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Mural bladder wall calcification?

Extrinsic displacement of bladder?

Intraperitoneal bladder rupture, CT characteristics?

Extraperitoneal bladder rupture, CT characteristics?
Ileal loop complications?
Filling defects in urethra?
Paraurethral outpouchings or tracts?
Ovarian neoplasms, types and frequency?
Epithelial ovarian tumors?
Serous or Papillary epithelial ovarian tumors?
Mucinous epithelial ovarian tumors?
Ovarian dermoid cyst (mature cystic teratoma)
Metastases to ovary
Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors?
Bilateral, Entire ureteral dilatation without ureteral
Unilateral, entire ureteral dilatation without ureteral
Ureteral dilatation of distal segment only without ureteral
Ureteral dilatation of proximal segment only without ureteral
Malignant causes of ureteral narrowing?
Infectious causes of ureteral narrowing?
Inflammatory bowel disease causes of ureteral narrowing?
Gynecologic causes of ureteral narrowing?
Traumatic causes of ureteral narrowing?
TCC features?
Uncommon associations with retroperitoneal fibrosis?

CT signs of ureteral stone?

Intraluminal ureteral filling defects
Mucosal ureteral filling defects?
Mural ureteral filling defect?
Common causes of focal filling defects of the bladder wall?
Malignant bladder neoplasms?
Benign bladder neoplasms?
Outpouchings of bladder wall?

Bladder diverticula features?

Features of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis?

Features of renal infarcts?
CT findings of pyelonephritis?

Differential of small scarred kidneys?

In reflux nephropathy scarring first develops?

Differential of unilateral small smooth kidney?

Urographic signs of renal artery stenosis

Causes of unilateral reniform enlargement?

Causes of striated nephrogram?

Common and uncommon causes of bilateral renal
enlargement with masses?
Causes of medullary nephrocalcinosis?

Causes of cortical nephrocalcinosis?

General causes of renal failure?
Enlarged hyperechoic kidneys?
2 types of renal sinus fat proliferation?
Renal sinus cysts?

Renal sinus neoplasms

Normal ureter course measurements and landmarks?
Right adrenal gland is located posterior to the
Radiographic abnormalities of Horseshoe kidney?
Other urinary tract abnormalities associated with horseshoe

Crossed fused ectopia?

Radiographic findings of pelvoinfundibular MDK (Multicystic
dysplastic kidney)?
Radiographic findings of hydronephrotic MDK (multicystic
dysplastic kidney)?
Abnormalities with ARPKD (autosomal recessive polycystic
kidney disease)?
MSK (Medullary sponge kidney associations?
Multilocular cystic nephroma associations?

Bosniak CT classification of cystic renal masses?

RCC: IVU features?
RCC: CT, MR features?

Other abnormalities that present with renal agenesis?

Nonrotated verus malrotated kidney?

Calyceal diverticulum, details?

Mesoblastic nephroma, details?

Nephroblastomatosis associations?
Organs within anterior pararenal space of retroperitoneum?
Organs within posterior pararenal space of retroperitoneum?
Organs within perirenal space of retroperitoneum?

Solitary expansile renal masses?

Other areas of interest in abdominal imaging in RCC?

Features of oncocytoma?

Features of multilocular cystic nephroma?

Features of renal abscess?

Features of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis?

Features of renal lymphoma?

Features of angiomyolipoma?

von Hippel-Lindau disease?

Tuberous sclerosis features?

Infiltrative renal neoplasms?
Distinctions of GU SCC versus TCC?
Renal medullary carcinoma
Weigert-Meyer rule?
Medial deviation of upper ureter?

Medial deviation of lower ureter?

Lateral deviation of upper ureter?
Lower ureter lateral deviation?
Retrocaval ureter: urography findings?
Pelvic lipomatosis features?

Bladder stone.. TCC.. Cystitis.. Foreign body encrustation.. Amyloidosis.

Pelvic hematoma and urinoma. Pelvic mass. Bladder diverticulum.
Lymphadenopathy. Pelvic lipomatosis. Iliopsoas hypertrophy.
Lateral pelivic recess (lateral paravesical recesses superior to bladder). Midline
pouch of Douglas (posterior to bladder and anterior to rectosigmoid)
Perivesical space (extends anterior and superior to bladder to level of umbilicus).
Retrorectal or presacral space.
Early (obstruction or extravasation at ureteroileal anastomosis). Late (chronic
pyelonephritis, nephrolithiasis, obstruction).
Calculus. Polyp. Carcinoma. Condylomata acuminata. Polypoid urethritis.
Malacoplakia. Urethritis cystica. Metastases. Amyloidosis.
(Pseudo)diverticulum. Fistula. Cowper's duct or gland. Glands of Littre. Mullerian
remnants (utricle or Mullerian cyst).
Epithelial 65%. Germ cell 25%. Sex cord-stroma 5%. Secondary or metastatic 5%.
Gonadoblastoma rare.
Serous. Mucinous. Endometrioid. Clear-cell. Brenn (rare).
75% benign (large unilocular cyst). Malignant (solid masses, nodular walls, contrast
95% benign (large multilocular cystic mass). Pseudomyxoma peritonei.
Primordial germ cell. Common in girls less than 15 yo. 15% bilateral. Torsion,
trauma, infection, rupture. Sebaceous plug or tooth.
Krukenberg tumors: Signet ring cells, mucinous ADCA from stomach or colon.
Breast cancer. Lymphoma
Embryonal cancer. Yolk sac cancer. Choriocarcinoma. Teratoma.
Bladder outlet obstruction. Prune-belly. Diabetes insipidus. Polydypsia. Primary
Vesicoureteral reflex (grades II-IV). Ectopic ureter inserting below bladder. Bacterial
Primary megaureter. Vesicoureteral reflux (grade I).
Retrocaval or retroiliac ureter. Enlarged urterus. Postpartum ectasia.
Urothelial neoplasm. Local extension of extrinsic tumor. Distant metastasis.
TB. Schistosomiasis.
Regional enteritis. Diverticulitis. Appendicitis.
Stone passage. Iatrogenic. Mechanical stone extraction. Ureterolithotomy. Radiation
2/3 papillary. 85% of urothelial neoplasms. 20% multifocal. Associations: aniline
dyes, tobacco, analgesics, Balkan nephropathy.
Aortic aneurysm. Aortic graft. Retroperitoneal hemorrhage. Urinoma. Abscess.
Metastases. Drugs. Bowel Disease.

Homogeneous density in ureter lumen. Unilateral hydronephrosis. Hydroureter.

Perirenal stranding. Nephromegaly. Loss of white renal pyramids. Kidney stones.
Calculi. Blood clots. Sloughed papilla. Fungus ball. Mucopus. Air bubbles.
Neoplasm. Edema. Leukoplakia.
Ureteritis cystica. Hemorrhage. Malacoplakia. Endometreiosis. Schistosomiasis.
Neoplasm. Stone. Blood clot. Enlarged prostate.
TCC. SCC. Adenocarcinoma.
Leiomyoma. Fibroepithelial polyp. Hemangioma. Pheochromocytoma. Adenoma.
Diverticulum and saccule (<5 mm). Cystocele. Herniation of bladder. Urachal
Result from bladder neck or urethral obstruction. Congenital (Hutch diverticulum).
Can cause ureteral obstruction or reflux. Urinary stasis may lead to stones or
cystitis. 2% have carcinomas.
Female predominance. History of UTIs. Nephrolithiasis. Renal enlargement. Renal
hypofunction. Fractured calculus. Renal cysts. Extrarenal extension common.
Wedge-shaped. Cortical rim sign. Usually multifocal. Progressive atrophy over time.
Renal enlargement. Multifocal wedge-shaped hetergeneous areas. Parenchymal
Unilateral: Reflux nephropathy. Previous renal surgery. Bilateral: Normal calyces
(renal infarcts). Abnormal calyces (bilateral reflux nephropathy or analgesic
At renal poles.
Normal calyces: Renal artery stenosis. Chronic renal vein thrombosis. Renal
hypoplasia. Subcapsular hematoma. Radiation therapy. Abnormal calyces:
Postobstructive atrophy.
Small smooth kidney. Delayed nephrogram. Delayed pyelogram. Hyperdense
pyelogram. Ureteral notching.
Ureteral obstruction. Duplication anomalies and hypertophy. Parenchymal
infiltration (pyelonephritis, XGP, contusion, infiltrating neoplasm). Edema (acute
renal vein occlusion, acute arterial occlusion/arteritis).
Common: Acute ureteral obstruction. Pyelonephritis. Uncommon: ARPKD. Acute
renal vein thrombosis. Renal contusion. Rare: Radiation nephritis.
Common: ADPCKD. Uncommon: Acquired renal cystic disease. Simple cysts.
Lymphoma. Metastases. Wilm's tumor.
Common: Medullary sponge kidney. Hypercalcemia. RTA. Uncommon: Papillary
necrosis. TB. Hyperoxaluria. Chronic furosemide use.

Common: Chronic glumerulonephritis. Acute cortical necrosis. Uncommon:

Hyperoxaluria. Rare: Alport's syndrome. Chronic transplant rejection.
Prerenal: Underperfusion. Renal: Diffuse parenchymal disease. Postrenal: Bladder
outlet obstruction, Bilateral ureteral obstruction.
HIV nephropathy.
Renal sinus lipomatosis: increased fat with little mass effect. Replacement
lipomatosis: renal atrophy, massive fat.
Peripelvic: multiple, small, insinuating. Parapelvic: typical simple renal cyst.
Uriniferous: urine extravasation.
Renal: RCC, AML, MLCN. Sinus: AML, teratoma, Lipoma/sarcoma, fibroma/sarcoma,
neuroma/sarcoma, leiomyoma/sarcoma, malignant histiocytoma.
less than 1 cm lateral to transverse process.. Not medial to vertebral pedicle.
Ureters separated by > 5 cm.
Inferior vena cava (IVC) at the level where the IVC enters the liver.
Renal nonrotation. Lower pole fusion. Low retroperitoneal position. Renal vascular
UPJ obstruction. Duplication anomalies. Stone formation. Pyeloureteritis cystica.
Infection-based stone formation.
One kidney crosses midline and fuses with the other. Ureters insert in the bladder
in their normal position (crossed kidney's ureter crosses midline).
Randomly distributed cysts. Noncommunicating cysts. Absent renal function. Atretic
Dominant cyst in region of renal pelvis. Radially arrayed cysts may communicate.
Minimal renal function possible. Ureter occluded at UPJ (ureteropelvic junction).
Oligohydramnios. Nephromegaly. Hyperechoic kidneys. Renal failure inversely
proportional to hepatic failure.
Renal tubular ectasia. Nephrolithiasis. Medullary nephrocalcinosis. Caroli's disease.
Ehler's-Danlos syndrome.
Benign cystic neoplasm. Young boys (1st decade). Adult women (3rd and 4th
decades). Herniation of parenchymal mass into renal pelvis
Class I: simple cysts, nonoperative. Class II: septated, minimal calcium,
nonenhancing high-density cyst, infected cyst, nonoperative. Class III:
multiloculated, hemorrhagic, dense calcium, non-enhancing solid component,
renal-sparing surgery. Class IV: marginal irregularity, enhancing solid component,
radical nephrectomy.
Expansile mass. calyceal displacement, compression. Ureteral notching. Diminished
function, if renal vein occluded.
Approximately spherical shape. Fails criteria for simple cyst. Lacks internal fat
(AML). Enhances.

Absent ipsilateral ureter. Absent ipsilateral hemitrigone. Absent ipsilateral vas

deferens. Ipsilateral seminal vesicle cyst. Unicornuate uterus. Abnormal bowel gas
Nonrotated: anterior positioned UPJ (Ureteropelvic junction). Malrotated (overrotated): posterior positioned UPJ.
Intraparenchymal cavity lined with transitional epithelium that communicates with
collecting system. Type 1 communicates with minor calyx. Type 2 communicates
with infundibulum. Type 3 communicates with renal pelvis.
Benign neoplasm. Hamartoma of the kidney. Diagnosed in children under 2. Mimic
malignant neoplasms (Wilm's).
Increased risk of Wilm's tumor (multiple and bilateral). Young patients with renal
enlargement and multiple subcapsular masses.. Primitive renal tissue that persists
beyond 36 wks gestation.
Pancreas. Retroperitoneal colon (right and left). Duodenum.
Kidney. Adrenal gland. Collecting system. Renal and perirenal vasculature. Renal
and perirenal lymphatics.
Common: Cyst, RCC. Uncommon: AML, abscess, mets. Rare: Oncocytoma, MLCN,
Localized renal cystic dz, Focal xanthogranumomatous pyelonephritis.
Contralateral kidney. Renal vein. Vena cava. Regional lymph nodes. Ipsilateral
adrenal gland. Adjacent organs. Liver. Skeleton.
Males 6th or 7th decade. Solid expansile mass. Iso-heteroechoic at US.
Homogeneous enhancement CT. Pseudocapsule. Central scar in larger lesions.
Spoke wheel angiographic pattern.
50% males less than 3 yo. 50% females > 40 yo. Expansile, multiloculated cystic
renal mass. Herniation into collecting system. Enhancing septa at CT. Absent
hemorrhage. Hypo-or avascular at angiography.
Evidence of infection. Hypoechoic with less through transmission than cyst. Thick
wall, rim enhancement CT. Perinephrich inflammatory changes. Neovascularity in
wall on angiogram.
Middle-aged females with UTIs. Focal hypofunctioning renal mass. Infection-based
Usually with systemic lymphoma. Usually bilateral. Multifocal, diffuse, or focal.
Hypoechoic without through-transmission. Often with massive lymphadenopathy.
80% in adults (females). 4th-5th decade. 20% in tuberous sclerosis. Well-defined
hyperechoic mass. Fat, even small amounts, diagnostic with CT. Neovascularity with
aneurysm on angiography. Unlikely to bleed if less than 4 cm.

40% RCC. 75% simple renal cysts. Hemangioblastomas CNS. Retinal angiomas.
Pancreatic cysts. Pancreatic neoplasms. 50-80% Pheochromocytomas (multiple,
bilateral, extraadrenal).
Renal cystic disease. 80% AMLs. Cerebral hamartomas. Cardiac
rhabdomyomas(sarcomas). Skeletel osteomas. Pulmonary
TCC. SCC. Infiltrative RCC. Renal medullary carcinoma. Renal lymphoma.
SCC more aggressive. Fast-growing. 50% SCC have coexistent renal calculus.
Patients less than 40 yo. Sickle cell trait > disease. Poor prognosis, < 4 months.
Duplication anomaly. Upper moiety ureter inserts inferior and medial to normal
(lower moiety) bladder insertion.
Lower-pole renal mass. Lateral retroperitoneal mass. Psoas hypertrophy.
Retroperitoneal fibrosis. Retrocaval ureter.
Lymphadenopathy. Pelvic lipomatosis. Iliopsoas hypertrophy. Pelvis mass/fluid
collection. Iliac vessel ectasia. Abdominopelvic resection. Cystocele.
Malrotated or horseshoe kidney. Lymphadenopathy. Psoas hypertrophy. AAA.
Retroperitoneal mass/fluid. Ureter mobilization surgery.
Central pelvic mass/fluid collection. Sciatic ureteral hernia.
Right ureter. Abrupt medial deviation. Course medial to pedicle. Fish-hook shape.
Young African male. Bilateral hydronephrosis. EXtrinsic bladder compression. teardrop bladder .