were
probably still vaster ; the grand hall,340 feet
taining
long restored by Michael
Angelo, but still rethe
and
original columns
vaulting now
forms
the church
of S. Maria
degli Angeli.
of

"

"

have

We

type

of

made

building

no

in

mention

Rome,

considerable
very
of succeeding
architecture
to

exert

great commercial
of

the

yet

which

of

was

influence

ages.
the
and
centre,

another
destined
the

upon

Rome

was

public business
judicial,
occupied the

and
city,commercial
attention
of the people far more
This
business
religious affairs.
in
large, lofty buildings called

than
was

did

their

transacted

basilicas,which
served
the
well
halls of justice as
of
purpose
commercial
A
as
exchanges.
special interest
attaches to them
from
the fact that they served
models
for the first places of worship built by
as
the early Christians
of Rome,
that they thus
and

8o

THE

became

the

OF

STORY

ARCHITECTURE

recognised type for churches built for


with
other
Christian worship. Compared
Roman
the
as
slightlybuilt ; and
structures, they were
materials

be

to

the

of

exceedingly useful

ancient

of the

fate of

the

referred

ot

of these

made

that

so

few

exist.

Rome

Julia,in the Forum,

great Basilica

already been

construction

was

use

found

were

purpose,
basilicas of pagan

old

the

halls

this

buildings for

remains

has

for

churches, extensive

new

The

basilican

old

the

remains

to ; the

of

the

I
SSEBEHI-JBttJ

BE)

B..S

ffl B

is

'

BaE

SB

FIG.

27.

"

Plan

of

as

Basilica

Ulpia.

Ulpia, erected by Trajan (A.D.115),may


in Trajan's forum, adjoining his
still be
seen
Basilica

column.
In

the

of

plan

this

hall, 360 feet long by


of a wide, lofty central
aisles

with

lower

recess,

which, upon

roofs.

180
nave,

At

great

wide, consisting

feet

apse, called
raised dais, were
or

have

building we

flanked
end

one

the
the

double

by
is

circular
semi-

tribune, round
seats

for

the

central
the
seat, at a
magistrates, or assessors,
higher level than the others, being set apart for the
the business.
chief magistratewho
presided over

82

THE

STORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

quite separate from the


mansion.
front door
The
opened directly from
into a small
the street
lobby (L),which led to the
the sides,
round
atrium
a
courtyard, roofed over
this
Under
but open
the sky in the centre.
to
central opening was
a tank, the compluvium,which
used

shops, and

as

were

"

the

collected

end
used
of

of the

Three

rain-water.

court,

the

the

and

tablinum

storing the family archives.

for
these

apartments

privateportion of

28."

FIG.

the

Plan

of

By

led

passage

house.

to

Here,

the

at

rooms

alee, were
the
the

side
more

find, is

we

of

House

the

Pansa.

before
in the centre
as
larger court, uncovered
the peristylium the roof of which
was
supported,
of columns
in the houses
of the wealthy, by rows
of the finest marble.
Leading off this
(peristyles)
is the dining-room {triclinium)^
most
a
important
"

"

room

in

the

sometimes
vary

the

and

the

rooms

the

had

two

or

aspect according
state

of

his

the

old

three,

so

of

house

to

digestion.

grouped round
bakery, kitchen, and
were

establishment.

the

The

offices

who

he

could

that

time

the

Roman,
of

the

other

year

family
peristyle,while
completed the

THE

STORY

The

walls

of

marble

slabs

or

decoration,"
have

been

OF

interior

the
with

fantastic

it is

as

made

ARCHITECTURE

decorated

were

with

"

paintings, Pompeian

called,from

familiar

83

with

the

that

fact

it from

the

we

well-

probably
of the period.
the Romans
among
In this decorative
scheme
the
wall-spaces were
of
divided
into darkly coloured
panels by means
attenuated
of the
painted columns
; in the centre
panels graceful and highly finished human
figures
duced.
introarchitectural
and
or
perspective views were
Frequently the plinth, or lower portion
the
of
colour,
wall, was
painted a very dark
almost
black ; above
this, a deep red or brown
was
used, occasionallyblue or yellow. The figure
of decoration
and
the general system
treatment
origin: it is probable though
suggest a Greek
be always speculative that the
the theory must
houses
of
the
at
as
Romans,
preserved to us
in all general features
Pompeii, were
very similar
of the Greeks
of the earlier period. Mr.
to those
Petrie's
remarkable
recent
discovery in Egypt,
the Pompeian
back
however, enables us to trace
remote
cavations
date, for his explan to a still more
built for the
of the villageof Kahun,
preserved walls
in general use

of

Pompeii, though

it was

"

"

and

overseers

the

workmen

of

the

Illahun

plans of a number
houses
a
arranged upon
plan strikingly
similar to those
of Pompeii.
have
We
now
completed the short story of the
two
and
Roman
comprising
great styles Greek
Pyramid,
of large

have

disclosed

the

"

"

what

is known

histories of the

strangely
"

the

"

as

classical

architecture."

The

inseparable,yet they differ


refined, truthful, exquisitely pro-

two

are

"

"4

THE

STORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

of
the
the
portioned work
Greeks, and
vast,
magnificent, daring undertakings of the Romans.
"The
the arts
Greek," says Ruskin, "rules
over
will for ever; because
to this day, and
he sought
for
first for passion, or
not
for
beauty, not
invention, but for Rightness." For this quality
in their architecture
nor

the

their national

was

Romans

cared

life,which

reflected, overburdened
While
under
they were

rap

their architecture

with
the

not

the

of

sense

influence

it.

Greece,
before
vice
love
and
the
of
luxury had
fully
art progressed.
But
possessed the people, Roman
wealth
and
her people
as
poured into Rome,
lived dissolutelyupon
the spoilsof the conquered
and
nations, her architecture became
more
more
debased, and its story differed little from that of
Rome

herself

of

"

First

freedom, and then glory, when


Wealth, vice, corruption, barbarism

that

"

"

at

fails,

last.

IV

EARLV
DURING

CHRISTIAN
the

ARCHITECTURE

first three

centuries

of

the

Christian

credited
disreligion,though despised and
been
had
slowly gaining ground, in the
face of enormous
difficulties.
have
Rome, as we
the worst
kind of licence
to
was
given over
seen,
and
old
debauchery. The
religionwas
pagan
entirelyplayed out ; the majority of the people
wise
otheror
thought nothing about
religion,pagan
era

the

new

; while

of those

who

took

the

trouble

to

think

had

all,few

at

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

in

faith

any

85

old

the

creeds.

The

whether
undertakings of the emperors,
not
sacred
secular,were
prompted by piety or
or
the people
by the spiritof reverence
; and
among
viewed
the
intellectual
the more
thoughtful and
with appreprevailinglicentiousness and prodigality
hension,
monumental

"

On
And

and

that

disgust

gradually being prepared

were

great upheaval.

the

On

world

pagan

loathing fell,

secret

minds

men's

for

hard

that

the

hand,

other

doctrines

Christian

the

be

it must

remembered
not

were

such

as

by the vast majority


cordiallywelcomed
and
the new
the pleasure-lovingRomans,
among
be carried
to
on
worship had, in consequence,
would

be

in

secret

it

developed

the

; hence

memorials

and

earliest

forms

of

which

art

sepulchral, consisting
symbols of the faith found

were

of

the

in the

Catacombs.

architecture

than

it taken

had
the

apparent,
demand

until it

was

Constantine

Emperor
sooner

little direct

religion had

The

its

strength

upon
by the

officially
recognised
in the
328; but no
year
positionas a State religion
the

movement

became

all sides
a
on
sprang
up
places of Christian worship. The old

and
for

of

influence

there

suitable for the accommodation


not
temples were
of large congregations, and
there
perhaps,
was,
about
of buildings
hesitation
some
making use
which
had
been
specially designed for pagan
the
worship. In their dilemma
early Christian
builders turned
the great halls of commerce,
to

86

THE

STORY

ARCHITECTURE

OF

and
basilicas,

the

interior

The
the

found

of

Rome

with

the

at

first Christian
these

the

the

genius

time, it thus

wanting.

were

basilica suited
and

worship,

new

inventive
churches

they

of

arrangements

requirements

builders

what

were

that

built in direct

were

in

scarce

about

came

as

the

tion
imita-

assembly. As we
shall see
in succeeding chapters,this model, once
There
never
was
adopted, was
no
"departed from.
lack of materials,for the city was
filled with buildings
of

houses

of

all kinds

which

upon

been

great

lavished, and

which

of

extravagance

were

now

had

beginning

fall into

and
disrepute and neglect. Columns
marble
rich capitals,
ments
linings,architraves and ornawere
appropriated wholesale, and applied
while
and
Rome
to new
suffered,
pagan
purposes,
to

Christian

basilicas sprang

up

in all directions

with

astonishingrapidity.
Christian building
At the present day there is no
in Rome
The
dating from the time of Constantine.
church
built in his reign,
of S. John Lateran
was
but
of its early work
ail trace
has
disappeared
under
the changes of later centuries.
Perhaps the
most

beautiful

time

was

that

of all the
of

S.

Paul

Christian
Outside

basilicas of the
the

Walls, built

in 386.
by Theodosius
Unfortunately, a great
portion was
destroyed by fire in 1821, but it was
rebuilt with much
"the
of its former
splendour,
noblest interior in Europe, and nobly and faithfully
seldom
restored," it is called by Ruskin, who
sang
The
the praises of the restorer.
sketch
plan of
how
ing
this basilica shows
closelythe Christian build"

follows

In

front

the

of

lines of its pagan

the church

was

prototype.
arcaded
an

porch,

THE

STORY

narthex^ which

or

usually
form

built

an

in

to
so
as
square,
This
courtyard, or
a

churches

S. Clemente

of

in

semi-circular

wall

in

apse,

^^^

and

modated

the

in

bishop

chief

before

officers.

the
of which

altar.

As

became

the

order

to

central

FlG"

a
"

low

the

increase

transepts

ambos,"

in

the

church.

allowed

the

aisles,sat
for

no

or

the

others

Probationers

"

accommodation,
ing
by slightlywiden-

choir

The

and

service

other
or

of

the

nave,

been
within

worshippers

in the

this

side

had

admitted

were

only in the narthex

formed

required
for their use
a
portion
enclosed
altar,was
by
a
railing; pulpits, or

faithful who

and

Paul's

S.

Walls,

the

each
arranged on
remaining portion of

were

In

reserve.

screen

of

sometimes

were

space, and
in front of the

marble

^^""T^|

29._pian

building at this part.


who
were
assistingat the

nave,

of

portion

-"MM*MMM^^

Outside

considerable

of the

the

'**i|

I.XJH-1"

the

of

|tj

basilica of S. Paul

in the

basilica

the

-?rj(

ritual

rate,
elabo-

rudimentary

others

S.

|!"I!I!!II!!!I

the

was

more

in

as

and

fT
t

space
in
apse,

front

"

Rome

seen

" "[!""""""""""""

raised

the

still be

T"*^""""

accom-

clergy officiated

The

the

the

opposite

entrance,
the

gradually
came
city be-

in Milan.

early Christians, occupied the

and

and

area,

disappear as space in
valuable.
Examples
may

Ambrogio

the

buildings was

to

more

The

of

considerable

87

earlier

courtyard.

open

tended

the

the

form

the

in

atrium, occupied

in

ARCHITECTURE

OF

atrium.

or

tised,
bapthe
were

88

THE

We

STORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

then, in these first efforts of the early


of
Christians, the embryo plan, or arrangement
parts, which afterwards developed into the typical
mediaeval cathedral plan. The
division into nave
see,

borrowed

and

aisles

the

treatment

for

Christian

"

cathedral

of the

cruciform

plan

demand

for

transepts

were

between

the

bay

character

in

is

of

is wider, and

from

those

To

accommodation,

formed

by

and

apse

the

the

later cathedrals.

extra

of

early basilicas,
too,
the transept and the resulting
In

nave.

foreshadowed

see

we

at

the westernmost

where

remainder

"

be traced in many
may
Westminster
Abbey and

narthex

piers different

its

basilica

pagan

widely adopted in buildings


worship at the present day. The

plans, as

Durham,

the

most

of the

influence

from

the

end

of

the

rudimentary

extension

an

meet

the

of the space
nave:

this

from
all other
and
kept free from columns
that
the officiating
obstructions, in order
clergy
of
might not be hampered in the administration

was

the

ritual.

period possessed little


themselves
did they concern
inventive genius, nor
about architectural
effect. The
generallyaccepted
from
bears,
foretheir pagan
type of building,borrowed
satisfied
them
and
never
was
changed
the
unless
exigencies of the service demanded
alteration.
So
an
long as the apse sufficed for
builders

The

the

this

of

of

the

whose

use

accommodation

higher

officers

for

limited
it

was

number

of

reserved, it

primitive form, though made


of mosaic.
incrustation
gloriously brilliant by an
the office of the clergy assumed
But
as
greater

was

retained

in

importance,and

its

the

ritual

grew

more

exclusive

STORY

THE

90

basilica

OF

ARCHITECTURE

churches
represented in modern
by the reading-desk and the pulpit, situated on

the

are

either side of the choir.


In

feature, then, the Gothic


every
times represents the
plan of mediaeval

almost

cathedral

development of the old basilican church


of the early Christians.
One
be
change should
in the position
made
has been
mentioned, which
of the bishop's seat.
The
of the altar and
early
natural

Christian

resembled

basilicas

the

bishop occupied

the

their prototypes,
seat

in

the

centre

as

of

formerly been assignedto the


chief magistrate; this seat
became, in fact, the
bishop'sthrone, and was raised up above the level
of the surrounding clergy,the altar,
of the seats
meanwhile, being placed centrallyin front of the
the

which

apse,

In

apse.

had

few

is stiltadhered

where

the

of

the

apse,

in

front, under

Pope's
and

later churches

the

of

to,

as

high

the

in the

is situated

throne

the

this ment
arrangein S. Peter's at Rome,

altar

centre

of

middle

occupies a position
the

great

dome.

generally, however, the


positions have been changed : the altar occupies
central
a
position against the wall of the apse,
elsewhere
at the
and the bishop is accommodated
In

western

side

of the

Great
to

the

cathedrals

choir.

reverence

remains

was

of

the

paid by the early Christians


saint

to

whom

the

church

usually
baptisteryand font
dedicated, whose
circular
or
a
polygonal building adjoined the
basilica.
At a later period the shrine was
placed
the
In due
the altar,in the apse.
under
course
saints
led to
the
belief in
efficacy of various
the erection of secondary altars ; and, the apse
was

"

"

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

being recognised as the natural position for an


build
to
apsidal
altar, it became
customary
secondary
and

width
either

were

FIG.

exterior

simplest

manner

architectural

depended
rather

than

inside

were

with

30.

Development

"

the

of

an

apse,

of

arrange-

Basilica.

special feature

the

French

of

accessories

in the

treated

was

at

attempt
the

for

interior

its

beauty,

The
walls
architectural
form.
upon
rich with veined
marbles, and brilliant
"

the

decoration, for
early basilicas are
centuries.
"

basilica

possible, with no
embellishment, while

upon

mosaic

its arch

central

main

of

of

extended

apse

architecture.

cathedral
The

of

the

the

became

which

ment

main

the

as

side

either

on

the

choir, occupying the


the
of
building, the apsidal chapels
relegated to the transepts or were

round

ranged

"

into

developed

full

but

recess,

first

At

added

were

apses

central

the

accommodation.

its

for

recesses

the

The

most

the

still undimmed
apse

all

of
permanent
golden mosaics
and

as

wall

it

was

these

"

after

the

triumphalarch,

of

forms

the

space

lapse
over

called

"

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

92

especiallyrich with picturesworked


small
of them
almost
glass cubes, many
in drawing, but all finely decorative.

in these

were

marbles

Inlaid

used

were

geometric patterns, forming


as

opus Alexandrinum
be

may

seen

of Westminster
are

found

an

in

our

"

own

Abbey.
odd

mixture

the

for

floor, in

of mosaic

sort

fine

childish

specimen

known
of

which

in the

country
In

of
many
of columns

presbytery
the buildings
and capitals,

:
buildingsof pagan Rome
plain and fluted shafts are placed side by side,
Ionic columns
contrasting with Corinthian, as in
with Doric ; small
S. John Lateran, Corinthian
capitals upon
large columns, shafts of different
lengths raised upon bases of unequal heights,and

collected

so

on

from

the older

for, in Ruskin's
basilica

words,

"

the

architect

of

and
gathered his columns
he could find them, as an
ant
picks
a heterogeneous collection,
sometimes,
up sticks
built up with little intelligentskill,guilty of little
of history !
architectural style,but brimful
Restoration
in later days has
destroyed much
of the interest,historical and
otherwise, of these
early basilicas. Sta. Maria Maggiore, though to
restored in the Renaissance
extent
period,
some
the panelled ceilingwas
when
added, still retains
the
best
its original aspect, and
affords
almost
basilica in Rome.
example of an old- Christian
It is a three-aisled
building in the form of a long
rectangle,with the usual apse, and with a narthex
extending along the whole of the front. The nave
of Ionic columns,
is flanked
by five colonnades
all the columns
being, in this case, of one design.
Above
the columns
the clerestory wall is carried

Romanesque
capitalswhere
a

"

"

THE

and

ARCHITECTURE

architrave, not

an

upon
in
as

OF

STORY

S.

Outside

Paul's
of

most

the

series

upon
the

93

Walls,

basilicas.

other

arches,

of

S.

Clemente,

S.

Clemente,

although rebuilt in the eleventh


century, retains
its old plan, with the choir enclosure, ambos, and
baldaquin in a good state of preservation.
the

During
of

Ravenna,

only to
the

principal

for

(A.D.525)
at

two

and

plan

the

from

in

city

second

was

three

last century
to
building; but of the
S.

type of especial

Apollinare

Nuovo

(A.D.549),
what
was
formerly the port,
miles
from
the city.

these

in

churches

basilicas ; but

Roman

of

cathedral

the

of the basilican

in

of
of

ancient

"

S.

distance

coast,

preserved
Apollinare

latter situated

The
of

modern

been

have

the

destroyed

churches,

interest

the

these"

was

way

other

Adriatic

the

capitalin importance, and witnessed


of churches
which
were
hardly inferior
which
herself possessed. The
Rome

of

"

make

centuries

old

finest

Ravenna

sixth

and

the

on

erection
the

to

the

fifth

Classe

is similar
as

Ravenna

to

that

differed

possessing few pagan temples which


of the new
might be despoiled for the adornment
all the
details
that
buildings,it was
necessary
worked
required in the basilicas should be specially
for the
Thus
in
to
places they were
occupy.
Ravenna
meetVith
does
the incongruous
not
one
of the Christian
medley which characterised
many
Rome

in

basilicas of
Rome
new

to

Rome.

The

features

of

classical

imitated, but they were


subjected to
influences, and the task of adapting them
the new
requirements called forth the best
were

inventive

powers

of the

architects.

THE

94

STORY

feature

OF

ARCHITECTURE

of

special interest in the Ravenna


churches
is the dosseret,or impost block, in shape
like an
inverted
was
pyramid, which
interposed
between
the capitaland
the springingof the arches
"

form

in

common

Byzantium.

with

use

Ravenna

the

architects

of

this

period carried on
extensive
trade
with
an
was
Byzantium, and
subjugated by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian in
at

Thus

537.
Oriental

details

can

for.

"

entire

which

reference

to

made"

plan

the

from

this

1.

stantine

dosseret,Ravenna.
The

basilican

basilican

now

upon

been

To

type.
of

name

tine
Byzan-

given, since
the

which

founded

church

of

form

must

essentially different

originated from
Eastern
capital

-Capital
with

buildings

constructed

stylethe
has

readilyaccounted

Ravenna

be

FIG.

be

of
presence
in the
ings
build-

addition
to
But, in
details,there are found

these

in

the

at

new

Con-

tium.
Byzan-

adopted

was

it

in

all parts

of

interior.

More

for, instead

of

characterised

the

at

as

wall

S.

BYZANTINE

the

Miniato
as

barn- like

treatment

built for

marble

of

decorations
in

at

Florence, or
Pisa, Lucca, and

ARCHITECTURE.

"

which

find somewhat

we
early basilicas,

exterior

arcades,

be

slightmodifications of the
made
externally,
changes were

'

elaborate

to

but

with

centuries

many

continued

Italy,and

We

veneer,

picturesque
Pistoja.
must

now

return

taking place

while

that

city

Christians

in Rome.

were

and

scarce,

become

95

development

new

the

first basilicas

their
in

the

notice

to

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

which

was

erecting
Intelligentbuilders
architectural
styles
were

the
corrupted a result to which
ments
monuprevailing practice of destroying ancient
and
to
new
transferring their materials
had
buildings for reuse
largely contributed.
was
era
was
But, while Rome
languishing,a new
for ancient
beginning to dawn
Byzantium, to which
Constantine
transferred
the seat
of the empire in
him
the fourth century.
Under
the new
capital
situated
the highway of commerce
between
upon
East
and
West
rapidly in importance.
grew
Architecture
kept pace with the other developments,

had

"

"

"

but it

carried

was

out

under

new

conditions.

of the fundamental

principlesof construction,
well as
the art of decoration
and
as
by mosaics
Rome
marble, were
adopted from
; moreover
view
the
of
Constantine, with
lowering the
importance of the old capital as a rival,carried
off from
the principal Roman
buildings numbers
of columns, capitals,and such
other architectural
could
be reused
in his Byzantine
ornaments
as
of his architects,as well
undertakings ; but many
the majority of the artisans he employed, were
as
of Greek
Asia
Minor
and
descent, hailing from
the East.
Byzantium, too, by its trade was
brought
Some

into

direct

East,
for

so

that

brilliance

manifested
The

nations

sprang
up
rich decoration

and

itself in

in

other

there

divergence

observable

with

contact

the

the

from
church

of

the

Oriental

an

which

at

far

taste
once

architecture.
the

Roman

plan.

styleis readily
The
simple, rec-

96

THE

OF

STORY

ARCHITECTURE

almost
unknown
tangular,three-aisled basilica was
in Byzantium, where
its place was
taken
by a
square, vaulted building. In approaching a typical
Byzantine church, such as that of Hagia Sophia
at
Constantinople,or S. Mark's, Venice, the spectator's
broken
is
the
attracted
by
sky-line
eye
formed
by a series of roof-domes, so different from
old basilica roof.
the uninterrupted line of the
the distinguishingfeature
The
dome, in fact, was
its constant
of Byzantine architecture ; and
use,
the spaces, had
of roofing over
for the
purpose

much

..._.,.,

do

to

with

the

radical

change of plan
the long rectangle

from

the

to

square,
of
form

building.
Byzantine dome

cross

The

carried

was

Greek-

or

four

upon

arches

FIG.

32."

Diagram.

enclosinga square,
in the diagram,
shown
as
tween
bethe triangularspaces
circular

the

and
upon
seen

the arches
-which

that

being
the

each

dome
course

filled in with

"

pendentives,"
It

really rests.
of

dome

masonry

will

be

forming the

of its
pendentives is kept in position by reason
(shown by the dotted
convexity,so that the dome
at
the
lines) rests securely upon
course,
upper
the

level

the

four

of

the

crown

of

the

arches

"

i.e. upon

pendentives.
The
most
magnificent example of the Byzantine
style is the great church at Constantinople, built
of
during the reign of Justinian by Anthemius
Tralles and
Isidorus of Miletus, A.D.
532-538, and

9'8.

THE

OF

STORY

ARCHITECTURE

Byzantine architecture resulted in a great variety


of plans. At
the
Ravenna, for example, where
art of Rome
mingled with that of Byzantium, we
have
S.

in

that

seen

Apollinare in Classe

the

Roman

type

details of

Oriental

of

basilicas

the

of

some

"

S.

and

e.g.

Apollinare Nuovo
clothed
with
building was
"

But

character.

churches

other

differed

The
baptisteryof
radicallyfrom these.
S. John, the survivingportion of a basilica of the
fifth century,
shows
a
simple octagonal plan.
complicated, is the
Octagonal also, but more
of S. Vitale, where
the central
exquisite church
dome
is carried
each
eight piers, between
upon
of which

is

these

carried

is

walls.

semi-circular

niche

or

aisle bounded

'an

; around

apse

by octagonal

The

general disposition of the central


with
its
portion is suggestive of the Pantheon
eight niches, and is,indeed, almost identical with
the temple of Minerva
Rome.
Medica
at
Little attention
was
paid to the architectural
-

of the exteriors

treatment

interiors

of

the

; but

churches

of

construction

unbroken
which

disturbed

were

mouldings

"

effect

smooth

very
surfaces

of

the

Byzantine style
passed
beauty hardly surThe

age.

vaulted

adopted produced
of
wall
and
ceiling,
little by projections or

which

expanses

richness

the

of

interest and
an
gives them
by buildings of any

system

the

was

upon

which

tive
decora-

of
mosaics.
gained by means
become
Figure-sculpture and
painting had
almost
lost arts at this time, and
the
drawings
of the
mosaic-workers
were
rudely simple ; but
the

their

was

materials

with

which

the

artists

atoned
symbolical glass-pictures

for

worked
much

THE

that

marvellous
lines

the

of

The

architecture.

brilliance.

of

the

walls
of

and

riching
en-

pavements
the

to

carving also

undersides

The

surfaces.

rich

much

was

which

"

lower

marble

elaborate

and

."" There

to

incrustingthe
precious marbles,
contributed

splendour

imparted
the simple

custom

of opus Alexandrinum^
effect of

and

of

"

floors with

the

design,
splendour

and

originatedin Rome
the piers with
and

99

the

in

lacking
beauty

was

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

of

general
marble

the

and

arches

the

them, were
spandrils,or triangularspaces between
covered
with
delicately incised
patterns ; the
were
exquisitelycarved in
capitalsof the columns
leafcrisp low relief,with symbolical emblems,
basket-work
incised
with
decoration, etc., and
Sometimes

patterns.
features

of

the

the illustration

to

Above

the

on

we

familiar

in

reminiscence

of

architecture

the

Like

the
of

Sophia
class.
the

form

Rome
similar

was

at

impost-block, or
Ravenna

"

very

Romans.
in

the

unrivalled

west,
of

of

Byzantine work, and probably


the fragmentary entablature
of

Greece,

influence

the

noticed

of the

remains

other

and

p. 94.

Parthenon

Further

general

capital was

dosseret,which
feature

the

volutes
architecture

classical

suggested,but

were

the

the

the

great

by
most

midst

of

church
any

the

tecture
archi-

of

Hagia
building of its

beautiful

result

of

of
Byzantium is the church
S. Mark
The
at Venice.
originalchurch, which
stood where
S. Mark's
now
stands, was
destroyed
by fire. In 977 the new
buildingwas
begun, and
was
probably carried out mainly by builders from
the
Byzantium, for, with
exception of minor

THE

ioo

STORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

details of later date, it is purely Byzantine in acter.


charThose
who
have not visited Venice
will be

familiar,from

photographs and drawings, with the


form
of S. Mark's
richly incrusted front,a fagade
Ruskin
in his
draws
worthy of the picture which
Stones
of Venice
of pillars
and
:
a multitude
white domes, clustered
into a long low pyramid
of coloured
light; a treasure-heap,it seems, partly
of gold, and
partly of opal and mother-of-pearl,
hollowed
beneath
into five great vaulted
porches,
ceiled with fair mosaic, and
beset with sculpture
of alabaster,
clear as amber
and
delicate as ivory.
And
the walls of the porches there are
round
set
pillarsof variegated stones, jasper and porphyry,
and
deep-green serpentine spotted with flakes of
and marbles, that half refuse and
half yield
snow,
to the sunshine, Cleopatra-like, their bluest veins
from
to kiss/" the shadow, as it steals back
them,
undulation, as a
revealing line after line of azure
sand ; their capitals
receding tide leaves the waved
"

"

"

"

'

rich

with

interwoven

tracery, rooted

leaves of acanthus
herbage, and drifting
and
mystical signs, all beginning and
the

Cross

knots

of

and

vine,
ending in

above

them, in the broad archichain of language and of life


volts,a continuous
angels, and the signs of heaven, and the labours
of men,
each
in its appointed season
the
upon
earth ; and above
these,another range of glittering
with
white
arches
pinnacles, mixed
edged with
scarlet
of delight, amidst
flowers, a confusion
; and

"

"

which

the

blazingin
The

breasts

of

their breadth

the
of

Greek

horses

are

seen

golden strength."

Byzantine style has

had

little influence

THE

the

upon
Greece

STORY

ARCHITECTURE

OF

architecture

of

101

Western

Europe.

In

became, and has continued


to
be, the recognised style for buildings of the
Greek
Church, though it has naturally received
When
modifications.
Constantinople fell
many
and

the

into

Russia

hands

of

the

Turks

revived,

was

building

it

of

considerable

forms

of the

it

that

so

mosques,

exert

and

tecture
(1453),the old archiwas
applied to the

influence

destined

was

the

upon

to

building

Moslems.

MOHAMMEDAN
have

ARCHITECTURE
that

Christianityin its early days


little influence, upon
had
architecture, and that it
did little towards
asserting itself in this direction
Far
during the first 300 years of its existence.
it with
different
was
religiou.s
respect to a new
which
the Byzantine
movement
sprang
up while
the height of its power,
in the
at
empire was
WE

sixth

seen

century

which
whole

of

rapidly
countries

the

Christian

infected

the

with

an

leaving its impress


the leader
Mohammed,
from
A.D.
570-652. So
once

of

his

death

influence
he

that

era

"

every
the new

sudden

within

movement

East, sweeping

irresistible
upon
of

was

over

at
tide, and
phase of art.
faith,lived
the growth

century

after

his

acknowledged as the Prophet of God


in Arabia, Egypt, and Syria,in Persia, in India as
far as
the Ganges, along the north of Africa, and
in
Under
these
the
circumstances
Spain.
architectural
a
Mohammedan,
new
style,grew up,
was

THE

102

STORY

ARCHITECTURE

OF

Christian
differingwidely from the contemporary
architecture,and
differingalso in each of the
various
countries
in which
it prevailed.
The
the banner-bearers
of the
Arabs, who were
nomad
and
warlike race, but
a
new
Prophet, were
not
they were
great builders; they possessed, in
of their own
before the
fact, but littlearchitecture
As might be expected
period of their conquests.
then, the earliest Mohammedan
places of worship,
or
as
they are called,were
insignificant,
mosques,
place
of simple form.
Even
and
at
Mecca, the birthof the
Prophet, the only temple of the
sacred
Arabs
the
Kaabah
was
nothing more
than a square
of little architectural importtower
ance.
"

"

book

Koran, the sacred

The

precepts, contained

and

of

religiousduties

instructions

no

the

for

ing
regard to the buildof worship. The
of places of assembly or
faithful had
their stated times
for prayer
when,
Mecca,
they went
turning their faces towards
through the prescribed forms; but for these
followers

ceremonies

be

any

Mohammed

of

it

with

not

was

assembling

his prayers
offer up
the
were
mosques

necessary

that

together:

each

his

upon

own

there

should

man

could
Nor

housetop.

required as in the case


temples of other religions for the purpose
image of
object or an
enshrining a sacred
the one
was
place sacred to
Deity, for Mecca
"

"

of
of

the
all

Mohammedans.
At

first,then, there

was

little

building in

nection
con-

religion: such mosques


erected were
were
merely shelters for purposes
and
retirement, of simplest form and,
prayer
with

the

new

as

of
in

THE

majority of

the
When

without

workmen"

architecture
the

employ

to

fact which

,103

adapted from
began to erect

an

obliged

were

ARCHITECTURE

old

cases,

Arabs

the

being

OF

STORY

of

differences

new

mosques,

their

of
native

accounts

buildings*
they

own,

an"

architects

for

the

able
consider-

in

the

different

styles found

countries.
The

of

important

most

the

early works

werg
.

the mosques

at

Aksah

(A.D.690)
buildings generally
El

cloisters

towards

the

form

roofs

also at

Mecca
several

Here

the

arcades

the

series
spring from
the building nearest
deep ; in the centre

the

of

of

of

the

outer

high,

plan
Touloun,
the

the

on

and

this

ninth
arches

side

arcades
wall

side

deeper

of

On

the

earlier

the

pointed

columns.
Mecca

On

Ibn

end

of

arcaded

On

of

and

story

one

of columns.

rows

magnificent mosque
Cairo, built towards

century.

of

courtyard.
square
the cloister was
much

the

was

is

took

large

contained

at

Cairo

flat timber

with

enclosing

(A.D. 642)
Jerusalem. These

of Amrow

are

this

of
five

side

prayer-niche, indicating the


of the indispensdirection of the sacred
able
city,one
features
of the
mosque-plan. At an
early
mihrab,

date

minarets

which

the

or

added

were

call

slender

"

to

prayer
throughout the

Mohammedans

made

was

from

towers
to

the

city. The minarets


varied
assumed
much
elegant forms, and added
picturesqueness to the exterior design. Usually
they were
base, the
a
octagonal, upon
square
marked
by a
part being circular, and
upper
the prayer-call
was
projecting balcony from which
sounded.
flat and

The

roofs

of wooden

of

the

earlier

construction,

mosques
but towards

were

the

I04

THE

end

of the

and

the

tenth

ARCHITECTURE

OF

century

vaulted

roofs

of

features

the

tombs

became

soon

Saracenic

in the mosques

century, and
Sultan

Hassan

all at

Cairo,

(1355), and
we

find

not

one

the

most

in

the

of Barkouk
of

only

of

Kait
this

the

ful,
beauti-

architecture.

Caliphs, built

the

of

of

introduced

vaultingwas

as
characteristic,
they were

most

the

STORY

In

eleventh

(1149), of
Bey (1463),

form

of

roof,

increasingskill in workmanship and richness


in design.
that the architecture
of
Every example shows
rather
the Arabs
than
was
essentiallydecorative
structural.
decorated
were
Externally the domes
rich and
with
intricate geometric designs ; similar
elaborate
but more
treatment
was
applied to the
but

whole

of

the

interior.

The

dome"

after

the

carried
was
on
pendentives,
Byzantine fashion
with
which
honeycomb
richly decorated
were
This
ornament.
stantly
concorbellingwas
honeycomb
in their roofs, for it
used
by the Arabs
the
of
effective method
proved an
fillingup
the
awkward
corners
practice of
resultingfrom
The
carryingoctagonal walls upon a square base.
"

whole

of

the. mosque

interior

was

treated

with

decoration, in which colour played a most


panelled out with
important part. Ceilings were
beams
with
enriched
and
were
intricatelycarved
harmonious
resplendent with
patterns ; niches were
brightlycoloured honeycomb roof-corbels ; all the
with exquisitemarbles
incrusted
wall surfaces were
of tiles,in which
with brilliant arrangements
or
of invention
the Arab
his fertility
showed
equally
with
In accordance
with
his feelingfor colour.
in the Koran, no imitation of
the rules laid down
lavish

106

STORY

THE

This

Rahman.

OF

ARCHITECTURE

consisted

of

arcaded

an

hall in the

parallelogram 420 feet by 375 feet thus


covering a largerarea than any Christian church with
The
the exception of S. Peter's at Rome.
height
than 30 feet; the ceiling
not
more
however, was
of wood
was
richlycarved and decorated, and was
-three columns
carried upon
of thirty
seventeen
rows
arches.
each, all having two tiers of horse-shoe
The
of
mihrab-niche,
indicating the direction
Mecca, was
richly incrusted with delicate carving
This
with
mosaics.
and
at
Cordova,
sanctuary

form

of

which

"

rebuilt

was

in

the

tenth

is

century,

sidered
con-

"

beautiful
the most
by Fergusson to be
architecture
in
and elaborate specimen of Moorish
Spain, and of the best age." Unfortunately but
in its original
little of the great mosque
remains
state.

Fate

has

Granada

at

been
known

travellers in

of

great work

Alhamar,

was

after

completed
century.

kinder

in

to

the

as

the

great citadel

Alhambra

"

palace

the

Mecca

Spain at the present day. This


begun in 1248 by Mohammed-benhis expulsion from
Seville,and was
the
beginning of the fourteenth
who

Those

have

not

been

able

to

visit

opportunity of
studying the wealth of its design in the magnificent
ing
illustrations and drawings of Owen
Jones : interestreproductions of parts of the building,by this
be seen
the Crystal Palace.
at
artist,may
Alhambra

the

The

are

Alhambra

Hispano-Moresque

afforded

is
art

"

the

considered
a

distinction

the
due

of

gem
as

much

preservation as to the
Two
delicate
large courts
beauty of its work.
the greater portion of the ground-plan :
occupy
to

its

excellent

state

of

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

celebrated

107

of

these, the Court of the


a
by light arcades, with
Lions, is surrounded
central fountain
supported by twelve lions, from
the

more

takes

it

which

whole

The

name.

with

covered

is

interior

its

delicate

of

the

ornamentation

the
harmonious
exquisite beauty, to which
richness
and
charm.
colouring adds wonderful
ing
The
Alcazar
(castle)at Seville,an earlier buildthe Alhambra,
than
was
more
probably even
much
magnificent, but it has become
dilapidated,
has been destroyed by alterations.
and its character
Of
greater interest, in the present day, is the
in the same
Giralda
city,a building in the form
of

of
a

tower, not unlike


square
scale.
Unlike
the
Moslem

massive

grand

East, however, the

the

in

minarets

the

constructed

prayer.
Mohammedan

in

with

connection

and

been

Moors

Giralda
for

Spain

their

architecture

by

whence

they

eleventh
which
the

obtained

had

driven

were

out

leaving behind
strongly influenced the

Christian

builders

who

capture

of

Spain
The

1492.
in

end

the

at

in

call to

the Christians

also

century,
very

the

in

footing

have

to

flourished

until the reconquest of the country


and
the expulsion of the
Moors
Moors

tecture,
archi-

not

of

in

built

never

mosque

purpose

on

builders

appears

the

minaret

them

Sicily,
of

the

buildings

architecture

of

in

the

Constantinople by

the

succeeded

them

island.
the

Upon
Turks
into
church

in

the
of

1453,
hands

the
of

Christian
the

Hagia Sophia,
at
Byzantine builders,was

churches

there

The

Mohammedans.
the
once

masterpiece
converted

fell

of

the

into

io8

THE

and, strange

mosque,
for the
new

the
in

STORY

architecture

OF

ARCHITECTURE

to

say, served

which

sprang

the

as

up

to

model
the

meet

minated,
style culreligiousrequirements. This new
just a century later,in the Suleimaniyeh,
built bv Soliman
the Magnificent
great mosque

J553-

VI
ARCHITECTURE

ROMANESQUE
WE

must

Christians
The

by

hark

now

transference

of

continued
demand

their basilicas.

upon

the

early

seat

of

government

Byzantium, and the consequent


Roman
intelligent
empire, checked
period in Italy. But as Christianity
an
was
increasing
spread, there

to

for

of

the

to

the

buildingfor

Italy,where

to

left at work

were

Constantine

decay

back

accommodation

on

the

part of

its

called
builders
to
were
adherents, and
upon
provide it, first in this town, then in the other.
the fifth to the
from
Throughout the Dark Ages
"

tenth

century

"

considerable

amount

of

building
produced

was
done, but very little architecture
cities in
worthy of the name,
except in those
and Venice, it was
developed
which, as at Ravenna
under
Byzantine auspices. Meanwhile, however,
the Church
was
strengthening her authority and
style of
broadening her influences, and a new
fications
architecture
slowly developed, with natural modiarising out of climatic and other local
conditions
and
throughout
gradually spread
Western
new
architecture, based
Europe. This
and
of the early
the traditions of Rome
upon
was

"

"

THE

OF

STORY

builders

Christian

of

ARCHITECTURE

that

109

city,received

the

name

of

Romanesque.
Rome's
influence
was
impressed
Although
the
well
as
Byzantine style of architecture
upon
that which
here
call Romanesque,
we
as
upon
it is desirable
to
keep one
style quite distinct
the

from

other.

The

marked

showed

two

ences
differ-

beginning ; and when the Churches


of
and
Rome
of
Byzantium
diverged upon
questions affecting the ritual and the creed, the
still greater in the architecture
divergence became
the

from

of the

and

Eastern

the

That

Churches.

Western

Church,
so-called
has never
departed from the Byzantine
the
has
influence
of
models, and
Byzantium
thus
spread throughout Greece, Asia Minor, and
Russia.
the other
Church
On
hand, the Western
has
spirati
for her earliest inRome
to
always looked
and has drawn
the mother-city for
upon
her architecture, though different countries
have,
characteristic
their
own
naturally, developed
of

the

Church

Eastern

the

"

Orthodox

"

features.
To

deal

period,
the
was

which

tenth

were

Italy. During the


be

may

century,

almost

churches
in

first with

said

architecture

"

such

entirelyecclesiastical.
the

where
Rome,
models, and

natural

outcome

basilicas

were

ended

have

to

to

all sides

formative

as

it

with
was

"

The

basilican

of the

situation

hand
classic

to

serve

temples,
with their choice
and marble
columns
wall-linings,
available
for the Christian
were
despoiler. But
from
Rome
conditions
other
prevailed:
away
materials
were
necessarily simpler, and
greater
was
originality
requiredon the part of the architects,

as

where

on

THE

no

in

order

STORY

OF

invest

their

ARCHITECTURE

designs with dignity and


Bitter experience also had
interest.
taught the
of replacing the low
wooden
roofs of the
need
basilica by a
of
vaulted
more
enduring form
to

construction.
about
that in Italy
then, it came
three distinct styles of Romanesque
architecture
were
developed : the Basilican,or Early Christian
have
continued
to
which, as we
prevail
seen,
the
in
Rome
and
the Tuscan,
Lombard,
or
due

In

course,

""

"

Pisan.

Lombard

The

flourished

north

of

Italy,from

the

on

the

Milan

These

east.

denotes,
Lombardy

name

cities of

the

chiefly in

Plain, in the
to
Bologna

the

style, as

the west

on

two

their

cities,and
Pavia, all

neighbours,Piacenza, Verona, and


contain
good examples of the style in
(Verona), S. Ambrogio
(Milan), the
of

and

others.

church

of

Piacenza,
old

The
twelfth
The

century, shows

fagade

fine breadth

by
and
the

was

of

divided

the

the

interior

in

other

Zeno

cathedral

Verona,

at

Zeno

of the

characteristic features.

many

simple in composition, with a


flat surface,emphasised at intervals
filled in with

series of arcades

arches, or
slopes of

S.

S.

by

gable. Long,

the

front

corbels

arcaded

into

three

nave-and-aisle

respects

the

carved

slender

parts, thus

division

basilican

columns

slender

pilasters
suggesting

of the
form

under

basilica ;
was

lost

roof
vaulted
the
was
wholly
externally, for
concealed
by a simple low-pitched gable. A roseof
the centre
window
occupied the space under
this a
beneath
the gable, and
projectingporch
The
columns
of the portico
the doorway.
marked

OF

STORY

THE

the

features

all who

to

the
the

crouching

have

visited

and

entrance,

of

treatment

severe

in

lions
the

Elaborate, grotesque

Lombardy.

of

of

backs

rested upon

ARCHITECTURE

atoned

the

familiar

"

cities

old

carving

somewhat

portion

upper

riched
en-

for
of

the

and
always solemn
facades were
their slender
and
columns
dignified, and, with
the crisp
lightlyprojecting arcades, relied upon
for vigorous effects
Italian sunlight for relief and
shade ; ^elsethey were
inclined
to
of light and
gloominess and severity. Tennyson, visitingthese
dull sky, noted
how
cities under
a
The

front.

"

Stern

and

sad

(so

the

rare

smiles

sunlight) look'd the Lombard


piles ;
Porch-pillars on the lion resting,
And
aisles.
sombre, old, colonnaded
Of

with

connection

In

of

the

churches, as at
S. Zeno, Verona, and
cathedral
at
Piacenza,
found
was
a
bell-tower,
campanile or
square
simple in form and always well-proportioned.
churches
Internally the plan of the Lombard
resembled
such
the old basilicas,with
tions
modificaof
as
were
required by the introduction
the

massive

width

of

piers

for
a

the

vaulted

the

crypt

choir, the

few

roofs

and

nave

the

many
the

and

the

of

e.g. the

reduction

substitution

of

graceful columns.

shrine

floor

steps above

the

of

rows

"

the

were

choir

found

in

sturdy
times
Some-

beneath

being

raised

general floor level.


The
unlike
the
not
was
Tuscan-Romanesque
Lombard, modified
by the different social conditions
which
existed
in Florence, Pisa, and
the
The
finest
neighbouring cities of Tuscany.
where
the Romanesque
examples are found at tisa,

THE

112

STORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

the cathedral (A.D. 1063buildingsin the Piazza


noo), the baptistery(A.D. 1153), and the leaning
tower
(A.D.1 174) form one of the most interesting
architectural groups
in Italy.
The
Tuscan
more
designs are
lighter and
elegant than those of the northern cities. Timber
adhered
with
the
ceilingswere
to, in connection
basiltcan forms, permitting the use
of columns
"

"

FIG.

instead

33."

of

divisions.
covered

with

Cathedral

and

the

piers

for

The

fagades

lavish

Leaning

Tower,

interior

Pisa.

nave-and-aisle

almost

were

arrangement

of

entirely

wall- arcades

in the
Pisan
seen
galleries,as
buildings;
into
divided
or
they were
panels of dark and
The
white marbles, as at S. Miniato in Florence.
arcading was
highly decorative, the tendency to
instances
become
monotonous
being in most
of the
averted
by skilful and varied treatment

and

different

tiers.

exception,

for

The

the

tower
constant

at

Pisa

forms

repetition of

an

bands

OF

H4

THE

STORY

treated

with

colour

the

of

decoration, after

came

more

art, thanks

the

fine

the

period

Building
the

of

on

the

fear

the

of

conscience

was

dread

contribute

to

seek

refuge

found

these

world

led

; the

institutions

alone,

moreover,
belief in the theory
in

the

year
for
one,

an

uneasy
the monasteries,
fore,
century, there-

many

to
liberally

in them

of

any

was,

temporary

event

was

which
peace
and
unrest.

turmoil

scale

extensive

an

in

church

prevailed a

external

this check

but

1000

to

the

Western

little vitality,
for

by a very wide-spread
impending end of the

checked

or

by

unaffected

Moors.

in

or

The

some

walls

its monastic

within
was

impossible.

the

; lawlessness

architecture

in

was

of

society
chaos

of

state

Spain
centre
flourishing

incursion

institution,showed

an

as

arts

the

to

this
Throughout
in a
Europe was
rife, and
progress

Christian

the

influence.

Roman

become

alone, in the West, had


of

manner

little progress
in Europe,
countries
of the eastern
which

Italyand
directlyunder

of

of

centuries

ten

made

architecture

outside

the

interiors.

Mohammedan

During the first


era

ARCHITECTURE

new

wealthy

and

before.
been
A
never
they had
architecture
great activityensued, and
considerable
make
began to
progress
as

powerful
period of
at

once

in

all

directions.

buildings

new

ecclesiastical,and

were

looked
of

the

all

Almost

to

Rome

technical

Rome

occasions

was

as

help
a

taught

their

and

centre

importance
builders
naturally
and

their

inspiration. But,

to

source

many,

the
and
new
country,
devices
which
and
methods

far-off
new

the

of

THE

soon

made

OF

STORY

the

ARCHITECTURE

115

Romanesque

term

title, for

this

under

prehensive
com-

very

be
may
"
Gothic

head

"

round-arched
conveniently classed all the
of Europe
which
prevailed throughout the west
introduction
before
the
of the true
Gothic, and
Norman
which
in the
in England culminated
buildings of the eleventh and twelfth centuries.
architecture
of each
The
country, governed by
marked
and
local conditions
traditions, was
by
showed
the
distinctive features, but
at
its own
time
a
same
general similarityof style. Almost
constructed
with
all the buildings were
the same
a
object, and it became
question of solving the
"

"

the
problem,
problem in different ways
namely, of combining the vaulted roof construction
with the basilican plan. The
heavy barrel-vault
massive
walls and
of the roof demanded
piers,and
the
of the semicircular
arch
use
required piers
The
at frequent intervals.
or
very sturdy columns
ponderous,
resultingstylewas of necessitysomewhat
that relief was
so
sought in rich carving and in a
of recessed
the architects
multiplicity
spaces ; and
did
not
successfullygrapple with the difficulty
same

"

"

"

until the introduction


centuries
Gothic

"

of ribbed

arch,

"

in the twelfth

vaulting,which,

revolutionised

the

thirteenth

and

with

the

pointed
of

conditions

builders
the
a
happy
gave
solution
of
What
their problem.
and

complete
called
more

"

Gothic

than

the

"

architecture

struction,
con-

and
is

is in

realitynothing
of the progressive
natural
a
one, just

logicaloutcome

Romanesque ; the transition is


the
as, in English architecture, is the transition from
round-arched
Norman
the pointed styleof the
to
thirteenth

century.

The

"

name

Gothic

"

is

an

un-

ii6

THE

STORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

are
apt to regard it as a
one, for readers
terrupt
foreign and distinct style,breaking in upon, and inthe continuityof, the architecture
of the

fortunate

It is

period.
architects

in

round

the

only by following the


their

arch

that

constructive

Romanesque

difficulties with

able

appreciate what
the Gothic
principlesdid for their architecture,
and
the extent
to which
they enlarged its scope.
France.
In the Romanesque
To
turn
to
now
buildingsof this country may be traced the results
influences.
of
various
southern
of
the
Many
marked
churches
Byzantine features, the
possess
of

outcome

carried

very

between

on

we

are

to

considerable
the

ports

which

trade
the

on

was

south

coast,
of S. Front

In the church
Venice, and the east.
at
Perigueux (A.D. 1047) the plan strikingly
resembles
that of S. Mark's, Venice
interior
: the
is

roofed

but

they are
having

of

with

over

constructed

stone, with

of

the

of

none

Venetian
of

roofs

interior of the

The

in

in

church.

the

same

similar

manner,

externallyin stone,

wooden

false

S. Mark's.

cathedral

domes

the

as

instead

domes

the

buildingis

of

finished

rich interior decoration


At

Cahors

is

date, undoubtedly

domed

copied

In other
Byzantium.
parts of
influenced
the designs were
the country
by the
as
buildings, such
examples of classic Roman
In
those found
at
Nimes, Aries, Avignon, etc.
Dame
the churches
of Notre
at
Avignon and
find Corinthian
S. Trophime
at Aries
we
capitals,
enrichments, and other features borrowed
pilasters,
directlyfrom the classic models.
excellent examples of
some
Auvergne contains
churches, built of the lava of this
Romanesque
from

church

in

THE

church
excellent

an

Lava

is used

Notre

of

and
in

ARCHITECTURE

OF

volcanic

well-known
the

STORY

district.
Dame

du

117

Let

consider

us

Port

Clermont,
the
style.

at

typical example of
the construction, and
some

effect

gained by the use of lavas of different


The
plan of this church shows a long nave
by barrel vaulting, with small transepts
the apse
is carried
Round
apsidal end.
small
small
of
apsidal chapels. These

colours.

is

built round

FIG.

the

34.

"

chevet, which

French

cathedral

main

Plan

apse,

of

Notre

became

plans.

form

what

Dame

du

an

Such

essential
a

covered
and
a

an

series
apses,

is called

Port.

feature

group
end
of

of

in

small

the
a
lofty
chapels, ranged round
cathedral, produces a singularlyinterestingand
dignifiedinterior effect. The feature was introduced
builders, and probably origiby the Romanesque
nated
in the Auvergne district,
it is found
where
churches
in the Romanesque
at
Issoire, Le Puy,
The
Gothic
architects
Clermont, and elsewhere.
that
it figures in
the
the
retained
chevet, so
of the great French
of
cathedrals
plans of most
that period.

u8

THE

The

STORY

chief

Romanesque

the

method

old

Romans,

that

roofs

the

without
a

and

the

strains
domes

in

solid

of

Notre

concrete,

Section
Dame

du

is counteracted

the

such

great

barrel

du

the

made

Port,

vault

would

nave

the

it rests.

of

section

the
over

tend
walls
This

of half-barrel vaults

use

at

section

thrust

push apart

Port.

by the
glance

Dame

Here

the

through

illustration

buttressing adopted.

which

aisles.

so

indicates the method

of

the

their

up

outline

an

which

Notre

trouble

the
walls
securely upon
lateral thrust,just as a lid rests
upon
stone
vaulting exerted a lateral thrust,
which
be
required to
counteracted
of
by means
tresses.
heavy abutments, or butshows

35."

The

naves.

The

FIG.

barrel-

massive

escaped the
by building

saw,

was

rested

mass

any
But

box.

and

the

which

contend

to

covered

we

as

had

for

support
which

roofs

vaulted

builders

of

side-thrusts

of

with
difficulty

constructional

the

vaulted

ARCHITECTURE

OF

will show

to

upon
thrust
over

that

it

impossible to light
of clerestory
the upper
windows; the
part by means
vault was
therefore
brilliant
nave
dependent upon
weather
it from
of gloom.
In
state
to relieve
a
some
examples, as at Autun
(A.D.1150) clerestory
windows
vault
were
introduced, the nave
being
raised
above
sufficientlyhigh for the purpose
the

an

roofs

methods

arrangement

of
were

the
not

side

aisles ; but

equal to

the

constructive

the task, for in almost

STORY

THE

all

the

cases

ARCHITECTURE

OF

vaults

gave
Towards

reconstructed.

119

way

and

required

the

end

of

the

to

be

twelfth

flying buttresses to resist the


it possible to combine
story
clerelateral thrusts made
with barrel vaults ; but the difficulty
windows
until
the
not
was
satisfactorilysurmounted
in the thirteenth
introduction
of groined vaults
the

century

of

use

century.
We

take

cannot

France

works

great Norman

connected

the

with

the

the

Romanesque
the
touching upon
dukes
so
intimately

without

buildings of
of

of

leave

"

architecture

of

our

own

island.
best-known

the abbey
'example among
churches
of Normandy,
and
of the noblest
one
the
Abbaye-auxbuildings of the time, was
S. Etienne, at Caen, begun in 1066
or
Hommes,
of
better known
to
us
by William
Normandy
William
in
commemoration
the
as
Conqueror
of his victory at
church
is lofty
Hastings. The
in its proportions,with
aisles,and
transept.
nave,
Its east
end was
originallyin the form of a simple
superseded by the chevet\
apse, but this has been
the west
front is finelyproportioned and
is flanked
between
which
the
rests.
by two
nave
towers,
The
later
the
towers
crown
are
spires which
additions.
The
and
aisles are
nave
vaulted, and
a
by a series of flying
clerestoryis obtained
buttresses.
The
system of vaulting is of interest
as
illustratingthe stage which
preceded the
introduction
of the
the
sequent
conpointed arch, and
The

"

"

solution
which

were

period.

of

the

constructive

difficulties

constantlybafflingthe builders

of

this

THE

120

Another

many

OF

or

church

S.

of

cathedral

and

of

in

other

Caen

Michel

S.

later

times, and,

churches

in

Brittany (and in England),


its originalcharacter.
GERMANY.

"

followed
that
there

of
was

North

Romanesque
somewhat

Italy, as

constant

Abbaye(1083). The
has
undergone
is the

note

Trinite, at

Mont

alterations

ARCHITECTURE

church

Norman

aux-Dames,
fine

STORY

has

like

Normandy
lost

architecture

many
and

much

in

of

many
Ger-

closely on the lines


might be expected,

communication

between

of
for
the

countries,and a large German


population in
Milan.
of
Lombard-Romanesque
Indeed, the
be said to have
emanated
North
from
Italy may
Germany.
Aixcathedral
Of the earlier buildings the
at
la-Chapelle, built by Charlemagne
(about 800)
is interesting,
imitation
of
architecturallyas an
S. Vitale
and
the
at
historicallyas
Ravenna,
It
crowning place of the Western
emperors.
is a polygonal building of
sixteen
sides, surmounted
by an octagonal dome.
Before the thirteenth century the art of building
two

did

not

make

great progress

in

any
the

parts of

Rhenish
other
than
Germany
Saxony and
provinces ; in the districts of the Rhine, however,
be
architecture
said
have
to
Romanesque
may
fully than in any other country
developed more
in Europe.
The
exterior of the Rhenish
churches
characterised
was
by picturesque grouping of
of arcaded
cesses
reoctagonal turrets, the introduction
the lower
decorate
to
portions of the wallof open
arcaded
thq
galleriesunder
space, and

THE

122

STORY

half its width.

of

ARCHITECTURE

OF

The

transepts

the

at

are

west

with
a
crossing is covered
Byzantine
carried on
dome
has been
pendentives ; the nave
in Capitolio
vaulted
later period. S. Maria
at
a
and
S. Martin
(1150), both in Cologne, show
similar characteristic features,and
make, with the
of the Apostles, one
Church
of the most
ing
interestof churches
which
the
Romanesque
groups
period produced. Other good German
examples
of Mayence
the cathedrals
are
(tenthand eleventh
Worms
centuries), Spires, and
(both of the
eleventh
century),each of

the

end, and

which

has

SPAIN.

37.-Plan of Church
of the Apostles.

FIG.

Romanesque

is to

be

under

of

in 1062

of the

successes

that

1492

the

by

the

built appear
the

of

French

The
is

and

good example,
chevet.

departure
erection

of

cathedral

was

of

the
a"

In
made

dome
nave

S.

the way
; but it

capture
series
until

not

was

entirelydestroyed

was

churches

were

as

the lines

on

Auvergne.

lago

at

nave

Compostella (1080)
and

transepts, choir

instances, however,

most

from

French

by

tradition

on

pendentives

and

transepts,

Salamanca

for

constructed

of

with

Spain,
period

The.

Moors.

Such

been

churches
of

this

the

rule

have

church

throughout

Christians

Granada.

to

in

paved

Moorish

fall of

found

of

the dominion

of Toledo

work

great part of the country

a
was

Comparatively

"

little

for

nave

twelfth century.

the

of

vaulted

over
as

the
in

the

ing
cross-

the

century). It
(twelfth

old
is

THE

strange that

to

period

this

the

only
"

the

Earl's
at

to

of

occurrence

is

probably
of

swept
the

Possibly, too,

led

construction
vogue

appears
later stone

the

to

among
have
to
work.

so

to

the

at

fact

that,
ruder

make

earlier

present
with

Saxons,

the

for

way

Timber

the

The

primitive

wood

use

ing
exist-

Saxons.

of

influenced
Their

best

the

decay.

the

little church

the

the

of

tower

rapidly over

generous
to

the

the

destroyed

style which

The

remains

Normans,

the

buildingswere

in

due

are
"

skill.

of

Saxon

remains

early builders
period" were

perhaps

work

the

of

by

"

Barton, in Northants, and

advent

new

the

these

little technical

are

Prior

erected

were

primitive Romanesque

examples
time

that

prove

little about

conquest.

Celts, but

Bradford-on-Avon

rare

Norman
churches

the

with

endowed

the

Britain

Great

of

themselves

numerous

and

Saxons

sufficient
of

before

and

them.

to

troubled

have

to
appear
architecture

Moorish

Mohammedans

inhabitants

The

"

by

the

heartilyhated
everything that belonged
ENGLAND.

of the

every side, though


the
the fact that

on

for

Christians

churches

Romanesque

abounded

accounted

be

may

123

of influence

traces

which

architecture
this

details of the

no

show

Spain

of

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

country.
in

details

the

much

was

and

the

its
of

use

their

triangular-headed window
"

window
mullions
baluster
turned
openings and
are
certainlysuggestive of timber construction.
the Norman,
the
Before
the landing of William
influence of the Normans
was
beginning to make
itself felt, for" England's insular
withstandi
position notit was
impossible that the country
"

"

I24

THE

STORY

OF

should

be

unaffected

by

such

seaboard.

The

the

art

within

strides

gigantic

ARCHITECTURE

Norman

barons

ecclesiastics

and

of

the

its

of

miles

(1066), and

conquest
of

making

was

few

subsequent occupation

the

which

by the

country

effected
Normandy,
speedily transformed

rapid social revolution,and


the
politicalorganisations of the island. As an
of the
result
immediate
change there set in a
period of extraordinary activity in the building
beys,
of
churches, aband
castles,
of which
by means

invaders

the

enabled
1i

were

estab-

to

themselves

securely

more

the

upon

lands

from
plundered
the conquered
Saxons.
Many

churches
FIG.

38.
Earl's Barton.

Window,

Saxon

founded

by

Norman

himself,

while

vied

one

with

another

had

been

all

that

the

Channel.

The

in their efforts
seen

Romanesque,
the

his

or

"

to

use

in

lasted

"

Norman

England,
i.e. from

Richard

the

I. in

operations

were

for

until

1189.

Between

carried

on

surpass
side of

familiar
which

than

little more

conquest

to

more

architecture

"

the

the

followers

other

the

on

period, during
imported by the invaders

term

were

the

prevailed
a

century

accession

of

building
throughout England
these

dates

STORY

THE

with
of

almost

our

in

incredible

great cathedrals

of Norman

but

work,

activity.
do
in

part of the

every

ARCHITECTURE

OF

Not

in many
remains

only

find extensive

we

number

vast

125

of churches

the

that

details

and

fragments

country

complete
Norman
structure
once
occupied the site, from
has
of the originalwork
v/hich almost
every trace
disappeared. It has been computed that no less
found, pointing

are

than
after

churches
7,000
the conquest.

The

Romanesque,

England

is marked

to

fact

built within

were

"

or

by

Norman,"

cathedral

similar

features

century

to

of

those

buildings of
Romanesque
Its general appearance
is sturdy,
Normandy.
with
solid walls, cushion-shaped capitals,
which

characterise

Massive
On

the

arches, broad

ponderous

and

columns,

round

short

and

low.

the
its Continental
with
Compared
prototype,
cathedral, such as that of Durham
typicalNorman
or
Peterborough, is longer in proportion to its
in the
width, the length being especiallymarked
choir.
takes
the
end
A
east
place of
square
the
the apse
chevet of French
or
cathedrals, and
more
important. A great central
transepts are
and
the crossing of the nave
over
tower, carried
of the English plan.
transepts, is also characteristic
Internally there was
generally the intention
to
suggested by the massive piers and columns
"

"

vault

over

the

roofs, however,

aisles

and

the

nave.

through

lack

of

considerations, were
low-pitched roofs

funds

or

other

Flat,
completed.
wooden
ceilings were

seldom
and

vaulted

The

126

THE

STORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

these
substituted; and
as
supported, the builders were
clerestorywindows, and to

light and

easily
able to insert large
secure
lightand lofty
effect at little cost.
The
wooden
roofs, however,
liable to
were
injury from
fire,and, in many
burned
instances, were
or
destroyed, so that in
several
cathedrals,as at Gloucester, Durham, and
Exeter, they were
replaced at a later date by stone
vaulting.
The
Norman
details of our
churches, with few
exceptions,are extremely simple. The
piers were
often perfectlyplain and
round, as at Gloucester ;
sometimes
clustered, as at Peterborough ; or, as
clustered
round
and
used
at Durham,
piers were
were
alternately. Doorways
simple in outline,
with
little of
the
added
circular-headed, and
ornamentation
which
appeared in the gables of
the later Gothic
entrances
capitals
; richly carved
decorated
the clustered columns
of the opening,
and
the
archa
profusion of carving covered
The
little variety;
mouldings.
design showed
the zig-zag ornamentation, easilyshaped with the
occurred
with
endless
repetition, varied
axe,
birds'-beak
well-knoWn
occasionally by the
observer
casual
moulding, familiar to the most
of Norman
Window
treated
work.
openings were
sometimes
more
simply than doorways, but were
enriched
with
the
zig-zag,as at Iffley Church,
The
Oxford.
near
cushion-shaped
capitals,
of
the
Greek
suggestive of the sturdy echinus
Doric
column, were
usuallyleft quite plain,though
the Norman
took pleasure in carving quaint
mason
were

"

"

devices
the

or

the caps,
upon
of the external corbel

grotesque faces

projectingstones

or

upon

courses,

STORY

THE

ARCHITECTURE

OF

127

buildings had been completed. In the


in the
staircase at
Canterbury Cathedral, shown
have
illustration
of
a
frontispiece,we
good
the
Norman's
method
of
treating the arched
openings.
after

the

Portions

been

have
list

of

of

many

rebuilt

includes

at

old Norman

the

later

date.

structures

The

following

of
the
principal monuments
Less
period in England.
important, though not
less interesting,are
the examples found
among
the parish churches
throughout the country :
the

"

"

Cathedral

Canterbury
Carlisle

Crypt.

Cathedral

Nave.
.

Cathedral

Ely

Nave.
.

Winchester

Cathedral

Transepts.

Waltham

Choir.

Abbey

Durham

Cathedral

Galilee

Porch, Nave,
Chapter-house.

Peterborough
Rochester

Cathedral

Nave.
.

Cathedral

Norwich

Nave.
.

Cathedral

Hereford

Nave.

Cathedral

Nave.
.

Christ

and

Oxford

Church,

Nave

and

Transepts.

Gloucester

Nave.
....

Tower

of London

White
.

S. Al ban's
Church

Chapel.

Abbey.

of S. Bartholomew

the

Great,

London.

VII
GOTHIC
THE
as

art

ARCHITECTURE
architects

Romanesque
have

we
01

seen,

had

building by

century, and

had

made
the

mastered

on

Continent,

the

great progress
middle
most

of
of

the
the

in

the

twelfth

problems

128

THE

OF

STORY

ARCHITECTURE

puzzled their predecessors, so that


their architecture
especially
throughout Europe
of
in the
north
and
regained much
west, had
its lost dignicy. But
they had not yet arrived
had

which

"

at

roof

wooden

the

while

old
"

fire of

been

Romans,

lids "of

covered

their

pressure

upon

to

too

When

the

vaults

for

the

buildings exerted

vast

the

walls, but

to

force

as

we

say
the

make

reduce
It

the

walls

walls

was

that

difficulties

principle which
a

of

revolution
ribbed

structural
as

or

support,

heavy

vault

tended

builders

brought

in the

to

find

efforts to
the

lateral

only

to

but

also

to

solution
hit

spaces.
to
a

upon

nothing
building the
"

thrust,

not

vaulted

about

of

art

place

of the

width

to

carry
of concrete,

necessary,
and
strong,

was

massive

the

span,
in their

it

enormous

walls

exerted

"

lateral

difficult

the

of

apart

that

so

"

the

more

form

to

Romans

no

their

massive

took

.masonry
still
were

arched

the

which

with

concrete

weight required equally


them.

led

building;
this, the barrel-vaulting,
in the
buildings of the
ponderous. True, the

used
was

solid

The

treatment.

substantial

many

alternative

had

which

roof

unsatisfactory,and

was

by

destruction

of

method

successful

less

these
new

than

principle

the
vaulting, which, in fact, formed
known
basis of the styleof architecture

"Gothic."
The

Gothic

term

Gothic

architecture

is

as

is

unfortunate
the

natural

as

it is

outcome

inapt.
of

to
seems
suggest
though the term
of the art,
break
in the progressive character
a
has
doubtless
and
proved a stumbling-blockto
to
regard the
students, by leading them
many

Romanesque,

THE

130

of concentration

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

of strains

and

of balanced

thrusts

"

Early Gothic builders took up the constructive


the
builders
problems just where
Romanesque
fresh
added
were
being baffled by them, and soon
dignity and grandeur to their work.
Let us see
what
to
these new
extent
principles
The
affected design and
illustration
construction.
shows
the plan of a
highly developed Gothic
building of simple form, Sainte Chapelle in Paris,
built
IX.
by Louis
(1243-1247). The
upper
unbroken
feet in
100
chapel here is an
room,
60
feet in height,
length, 33 feet wide, and

the

FIG.

roofed

as

height
massive
to

of

the

the

plan

exterior

walls, which

support

series

such

Chapelle.

groined

of

The

columns.

by

is taken
in

see

we

Sainte

ot

slender

from

columns

the

Plan

with

over

springing

39."

"

buttresses

and
walls.

would

"

carried
Now
have

superstructure

thrust

very
up the
note

been

vaults

of

sturdy,
entire

that the
necessary

in

Romanesque
lengths between

disappeared. The wall


vault have, so
each
to
speak, been turned round
their axes, and placed at rightangles to their
upon
of
series
form
to
as
a
original direction, so
sufficient to withstand
buttresses,with abutment
the thrust of the groined roof-vaulting. These
work,

have

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

the
between
spaces
required for constructive

wall

buttresses

are

and

purposes,

no

longer

can

fore
there-

large windows, destined soon,


rich
further development, to become
natural
as
a
with
the gloriesof stained glass.
Sainte Chapelle, a Gothic
In a design such
as
without
church
aisles, the
problem of dealing
the thrusts
is presented in its simpler form,
with
filled with

be

as

the walls which


aisles

when

But

introduced
side
fresh

external

are

walls.

are

the

at

the

of

the thrusts

take

nave,

difficulty
tresses
but-

The

arises.

cannot

now

be

vertically
carrie^d
for
down,
they
would

block

aisles

with

up the
their

To

of their

permit
being ranged

along

the

mass.

,.

face

/-

of

external
T

the

walls,a new
is brought
bridges over
at

once

the

'

TIG.

-i

aisle-

40.

"

Romanesque
Gothic,
with

Contrasted

feature
into
the

play the flying buttress,which


intervening space, and supplies

necessary
the
nave.

"

counter-thrust

to

the

roof-

piers and
the
walls
them
over
are
now
relieved, by the
of the more
serious part of their burden,
buttresses,
and
have
of
to
perform only the simple task
are
carrying the vertical weight, the builders
enabled
make
them
to
not
only lofty,but slighter
and
more
graceful.

vaulting

of

As

the

nave

THE

132

The

STORY

flying buttress, then,

characteristic

feature

its

necessary
design in some

French

many
ot

its

and

ornate

and

eye
with

and

than

repose

true

Gothic
The

building. True,
the
exterior
hampered

respects, but

its decorative

did

cathedrals

it has

decorative
other

endow

the

upon.
that in

appearance

than

reason

in

delight

to

the

design with grace,


that
suggestion of aspiration rather
is inseparablyconnected
which
with
to

"

"

Grecian

gluts

ah

! this

as

me

Euclid

other, this

its

with
"

perfectness,

self-contained

that

never

still to

climbing, luring fancy


Imagination's very self in stone.
the

sibilitie
pos-

feature, placed

Still

While

seized

it become

ornamental

Unanswerable
But

Gothic

presence

being a purely
position for no

the

of

became

soon

speedilyrecognised and

were

So

ARCHITECTURE

OF

buttress

his

the

ends,
climb,

builder

to

duce
intro-

of the chief
design as one
elements
of effect, the pointed arch
the
solved
of bridging over
at
difficulty
varying widths
any
The
Gothic
could
architect
thus
required height.
give play to his fancy and
imagination, little
troubled
fettered
by problems of construction, and unof precedent.
by considerations
Gothic
The
cathedral
has been
styled "a roof
of stone
with
walls
of glass,"and
not
inaptly;
for the walls, no
longer requiredto be of massive
little
construction
the weight, became
to
carry
than
either of masonry
of glass,
more
or
screens,
the buttresses, to
fillingin the spacer, between
and
to
give effect to the
keep out the weather

height

into

enabled

THE

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

design ; and no treatment


secure
so
glorious a result
of

did

as

of

the

were

size,

with

richly
painted

its

made

once

the

and

introduction

the

was

architecture

influence

felt upon
increased
in

the

at

could

spaces

filled

beautiful
glass. So
the
period that it

coloured

glass

these

windows

traceried

great

of

133

the

walls,

windows
far

as

as

"

illuminated.
Far more
important,"
possible,were
introduction
of
the
remarks
Fergusson, "than
of painted
the
invention
the pointed arch
was
is really the
important formative
glass, which
much
architecture ; so
principle of Gothic
so,
the
be more
would
that there
name
meaning in
if it were
called the
painted-glassstyle instead
bear in
We
of the pointed-arch style.
must
'

mind

that

windows

middle

after the

the

and

that

the

changes

architecture

the

of

nature

areas
a

which

number

churches

all

twelfth

be

age

and

extensive

development
The

to

century

filled,with

erected

filled,

were

painted glass,

in
principal and guiding motive
into
subsequently introduced

possible space
display."
The

in

of the

intended

were

or

all

of
of

use

another

the

best

the

of

glass

soon
"

glass required

smaller

spaces.

the

be

led

the

greatest

localities

feature

it filled should
of

obtain

to

was

all

for

to

its

great

window
that

tracery.
the window

divided

Thus,

up

into

although

feature
Gothic
of
perhaps no
design appears
than the elaborate tracery
more
purely ornamental
of the windows, it has, like almost
all decorative
raison
d'etre^ forming, in
parts, a constructional
frame.
of the Gothic
fact, part of the skeleton
The
attention given by designersto tracery led it,

THE

134

STORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

by gradual stages, from simple beginnings to a


period of florid elaboration,so that by this feature,
more
readily than by any other, it is possible to
the various periods in the history of Gothic
trace
architecture.

FRANCE.

Gothic

"

in

architecture

France,

the

into three
be divided
birth, may
periods,of which the approximate dates are :
(dr. 1160-1270).
Early Period
Period
Middle
(dr. 1270-1370).
Florid or Flamboyant Period
(dr. 1370-1550).
of

country

The

its

half

second

period

of

twelfth

century

extraordinary activitywith
builders.

cathedral

of the

The

Church

at

French

the
this

was

time

was

its
of
popular institution. Many
cathedrals, built by the careful but unscientific
the
builders,were
collapsing under
Romanesque
in
were
weights of their ponderous vaults, and
a

strong

and

urgent need

of

renovation.

In

other

parts

new

required,and with such energy did


the bishops,backed
up by the people, set to work
that, at the end of the twelfth century, as many
sixteen cathedrals were
being built or entirely
as
them
to
give only the
reconstructed, among
familiar
names
being those of Bayonne,
more
Lisieux, Laon, Tours, Poitiers,Troyes, Chartres,
Paris.
Dame
at
Bourges, and Notre
marked
The
by
buildings of this date were
of the
groined vaulting,
simplicity of treatment
structures

were

"

"

of

the

arrangement

of

parts, and

of

the

detail

carving was simple and vigorous,the windows


and
frequently grouped in
long and
narrow,
pairs beneath a pointed arch, the head pierced
the

with

circular

division

exterior

by

in

into

series

and

allowing
vaulting.

pinnacled flying
with
roof, covered
structure, protecting
for the
lofty stone

inside

space

the

on

of

the

tiles, completed

or

marked

was

steep wooden

135

plate-tracery. The

our

bays

uniform

buttresses.

ARCHITECTURE

as
light,

interior

lead

OF

STORY

THE

of the
(1163-1214), one
a
earliest,shows
perfectly symmetrical plan with
semi-circular
east
end, richly sculptured triple
in the chief gables,
western
portals,rose-windows
Notre

and

Dame

of

most

Paris

at

characteristic

the

cathedral

French

in date

Later

of the
than

features

thirteenth

Notre

Dame

the

graceful
rated
richly deco-

was

of

sixteenth

century,

in

contrasts

simple and beautiful lines of


The
companion.
magnificent windows
with

the

Pride

Each

the

Who

loved

To

their

their
In

all

with

classes

of

the

the

manner

its southern
"

of

France,
mechanic
guild.
thought gold well spent
piety
"

glorious setting of

lastingmemorial

which

some

city, and

beautiful

her

filled with

are
a

make

bright gift of

in

instructive

an

the

century.

Chartres'(
230), the
1194-1
northern
spire of which, added

cathedral

of

interest

displayed

in

stained

and

the

glass,

enthusiasm

building

of

temple.
the

beautiful

1288), pure Gothic


"in
dignity inferior

cathedral
found

its

of

Amiens

(1220-

highest expression :
to
Chartres, in sublimity to
Beauvais, in decorative splendour to Rheims, and
in loveliness
of figure-sculpture
It
to
Bourges.
has nothing like the artful pointing and
moulding

STORY

THE

136

of the arcades
of

OF

Salisbury" nothing

of
And

Durham.

ARCHITECTURE

yet, in

outshone
or
ways,
of Amiens
deserves

these,

by

M.

Viollet

Due

le

of the

might

more

than

all, and

dral
overpowered, the cathethe name
given to it

the

'
"

Parthenon

of Gothic

Architecture.'"1
As

the

Amiens

type

of

French

Gothic, the cathedral of


later with that of Salisbury

is contrasted

(p. 147).
Almost

showed

invariablythe

French

semicircular

apsidal arrangement

Plan

FIG. 41."

end.

the east

end,

square

and

general

in

plan
of

Cathedral.

of Amiens

Laon

At
so

or

cathedral

Poitiers

we

England;

but

find

the

in

the

typicalplan the east end had a series of radiating


an
already
chapels,forming a chevet
arrangement
of
the
Notre
in
church
noticed
Romanesque
in the illustration
at
Dame
Clermont, and seen
"

of

Cathedral.

Amiens
The

with
Paris

transepts
us

hot

were

Bourges has none,


has
only rudimentary
:

Ruskin,

"

The

fully developed

so

Bible

Notre

and
ones.

of

Amiens."

Dame
The

as

at

main

STORY

THE

138

OF

ARCHITECTURE

been

Michel, portions of which, however, have

S.

re-built later.
Period
buildingsof the Second
noteworthy is the unfinished cathedral of
Of

the

the

foundation

The

the

of

portion
slenderest
carried

of

Gothic

the

this

In

century.

"

French

all

until

out

of

design

cathedrals

half

second

design
the

Beauvais.

1225, but the greater


the
this
loftiest and

from

dates

most

of

thirteenth

the

builders

the

not

was

"

carried

limit

the

of

daring,
and
in a few years the slender supports collapsed,
the
and
entirely
building required to be almost
As it now
reconstructed.
stands, the height from
the pavement
the top of the vaulting is not
to
less

principles to

than

160

extreme

Similar

feet!

of

cathedrals

Few

completed,

English type,
Period

Middle

the

long delays,

after

except

the

of

Ely, a longer cathedral


give less than 75 feet.

at

measurements

Ouen

S.

were

for

the

Rouen,
have a fine example,
built between
we
1320-1350,
later date.
with
of a
additions
Limoges (1272)
is still
extensive
scale, but
an
was
begun on
year,
incomplete ; Toulouse, begun in the same
sixteenth
not
was
century;
completed until the
had

enthusiasm

waned.

inconsiderable

additions
many
designs which have

and

interest.

Rouen,

are

Profusion
of tracery

Period.

The

features
of

curves

Such

made

were

was

carried

building

of

amount

at

there

Yet

is still unfinished.

Narbonne

and

In

the

to

no

on,

earlier

their beauty
greatly enhanced
at
great rose- windows, as
of this period.

rich

detail

marked
work

the
is

and

florid elaboration

Third,

seen

in

or

Flamboyant,

the

church

of

at

which

added

was

the

at

each

of

older

the

to

beginning of
these examples

the
may

windows

of

cathedral

sixteenth

date

same

florid

as

cathedral

the
of

architecture

the

fantastic

In

the

striking
gables over

stone, suggestive
glass. Notable

front

sixteenth
work

Rouen

of

are
examples of the flamboyant work
of Troyes and of Rheims, the church
de Ville
at
Dieppe, and the Hotel

the

of

facade

century.

be noticed

network
open
without

an

are

rich

tracery ; the

of elaborate

development
the porches

139

; finer still in the

Rouen

S. Maclou

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

the
of
at

facades
S. Jacques
Rouen, of

(1500).
century

The
minated
cul-

the

sepulchral
all dignity of
almost
church
of Brou, in which
composition is frittered away in a dazzlingprofusion
of lace-like carving,marvellous
masterpieces of the
in

craftsmen's

such

art
Flemish

German

but

decadent

as

"

carvers,

Lombard

masons,

smiths

form

gilders,
Spain

from

"

of architecture.

confined
to
not
spiritin France was
ecclesiastical buildings,but pervaded every branch
of secular
architecture.
domestic
and
a
Many
French
as
Troyes, Provins, or
Bourges,
town,
house
retains fine specimens of the later Gothic
:
witness
the
of Jacques Cceur
picturesque house
at Bourges (1443). Tne
more
important buildings
in shop-fronts and
of stone
were
designs
; but
smaller
scale the half-timbered
on
a
fagade, with
its overhanging, steep-pitched gables and
fully
moulded
beams
and brackets, was
more
frequently
With
later
domestic
seen.
buildings details
become
less distinctly
Gothic, but the high gables
The

Gothic

140

THE

STORY

and

steep

roofs

survived,and,
the designs of
the

sixteenth

GREAT

as

the

and

OF

and

other

shall

we

French

see,

Gothic

traditions

stronglyinfluenced

Renaissance

builders

of

later centuries.

BRITAIN."

Britain

ARCHITECTURE

Gothic

architecture

in

Great

is

into three
usually divided
periods
Early English, Decorated, and Perpendicular the
duration
of which
coincided
fairly
accuratelywith
the thirteenth,fourteenth, and
fifteenth centuries
shall,therefore,not be greatly
respectively. We
at fault in regarding Early English Gothic
the
as
typicalstyle of the thirteenth century, Decorated
of the fourteenth,and Perpendicular of the fifteenth
and
later centuries.
Needless
to say, the
periods
another
to
the
some
overlapped one
extent, and
style did not
suddenly change with the advent
"

"

of

each

new

century.

The

of

course

architecture

throughout the periods was


uninterrupted, as we
shall see
by noting the leading characteristics
of each

Early

:"

English, or

Thirteenth

Century. Long,
lancet-headed
windows;
angle-buttresses
narrow,
set
squarely; deeply undercut
mouldings to the
arches ; slender,detached
columns
doors
and
to
windows
capitals,with crisp, bulbous
; circular
foliage; clustered piers; little ornament,
except
the dog-tooth.
ness
Decorated, or Fourteenth
Century. Greater richof detail ; buttresses
enriched
with
crockets,
niches, etc., and often set obliquelyat the angles ;
windows
and
wider
more
important, and divided
by mullions, the upper
part filled in with
metrical
geoor
(later)elaborate
flowing tracery ;
"

"

STORY

THE

shallower

mouldings
foliage in

the

bosses

ARCHITECTURE

and

capitals

oak

of

forms

OF

leaves,

less

; carved

numerous

crisp, with
finely carved

less

etc.

141

natural

figures

ornament.
ball-flower
Perpendicular,or FifteenthCentury and Later.
with numerous
mullions, and with
Larger windows
vertical tracery carried
through to the top of the
transomes
by horizontal
arch, often intersected
;
all wall surfaces
almost
panelled, in imitation of
the window
treatment
; doorways frequentlyfinished

and

"

with

label

arch; weak, shallow


octagonal piers; arches, at the later

square

mouldings ;
period, flattened
centres

with

the

at

timber

; open

the

over

struck
apex, and
roofs of elaborate

figuresof angels ;

carved

vaulting; richly ornamented


; Tudor-rose

There

England

to

thirteenth
that

the

had

been

island

grand

in

structures

immediate

in

France

We

But

wants.

ments
battle-

with

make

had

that

the

Gothic

felt,the
into

new

for

new

work

in
the
seen

Conquest
covered

the

buildings as

at

as

have

Norman

sufficient

were

its presence
gradually introduced
to

France.

very active one, and


ecclesiastical
such
even

elaborate

era
cathedral-building
with
the early part of

period following the

with

unrivalled

compare

century
a

tion,
construc-

more

parapets

four

ornament.

Gothic

no

was

from

were

time.

These

the

people's
tide began

features
which

were
was

in

and, after a period of transition,began to


details and the round
supplant the sturdy Norman
wholesale
no
arch, though there was
pulling down
and rebuilding of cathedral
churches, such as was
progress,

witnessed
the

in

cathedrals

France.
of

Thus

England

it
are

comes

less

about

that

homogeneous

THE

142

than

those

STORY

of

OF

French

our

ARCHITECTURE

neighbours, for,with

one

of
exceptions, they represent a mixture
which J
styles,and are in realityNorman
structures
have been remodelled
and enlarged by the Gothicl
or

two

builders.
This

fact

tended

istic
emphasise a characterpeculiarityof the English cathedral
planits remarkable
length in proportion to its breadth.
The
builders, probably for conAnglo-Norman
structive
showed
a
preference for narrow
reasons,
it would
have
been
naves
as
impossible to
; and
widen the naves
without pullingdown
the buildings,
the
additions
all in the
subsequent Gothic
were
direction of emphasising the
length rather than
the width, so that in several of our
English plans
find the proportions of length to breadth
we
as
At
great as 7 to i.
Salisbury,an entirelyGothic
are
building,the dimensions
78 feet
450 feet and
The
6 to
i.
respectively almost
long, narrow
of the English cathedrals
naves
are
ill-adaptedfor
a
service, or for enabling a congregation to see
what was
t^iVingplace at the altar ; but there were
in
compensations, for,as Fergusson points out,
pictorial effect they surpass
everything erected
the
with
on
Continent, unless
greatly increased
dimensions
of height or
width.
fore,
Whether, thereit were
hit
upon by accident or design, its
beauty was
immediately appreciated, and formed
the
governing principle in the design of all the]
It was
a
English cathedrals.
discovery which has
added
effect which
the sublimity of
to
more
to

"

"

characterises

of

most

principleintroduced
The

earliest

traces

cathedrals

our

during
of

the

than

Middle

Gothic

in

any

other

Ages."
England

are

THE

found

OF

STORY

buildings which

Norman

in

during the

of erection

ARCHITECTURE

middle

143
in

were

of the twelfth

course

century.

Malmesbury
Abbey (1130) and at Kirkstall Abbey (1160),and
almost
equally early examples of ribbed vaulting
found
Furness
at
Cathedral,
Abbey, Worcester
are
doubt imported
and elsewhere.
The
ideas were
no
from
France, but they developed in a different
and probably owed
much
of their development
manner,
It is to Canterbury,
to
English architects.
look for the first application
however, that we must
of Gothic
a
on
complete and extensive scale.
Canterbury at this early date had already seen
much
cathedral had been rebuilt in
history. The
the
tenth
by Odo, but the archbishop
century
the
Lanfranc,
Norman,
appointed by William
of
the
old
destroyed the whole
building, and
rebuilt it on
in 1070.
a largerscale
But, like the
arches

Pointed

old

Roman
had

were

emperors,

introduced

the

at

abbot-builders

of

those

littlerespect for their

predecessors'work,
and within twenty years it was
again pulled down,
rebuilt by Ernulph.
and
His
Conrad,
successor,
built it on
extensive
a
more
scale, including in
his design the "glorious choir
the
of Conrad,"
finest work
that
executed
had
in England
been
date
at that
When
this choir was
again
(mo).
the
monks
destroyed by fire in 1174
missioned
comWilliam
of
a
Frenchman,
Sens, to
The
of restoration.
new
superintend the work
choir, designed by him, affords the earliest example
of the Gothic
in an
important
style carried out
in
English building and
a
complete manner.
days

"

Four

years

William

"

after

of Sens

the work
was

killed

had

by

been

fall from

hand,
scaffold,

in

put
a

THE

144

STORY

and

his

who

carried

place

The

(1175-1184)
cathedral

the east

of

by an English architect,
his predecessor'sdesign with little
new
choir, thus
completed,

bears

resemblance

some

of

and

plan

ARCHITECTURE

taken

was

out

variation.

OF

Sens, and
details, with
end, and a

is
an

the

to

in its
French
distinctly
apsidal arrangement

stone

vaulted

roof.

difference

The

between
and

of

Gothic
and

1175

Norman

the

of

is very

"

new

the old work


the

"

the

and

mo

marked,
be

may

studied

at

the

point in the arcading where the


new

abuts

against

the

The

old.

illustration

shows

the

plain,
cushion
shaped
Norman
capital
this
at
point,
o n
supporting
-

FIG.

of

Part

42.

Arcade,

Canterbury.

its
arch
with
sturdy round
the
Gothic
the
other
roughly axed
zig-zag, on
with
work
its chiselled
mouldings and carved

the

side

one

the

ornament.

The
had

great progress
between

made

Gervase,

which

these

progress

dates

is

building
emphasised by
of

art

writer,who

contemporary

of the

the

of

the

work.

was
"

The

an

witness
eye-

pillars

with

an

axe

and

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

146

not

with

chisel

but

here, almost

appropriate sculpture. No marble


innumerable
columns
are
were
there, but here
ated
a
ceiling of wood, decorones.
There, there was
is a vault,
with
excellent painting; but here
and
of stone
light tufa."
beautifullyconstructed
all this, he
And
wisely remarks, will be better
understood
by inspectionthan by any description.
been
had
used
Gothic
When
throughout
once
became
it soon
importance,
a
design of such
is

throughout

FIG.

44.

Plan

"

of

Salisbury Cathedral.

In
1185 Hugh of Burgundy
generally adopted.
set
was
appointed Bishop of Lincoln, and at once
of which
end
his cathedral, the east
to work
on
Gothic
he rebuilt in pure
St. Hugh's choir
style.
"

"

But

parts of the

various

in

country

the

Norman

conjunction with
the
beginning of the
pointed arch, until the
which
mencement
thirteenth
period the comcentury, from
in England may
of Gothic
of the sway
round

be

arch

said
Within

cathedrals

to

continued

in

use,

in

date.
the
were

early years
enlarged

of
in

the
the

century

many
style, and the

OF

STORY

THE

ARCHITECTURE

147

the
as
others, such works
west
porch of Ely, the presbytery of
choir
of
the
Rochester, Fountains
Winchester,
of the
choir
the
Church,
Temple
Abbey, and
this
of
for the
But
London.
typical church
look
date
to
Salisbury (1220-1258), an
we
was
foundation, which
designed and
entirelynew
built throughout in the Early English, or thirteenth
century, style. A comparison of this with the plan
cathedral
of the same
date
of a typicalFrench
Amiens
(1220-1275) (p.135) bringsinto relief the
the English and the
points of divergence between

period gave
magnificent

us, among

"

"

French

models

"

SALISBURY

AMIENS

Proportion

of

breadth, about
Semicircular

east

length
3

to

end

to

I.

with

of

Proportion
breadth,

about

length
6 to

to

I.

Square-.east end.

chevet.

Transepts unimportant, with


slight projection.
very
Imposing and
richly decorated triplewest
porch.
Lofty vaulting (140 feet in
an
height),
requiring
elaborate
system of flying
for support.
in the
rose-window

transepts, with

Double

projection.
porch small,

West

deep
almost

mean.

vaulting (84 feet),with


simple exterior treatment.

Low

buttresses
Circular
west

front,and

elaborate

Lancet
with

headed
little

windows

tracery.

tracery.

The

risingabove the crossing of


the nave
and transepts, was
a
leading feature in the
English cathedral design,as at Salisbury,where the
spire rises to the height of 424 feet,and dominates
the whole
effect was
an
design. Such
impossible
in the French
building, for the lofty vaulting and
central

tower,

f4"

THE

the

high-pitched roof
that

structure

rendered

was

of

OF

STORY

the

futile

appears

at

45.

"

of the

reason

The

to

while

the

north

high, which
cathedral, do not
The
loftyFrench

and
would

height
dominating

central

south
add

to

feature

immense

spire

of

the

mass

Amiens

Cathedral.

Durham

insignificant,
yet in
that of Salisbury,the

equal
feet

by

building.

such

gave

attempt

any

FIG.

ARCHITECTURE

height

it is

loftiest of

towers,

more

our

almost

spires;
than

200

dignity to an English
rise above
the ridge of the roof.
designed
cathedral, in fact,was

THE

to

of

be

STORY

the

from

seen

French

OF

inside,as
and

Gothic,

particular, admitted
cathedral, except

for

be

the

of

thought

ARCHITECTURE

of
"

Ruskin,
Amiens

The

its

149

designs are

outside

sculpture,

side

"

ambitious, but

less
them

and

there

there

eulogy

cathedral

side of
wrong
which
find how
the threads
you
go
the inside or right-side
pattern." In
as

in his

of

in

French

is

always to
the stuff,in
that produce
England our

is

"

no

wrong

is

as
something
the
essentially English about
mighty pile of
with
its three
Durham,
dominating towers, as
there
is about
Wells
with its charm
and
quiet
dignity,or Salisbury and its close of

to

"

Red

brick

With

We

must

further

and

dormers

not

ashlar
and

overlook

explain

long

with

one

and

oriels

low,
lit.

fact,however, which

the

emphatic differences
between
the French
and
the English Gothic
teriors.
exThe
French
building was
essentiallya
cathedral
of
the
church, the seat
bishop, who
munity
represented the active religiouslife of the comhelps

it

was

to

desirable

church, should

be

that

his

seat, his

dral
cathe-

placed in the midst of the


busy life of the city,justas would be the case with
an
important civic building. The English building,
the other hand, was
in many
not
on
cases
primarily
to
a
cathedral, but an
abbey church, attached
a
The
the abbey owed
monks, to whom
monastery.
its foundation, sought for their habitation a secluded
spot, rather than the busy city,so that they might
meditate
undisturbed
in their cloisters,pray
in
their church, fish perhaps in their stream.
As
the
old order
went
changed; but the
on,
years

THE

150

cathedrals

STORY

of

in

England,

always retained

have

ARCHITECTURE

OF

the

their

of

many

impress

features,

these

of

earlier

days.

(1245-1271),whose

abbey of Westminster
quiet surroundings
originally
The

to

bustle

the

London

of

have

given place

now

life,presents

French

curious

and

English plans. The


and deep, square
as
nave
thoroughly
transepts are
English in arrangement and detail as the east end,

blending

of

the

with

its

p s id
French.

height

of

feet

of

vaulting
and

"

also

46.

thirteenth

richness

brought
of
in
were

the

the

about

increased

of
in

and

gradual change

architecture.

treatment

of

century

Tracery. the desire foradditional

Geometrical

"

French

suggestive
fluence
in-

the close

Towards

FIG.

the

development
the
flying

buttress,are
of

is

unusual

the

consequent

the

and

chapels,

The

100

"

chevet

the

This

was

window

size and

divided

tation
ornamen-

in the

most

marked

openings,
into

racter
cha-

which

separate

in the upper
lightsby mullions, formed
part into
These
geometrical tracery.
geometrical designs
or
soon
curvature,
place to lines of double
gave
flowing tracery, which the English architects treated
with great skill,and
istic
which
became
the characterfeature
of the
Decorated
style during the
fourteenth
century, culminating magnificentlyin

such

works
the

and

west

window

east

in har.d

Hand
the

the

as

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

Carlisle

Cathedral.

the

openings we
development in
the
glass-staining. In
majorityof thegreat
windows

of

England were
with
richly

filled

oured

glass,

but
of

stained
the

the

did

"

decorative
the

century

.JL

1-

glass
rous
idolat-

for the

the

taste

Puritans,
with

met

quarter

their

para'
the

from

graph

no

at

hands.

"Petition

of

Weamen

the
dlesex," FIG.
Mid-

of
in

which

fifteenth

of

roughly.
tho-

too

too
"

and

art

their

The

of

the

seventeenth

only

was

increasingimportance of
siderable
find, as in France, con-

iconoclasts

century
work

Minster

of

window

church

York

window
of

with

15*

bore

47.

"

Perpendicular Window.

1641,

signatures,helps to explain
the extraordinary disappearance of most
of the
"We
glass from
our
desire,"
English churches.
it says,
whose
that
prophane glasse windows
idolaters
superstitious paint makes
may
many
be humbled
and
dashed
in pieces against the
that they are
conscious
tels us
ground ; fcr our
12,000

"

diabolicall

and

the

father

of

Darknesse

was

the

being

them,
damnable
pride."
The
change from
of

inventor

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

152

the

Patron

chief

to

forms
of
gracefulwindow
to the stiff rectangular lines of the
the Decorated
almost
like a reaction.
Perpendicularperiod seems
at the end

builders

Gothic

the

of the fourteenth

the desire

century

emphasise in every
possible way the vertical lines of the design, so
ing
the dominatthat the
perpendicular line became
with

seized

were

to

"

"

feature
inside

of every

detail.

and

was

out,

rectangular panels,and
occupied the whole space

The

divided
the

as

whole
into

wall

series

of

windows

enormous

the

face,
sur-

ends,
between
the buttresses,
well as the wall spaces
as
of glazed panels.
series
treated
a
as
they were
The
exterior of King
Henry VII. 's Chapel at
elaborate
Westminster
Abbey is an
example of
at

east

and

west

'

Simultaneously with
this was
developed the beautiful,and essentially
of vaulting known
as
fan-tracery,
English, form
in the
familiar
to
us
ceilings of King Henry
VII. 's Chapel, Westminster
; S. George's Chapel,
and
the
chapel of King's College,
Windsor;
Cambridge,
this

of

method

treatment.

"

That

Self-poised, and scooped into


Where
light and shade
repose,
and
Lingering
wandering on
"

The

chapter-house,

adjunct

to

feature

peculiar

Norman

times

Bristol

many
this

of
to
was

which

branching

cells,

thousand

where
as

loth

roof

music
to

forms

dwells

die.

graceful

cathedrals, is another
In
English architecture.
rectangular in form, as at

our

(1155); but shortlyafter

this date

the

STORY

THE

154

vaulted

OF

ARCHITECTURE

with

porch,

other

libraryor

rooms

it.

over

Except
or

in

find

isolated
in the

found

open

these

ceilingswere

not

of them

we

remarkable

great elaboration.

with

often

porches,

By

skilful

development of roof-truss the


thrust of the ceilingagainst the walls was
minimum
roof was
.thus easily
to
a
; the
and the exterior design was
not
hampered

means

outward
reduced
carried

by

in

Instead
parish churches.
timber
roofs, treated with

ingenuity, and
of

small

scale, as
instances, vaulted

on

difficulties.

structural

The

brackets

and

trusses

richlymoulded, and the ceilingspaces treated


in a highly decorative
Fine
manner.
examples of
these roofs are found
in the Perpendicular churches
of Norfolk, in the halls of many
of the old castles
and
of the colleges of
and
Oxford
Cambridge,
notably that of Christ Church, Oxford.
Largest
were

and
of

famous

most

Westminster

of

Hall,

all

London

is

the

great

roof

(1397),covering

feet in length by 68 feet in width.


space
239
There
full of interest
few fields of study more
are
than

these

that

would

found
eyes

old

period necessary
the historyand

to

of

In

the

walls

been

by

history,
be
may
have
who

lost,
those

it ; nor
is more
than a slightacquaint*
each
features
of
characteristic
the

:,ee

with

a.nce

the

upon

Much

churches.

have

otherwise

written
to

parish

work.

mouldings
Mouldings

and

decorated

with

of

which

enable

to

student

to

read

assign a date to the construction


distinguishingthe periods, all

ornaments

the
any

took

the

are

thirteenth
ornament

the

place

of

very

century
other
of

the

great value.
were

than

axed

seldom

dogtooth,
zig-zag

the

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

'55

bold, undercut
mouldings
gave strong effects of lightand shade, and required
little enrichment
carved
foliage was
crisp,
; the
bulbous, treated conventionally,
of

the

The

Normans.

and
wards,
boldly outappearing -to

curved

grow

out

The

the

of

period

the

of

face.
sur-

mouldings
Decorated
less

were

and

dom
sel-

were

undercut

fined,
de-

the

istic,
naturalfoliage was
representingoak
and
vine
leaves, Or FIG. 48." Early English Capital,
the
sea-weed, and
In
ball-flower supplanted the dog-tooth ornament.
the
Tudor-rose, portcullis,
Perpendicular work
and
fleur de-lys appear
ornaments
as
richly
upon
panelled wall surfaces; mouldings
wide and shallow, and of secondary
were
and
Norfolk
In
importance.
Suffolk
the
panels on the exterior
wall surfaces
werefrequently filled
in with
with

flint work.

elaborate

Wooden

tracery

screens

shut

off

the
FIG.

49.
Ball-flower

chancel.
In
is the

strikingcontrast
almost

entire

to

later

absence

times
of

ornament.

nicipal
mu-

buildings throughout the four centuries


"the
king,
succeeding the Norman
conquest:
the baron, and
of the
the bishop were
the estates
neither
nowhere," and
realm; the people were

56

THE

OF

STORY

ARCHITECTURE

guilds could

municipalities nor

assert

pendent
inde-

an

existence.
In

addition

the

followingare
styles:

buildings mentioned

the

to

good examples

of

the

above,
respective

"

EARLY
Cathedral

Worcester
Fountains
York

ENGLISH

Choir.

Abbey.

Cathedral

Ely

Cathedral

St.

Saviour's

Transepts.
Choir.

....

Southwark

Church,

Peterborough Cathedral
Glasgow Cathedral.
Boxgrove Priory, Sussex.

West

Front.

Lady

Chapel

DECORATED

Ely

Cathedral

and

Lantern.
York

Nave.

Cathedral

Merton

College Chapel,
Abbey

Tintern

Oxford.
Choir

East

Ripon Cathedral

and

septs.
Tran-

End.

Cathedral.

Lichfield

PERPENDICULAR
Gloucester

Choir

Cathedral

and

West

Front.

Chapel, Warwick.
Beauchamp
Bath
Abbey.
Manchester

Cathedral.

Winchester

Cathedral

Magdalen
ITALY.
are

not

In

the

to

"

West

Front.

College, Oxford.
^Yhich
architecture,from causes
took
seek, never
deep root in Italy
utterly unsuited
place, the style was

Gothic

far to
first

the brilliant climate

of the country.

The

Italian

STORY

THE

ARCHITECTURE

OF

157

the
from
cool
resort
a
as
regarded his church
windows
the small
eternal glare of the sun
; and
its gratefulgloom, were
of the basilica,with
more
of the
walls of glass
the
his liking than
to
his neighbours. Again,
style in vogue
amongst
the
time
of the
Roman
from
empire, classical
been
tradition
had
strong throughout the
very
The
country, and had permeated its architecture.
familiar
Italian
with, and
was
justly proud of,
"

"

the

classical

architecture

forms

of

the
which
upon
had been modelled.

Rome,

Europe

of Western

Romans, had been


marked
by breadth, solidity,simplicity of parts,
of horizontal
and
lines;
by emphatic treatment
it was
hardly to be expected that the narrow,
lofty aisles,the multiplicityof vertical lines and
of detail of the
mouldings, and the minuteness
works

The

Gothic

of his ancestors,

builders

did
Italian
relied

was

not
never

grafted
Italian

upon
Gothic

of Roman
the

and

Francis

of

rare

frescoes

marbles.

itself of the

was
was

that

influence

its introduction

It owed

or

to

brought them
civilisation.
the outer
Many of
built by
were
largest churches

monks,

the

monks"

rich and

divested

never

with

earliest

him.

was

into contact

these

with

traditions.

mendicant

with

introduced, therefore, it
foreign or imported style,which
the older
forms, with the result

Gothic
as

with

decorated

were
surfaces, which
mosaics, or veneered

received

favour

struction
conprinciples of Gothic
appeal to him, for the mediaeval
constructive
a
designer. He
wall
effect upon
large unbroken

for interior

When

find

should

scientific

the

Moreover,

the

whose

Dominicans

Assisi,the

founder

travels

Franciscans.

or

of

the

S.

Franciscans,

158
died

in

body

1226,

was

Although
shows

of

the

church

well

as

S.

strong

Francesco
Italian

which

enshrined

remarkable

most

designed by

of

church

the

Gothic,

ARCHITECTURE

OF

and

one

Italian

of

STORY

-THE

as

one

at

influence

the

earliest.

architect, the

(1228-1253)

Assisi
in

examples

of

German

his

its

composition.

to
Internallythe architecture is quite subordinate
the decorative
for which
the wall spaces
paintings,
with which
were
intended, and
they have been

filled.
lower

The

church

church

the

is built in two

stories

in the

the
vaulting over
high altar is
enrfched
with frescoes by Giotto ; so small,however,
the light,
the window-openings, and so dim
that
are
it is not possibleto fullyappreciate the detail of the
paintings,unless it be for an hour or two on the
brightestdays.
S.

Francesco

contains

the

shrine

of

S. Francis.

His

followers,the Franciscans,and the Dominican


brotherhood
responsiblefor
(founded 1216), were
of the earliest and
most
important Gothic
many
at
churches, including S. Francesco
Bologna, the
Church
of the Frari at Venice, S. Anastasia
at
S. Maria
at Florence, and
Verona, S. Maria Novella
Minerva
(1280),the only important Gothic
sopra
church

in

Rome.

examples of the style in


an
imposing
Italy are the cathedrals, built upon
scale, and showing, in almost
instance, the
every
of the Italian treatment
of Gothic
:"
peculiarities
Milan
(1385-1418), the largest of all mediaeval
churches
Seville; Siena
(1243), Orvieto
except
(1290), Florence
(1294),Ferrara, and the church
of S. Petronio, Bologna (1390), projected upon
of Milan, but
scale than
the
cathedral
vaster
a
The

most

successful

completed.

In

is little,with

the

never

there

OF

STORY

THE

ARCHITECTURE

designs
exception of the details,
the earlier Romanesque

distinguishthem from
and
Siena
buildings. At
arch
is freely used, while
effect is gained by the
use

Orvieto
a

the

round

striking

interior

alternate

bands

of

marbles.

white

and

these

of

some

to

black

159

The

fagade in each
is a rich composition of coloured
case
marbles,
three
with
gables, and a deeply recessed
triple
mosaics.
porch, enriched, at Orvieto, with gorgeous
of

The

of the

love

Italians

for

colour

decoration

in

preference to the brilliancyof stained glass finds


expressionat Orvieto, where small window-openings
are

slabs of rich translucent

filled with
The

cathedral

fifteenth

Here

but

thinking
whole

the

the

dome

everything

architect

made

added

was

is

on

the

by
1294
until the

by

colossal

mistake

of

that

with

which,

in

would

have

bays, is

when

century,

Brunelleschi.
scale ;

of

Florence, begun in
not
Cambio, was
completed

del

Arnolfo

alabaster.

invest
the
largeness of parts would
dignityand grandeur. The vast nave,
French
design of similar importance,

been

subdivided

into

ten

or

twelve

here

spanned by four great arches, which


left bare, with
are
hardly a moulding or a vestige
of detail to give scale to the composition.
The
walls
above
bare and
are
colourless, and cannot
fail to disappoint. Of
the dome
shall speak
we
of the
later, when
dealing with the architecture
Renaissance.
In

direct

contrast

to

is the

remarkable

in the

multiplicityof

of

its detail.

the

cathedral

The

Duomo
at

at

Florence

Milan, bewildering

its parts and


the elaboration
exterior
design is lost in

160

THE

perfect

forest

and

STORY

of

OF

ARCHITECTURE

pinnacles, decorated

with

rich

intricate tracery,"
A

of

mount

marble,

hundred

spires!

belt of

niches, filled with statuary,


the
crowns
nave-piers, in place of the usual
ceiling is painted in imitation of
capitals. The
elaborate
fan-tracery.
of the
Milan
Cathedral
one
(1385-1418) was
latest of the important Gothic
buildings erected
the
still regarded as
in Italy, but
a
style was
foreignimportation,and had not become, in any
In proof of this we
national
find,
one.
a
sense,
miles
of Milan, a
few
within
temporary
a
building conin
the
with
cathedral, yet dissimilar
of Gothic
every feature, and showing hardly a trace
In the interior

famous

The

influence.

Certosa,

Pavia, begun

at

Carthusian
in

monastery,

or

built entirely

1396, was

vaulting is
Gothic, but in other respects the external design,
with its picturesquely
grouped turrets, round arches,
is thoroughly Romanesque
arcaded
and
galleries,
brick

of

and

marble

The

in character.

the

Here

terra-cotta.

is

facade

Renaissance

addition.

Italians, as

The

decorators

rather

found

natural

art

such

works

as

we

have

were

seen,

great

and
Gothic
constructors,
expression in small decorative

than

porches and
The
porch

tombs,

or

in

secular

Maria

Maggiore
is a
characteristic specimen of this
jit Bergamo
work
fascinatingin its clothing of Gothic detail,
to rely
as
yet built up in so unscientific a manner
for securityupon
a
system of iron ties and clamps.
monuments.

of

S.

"

And

here

it may

be mentioned

that the

use

of iron

62

and

THE

which

remarkable
church
""_"_

of

STORY

found

OF

ARCHITECTURE

its

highest expression in the


Doges' Palace
(1354) adjoining the
S.
the centre
of
the
Mark,
most
"

I".'
:;.:_'.'_'

-r~rm

beautiful
that

group

city
the

architectural

of

adorns

Europe,

world."

story

its

of

arcades

and

is familiar,

illustrations

photographs,

readers
the

sign,
de-

double

arches,

from
and

or

The

with

traceried

any
of

in

all parts
and
has

world,

added
from

the

Ruskin,

to

whom
"a

ceived
re-

fame

loving
to

of

pen
it

of
presented
re-

model

of

all

perfection." "The
front
of
the
Doges'
Palace," he writes, "is
the

purest

chaste

model

and

most

that I

can

(but one) of the


fit applicationof colour
to
public buildings.
The
sculpture and
mouldings are all white ;
name

FIG.

Fa"ade

of

50.

Doges' Palace.

but

the

wall

surface

is

blocks
of pale rose, the
chequered with marble
chequers being in no wise harmonised, or fitted to
the
forms
of the windows
looking as if the
; but
surface
been
had
the
dows
wincompleted first,and
be impossible,
of it.
It would
cut
out
...

STORY

THE

believe,

invent

to

ARCHITECTURE

OF

of all that is in

163

magnificent arrangement
dignifiedand
building most
more

fair."

most

choice

Many
found

and

the

than
Pisani

GERMANY.

banks

the

along

beautiful

examples

"

the

fine
For

many

two

none

Ca

ornate

Gothic

Its

France.

seen

in

d'Oro,

ment
develop-

style, with one


nothing to equal

the

of the

Magdeburg

or

the

earlier centuries.

"

is

more

architecture

it
years after its introduction
the Romanesque
stem,
upon

grafted
styleswhich

are

Palaces.

Germany

directlyfrom
was
irregular,and
exceptions, produced
churches
Romanesque

Canal,

and

Foscari

borrowed

was

the

refined

and

In

of

Gothic

Venetian

of

was
a

Cathedral

merely
fusion

of

(begun

the
massive
lines of the
TO), constructed
on
clothed
with
the
twelfth-century churches, and
details.
little later, in
A
more
graceful Gothic
the
church
of S. Elizabeth
at
Marburg (1250),
find an
we
essentially German
type of building,
1 2

the

"

hall-church," in which

the

clerestory of the

disappears, and the side aisles are raised to


the same
height as the nave.
French
Strasburg Cathedral, designed upon
a
principles,has a rich fa"ade, and
large rosewindow
in
the
west
gable. The
magnificent
cathedral
at
Cologne, finest of all,is an enlarged
edition
of a French
plan, differinglittle from that
of Amiens,
the
but with
double
aisles to
nave.
The
work
of building this cathedral
carried
was
on
slowly. Begun in 1248, the choir was
very
completed in 1322, and ihc leinainmg
works, after
being proceeded with intermittently,
were
entirely
nave

164

until

suspended

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

the

middle

of

the

nineteenth

pleted,
comaisle,and transepts were
in
from
the originaldesigns,in 1848, and
was
complete in all respects, with
1863 the church
the exception of the great Western
spires,500 feet
The
in 1880.
added
style is
high, which were
uniform
throughout, but the later details lack the
Cologne is
vigour of thirteenth-centuryGothic.
the largestof all Gothic
cathedrals, with the single

The

century.

nave,

exception of Seville.
Fine
examples of fifteenth-centuryGothic
found

the

among

are

town-halls.

German

In
SPAIN, ETC.
Belgium the most
BELGIUM,
the cathedral
of the period was
important church
ing
at Antwerp
plan, show(1360),with a remarkable
"

aisles

three

upon

each

side

of the

nave,

and

feet,equal to one-half the entire


front
florid west
length of the building. The
(fifteenthcentury) is a rich example of the later
total width

Flemish
are

of 160

Other

treatment.

found

all of which

at

cathedrals

of

Brussels, Ghent, Liege, and


show

the

influence

of

France.

interest

Louvain,
It

was

municipal buildings,however, that the new


gium
Belmore
thoroughly nationalised.
style became
famous
has some
examples of trade-halls and
by the burghers during the
town-halls, erected
most
period of their cities' history.
prosperous
the
The
cloth-halls at
Ghent, and
Ypres and
Loutown-halls
of Brussels, Ghent, Bruges, and
notable
vain are
examples. The rich fa"ades are
of the
treated somewhat
floridlyin the manner
by a
Gothic, and are surmounted
fifteenth-century
by several stories of dormer
steep roof, broken
in the

windows.

165

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

part of

generally forms

lofty tower

the

design.
In Spain the earliest Gothic
of Burgos (1220)
cathedrals
both

which

cathedral
internal

at

Bourges.

buttresses

take

and

influence

the

show

churches

At

Barcelona

the

thrust

of

built upon
the site of
similar dimensions, a fact

the

Toledo

(1227),

of

the

French

and

Gerona

of the

Seville
they do at Albi in France.
(1401-1520), the largestof all mediaeval
was

were

vaults,

as

Cathedral

churches,

Moorish

mosque
explains the

which

peculiarityof its plan a huge rectangle, with


east
end, measuring 415 feet by 298 feet,
square
of 124,000
and covering an
feet.
area
marked
in Spain are
The
later works
by great
fluence
inelaboration
of detail.
Possibly the decorative
of the Moors
(expelledin 1492) contributed
accounted
for such
ment
to this,and
profusion of ornaof San
in the sepulchral church
is found
as
in many
de
los
at
Toledo, and
Juan
Reyes
and
cathedrals
additions to the churches
out
through"

the

country.

VIII

RENAISSANCE
IN

the

classical
Roman
the
any
to
one.

ARCHITECTURE

preceding chapter
tradition

"

derived

we

from

have
the

seen

days
Italy to

that
of the

allow
too
empire was
strong in
be received there with
to
principlesof Gothic
ceased
The
Italian never
degree of favour.
look upon
the style as a foreign, or
imported
The very name
with which
it,
they branded
"

66

"

STORY

THE

Gothic,"which
intended

was

their

from

Gothic
the

realise

When

so

the

modified

by

its characteristic

of
As

example, the

an

noted, in which
colossal bays, each
The
designer did

four

60

feet.

classical

these

that

"

the

was

into

almost

originalmeaning,
barbarous
style

was

that many

Florence

at

divided
of

span

it

used,

was

quite disappeared.

was

"

architecture.

national

architect

great cathedral

lost its

now

distinguishthe

to

style

features

nave

has

own

Italian

ARCHITECTURE

OF

of

ideas

with
not

spaciousness
applied to

fatal when
largeness of parts were
Gothic
designs.
Arnolfo
del Cambio, the architect of the
Yet
of the
cathedral
of Florence, was
one
greatest
Italian architect
No
builders of the Middle
Ages.
has
enjoyed the proud privilegeof stamping his
individualitymore
stronglyon his native city
own

and

"

hill of
her

When

Arnolfo.

than

the

Samminiato,

physiognomy

in

take

we

stand

our

Florence

great

at

feet

our

to

measure

the

upon
this

owes
man.

Vecchio, the bulk


of
and
the long, oblong mass
of the
Duomo,
all
Giotto's
his.
S.
campanile,
are
Croce,
the
and
the
Brunelleschi's
dome,
cupola on
of Orsammichele,
church
though not designed by
he had planned."1
him, are all placed where
embraced
a
Arnolfo's
plan of the cathedral
carried
be
classical
feature
to
a
huge dome
The

tall tower

Palazzo

of the

"

"

upon
died
could

octagon,

an

before

143

the

feet

dome,
constructed, and

be

information
1

as

to

Symonds,

the

"The

in

diameter
had

he

as

he

method

Renaissance

had
in

he

designed it,

left behind
he

; but

him

intended

Italy."

no

to

THE

167

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

Nothing further
adopt for covering the octagon.
done
until,in 1417, as the result of a public
was
competition, the task of constructing the dome
intrusted
to
a
was
competitor named
young
is
Brunelleschi.
Now, the story of Brunelleschi
the story of the origin and growth of Renaissance
architecture in Italy.
The
Renaissance, or revival of classical forms
and
the result of a great
in art
literature,was
intellectual

which

movement

manifested

itself in

Italy during the fourteenth


century, and
the whole
of Western
spread over
Europe.
causes

contributed

which

became

in
the

Italy,of
styles

inherited

and

details

of

the
of

the

builders

unsuitable
These

Renaissance

as

we

was

reaction.

style of architecture,
endeavouring to introduce
have
unpopular, and
seen,

brilliant Italian

the

to

which

Gothic

were

Italy,was,

from

monuments,
might be

studied; the
tradition ; perhaps, too, the
Middle
Ages, against which

this, the

to

which

into

classical

freedom

Added

Latin

old

classical

asceticism
the

and

Many
the fashion,
revival :
reading and studying
authors
; the existence,
"

general, of

Greek

the ancient

the

to

thence

conditions

gave

climate.

Brunelleschi

his

tunity.
opporthe age of twenty-two
he had unsuccessfully
competed with Ghiberti for the great bronze
At

doors
after
way

the

of

this, with

Rome,

to

giving

all

endeavour

classical

his

friend

where

his

spare
of
the

architecture
to

left

Baptistery. Having

grasp

style.

On

he
time

Donatello, he
worked
to

old

Roman

the

true

his

return

Florence
made

his

goldsmith,
the
study of the
empire, in an
principles of the
as

to

Florence

his

168

THE

mind
the

STORY

full of

was

Duomo,

for

which, though it had

been

for

unfinished.

than

more

of

difference
of

manner

no

It was
not, as
apses.
the
that
council
was

in

great

held

course

still

was

best

the

to

as

and

octagon

have

we

in

authority there

opinion

covering the

completing

years,

those

Amongst

much

was

tha

ARCHITECTURE

great scheme

erection

of

OF

the

said, until 1417

in

Florence

which

the
definitely settled this great question, when
some
competitors submitted
extraordinaryschemes.
that the dome
should
One
advised
be supported
by a central pillar; another
suggestion, which
seemed
find favour, was
that the
to
over
space

which

the

dome

G""ere.dwith
to

be

after
to

with

mixed

the

dome

the

confident

of

the

without

would

confidence

might
it !

"

sake

the

site for
in

people
be
willing

Brunelleschi
who

only architect
to

of

the

construct

felt
dome

the work
internal supports, and
little
him ; but
intrusted
to
so

the

had

"

be

quite unfitted

for the

unsuccessful
Vasari

successful

ruse

that

rival

successful

of

they
the

nothing of architectural
his colleague. Ghiberti
was
made
task, and Brunelleschi

knew

to

partner.

his

him

in

authorities

construction"

"One

the

were

of

use

appointed Ghiberti
bronze
doors, who

many

find

able

being

accordingly

was

the

the

Coins

that
"

be

should

of earth.

complete

been

have

to

built

earth, so

soil from

they

money

appears

the

was

the

remove

mound

huge

be

to

was

attempts

amusingly

to

get rid

describes

of

his

his

last,

morning,"

he

Brunelleschi],instead
stayed in bed, and

Filippo [that is,


says,
of
appearing at work,

calling for

"

hot

fomentations,

THE

170
one

STORY

other

the

or

I have

therefore

divided

have

divide

the

stimulated

concluded

that,as

which

the

This

things

was

settled

the

chain, but

at

last removed

of the

the

knows,

done

to

thus

be

may

the

"

heavens

Ghiberti.

could

make

from

There

bridges

He

and

the

the

works.

work

that, in

so

in

the

struction
con-

frequently

was

the

Florentines

took

nothing of it,

experienced

were

dome,

delayed in progress,
old writer,the vain
"

being

us,

Republic.

be

to

well

as

"

difficulties

Great

be

must

masons

arrangement

in hand

the

to

excellencies

your

he

work

own

stand, and the chain


bind together the eight sides of the
Ghiberti
take one
of them, and
I
time be lost.'
other, that no more

is to

will take

much

useful

the

Let

how

show

and

cupola.

his

the

to

which

and

continue

difficult

two

upon

should

salary,it would
of
labour, that each

honourable
are

ARCHITECTURE

OF

words

of

considered

an

that

jealous of their dome, which


bade
fair to rival the beauty of the blue ethereal
itself."
vault
It was
the
completed in 1434,
in 1462, after Brunelleschi's
lantern
being added
were

death.
While

the

carried

out

which

dome
several

and
of

the

churches
each

of

of

the

of
which
nave

Brunelleschi
in

influence

turned

their

the
the

of

Pazzi
earliest

his

S.

Lorenzo

small

dome

and

transepts.

and
over

All

temporaries,
con-

the

in

the

most

Chapel (1420)
pleted
building com-

style. Other

has

his

thoughts

Renaissance
are

Florence,

with

style. One

new

delightfulexamples is
of S. Croce, perhaps
in the

hand
works

smaller

considerable

had

direction

in

was

well-known
S.
the

Spirito,
crossing

the details

are

copied from the


study had made
in

architecture
who

171

which

careful

familiar.

him

great
Florence

young

was

ARCHITECTURE

models, with

Roman

second

The

OF

STORY

THE

exponent

Alberti

was

while

man

of

Renaissance

(1404-1473),

Brunelleschi's

dome

swelling out against the sky. Alberti was


of a valuable
ardent
scholar, and the author
an
the art of building,a book
which
treatise on
was,
of
his life,
important work
perhaps, the most
for it became
popular, and greatly influenced
very
the designs of his contemporaries and
successors.
a careful
Brunelleschi, as we have seen, had made
of Rome,
but
study of the imperial architecture
in his own
designs he in no way reproduced it.
the great leading principles
He
merely borrowed
of Roman
construction, and carried out the designs
was

in

with

accordance
he

his

own

ideas.

Alberti

was

pre-eminently a scholar, and


had
distinct leaning towards
a
everything Latin.
in Latin, and
written
his great work
Even
was
Roman
details and
his partiality
for pure
models
is evident
in
his
buildings. In his Ruccelai
Palace
at
see
Florence, for example (1460), we
the first instance of pilasters
applied to the fagade ;
these
into
each
introduced
are
story (as in the
Colosseum), the orders being superimposed, and
each
carrying an entablature.
Another
the
by Alberti was
important work
Novella
in
Florence"
fagade of S. Maria
an
he
introduced
applied-marble facing, in which
In this
pilastersand a true classical pediment.
different

church

we

volutes
nave

for

see

was

the

earliest

connecting

the

instance

of the

use

higher walls of
with those of the aisles,
feature which
a

of
the
was

THE

172

STORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

constantly imitated

ment
by later designers. The treatthe
church
of the most
one
facade was
the
problems which
early Renaissance

of

difficult

architects had

attempt

no
was

to

solve,and
made

was

new

to

for

one,

in many
of thexhurches
solve it. The
problem

the

architects

could

get

no

the
ruins of the baths, theatres, or
help from
it necessary
invent
their
to
temples, but found
with
clothe
them
classical
to
own
fagades and
The
details.
result was
for
lack of sincerity,
a
the external
casing had no structural connection
with the buildingwhich
it was
designed to mask

The

churches

Francesco

this

of

the

remodelled, and
classical

of

was

by
important works
worthy of careful study as

methods

the

instance

the

of

Gothic

Renaissance.

church

dressed
and

detail

S.

and

Mantua

at

are

latter is

The

illustration

In

S. Andrea

Rimini

at

Alberti.
an

of

up

was

with

entirely
profusion

Alberti's

ornament.

complet
in-

the
work, while very beautiful,exposes
methods
:
falsityof principles of the Renaissance
the builders
regard
disthere was
to
a
tendency among
"that
only law, that Use be suggester of
home
this fact is borne
Beauty," and at Rimini
the visitor. The
pilasters,architraves, and
upon
other

classical

Alberti

which

with

features

has

merely a series of surface


do
with
the
to
deceits, having nothing more
structural
strength of the design than the paintings
clothed

upon

the

the

interior

walls.

Architecture
time

at

are

at

Florence

de'

Medici,

more

than

this

period

under

the

nobleman

regal

wealth.

was

having

patronage

of

vast

Under

of

great

Cosmo

influence

and

Brunelleschi's

THE

lead
imbued
those

the

there
with

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

soon

up

sprang

the

same

magnificent

173

band

whose
spirit,

monuments

of

of

architects

genius
the

created

Renaissance

these
palaces. Chief
among
the Riccardi
are
(1430) by Michelozzo, the Strozzi
(1489-1553) by Cronaca, and the Palazzi Antinori,
latter
from
Pandolfini, the
a
Guadagni, and
all characterised
are
design by Raphael. These
by solidity and
strength, for they required to
be fortresses
well as
as
palaces : the walls were
in large blocks, heavily
of masonry,
rusticated."
In this rustic work, as it is inaptly named, a deep
the joints,from
which
the face
channelling marks
of the rough stonework
projectsboldly. In some
"

Florentine

"

cases

the

faQade, but

rustication

extends

over

the

whole

to the lower
generally confined
This
treatment
gives a pleasing variation
story.
of light and
time
shade, suggesting at the same
of sturdiness
which
is in harmony with the
a note
Florence.
spiritand temper of mediaeval
In
the Palazzo
is a good
Strozzi, which
type
of the Florentine
palace, the rustication is treated
the whole
simply, but covers
facade. A serious
in the design of many
defect
of these
buildings
is apparent
here
the
uniform
height of the
stories,as indicated
by the string-coursesat the
level of
the window-sills.
This, together with
the somewhat
monotonous
repetition of uniform
detract
the
from
to
windows, tends
grandeur of
the design. To
the defect is redeemed
extent
some
by the great, finely proportioned cornice, which
the building,and makes
crowns
every other feature
subordinate
and of secondary importance.
These
reflect
windows
heavy walls and narrow

it

was

"

174

THE

STORy

the

disturbed

The

torch-rests

and

the

OF

civic

of

gloomy

ARCHITECTURE

life

of

this

wrought metal,
all

entrances,

republic.

great

dim

the

courts,

their

tell

own

the habits
of caution
trace
we
history; in them
the
Florentine
which, of necessity, characterised
leaders.
And
be
as
designs they must
studied,
and their merits
weighed, amidst their own
sunny
in
and
connection
with
the
history
surroundings,
which
they helped to make ; for it is impossible
from
to judge them
their
reproductions
of West-

in the form

clubs

end

in sunless

Seen

London.

Florence,

these

buildings are

great

of

pages
which

he who

read.
may
is indeed

history,
passes
Fitness

of true

architecture,

than

51."

these

Renaissance

represent the

to

embodiment

of

the

and

buildings

few

Capital.

of

one

the elements

FIG.

in

Can

1a y
greater claim
fit expression and
the

spirit of

the

times

which

produced them.
In

Florence

fifteenth
of

the

many

century
craftsmen

on,

under

the

goldsmith,

craftsmen
decorative

one

were
"

of

trained
in

rooms

roof,
and

the

the

the

architects
in

the

which
arts

of

of

the

workshops

were

the

carried

painter,

sculptor. By these
details were
the
new
developed in
accessories, such as altars,pulpits,and

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

175

is most
the work
of which
many
the
refined ; indeed, in many
cases,
much
works
architectural
are
artistically
in

monuments,
delicate and
subordinate

buildings in which they are placed.


in marble,
details were
These
invariablyworked
with
delicate
exquisite carving
mouldings, and
in Florence
in low relief.
The
pulpit of S. Croce
in the
beautiful in form, and
is a fine example
finer

the

than

"

of

execution

detail.

every

activityin building prevailed in other


cities
of
during the
Florence,
Italy, outside
and Venice.
fifteenth century, and notably in Milan
almost
the earlier period was
Rome
at
entirely
Florentine
second-rate
artists,
dependent upon
there
much
and
of the work
was
unimportant.
Great

Milan

first of

the

was

took

architecture

new

first

time,

root

into

come

we

the

cities
;

and

architect,Bramante,
in
the
eventually culminated
great
in

Peter's

of

we

his
of
were

have

the
in

not

was

the

whose

third
work

design

Rome,

1444,

of

already in existence.
a
great Raphael, he was

town

but

be mentioned
may
church
of S. Maria

of

Urbino.

His

chief

Like
native
works

buildings in Milan
considerable
portion of the
the little
delle Grazie, and

among
a

when

buildings which

were

the

small

until

born
Florentine

great

noticed

nephew,

the

the

Rome.

Bramante
many

the

here, for
with

contact

great Renaissance
S.

which

in

his

octagonal sacristyof S. Maria presso San Satiro.


The
most
interesting
example of the Renaissance
is to be found
Milan
at
Pavia, where
style near
Gothic
the
in
added
to
a
fagade was
1491,
with
This front is covered
Certosa, or monastery.

STORY

THE

176

ARCHITECTURE

OF

profusion of marble
richly and
ornament,
delicately wrought, like the ivory carving of a
casket, but quite inappropriatefor its position.

Renaissance

The
half

fact, been
In

later

century

the

in

Milan

about

was

Florence, having,

by

there

Florentine

still later

style was

Venetians

The

than

introduced

Venice

in

movement

in

in

artists.

appearing.

this

well satisfied
period were
with
their architecture, and
well they might be,
for,as we; have seen, the Gothic
style,tinged and
enriched
by Byzantine influences,had produced
buildings of exquisite beauty and design. The
security and prosperity of the city rendered such
fortress-like

architecture

the

cities hated

two

not

surprising,then,

to

borrow

neighbour.
reluctantly;
Gothic

the

there

was

and

the

Florentines

the

her

at

another

one

that

forms

She

forms,

Venice

adopted
as

small

in the
The

of

Florence

state

of

war

Venetians, and
cordially. It is
should

architecture

of

first in

that

as

; moreover,

unnecessary

between

at

be
from

slow

her

the

style somewhat
details,grafted upon
Porta
dellg,flart^ of

design ol

tms

gateway

is wholly Gothic in composition, but the mouldings,


and
the sportive Cupids appearing amidst
the
classical suggestions. In
the
foliage,are
internal
forms
are
quadrangle the Renaissance
more
evident, mingled with the Gothic
pointed

arches.

dei
of S. Maria
delightfullittle church
^iracoli^one of the earliest examples 6F~the new
styleTweseethe influence of Byzantine tradition.
the
This
influence
is suggested, externally,in
cupola and the semi-circular roof and pediment,
In

the

THE

178

Florentine

STORY

model

OF

ARCHITECTURE

in the Renaissance

palaces,which

chieflyfound

along the banks of the "finest


in the world," the Grand
curved
street
Canal.
The
is a good
Spinelli Palace
type of the Venetian
the fagade has three well-defined
building. Here
The
lowest
stories, crowned
by a bold cornice.
story has a central door, with steps leading down
the
canal ; on
the
to
first,or principal,floor is
almost
a balcony,an
indispensableadjunct. The
windows
are
grouped irregularly,in a manner
Venetian
to
most
common
palaces, the central
ones
being massed together, while those on either
side stand free
notable
the
a
improvement upon
and Roman
monotonous
spacing of the Florentine
Vendramini
Palace
palaces. The
(1481) shows
are

"

similar

features.

during the greater part of the fifteenth


architecture
stagnating,and Renaissance
century was
But
in
made
practicallyno headway there.
Rome

the

first half

the
this

the

sixteenth

century

so

great

an

movement
given to the Renaissance
its culmination
in
this short period witnessed
contributed
which
city. The causes
chieflyto

impetus
that

of

was

result

were

the

of the

succession

strong and

ambitious

Julius II. to the Papal chair, and, with


and
his accession, the
in wealth
great increase
of the Church
in Rome.
Wealthy families,
power
whom
the troublous
times of the preceding century
had
driven
to the
city, and soon
out, returned
in palace-building.
another
began to vie with one
a
style found
Among the architects the new
great
Rome
who
became
in Bramante,
to
exponent
what

Brunelleschi

Bramante

appears

had
not

been
to

to

have

Florence.
been

an

especially

STORY

THE

OF

ARCHITECTURE

179

original genius ; but he had, before coming to


Rome, the advantage of profitingby the originality
of his predecessors in Florence
and
Milan.
His
work
is marked
by great varietyof treatment, and,
in general, by simplicityand
good proportions.
One
of his earliest designs, the Palazzo
Cancel-

FIG.

53.

"

Courtyard,

Cancellaria

Palace.

laria,has a
treated, with
between

the

shows

borrowed

simple fagade rather monotonously


strips of pilastersspaced in pairs
windows.
The
yard
arcadmg of the courtand
arches
a
composifcroff'of
columns,

from

the

Florentine

architects, which

became

popular with later Renaissance


These
like so
columns, by-the-bye,

details of Roman

have
buildings,

builders.
many

other

strange history.

l8o

THE

They

STORY

ARCHITECTURE

OF

monolithic

originallyformed
of Pompey
the first
part of the great theatre
theatre of Rome, built about 55 B.C.
stone
During
the Middle
Ages this building suffered the usual
used as a quarry for stone
and marble,
fate,and was
are

shafts,and

"

from

which

the

basilican

church

of

S.

Lorenzo

almost

entirelybuilt. Bramante
pulled down
the greater portion of the
basilica,in order to
build
the great Cancellaria
palace for Cardinal
Riario,using,amongst other materials,fiftyof the

was

old

columns

Bramante's

for

his two-storied
culminated

work

arcade.
later

in

the

great

design of S. Peter's. Julius II. had


employed
for
Michelangelo to design a colossal monument
next
set his mind
himself,and the ambitious
pope
the erection of a vast
mausoleum
upon
the monument.
Bramante
entrusted
was

work, and began his


design took the form
with four equal arms

great task
of

Greek

in

to

cover

with

1506.

cross

"

the
His
cross

apsidal end to each


haste with
the crossing. The
over
arm, and a dome
which
the work
carried on led to a collapse of
was
of the main
some
walls,a catastrophe which was
this
After
followed by Bramante's
death in 1514.
the original
variations in the
design underwent
many
the hands
of a succession
of architects
Raphael
the painter,Giuliano
da San
Gallo, and Peruzzi,
others.
devised
EactroT
these
a new
plan
among
and
made
alterations to the original
fundamental
with
made
scheme, so that little real progress was
the structure
for many
At
last, after a
years.
handed
over
chequered career, the building was
in 1546 to Michelangelo, then
than seventy
more
his energetic control
the
of age.
Under
years
"

with

an

"

THE

OF

STORY

181

ARCHITECTURE

interruptionfor eighteen
reverted, in the essentials, to the

progressedwithout

work

He

years.

with

originalplan of Bramante, a Greek cross, but


a
projecting portico to the front, and
square
the crossing. With
the mighty dome
over

with
such

did he prosecute the work that, at his death


energy
the
in
completed, with
1564, the design was

exception of

the

left behind

He

east

him

the

were

dome

model

covering.
of all the

completed

della Porta, and

Vignola, Giacomo
of the

and

complete

parts, which

unfinished

the end

front

Fontana,

under

before

century.

far, the design of Michelangelo, based upon


little
adhered
been
that of Bramante, had
to with
So

variation
the

; but

architect

to

in the

seventeenth

Pope

Paul

V.,

century
set

Maderna

himself

the

task

added
two
bays to the
improving upon it. He
into
thus transforming the plan from a Greek
nave,"
and
Latin
destroying the proportions,
a
cross,
the existingtasteless facade,which
and he erected
from
completely shuts off the view of the dome
the front. The
splendid colonnade, which encircles
added
later by Bernini
the piazza,was
(1629-1667).
S. Peter's,thus
completed after an interval of
The
in existence.
1 60
years, is the largestchurch
feet
600
central
vast
aisle,nave, and choir, almost
into only six bays ; the nave
in length,are
divided
itself has four bays only. Over
the crossingof the
transepts haffgsthe great dome, 140 feet in diameter,
risingto a height of 400 feet. With so few parts,
in a building of such colossal dimensions, it follows
of

"

that

all the

parts

must

themselves

be

on

vast

Internallythere is nothing to give scale


the building,and
enable the eye to form
to
scale.

to
an

82

THE

estimate

parts,

STORY

ARCHITECTURE

size ; there is no
multiplicityof
Gothic
the eye,
design, to confuse

of

the

in

as

OF

lies a
apparent size. Herein
Rome
serious defect in the design.
disappoints
much
me
\ S. Peter's,perhaps, in especial,"writes
be
Clough, and this impression of S. Peter's must
for the colossal scale
shared by almost every visitor,
of the interior,
in the absence
of smaller
details,is
the observer.
lost upon
Externally,the fagade is
ruined by the clumsy work of Maderna;
but from a
distant point of view the mighty dome, dwarfing all
other buildings,and
air,
seemingly suspended in midis an
be forgotten.
never
impression that can
and

increase

so

the

"

"There's

will,that

dome

and

mist

And

it is

when

kind

of

follows

to

it.

rest

Go

where

and

Again
the

out

perhaps only in
is enabled

in

you.

blot

may

one

miracle

again,storm

that

"

remains."

dim, blue distance,

this

the

contrast

great

surrounding buildings,that the mind


gauge the immensity of this great work

us

story of the

down

to

the

seventeenth

middle

Vignola

of

the

sixteenth

century

classical

the

upon

angelo.
Michel-

of

old

Rome.

Many

treatise
had

orders

inventive

and

simple

work

in

of the

great
led

to

classical

buildingsby
angelo,
Vignola, Michelwere
studiously

"

"

detail,unlike
earlier

by

notable

the greatest architects of the time


Palladio, and Sammichele
correct

In

phases.

his contemporaries, and


upon
of the
formal
and
direct imitation

details of

the

Renaissance

influence
more

carries

During

century.

in progress,
150 years that the work was
architecture
passed through various
the

fully

can

S. Peter's

building of

with

mass

the

The

you

the

period.

free

The

and

desire

STORy

THE

and

for

simple

of

treatment,
two

it is

as

has

it

left his

order,
first to
familiar

made

was

bracing
em-

subject,which
greatlyinfluenced

the

wrote

impress

order

the

not

in this direction.

architecture

our

but

method

new

Palladian

was

upon
in England, and

read

to

the

"

Palladio

he

183

colossal

one

stories

treatment,

which

widely

was

of

use

three

or

this

book

the

ARCHITECTURE

effect led

grand

called.

introduce

by

OF

Italian

No

tect
archi-

stronglyupon English
architecture
Palladio.
as
Possibly his influence was,
in part, due tolHe
fact that he taught, better than
of obtaining good effect
else, the method
any one
a design
cheaply and simply, that he could make
rich without
and
grand without great dimensions
much
expense," by the somewhat
unworthy use
his
coated
with
which
he
of plaster or
stucco
buildings.
so

"

"

FRANCE.

While

"

busily reviving
their

and

vigorous

full of

the

Renaissance

But

at

the

of

these
their

old

national

of

the

and

had
fifteenth

for
no

century,

kings brought them


Renaissance
palaces of

became

fired with

splendid residences,
train

France

several

Italian

long

in
was

time

it.
upon
when
the

effect

French

the
s

vitality
j

were

architecture

style in

Gothic

movement

end

the

with
monarch

Italian

country, the

own

wars

the

architects

the

ambition

into

tact
con-

Italy, the
to

imitate

in
brought back
architects, whom
they
and

extent, the great


employed to reproduce, to some
In France, however,
palaces of their own
country.
have
the foreign artists could
not
things their own
classical details,but
They introduced
many
way.
the

national

Gothic

traditions

were

very

strong,

84

THE

STORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

details could
long time only the minor
be introduced, while the general plan and
position
comof the designs continued
to be unaffected.
There
ensued, then, a long period of transition,
classical details were
when
Gothic
grafted upon
at the chateau
designs, in the way we find them
Here
the portion which
built for
of Blois.
was
curious
Louis
a
XII., about
blending
1500, shows
of the styles: the general impression is of a Gothic
influences are distinctly
seen
building,but the new
in the stronglyemphasised
in the mouldings and
lines.
It was
horizontal
until the reign of
not
the new
architecture
became
Francis
I., when
fashionable,that .the classical forms began to assert
dominate
themselves
and
the design.
The
to
Transitional
work
this period, the
beautiful
of
Frangois Premier," as it is called,is full of charm,
the Renaissance
of Italy in three
differingfrom
characteristic
features,as the result of the influence
in France.
tradition
of Gothic
These
special
features
are
(i) a picturesquenessof composition
of outline ; (2)the steep-pitched roof, with the
and
natural development of dormers
and high chimneys;
and
(3) lack of symmetry and of formality of plan.
best examples of the FranQois Premier
The
style
the
the
are
palaces built by the king himself
north
wing of the chateau of Blois (1525) with
its famous
external
staircase,the great palace of
At
Fontainebleau, and the chateau of Chambord.
Chambord
(1526) we find greater formalityof plan
than
usual
was
during the earlier period, and an
elaborate roof
almost
overweighting the design
with
multitude
and
tall chimneys,
of dormers
a
and

for

"

"

"

"

crowned

in the

centre

with

fantastic lantern.

86

STORY

THE

fa"ades. Thus
of

extensive

completed,
all European

excellent

an

record

of

The

Renaissance.

Corinthian

with

ARCHITECTURE

OF

the

palaces, and

the

design
order

is the most

Louvre

supplies

of
progress
has two
main

French

stories,

pilasters below

of

and

these
is a low attic story.
composite above ; over
Some
of the sculptured work, by Jean Goujon, is
thian
especiallygood. The well-known
imposing Corincolonnade

of

the

length (1688), was


physician Perrault.
Another
building of
in

Hotel

the

In

the

early period

court

the

was

from

1550

an

de

Catherine

(1564),

several

first time

in

French

bands

the

pilastersand

Delorme

introduced

for

carved

the

The

introduction

across

broken
with

story crowned

speciallycharacteristic

Renaissance.

intervals

at

the

of these"

; two

walls,and

the

attic

were

Philibert

architecture

of rustication

the

by

Medici

features

the

"became

the

of

Paris, begun about

in

of

the

of

work

the

feet

600

Italian,but since destroyed by


great palace of the Tuileries,designed

designs

fire.
for

Ville

de

front,almost

east

ments
pedi-

statuary

of

later

French

of

the

broken

in

imitation,perhaps, of Michelangelo's
in
Medici
work
the
chapel at Florence, was
probably due to Catherine's suggestion. Be that
the idea found
with the French,
it may,
favour
as
and
has remained
the feature
popular with them
the present day.
to

pediments,

Towards
architecture
the

the
had

Transitional

end
lost

of

the

much

sixteenth
of

the

century

the

of
earlycharm
of the buildings

period, and many


of Henry IV.
in detail
(1589-1610) are coarse
and inferior in design : the least interesting
portions

STORY

THE

of

the

and

Louvre

187

ARCHITECTURE

OF

the

of

date

Tuileries

from

period. Of a little later date are two great


be
noted
the
should
French
palaces which
Luxembourg (1615),with a fagade rusticated like
in Florence,
the garden front of the Pitti Palace
and
the palace at
Versailles, built at enormous
XIV.
for Louis
cost
by J. H. Mansard
(1645-1708)
tonous
a
singularly monovast, uninteresting pile,with
if we
the chapel
fagades, and
except
with
hardly a redeeming feature in its design.
successful
architect, but a more
By the same
in Paris, with
des
Invalides
design, is the Hotel

this

"

"

central

great

London.
of

The

wood

stone,
these
noticed
often

is

"

dome

like

loftyexternal

covered

with

built

designs
that

that

on

of the

there

stateliness

cupola

lead

smaller
later

of

the

S.

Paul's

is constructed
true

dome,

of

In

all

inside.

scale

in

it will

Renaissance

be

is greater formality,symmetry,
of
design, but a lack of the

of the
earlier period.
One
picturesque charm
special feature of the Gothic
style,however, was
always retained in the French
buildings the steepin
the
and
seventeenth
pitched roofs ; and
Mansard
roof
eighteenth centuries the massive
formed
a very
prominent feature in the design.
"

"

"

ENGLAND.

Gothic

have
architecture, we
seen,
had run
its course
uninterruptedly in England for
fluence
centuries, little disturbed
by foreign inmany
the
Tudor
Gothic
of
True, the
sixteenth
somewhat
a
degenerate form,
century was
it was
but
fine buildings,and
producing many
the domestic
mansions
of the style such
as
we
find at Haddon
Hall, in Derbyshire (about 15^0)
"

"

"

"

88

OF

STORY

THE

well suited

ARCHITECTURE

the

hospitablerequirements
of the time.
It was
natural, therefore,that there
should
have
intervened, as in France, a long and
interestingperiod of transition before the newly
imported classical details could displace the older
"were

Gothic

forms.

This

with

to

Transitional

period

commenced

practically

the
(1558), when
reign of Elizabeth
attention
court
classical
to
began to give much
studies,and to introduce
numerous
foreign artists
and craftsmen.
At this time, and especially
during
the early part of the century, there were
enormous
numbers
of foreignersin England
French, Dutch,
others ; in fact, the presence
of so
Italians,and
aliens led to a good deal of unpleasantness
many
the

"

and

to

even

then

riots.

The

native

workmen

plained
com-

they have complained ever


numbers
that the foreigners brought over
articles, which
ready-made
they sold in
"

as

"

and

country,
to

be

done

thus

by

lessened
the

the

native

of

amount

craftsmen.

In

since
of
this
work
this

minor
way, in the first instance,foreign ideas and
into the
classical details began to find their way

Perhaps the first important step in this


the
of the
direction, however, was
employment
Italian artist Torrigiano, in 1512,
to
design the
tomb
of Henry
in Westminster
VII.
Abbey, a
design which he carried out in the style of his
native country.
Similarlyan Italian would design,
in
his own
Renaissance
style, a chimney-piece
here, a monument
there, so that the classical forms
became, as in France, familiar first through the
country.

medium
came

of such
more

into

accessories.

vogue,

books

As

classical culture

upon

Renaissance

architecture

and

art

into

English,and
the

influences

and
the

Soon

these

while

the

under
The

forms
the

the

sway

noble
"

familiar

Gothic

classical
and

entrance

underwent

details

builders
the

mansion

appear,
dis-

began to
doorways.
the design,
a
gradual
more

movement.

new

Elizabeth's

of

Tudor-chimnied

to

and

more

came

these

orders

incorporated in

and

Italian

Under
tended

features

surfaces

of

from

freely read.

were

became

as

translated

were

clothing of

wall

adorn

change,

189

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

pile of

time, the

mellow

work"
brick-

period. In
of these
buildingsit is interesting
the classical details gradually crept in,
how
to note
first
while
at
the general Gothic
dispositionwas
Haddon
Hall
unaffected.
At
(1540) the Tudor
tions
element
predominates, passing, in the later addiand
alterations,into the earliest Elizabethan.
the characteristically
Here
see
English feature,
we
the great square
bay window, divided into smaller
and
of mullions
transomes.
lights by a number
is seen,
influence
of the Perpendicular Gothic
The
Hall, where the design is almost
too, in Hardwicke
windows, so that
overpowered bv the enormous
the rhyme.
belongs
examining one

be

to

this

Transitional

Hardwicke

Hall,

More

than

glass

wall,

The
true.
pierced parapet,
literally
which
the building,is a feature of frequent
crowns
find it pierced into
in
occurrence
:
places we
the form
the piercing takes
patterns ; sometimes
the design
Hardwicke
At
of a sentence
motto.
or
of
shows
the initials,
E.S., of Elizabeth, Countess
seems

to

190

STORY

THE

FIG.

Shrewsbury,
Hall, Notts

ARCHITECTURE

OF

55." Tower,

who

built

the

(1590),has

parapet, of the fantastic

an
"

quite peculiar to English


tower

of

Wollaton

in

Wollaton

Hall.

mansion.

Wollaton

earlyexample,

in

the

"

a feature
ornament,
Renaissance.
The angle

strap

the

illustration shows

also

THE

the

free

in vogue
details.
Inside

use

of

the

STORY

of the

OF

three

clothing the
Elizabethan

ARCHITECTURE

191

the

orders, and
wall

surfaces

mansions

with

the

method
classical

prominent

staircase of oak
broad, massive
the
great hall,
or, less frequently,of stone, and
timber
panelled or hung with tapestry, with open
minstrels'
roof, bay windows, and
gallery. In
often found
a
on
largermansions
great gallerywas
the first floor,extending, in some
cases, the whole
House,
length of the building, as at Montacute
and
the gallery is 20 feet wide
near
Yeovil, where
less than
feet in length.
no
170
mansions
of the period are
Few
more
interesting
than
Burghley House, in Lincolnshire, built for
the celebrated
Lord
the building
Burghley. On
there are
several dates, ranging from
to 1587,
1577
that it probably took about
ten
so
years, between
been
these
Letters
which
have
dates, to build.
Lord
found
the
building, from
referring to
throw
workmen,
Burghley to the builders and
the manner
in which
some
light upon
building
carried
in those
on
operations were
days. The
workmen
tions,
direct to the employer for instrucwrote
and
the
details of
all the
design were
referred, not to the architect,but to the employer
himself.
The
latter would
settle many
questions
without
of the
outside
assistance, but for some
obtain sketches
more
important features he would
or
suggestionsfrom different architects in London,
that the ideas of several
architects
so
might thus
be embodied
in the same
building. In Burghley
House
of
the greater part of the design is the work
John Thorpe, an architect who was at the time head
features

were

the

STORY

THE

192

ARCHITECTURE

OF

to have
profession. The employer appears
been personallyresponsiblefor much
of the detail :
he would
of his information
naturallyglean most
from
books, and, in this instance, was
thoroughly
imbued
with
the
are
orders," which
imposed
super-

of

his

"

in
carried
which

to

Italian

the

in the

excess

shaped

are

like

The

manner.

of

treatment

columns,

the

craze

chimneys,
bases

with

is

and

entablatures.
small
carry
of the
designs a good deal of the
many
builders
the
introduced
:
was
personal element
caps,
In

and

by restrictions,and, if a
a
designer had what he considered
happy idea, he
that we
free to embody
it in his design, so
was
occasionallyfind quite childish freaks perpetrated.
and
In an interestingcollection of sketches
notes
London,
by John Thorpe, in the Soane Museum,
were

hampered

not

orders, and
some
plans and drawings of a house which Thorpe
The
plan of the building
designed for himself.
is in
form
of the designer's initials,J.T.,
the
the two
portions of the building being connected
Beneath
the plan he had written :
by a corridor.
there

are

of

the

letters,J and T,
Joined together as you
see,
Is meant
for a dwelling-house

for

careful

some

These

studies

two

Although in
the plans were

of

some

the

more

me.

classical

designs

the
symmetrical, in other cases
Montacute
House,
arrangement was quite fanciful.
with
its vast
gallery,already referred to, showed
in those
uncommon
days, in the shape
a plan not
of
E
letter
the
perhaps a courtier's graceful
But the courtiers
compliment to Queen Elizabeth.
"

THE

194

STORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

he

not
regular,but inclined to Gothic,
says, "is
with
mixed
little of the Doric
Ionic."
and
a
If,

Italian
failed
to
then, a contemporary
recognise
been
the styleof the period, though it had
duced
introfrom
his own
country, it is small wonder
that we
find difficulty
in tracing and
accounting
for all the
features.
forms
and
Certainly this

Elizabethan

is one
of the
Jacobean work
curious and puzzlingtransitional stylesknown
most
in history. Buildings of the same
date
show
an
and
extraordinarydiversityin both the amount

the
In

character
some

with
of

and

of

the

cases

the

Gothic

uncertainty

be

the

in

classical features

designs

are.

introduced.

mediaeval

buildings
good deal

details left out, and


a
classical forms
what
to

as

their

should

Evelyn, when
visiting
it in his diary as
"a
mixed
Audley End, noted
fabric betwixt
ancient
and
modern, and, without
of the stateliest in the kingdom
comparison, one
;
and Samuel
Pepys was
puzzled by the architecture,
but admired
of the ceilingsand
the stateliness
the form
of the whole, and drank
admirable
most
a
drink, a health to the King."
put

place.

"

"

It
end

and
man

but

was

in

natural

reaction,and
of
dignified use
a

under

this

that
a

to

return

the

classical

the

influence

whose

confusion

the

should
correct

more

orders.

The

disorder

gave

first great
styled our
Renaissance
architect,was
Inigo Jones.
Inigo Jones (1572-1652) had studied in Italy,
especially at Vicenza, the birthplace of Palladio,
way,

and

where
master's

he

who

came

work.
to

may

under

be

the

influence

Returning
introduce

the

to

of

that

England,

monumental

he

great
deavoured
en-

style of

at

Chiswick,
a

on

he

works,

duced,
repro-

scale, Palladio's Villa Capra


great opportunity appeared to

His

arrived

have

villa

smaller

Vicenza.

at

195

Devonshire's

first

his

of

one

of

Duke

the

in

Palladio, and

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

he

when

the

received

commission

for
palace at Whitehall
The
I.
Charles
designs for this great building,
the noble composition of the Banqueting Hall
and
sufficient to place
the only portion erected
are
of the
the foremost
masters
Inigo Jones amongst
of this facade, with
The
Renaissance.
treatment
with pilasters
stories ornamented
rusticated
its two
and
engaged columns, is suggestive of Palladio,
noticed, frequently superimposed his
who, as we
stories under
one
orders, instead of grouping two
Palladian
order in the so-called
style.
in his opportunities than
fortunate
More
Jones
Sir
his great successor,
Christopher Wren,
was
the central
history,
figure in English Renaissance
the
left his impress so
who
unmistakably upon
to

design

immense

an

"

"

'

\Vren

was

made

the

after the great fire.


up
thirty-fouryears of age, and had just
for himself
as
an
architect, when
name
which

London

new

sprang

great fire of London


him.

One

of

cleared

in 1666

earliest

his

the

field

works

completed
after the fire was
Temple Bar, erected in 1670, and
later (in 1878), in which
centuries
removed
two
had
excellent
we
an
example of his style,and of
his judicious use
In
connection
of
ornament.
for

with

his ecclesiastical

work

it must

that

Wren

upon

to

was

hurriedly, and

called
at

very

designs were
hampered
and
invariablyby lack

small

be remembered

build
cost.

large churches
His

church

by various considerations,
of funds, but he succeeded,

THE

196
almost
in

STORY

without

simple

Before

and

the

ARCHITECTURE

OF

exception, in obtaininggood effect


inexpensive manner.

old Gothic

cathedral

destroyed by fire,Wren,
to survey
it,had given an
he

stated

that

the

who

S. Paul

been

had

adverse

columns

of

instructed

report, in which

giving way

were

was

under

the

He
made
various
weight of the heavy roof.
recommendations, but the debate upon his report
"dragged out, in the usual way, for many
months,
and
until
the question
nothing was
really done
was
finallysettled by the great fire and the total
"destruction of the building. In a strikingpassage
in Evelyn's diary, dated
six
August 27th, 1666"
the
fire broke
he states
that
out
days before
and
several
he, with Wren
experts, surveyed the
that day, and
concluded
that
structure
a
new
"and
had
we
building was
a
mind,"
necessary;
he says,
noble
it with
to build
a
cupola, a form
not
in England, but of wonderful
as
yet known
grace." Some
passed, however, before the
years
"

"

committee
be

could

restored

whether

settle
their

on

old

lines,
be

design should
until 1675 that the

entirely new
was

not

in

hand.
with

As

plan
the

was

S.

Peter's

Greek

authorities

from

the

would

we

"but the
.a
as

screen

this

see

unto
two

upper
with
detracts

with
not

ecclesiastical

extended

design

cross,

to

form, and

is

sham,

nothing behind
from

the

it.

for

architectural

but

ingly
accordexterior

the

put

departure

was

it

it

original

Corinthian

the

it

and

arms

this

In

cross.

stories of

story

equal

an

was

WTren's

four

agree

Latin

cathedral

new

should

whether

or

erected

Rome,

at

ruins

the

order,

is

merely

deceit
merit

such
of

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

197

dignity which
be lacking to the
otherwise
would
composition.
the
The
west
dome, resting upon
front, and
surrounded
by a fine peristyle,
lofty drum,
a
successful
the
most
features, leading most
are
"The
critics to endorse
Fergusson's encomium.
"he
exterior of S. Paul's,
says, "surpasses in beauty
class
of design all the other examples of the same
have

which
out

whether

and,

distance

or

least,

at

and

grandest

in

churches

from

seen

it is,

near,

carried

been

yet

adds

it

design, though

the

of

one

ternally
ex-

the

beautiful

most

S. Paul's

Europe."

advantage over S. Peter's


in that it was
completed within
the
of thirty-fiveyears,
space
the
under
superintendence of
S. Peter's, on
architect.
one
the
other
hand, suffered from
various
cupied
ocinterruptions,and
has

the

and

century

half

FIG.

and

while twenty
building,
a

dozen

in its

in

popes
had
hand
a

architects

Section

Dome,

shows

the

S.

Paul's, the

dome

is built

cupola
wide

S. Paul's.

is carried

of
at

the

hemisphere,
top.

with

dome,

The

on
outside, is constructed
covered
scale,in woodwork

built up

between

lantern.

Thus

these
the

"

as

dome,"

we

much

with

two,

opening

an

which,

The
inner
up.
in the
almost

brickwork

in

up

by

method

illustration

form

through

construction.

The
in

56.

carries
which

it from

see

the

feet
the

imposing

more

lead ;

20

brick cone,

heavy

forms

so

stone
con-

THE

198

spicuous
the

true

OF

ARCHITECTURE

is, in reality,merely

feature

masonry
inner

the

are

STORY

domes

the

"

structural

the

cupola, and

central

sham

portions
"

which

cone,

is invisible.

construction, and,

As

this feature
domes

at

in

S.

either

seen

doubtless

Italian

Had

been

he

built

certainlythe

interior

of

S.

Paul's

exterior,but

the

It does

he

expense,
cheaper of the

internal

effect

excessive

of

was

their

hand, he

these

earlier

influenced

was

and

his

by

method

was

two.

is

hardly

impressive

so

fault

of

the

in

the

never

he

free

upon

this is the

disappoint

the

of

quite the way


does, for it is on a smaller scale,and one
impressions from
expect such
great
not

is not

method

given

of

the

but

domes,

the

with

with

had

Wren

Italian

familiar

considerations

; there

treatment.

these

architecture,

as

compare

Rome

at

probably have
principles; but

would

as

cannot

and

of

of

construction.

The

Paul's

Florence

honesty

same

indeed,

dome

style.

S. Peter's
does

The

it.

is marred

not

by

the

and of the
lengths of the nave
choir.
is hardly conAt
first,on
scious
entering, one
of the dome
; after approaching it,the great
length of the choir detracts from its grandeur.
In

relative

Wren's

great skill in the

making the
disposal. In
features
have

were

been

London

numerous

most

use

of

of
the

churches

he showed

simple materials
limited

designs the
many
the steeples,which

funds

introduce

at

in
his

successful

most

he

and

may

claim

to

English
Renaissance
architecture.
notable
A
example is
the beautiful and
finely proportioned steeple of
Bow
Church, Cheapside. But the steeple belongs
the

first

to

to

Gothic

truly to

more

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

where

chitecture,
ar-

it forms

appropriate crowning

an

of

feature

whole

the

sign.
de-

emphatic

The

which

horizontal

lines

mark

classical

all

positions
com-

render

the

steeple,with
its diminishingstories piled
Renaissance

one

upon
of
The

what
some-

anomaly.

an

Sheldonian

Theatre

the

southern

Oxford,

at

the other,

rt i o n

of

Greenwich

Hospital, Trinity College


library, Cambridge, and
the garden front of Hampton
Court
Palace, are
Sir
Christopher
among
Wren's
most
important
His genius
secular works.
is

evident

more

these

buildingsas
his

London

of

expect
in

should
the

and

than

in

much

too

any
be

man

to

that

successful

designs of half
churches,

hundred

built

such

churches.

be

It would

he

in

at

from

It would

the

same

limited
seem

monopolised

that
the

all

time,
funds.
Wren
work

FIG.

Steeple
Mary-le-Bow.
57.

"

of

S.

THE

zoo

the

of

latter

during this
building of

pupil,who

Wren's

Hawksmoor

of

Mary Woolnoth
;
S. Mary-le-Strand

S.
of
The

of

century,

for

us

gave

the

S.

George, Bloomsbury, and


Gibbs, the interestingdesigns
S. Martin's-in-the-Fields.

and

the
Vanbrugh was
nation's
the
gift to the
designed in the ponderous

of Sir

greatest work

mansion

seventeenth

period there was


hardly a
did not
come
importance which
With
the eighteenth century
new
prominence, notably Hawksmoor,
succeeded
to his practice,Van-

churches

London

the

Gibbs.

and

brugh,

ARCHITECTURE

active

very

into

come

names

of

half

any
his hands.

from

OF

STORY

Blenheim

"

John

Marlborough
symmetrical stylewhich the architect affected,and
which
is seen
again in Castle Howard, Yorkshire.
in England during the greater part
Architecture
of the eighteenth century was, to a large extent, a
architects
The
of
matter
were
names.greatly
of Palladio, whose
under
the influence
drawings
been
had
greatly in vogue.
published and were
there
his lead
in
Under
a
was
tendency, even
domestic
buildings, to sacrifice everything to
Duke

of

"

reversed, for the


looked

on,

not

houses

lived

in."

dictum

Bacon's

stateliness.

and

symmetry

were

With

"

now

all

built

was

to

be

this,however,

tecture
comparatively little noteworthy archiproduced. The work of the century, taken
little originality
or
a
as
whole, shows
high artistic
that
merit ; nothing more
be said of it than
can
it was
a
respectable sort of architecture,hovering
between
dignity and dulness.

there

was

Among,
Sir

William

the

later

Chambers

building

of

architects

of

the

designed the
the time, Somerset

century,
most

portant
im-

House,

THE

202

STORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE

of Europe
Throughout the continent
comparatively few notable buildings have been
In France, as
produced during the past century.
and the Tuileries were
have noted, the Louvre
we
built
was
completed, and the new
Opera House
has
in Paris
(1863-1875). Austria
produced,
several
fine public halls and
theatres,the
among
the House
of Parliament
great Opera House, and
Theatre, all
(1843) in Vienna, and the Dresden
classical lines.
less on
German
or
designed more
the
in
architecture
early part of the century
Schinkel
received
an
impetus under
(d. 1841),
who
at
Berlin, with its
designed the Museum
the Court
columns, and
great portico of Ionic
the Greek
forms
Theatre, also in Berlin, in which
are
admirably adapted to the requirements. Other
well-known
buildingsare the Propylaea at Munich,

sideration.

the

and

Walhalla

Parthenon,

by

at

Ratisbon

copy

of

(1784-1864).

Klenze

von

"

the
"In

revival
in
general," writes Hamlin, "the Greek
Germany
presents the aspect of a strong striving
the part of a limited number
of
after beauty, on
artists of great talent, misled
by the idea that
the forms
be galvanised
of a dead civilisation could
into

new

life in

the

service

of

modern

needs.

disappointing, in spite of the


excellent
construction, and
planning, admirable
"carefullystudied detail of these buildings,and
foredoomed
the movement
here, as elsewhere, was
result

The

to

failure."
In

England

successive
"

was

the

revivals.

Greek, Gothic,

"day ; but

past century

it is

Each
and

only

of the

Renaissance
within

been

has
three
"

of

one

great styks
has

had

comparatively

its

recent

THE

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

203

has been
that any
definite progress
years
of a distinct national
towards
the formation
of

architecture.

the

interest

and

Revett

aroused

by

details.

the

upon

importation of
Lord
Elgin, led
and

style

century

publicationsof

the

Doric

the

of

early part

Stuart
of

monuments

the

the

sculptures by
Greek

the

others

and

and

Greece,

In

made

to

Ionic

Parthenon
a

for

craze

orders

were

design, without
regard to propriety,provided only they were
any
and
detail
of strictly
correct
proportions. Every
church
its classical portico,every
house
had
was
used

connection

in

slavish

church

with

from
copy
of S. Pancras,

every

Greek

London,

model.
the

the

In

architect

produced
re-

of the Erechtheum
Caryatid Porch
at Athens, and
copied his steeplefrom the Temple
of the Winds.
Greek
The
revived
stylefound its
highest expression in S. George's Hall, Liverpool,
the
by Elmes and Cockerell ; and so closely were
in this building that,
classical
details adhered
to
in
architect
failed
in
the
Fergusson's words,
the

"

his

endeavours

George's

Hall

if you
are
feature
any

able
which

to

detect

would

in

S.

lead

the building might not


belong
suppose
of Augustus."
age
of enthusiasts
Meanwhile, a small band
to

"

been

you
the
to

had

revival
of the
for the
preparing the way
ture.
architecalmost
neglected and
forgotten Gothic
The
on
publication of Britton's great work
The
caused
Cathedral
Antiquities of England
was
people to reflect that, after all, Gothic
many
the great national
more
style, and, as such, was
suited to the English requirements than the Greek
book
Rickman's
temple forms could possibly be.
"

"

the
move"
styles followed, and
soon
gained strength.
progress,

the

upon

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

204

Gothic

in
ment, once
lack great
did not

leaders

writers

"

well

as

It
as

designers : Pugin, Street, and, weightiest of all,


into the scale, and
their influence
Ruskin, threw
revival

Gothic

the

produced
them

many
Houses

the

became

an

notable
of

established

buildings;

Parliament

But

while

the Gothic

movement

chief

It

among

Westminster,
the
1839, m

at

Barry in
begun by Sir Charles
Perpendicular style,and the New
London, by Street.

fact.

Law

was

at

in

Courts

its

height,

become
extinct.
by no means
neously
simultaThe
two
out
styles were
being worked
that was
in a way
quite unprecedented.
At
culminating
Liverpool the classical style was
the same
in S. George's Hall, begun in. almost
the inception of the Gothic
year (1840) that saw
school

the Greek

Houses
architect

of

had

Parliament

of the

Gothic

in

London

the

; moreover,

at the
buildingwas
classical
designs as

same

the
such
busy with
Small
Club.
Treasury buildings and the Reform
Battle
wonder, then, that there resulted a great
of the Styles,"which
was
waged fiercelybetween
the opposing parties. It was
especiallybitter over
Offices
the great competition for the Government
in 1857, the
result
of which, to quote the late
was
quite typical of the
J. M. Brydon's words,
Won
by a classical
ding-dong of party warfare.
of a
in favour
annulled
was
design, the decision
Gothic
building,to be reversed again in its turn,
and
in classic
by a Gothic
finally carried out
architect
against his will."
time

"

"

The

last part

of the

century

has

witnessed

in

ARCHITECTURE

OF

STORY

THE

205

to
England and, indeed, through Europe, a return
in a large number
the Renaissance
principles,seen
classical
forms
the
are
of
designs in which
skilful
with
often
with
treated
freedom, and
methods
of
and
materials
new
adaptabilityto new
The
construction.
closing years of the nineteenth

foreshadowed

century

extensive

the

the
iron

of

use

exercise

is to

works
architectural
upon
Commercial
of design.

future

which

influence

vast

and

the

in

all

upon

buildings are now


than
gigantic frameworks
becoming nothing more
with
and
of iron
a
steel, covered
clothing of
thousands
of years,"as
For
recent
a
masonry.
writer
it,
large building in the
puts
every

forms

"

"

world
masonry
floors

with

constructed

was

hold

to

inner

the

up

walls

enormous

of

framework

of

substantial
and
a
partitions. It was
there
seemed
of construction, and
worthy method
of changing it. But
need
one
no
day a daring
the
world
idea, astonished
by
builder, with an
reversingthis order of construction, and building
hold
framework
inner
to
an
strong enough
up
and

of masonry.
instantlysuccessful, so that

outside

the

of

tall

and
of

veneer.'"

outcome

of

day,

is

the

bridge standing
running up and down
the

List ten

almost

every

shows

one

structures

years,

"

The

has

the

the

Park

become

Row

all this,

requirements

"sky-scraper"

within

greatest

ing
engineer-

result of

end, with

on

was

construction

utilitarian

the

great American
of

to-day the

American

steel

invention

architecture, but

not

stone

the
the

'

building is

with

The

walls

it
a

cars

passenger

"
"

which,

familiar

city.
of

"a

"

these

The

within

feature

in

illustration

extraordinary

Buildings in

New

York

jiimiilllltf
sin III! ll M

FIG.

58." American

Sky-scraper.

in

OF

STORY

THE

construction.

of

course

ARCHITECTURE

207

in

Comprised

the

"

stories

numerous

950
of

people

4,000
of

structure,

rapidity

with

completed
accordance

century.

The

and

when
v/ith

the
the

work

building
is

methods

of

the

us

this

upon
the

construction

than

population

gives

illustrates
such

which

photograph

less

no

are

accommodate

weeks'

twelve

only

gigantic

to

building

this

designed

rooms,

result

of

carried
the

wonderful

be

may
out

twentieth-

in

SELECTED

LIST

OF

BOOKS

Architecture.

of

Fergusson

History

Hamlin

Text-book

the

of

History

of

Architecture.

History

Fletcher

Architecture

of

Student,

the

for

and

Craftsman,

Amateur.
Architecture

Statham

fo

General

Readers.
Ancient

Lanciani

Rome

Modern

Roger

"

Smith

Slater

Classic

the

in

Light

of

Discovery.
and

Early

Christian

Architecture.

Roger

Smith

Renaissance

Parker

to

Gothic

Architecture.

Seven
Anderson

"

of

Architecture

Makers

Symonds

The

Study

of

Architecture.

of the

Renaissance

of Florence.
Renaissance

Arts
Short

in

History

Early
English

Phythian

Art

in

Fine

Renaissance

in

England.
ture
Architec-

England.

Cathedrals
the

the

of

Renaissance
in

Bond

of

Italy.

Architecture

208

the

Italy.

Oliphant

Gotch

tecture.
Archi-

Venice.

Lamps

..

in

Blomfield

Gothic

Introduction

Slo?ies

Ruskin
M

and

...

British

Illustrated.
Isles.

of

INDEX

210

EARL'S

work

Saxon

BARTON,

LEANING

tower

of

Lighting

at, 123, 124.


Early Christian

at

Greek

Pisa,-112.

temples,

builders, 85.
39Louvre, 185.
Egyptian columns, 28, 29.
inscriptions,25.
MAISON
Carree, Nimes, 71.
Elgin marbles, 46, 203.
Mansard
Elizabethan
mansions, 189,
roof, 187.
Mausoleum
at Halicarnassus,
191, 193.
56.
English cathedral plan, 142.
Michelangelo, 180-186.
Ephesus, temple at, 53.
Mihrab, or prayer -niche,103.
Erechtheum,
52.
Milan
Etruscan
Cathedral, 160.
tombs, 59Mohammed,
101.
Evelyn's diary, 194, 196.
Mosaics, use of, 88-91.
Mosque at Cordova, 105.
FAN-TRACERY, 152.
Fire of London, 196.
Mouldings, Gothic, 154.
Flying buttress, 131, 132.
Mycenae, Lion Gate at, 36.
Franciscan

monks

as

ers,
buildNEWGATE

157.

Prison, 201.
work, examples

Norman
GIOTTO'S

tower, 161.

Glass, painted, 133, 151.


House
Golden
of Nero, 69.
Gothic, meaning of, 129.
Greek
temple plan, 39-41.

127.
features
Notre

OPERA

Opus
H

HALL, 187, 189.


Hagia Sophia, church
of,97.
Hardwicke
Hall, 189.
Henry VII., tomb
of, 188.
Houses
of Parliament, 204.
Hypostyle Hall at Karnak,
ADDON

Ionic

Dame

of, 125.
Port, 117.

du

House, Paris, 202.


Alexandrinum, 92.

Orders

of

Roman

ture,
architec-

65.
PALLADIO,

183, 195.'

Pantheon,

77.
churches

Parish

in

England,

153-

23INIGO

of,

Parthenon, 41, 44, 48, 202.


Pavia, certosaat, 160, 175.
Pepys, Samuel, 194.

JONES, 194.
order, 49, 65.

Persepolis,ruins

JOHN THORPE,

191,

192.

at, 32.
Petrie's discoveries in Egypt,
19,

KARNAK, temples at, 22, 25.


King's chamber, 15.
King's College Chapel, 152.

8.3-

Pompeian decoration,
83f
82.
houses,
Pyramids, 13.

INDEX

Sky-scrapers, 205, 206.

26.
RAMESSIUM,
Ravenna, churches

House, 201,
Spinelli Palace, 178.
Strozzi
Palace, 173.
Somerset

at, 93.

vaulting, 15, 128.


temple plan, 66.

Ribbed
Roman
Rusticated

masonry,

73, 186.
TEMPLE

S. FRANCESCO

Bar, 195.
Theatres, Greek, 56.

Rimini, 172.
George's Hall, Liverpool, Thebes, 21.
Theseum, 40.
203, 204.
S. Mark's, Venice, 99, 177.
Tiryns, walls at, 35.
S. Martin's-in-the-Fields,
2OO.
Tracery, development of, 133,
S. Mary-le-Strand, 200.
150.
S. Pancras, London,
Transepts,
origin of, 88.
203.
S. Paul's
Cathedral, 196-198. Triumphal arches, 74.
at

S.

S.

Paul's-outside-the-Walls,

'

86.
S.

VOCAL

Peter's,

13,

180,

Wingless

Saxon

Wollaton

Chapelle, Paris, 130.


Salisbury Cathedral, 147,149.
remains, 123.
excellence

Sculpture,
Greek, 46.
Seville Cathedral, 165.

by Hasell,

Watson

150,

153-

1 10.

Sainte

Printed

Abbey,

WESTMINSTER

Zeno, Verona,

23.

182,

197.
S.

Memnon,

of

"Sf

Victory, temple of,

53-

Wren,

Hall, 190.
Sir

C., 195, 198, 199.

XERXES,

Hall

Viney, Ld.,

London

of, 32.

and

Aylcsbury.