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# MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Department of Physics
8.02

Spring 2012
SOLUTIONS Exam One Equation Sheet

qq
F12 ke 1 2 2 r12 , force by 1 on 2
r12

F qE

q
q
E(r ) ke 2 r ke 3 r
r
r
N

qi

E(r ) ke 3 (r ri )
i 1 r ri

dq
dq(r r)
E(r ) ke 2 r ke
3
r
r r
source
source
qenc
E
dA

closedsurface

## dA points from inside to outside

B

VAB VB VA E ds

Electric Dipole
N
p qi ri
i 1

p r
V (r ) V ( ) k e 2
r

E V
V
V
V
Ey
Ex
Ez
y
x
z
V
Er
for spherical and cylindrical
r
symmetry
1 V
E
for cylindrical symmetry
r

q
V (r) V () ke
r
N

q
V (r ) V ( ) k e i
i 1 r ri

V (r ) V ( ) k e

source

dq

r r

all pairs

ke

1
4 0

9 109 N m 2 C2

## Circumferences, Areas, Volumes

1) The area of a circle of radius r is
r 2 . Its circumference is 2 r .

U qV
qV K 0

U stored ke

Constants

qi q j
rij

; U () 0

## 2) The surface area of a sphere of

radius r is 4 r 2 . Its volume is
(4 / 3) r 3 .
3) The area of the sides of a cylinder
of radius r and height h is 2 rh .
Its volume is r 2 h .

## Problem 1 (25 points)

In this problem you are asked to answer 5 questions, each worth 5 points. You do not
have to show your work; in most cases you may simply circle the chosen answer.
Question 1 (5 points) Two small objects each with a net charge of Q exert a force

## of magnitude F F on each other.

We replace one of the objects with another whose net charge is 4Q , and we move
the Q and 4Q charges to be 3 times as far apart as they were:

## What is the magnitude of the force F1 F1 on the 4Q charge above?

a) F1 F / 9

b) F1 F / 3
c) F1 4 F / 9 correct
d) F1 4 F / 3
e) None of the above.

## The correct answer is ________________________.

Question 2 (5 points)

Three infinite sheets of charge lying in the yz -plane are shown in the sketch. The sheet
on the right at x d is positively charged with charge per unit area of , the sheet in
the middle at x 0 is positively charged with charge per unit area of 4 , and the sheet
on the left at x d is negatively charged with charge per unit area of .
What is the electric field at the point P in the region x d ?
a) zero.

b) E i .

c) E i .
d)
e)
f)
g)

0
2
i
E
0

2
E
0
4
i
E
0

4
E
0

. correct
i .
.
i .

## The correct answer is ________________________.

Question 3 (5 points)
We have two electric dipoles. Each dipole consists of two equal and opposite point
charges at the ends of an insulating rod of length d . The dipoles sit along the x -axis a
distance r apart, oriented at right angles to each other as shown below. Their separation
r d . You may take d to be small but not zero.

## The dipole ON RIGHT:

a) will feel a force to the left and a torque trying to make it rotate clockwise.
b) will feel a force to the left and a torque trying to make it rotate counterclockwise.
c) will feel a force to the left and no torque.
d) will feel a force to the right and a torque trying to make it rotate clockwise.
e) will feel a force to the right and a torque trying to make it rotate counterclockwise.
f) will feel a force to the right and no torque.
g) will feel no force and a torque trying to make it rotate clockwise. correct
Although we counted this answer as correct, in fact the correct answer is that it will feel a
force upward and a torque trying to make it rotate clockwise. If you gave the proper
sense of rotation and had some indication that you thought the force was upward, and did
h) will feel no force and a torque trying to make it rotate counterclockwise.
i) will feel no force and no torque.

## The correct answer is ________________________.

Question 4 (5 points)

A thin rod extends along the x -axis from x l / 2 to x l / 2 . The rod carries a
uniformly distributed positive charge Q . Consider a point P lying in the z 0 plane
with coordinates ( x , y,0) . Which of the following expressions describes the electric
potential difference V ( P) V () , between infinity and the point P ?
a)
b)

xl /2
ke Q
(( x x)i yj) dx
V ( P ) V ( )
l xl /2 (( x x) 2 y 2 )3/ 2
xl /2
kQ
(( x x)i yj) dx
V ( P ) V ( ) e
l xl /2 (( x x) 2 y 2 )1/2
xl / 2

c)

V ( P ) V ( )

keQ
( x x) dx

l x l / 2 (( x x) 2 y 2 )3/ 2

d)

V ( P ) V ()

k eQ x l / 2
( x x ) dx

l x l / 2 (( x x )2 y 2 )1/ 2

e)

k eQ x l / 2
dx
V ( P ) V ()

l x l / 2 (( x x )2 y 2 )3/ 2

f)

k eQ x l / 2
dx
V ( P ) V ()
correct

l x l / 2 (( x x )2 y 2 )1/ 2

## The correct answer is ________________________.

Question 5 (5 points)

## The area vector dA at each point on a

closed surface (i.e., a surface that
surrounds a volume) are always chosen
to point out of the enclosed volume. A
closed imaginary surface is called a
Gaussian surface. The Gaussian surface
below is a cylinder. A positive charge is
located on the cylinder axis above the
Gaussian cylinder, as shown on the
figure to the right.

## Which statement is correct about the flux

E dA through surface B and

surface B

## through the entire closed surface A B C ?

a) The flux through surface B is positive and through the entire closed surface it
is positive.
b) The flux through B is positive and through the entire surface it is negative.
c) The flux through B is positive and through the entire surface it is zero. correct
d) The flux through B is negative and through the entire surface it is zero.
e) The flux through B is negative and through the entire surface it is negative.
f) The flux through B is negative and through the entire surface it is positive.

## Problem 2 (25 points)

NOTE: YOU MUST SHOW WORK in order to get any credit for this problem. Make
it clear to us that you understand what you are doing (use a few words!).
Three charges equal to Q , 2Q , and
Q are placed on the vertices of an
equilateral triangle with sides a, as shown
in the sketch. The point P is at the
origin. Note that sin(60o) 3 / 2 and

o
cos(60 ) 1 / 2 .

## (a) What is the x-component of the electric field E at point P ?

N

q
E(r ) ke i 3 (r ri )
i 1 r ri

N
Q

q
2Q
12Q

ke 2
E x (r ) ke i 3 ( x xi ) ke
a
a
(0
/
2)
(0
/
2)
0
3
3
a/2

a
a/2
i 1 r ri

## (b) What is the y-component of the electric field E at point P ?

qi
Q
4Q

( 3a / 2) 0 0 ke 2
E y (r ) ke 3 ( y yi ) ke
3

3a
i 1 r ri
3a / 2

## (c) What is the electric potential V at point P, assuming that V ( ) 0 ?

N
q

Q
2Q
V (r ) V ( ) k e i k e

a/2 a/2
i 1 r ri

k 2Q 1 1
e

a
3
3a / 2

(d) Suppose you now move a point charge with charge 5Q from infinity to point P
in the above problem. How much work does it take you to do this?

10Q 2
1
U 5Q V (r ) V () ke
1

a
3

(e) What is the dipole moment vector of the original set of three charges?
N
N
p qi ri px qi xi Q(a / 2) 2Q(a / 2) 0 3Qa / 2
i 1
N

i 1

p y qi yi Q( 3a / 2) 0 0 3Qa / 2
i 1

(f) Suppose the original three charges were glued to a wooden equilateral triangle
which was free to rotate about its center, and then that triangle was placed in a

## uniform electric field E Eo y , where Eo 0 . Will the triangle rotate

counterclockwise or clockwise?

## torque p E 3Qa / 2 x y 3Qa / 2 Eo y 3EoQa / 2 z

The negative z component of the torque means that the triangle will rotate
clockwise.

## Problem 3 (25 points)

NOTE: YOU MUST SHOW WORK in order to get any credit for this problem. Make
it clear to us that you understand what you are doing (use a few words!).

A very thin disk of radius R is positively charged with uniform charge per unit area .
Consider a point P lying a distance x 0 from the center of the disk along the axis of
symmetry of the disk.
Integration formulas you may find useful:
dr
r
2
c
2 3/2
( x r )
( x r 2 )1/2
r dr
1
( x2 r 2 )3/2 ( x 2 r2 )1/2 c
x2

r dr
( x 2 r 2 )1/ 2 c
r 2 )1/2
dr
2
2 1/2
( x2 r 2 )1/2 ln r ( x r ) c

(x

a) What is the electric potential difference V (P) V ( ) ? Hint: you may find the
integration area element da 2 r dr useful.

V (r ) V ( ) k e

source

dq
da
2 r dr
r dr
ke
2 ke 2
ke
2
2
2
2

r r
( x r 2 )3/2
x r
x r
source
source

V (r ) V () 2 ke ( x 2 r 2 )1/2 c 2 ke ( x 2 R 2 )1/2 x
0

b) What is the direction and magnitude of the electric field at the point P ?
E V x

d
x
2 ke ( x 2 R 2 )1/2 x 2 ke x 2
1
2 1/2
dx
(x R )

c) Find an expression for the direction and magnitude of the electric field when
x R ?

E 2 ke 2
1 x 2 ke x
x
2 1/2
2 o
(x R )

d) How does your result in part c) compare to the electric field of a uniformly
charged infinite plane with charge per area ? Explain your reasoning.
It is the same, as we would expect, because we are close to the disk and it looks
infinite if you are very close.

## Problem 4 (25 points)

NOTE: YOU MUST SHOW WORK in order to get any credit for this problem. Make
it clear to us that you understand what you are doing (use a few words!).

A very long solid cylinder of radius R1 carries a non-uniform volume charge density

## Cr ; 0 r R1 , where C is a positive constant with units [C m 4 ]. It is surrounded

by a thin negatively charged cylindrical shell of radius R2 with uniform charge per area

0 as shown in the figure. The electric field is zero for r R2 . You may assume the
cylinders are infinite.
a) Find an expression for the charge per area in terms of C , R1 , and R2 as
needed.
R1
qenc

1
E dA
Eoutside 2 rL 0 2 R2 L 2 r Ldr r

o
o
closedsurface
0

R1
3

1
R
1
2 R2 L 2 r 2 Ldr C 0 2 R2 L 2 LC 1 0

o
o
3
0

R13
C
3R2
b) Find a vector expression for the electric field in the regions (i) 0 r R1 and (ii)
R1 r R2 . For each region clearly show your choice of Gaussian surface.

## Express your answers in terms of r , C , R1 , and R2 as needed.

r
1 r
1
1
r3
2
2 r Ldr r 2 r Ldr C CL 2
o 0
3
o 0
o
1 r2
For r < R1 , E C r
o 3

R
1 R1
1
R13
1 1
2

## For R 2 r >R1 , 2 rLE 2 r Ldr r 2 r Ldr C CL 2

o
o
o 0
3

1 R3
For R 2 r >R1 , E C 1 r
o 3r

## c) A positive charged object of charge Q 0 and mass M is released from rest at

r R1 . What is the speed of the object when it reaches r R2 ? Express your
answers in terms of r , C , Q , M , R1 , and R2 as needed.
The energy difference is
R2
B

R3 R
1 R3
1
QVAB Q VB VA Q E ds Q C 1 dr QC 1 ln 1 0
3r
3
R2
o
A
R1 o
This is a decrease in energy, which has gone into kinetic energy, that is

R3 R
1
1
MV 2 QC 1 ln 2 with the implied expression for V
2
3
o
R1