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Online Library Management System

INTRODUCTION

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Chinmaya Arts And Science College For Women

Online Library Management System

INTRODUCTION
I n t h e p r e s e n t a g e o f i n fo r m a t i o n, a u t o m a t i o n h a s b e e n
making

tremendous

I n fo r m a t i o n

impact

Te c h n o l o g y.

indispensable

part

on

In

of

d i ff e r e n t

fact,
a ny

sectors

a u t o m a t i o n
fi e l d s

is

of
an

d e ve l o p m e n t ,

organization, management and ser vices . Automation can


i m p r o ve p r o d u c t i v i t y a n d q u a l i t y.
In this aspect, nature of modern librarianship has also
c h a n g e d c o n s i d e r a b l y w i t h t h e a d ve n t o f n e w t e c h n o l o g i e s .
L i b r a r y a u t o m a t i o n i s t h e g e n e r a l t e r m fo r i n fo r m a t i o n a n d
communications

technologies

manual

in

systems

become

an

i n fo r m a t i o n

the

l i b r a r y.

indispensable
s y st e m s

that

part

are

used

Hence
of

to

replace

automation

modern

d e ve l o p m e n t ,

has

librar ys

organization,

management and ser vices. It has been making tremendous


i m p a c t o n d i ff e r e n t s e c t o r s o f t h e l i b r a r i e s .
B o r r ow i n g b o o k s , r et u r n i n g b o o k s o r v i e w i n g t h e av a i l a b l e
books

at

the

Librar y

of

our

college

is

currently

done

m a n u a l l y w h e r e t h e st u d e n t h a s t o g o t o t h e L i b r a r y a n d
c h e c k t h e av a i l a b l e b o o k s a t t h e L i b r a r y. S t u d e n t s c h e c k
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Online Library Management System


t h e l i st o f b o o k s av a i l a b l e a n d b o r r ow t h e b o o k s i f t h e
b o o k i s a b o r r ow b o o k ot h e r w i s e i t i s o f w a st e fo r t h e
st u d e n t t o c o m e t o t h e l i b r a r y t o c o m e t o c h e c k fo r t h e
books

if

the

st u d e n t

d o e s n t

g et

the

book.

Then

the

l i b r a r i a n c h e c k s t h e st u d e n t i d a n d a l l ow s t h e m e m b e r t o
check out t he book and t he librar ian t hen updates t he
member database and also the books database. These all
t a ke s

a l ot

of

time.

A l t o g et h e r

current

manual librar y

m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m i s t i m e c o n s u m i n g a n d t e d i o u s j o b fo r
t h e l i b r a r i a n a s w e l l a s t h e u s e r.
Realizing t he impor t ance of implementing automation in
e x i st i n g m a n u a l l i b r a r y m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m , h e r e t h r o u g h
t his project ONLINE LIBRARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM we
are

automating

results

in

the

numerous

i n fo r m a t i o n

librar y

management

specializations

decreasing

system.

and

comprehensive

of

This

n o n - st o p

acquisition

of

d o c u m e n t s fo r l i b r a r i e s , g r ow i n g d e m a n d s o f i n fo r m a t i o n ,
i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r o f u s e r s , d e c r e a s i n g t i m e c o n s u m pt i o n ,
r e d u c i n g t h e d i ffi c u l t i e s o f t h e l i b r a r i a n t o m a n a g e t h e
l i b r a r y et c . A u t o m a t i o n h a s b e e n p l ay i n g a v i t a l r o l e i n
i m p r o v i n g t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f l i b r a r i e s / i n fo r m a t i o n c e n t e r s
t ow a r d s

attaining

Mechanization
predominantly
automation.

of
by

satisfaction
librar y

their

management

computer ization,

Librar y

of

automation

is
is

operations,

k n ow n
a

users.

as

librar y

s o p h i st i c a t e d

s o f t w a r e d e v e l o p e d fo r p r o c e s s i n g e n o r m o u s a m o u n t o f r aw
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Online Library Management System


d a t a i n t o m e a n i n g f u l a n d u s e f u l fo r m o f i n fo r m a t i o n w i t h
s p e e d , a c c u r a c y a n d r e l i a b i l i t y. L i b r a r y a u t o m a t i o n m ay b e
d e fi n e d

as

automatic

the
data

application

of

automatic

processing

machines

and

semi-

(computers)

to

p e r fo r m t r a d i t i o n a l l i b r a r y h o u s e ke e p i n g a c t i v i t i e s s u c h
a s a c q u i s i t i o n , c i r c u l a t i o n , c a t a l o g u i n g a n d r e fe r e n c e a n d
s e r i a l c o n t r o l . F i n a l l y, l i b r a r y a u t o m a t i o n i s t h e p r o c e s s o f
p e r fo r m i n g a l l i n fo r m a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s / a c t i v i t i e s i n l i b r a r y
with

the

help

of

computers

and

related

i n fo r m a t i o n

technologies.

1 . 1 . E x i st i n g S y ste m
P r e s e n t l y w e a r e u s i n g m a n u a l c a r d s y st e m fo r l i b r a r y
m a n a g e m e n t . T h e st a ff

o f t h e l i b r a r y i t s e l f s h o u l d n ot e

e ve r y t r a n s a c t i o n s o c c u r r i n g a t t h e l i b r a r y l i ke i s s u i n g t h e
b o o k , a d d i n g n e w b o o k s , r et u r n i n g o f b o o k s et c . Fo r e a c h
st u d e n t a m e m b e r s h i p fo r m w i l l b e p r o v i d e d . T h e n a f t e r
fi l l i n g t h a t fo r m t h e y g et a m e m b e r d e fo r m s t o i s s u e a
b o o k , st u d e n t h a s t o b r i n g t h e i r l i b r a r y c a r d . T h e n t h e
l i b r a r i a n w i l l d o e ve r y t r a n s a c t i o n . L i b r a r i a n w i l l ke e p a
r e g i s t e r fo r t o st o r e t h e e n t i r e d et a i l s o f t h e b o o k s l i ke ,
name

of

the

book,

author

name,

accession

n u m b e r,

c l a s s i fi c a t i o n n u m b e r et c .

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Online Library Management System


A f t e r t h o r o u g h l y e x a m i n i n g t h e fe a t u r e s a n d w o r k i n g o f
c u r r e n t l i b r a r y s y s t e m , t h e fo l l ow i n g d r aw b a c k s h ave b e e n
i d e n t i fi e d , w h i c h s e v e r e l y a ff e c t t h e p e r fo r m a n c e o f t h e
e x i st i n g s y st e m .
D r aw b a c k s o f p r e s e n t m a n u a l s y st e m
Fa st r e p o r t g e n e r a t i o n i s n ot p o s s i b l e
R et r i e v i n g b o o k s f r o m a l i b r a r y i s ve r y i m p o r t a n t fo r
m a ny p e o p l e s .

T h e m a i n p r o b l e m i s t o d e fi n e

w h et h e r t h i s b o o k i s e x a c t l y w h a t t h e u s e r w a n t s a n d
where this book resides in the librar y
I n fo r m a t i o n a b o u t i s s u e / r et u r n o f t h e b o o k s a r e n ot
properly maintained
S t u d e n t s c a n ' t g et i n fo r m a t i o n a b o u t b o o k s e a s i l y
Wa st i n g

a l ot o f t i m e l o o k i n g fo r t h e b o o k i n t h e

wrong location in the librar y


Search process

c o n s u m e a l l ot o f t h e l i b r a r i a n t i m e

a s w e l l a s t h e v i s i t o r a n d i t c o u l d b e o ve r w h e l m i n g
fo r t h e l i b r a r i a n s p e c i a l l y i f t h e y h ave t o d e a l w i t h
more than one visitor at the time

1 . 2 . P r o p o s e d S y ste m .
T h e p r o p o s e d L i b r a r y M a n a g e m e n t S y st e m t h a t w e h a d
d e s i g n e d w i l l o v e r c o m e t h e d r aw b a c k s o f t h e e x i st i n g
manual

system.

Automation

system

It

is
that

b r ow s e r- b a s e d

o ff e r s

m a ny

Librar y

fl e x i b l e

and
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Online Library Management System


convenient

fe a t u r e s ,

a l l ow i n g

librarians

and

librar y

u s e r s t o m a x i m i z e t i m e a n d e ffi c i e n c y. O n a n et w o r ke d
s y st e m t h i s l i b r a r y s o f t w a r e c a n e n a b l e u s e r s t o s a ve
on t heir time too, as well as automate several manual
processes.

This

system

can

be

used

to

search

fo r

b o o k s / m a g a z i n e s , r e s e r v e b o o k s , fi n d o u t w h o i s h av i n g
a p a r t i c u l a r b o o k , p u t i n r e q u e st s t o b u y a n e w b o o k
et c A l l d e t a i l s a b o u t t h e l i b r a r y l i ke n a m e o f t h e
members, name of books, categor ies of books, who has
issued

database.

book
If

currently

a ny

et c ,

transactions

will
has

be

st o r e d

occurred

in

in

the

l i b r a r y i t w i l l b e r e fl e c t e d i n t o t h i s d a t a b a s e s o t h a t a l l
t h e d a t a s i n t h e d a t a b a s e i s c o r r e c t a n d u p - t o - d a t e .
The

librarian

books/journals

should
or

be

able

to

include

remove

some

books

from

new
the

i n ve n t o r y a d d n e w u s e r s t o t h e s y s t e m .
T h e m a i n u s e o f t h e O n l i n e L i b r a r y M a n a g e m e n t S y st e m i t
c o n ve r t s t h e m a n u a l a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e o n l i n e a p p l i c a t i o n .
T h e d i ff e r e n t a r e a s w h e r e yo u c a n u s e t h i s s y st e m a r e : a ny
education

i n st i t u t i o n

can

m a ke

use

of

it

providing

i n fo r m a t i o n a b o u t a u t h o r, c o n t e n t o f t h e av a i l a b l e b o o k s .
I t c a n b e u s e d i n o ffi c e s a n d m o d i fi c a t i o n s c a n b e e a s i l y
d o n e a c c o r d i n g t o r e q u i r e m e n t s . I t p r o v i d e s b e n e fi t t o t h e
u s e r a s w e l l a s t h e l i b r a r y.
T h e m a i n a d v a n t a g e s fo r t h e p r o p o s e d s y st e m a r e :
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I t p r o v i d e s " b et t e r a n d e ffi c i e n t " s e r v i c e t o m e m b e r s
R e d u c e t h e w o r k l o a d o f e m p l oye e
C o m p l et e B o o k s a n d M e m b e r M a n a g e m e n t
Fa st e r r et r i e v a l o f i n fo r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e d e s i r e d b o o k
P r o v i d e f a c i l i t y fo r p r o p e r m o n i t o r i n g r e d u c e s p a p e r
w o r k a n d p r o v i d e d a t a s e c u r i t y.
A l l d et a i l s w i l l b e av a i l a b l e o n a c l i c k
Online records of all the books in the librar y
A d d / E d i t / D e l et e b o o k d e s c r i pt i o n
Online

records

of

all

the

transaction

made

by

st u d e n t s
R e c o r d i s s u e d b o o k s d et a i l s
S e a r c h fo r b o o k s by B o o k n a m e
S e a r c h fo r b o o k s by A u t h o r n a m e
Provides advanced search also.
C a n v i e w t h e b o o k s w h i c h h a s c r o s s e d r et u r n i n g d a t e
G et b o o k i n fo r m a t i o n o n l i n e
Can reser ve a book.
Fa c i l i t i e s fo r a u t o m a t i c c a l c u l a t i o n o f fi n e , a s s i g n i n g
t h e m t o p a r t i c u l a r st u d e n t .
C a n p r o v i d e f r e e a s w e l l r e st r i c t e d a c c e s s t o u s e r

1 . 3 . P r o d u c t f u n c t i o n ove r v i ew
A librar y is a collection of resources and ser vices, and the
st r u c t u r e i n w h i c h i t i s h o u s e d : i t i s o r g a n i z e d fo r u s e a n d
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m a i n t a i n e d by a p u b l i c b o d y, a n i n st i t u t i o n , o r a p r i v a t e
individual.

In

the

more

traditional

sense,

librar y

is

a collection of books.
T h i s p r o j e c t o f O N L I N E L I B R A R Y M A N A G E M E N T o f g i ve s
u s t h e c o m p l et e i n fo r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e l i b r a r y. We c a n
e n t e r t h e r e c o r d o f n e w b o o k s a n d r et r i e ve t h e d et a i l s o f
b o o k s av a i l a b l e i n t h e l i b r a r y. We c a n i s s u e t h e b o o k s t o
the

st u d e n t s

and maintain their

records

and can also

c h e c k h ow m a ny b o o k s a r e i s s u e d a n d st o c k av a i l a b l e i n
t h e l i b r a r y. I n t h i s p r o j e c t w e c a n m a i n t a i n t h e l a t e fi n e o f
st u d e n t s w h o r et u r n s t h e i s s u e d b o o k s a f t e r t h e d u e d a t e .
T h e L i b r a r y M a n a g e m e n t S y st e m i s d e s i g n e d & d e v e l o p e d
fo r a r e c e i pt a n d i s s u a n c e o f b o o k s i n t h e l i b r a r y a l o n g
with

the

librar y

st u d e n t s

are

entered

d et a i l s .
in

The

Books

books

Entr y

r e c e i ve d

fo r m

and

in

the

the

new

st u d e n t i s e n t e r e d i n t h e st u d e n t e n t r y fo r m . W h e n t h e
st u d e n t w a n t s t o g et t h e d e s i r e d b o o k t h e s a m e i s i s s u e d
o n t h e av a i l a b i l i t y b a s i s t o t h e st u d e n t . T h e i s s u a n c e a n d
d u e d a t e fo r t h e r et u r n i n g o f t h e b o o k i s a l s o e n t e r e d i n t o
t h e B o o k I s s u e fo r m u n d e r m e n u B o o k I s s u e . T h e st u d e n t
h a s t o p ay t h e fi n e i f a ny o n t h e b a s i s o f n o . o f d ay s
d e l ay e d d e p o s i t o f t h e b o o k i n t h e l i b r a r y.

1 . 4 . U s e r C h a r a c te r i st i c s

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O n l i n e L i b r a r y M a n a g e m e n t S y st e m c o n t a i n s m a i n l y t h r e e
t y p e s o f u s e r s : L i b r a r i a n , S t u d e n t s a n d Fa c u l t i e s .

L i b r a r i a n h a s t h e o ve r a l l c o n t r o l o f t h e s y st e m . T h e m a i n
function of Librar ian is to add books as well as new users.
L i b r a r i a n i s t h e p e r s o n w h o p e r fo r m s t h e m a j o r t a s k s s u c h
a s i s s u i n g , r et u r n i n g , fi n e c a l c u l a t i n g et c

S t u d e n t s h ave m o r e b e n e fi t s i n u s i n g t h i s s y s t e m . T h e y
c a n avo i d t h e w a st a g e o f t i m e i n s e a r c h i n g a n u n av a i l a b l e
b o o k o n l i b r a r y. M a ny ot h e r f a c i l i t i e s l i ke v i e w i n g t h e d u e
book

d et a i l s ,

fi n e

amount

d et a i l s

are

provided

fo r

the

u s e r s . R e s e r v a t i o n i s a n ot h e r i m p o r t a n t fe a t u r e i n c l u d e d
i n t h e s y st e m w h i c h i s h i g h l y b e n e fi c i a l fo r t h e u s e r.

Fa c u l t i e s a r e a l s o p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e s a m e f a c i l i t i e s a s t h a t
o f st u d e n t

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PROBLEM
FORMULATION

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Chinmaya Arts And Science College For Women

Online Library Management System

PROBLEM FORMULATION
2 . 1 . M a i n O bj e c t i ve
This

project

is

basically

updating

the

manual

librar y

s y s t e m i n t o a n i n t e r n et b a s e d a p p l i c a t i o n . T h e m a i n t h r e e
u s e r s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s L i b r a r y M a n a g e m e n t S y st e m a r e :
Librarian
Students
Fa c u l t i e s
Only t hese t hree types of valid users can enter into t his
L i b r a r y M a n a g e m e n t S y st e m . Fo r t h e s e t h e y m u st p r o v i d e
t h e c o r r e c t u s e r n a m e a n d p a s s w o r d a t t h e l o g i n p r o m pt .
Fo r

identifying

d i ff e r e n t

user

each
names

type
and

of

users

t hey

passwords.

To

are

provided

identify

the

L i b r a r i a n a n d l i n k h i m / h e r t o t h e c o r r e c t fo r m a s p e c i a l
d i ff e r e n t u s e r n a m e a n d p a s s w o r d i s p r o v i d e d . S i m i l a r l y t o
t h e f a c u l t i e s a n d st u d e n t s a l s o .

2.2. Use-case diagram


A use case model is compr i sed of one or more use case
d i a g r a m s a n d a ny s u p p o r t i n g d o c u m e n t a t i o n s u c h a s u s e
c a s e s p e c i fi c a t i o n s a n d a c t o r d e fi n i t i o n s .
Chinmaya Arts And Science College For Women

Wi t h i n m o st u s e
11

Online Library Management System


c a s e m o d e l s t h e u s e c a s e s p e c i fi c a t i o n s t e n d t o b e t h e
primar y

ar tifact

with

use

case

diagrams

fi l l i n g

s u p p o r t i n g r o l e a s t h e g l u e t h a t ke e p s yo u r r e q u i r e m e n t s
m o d e l t o g et h e r.

Use case models should be developed from

t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f yo u r p r o j e c t st a ke h o l d e r s a n d n ot f r o m
t he (often technical) point of view of developers.

There are

g u i d e l i n e s fo r :
Use Cases
Actors
Associations
S y st e m B o u n d a r y B oxe s ( O pt i o n a l )
Use Cases

A use case descr ibes a sequence of actions t hat provide a


m e a s u r a b l e v a l u e t o a n a c t o r.

A u s e c a s e i s d r aw n a s a

horizontal ellipse on a UML use case diagram.


U s e C a s e N a m e s B e g i n Wi t h a S t r o n g Ve r b
N a m e U s e C a s e s U s i n g D o m a i n Te r m i n o l o g y
P l a c e Yo u r P r i m a r y U s e C a s e s I n T h e To p - L e f t C o r n e r
Of The Diagram
Imply Timing Considerations By St acking Use Cases.
Actors
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An actor is a person, organization, or exter nal system t hat


p l ay s a r o l e i n o n e o r m o r e i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h yo u r s y st e m
( a c t o r s a r e t y p i c a l l y d r aw n a s st i c k fi g u r e s o n U M L U s e
Case diagrams).
T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l t y p e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t m ay a p p e a r
on a use case diagram:
A n a s s o c i a t i o n b et w e e n a n a c t o r a n d a u s e c a s e
A n a s s o c i a t i o n b et w e e n t w o u s e c a s e s
A g e n e r a l i z a t i o n b et w e e n t w o a c t o r s
A g e n e r a l i z a t i o n b et w e e n t w o u s e c a s e s
Associations are depicted as lines connecting two modeling
e l e m e n t s w i t h a n o pt i o n a l o p e n - h e a d e d a r r ow h e a d o n o n e
end

of

the

i n vo c a t i o n

line
of

indicating
the

the

direction

relationship.

of

the

initial

Generalizations

are

d e p i c t e d a s a c l o s e - h e a d e d a r r ow w i t h t h e a r r ow p o i n t i n g
t ow a r d s t h e m o r e g e n e r a l m o d e l i n g e l e m e n t .
Associations

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A s s o c i a t i o n s b et w e e n a c t o r s a n d u s e c a s e s a r e i n d i c a t e d i n
u s e c a s e d i a g r a m s by s o l i d l i n e s . A n a s s o c i a t i o n e x i st s
w h e n e ve r

an

actor

is

i n vo l v e d

with

an

interaction

d e s c r i b e d by a u s e c a s e . A s s o c i a t i o n s a r e m o d e l e d a s l i n e s
c o n n e c t i n g u s e c a s e s a n d a c t o r s t o o n e a n ot h e r, w i t h a n
o pt i o n a l a r r ow h e a d o n o n e e n d o f t h e l i n e . T h e a r r ow h e a d
is often used to indicating the direction of the initial
i n vo c a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o r t o i n d i c a t e t h e p r i m a r y
a c t o r w i t h i n t h e u s e c a s e . T h e a r r ow h e a d s a r e s o m et i m e s
c o n f u s e d w i t h d a t a fl ow.
S y st e m B o u n d a r y B oxe s

Yo u c a n d r aw a r e c t a n g l e a r o u n d t h e u s e c a s e s , c a l l e d t h e
system

boundar y

b ox ,

to

indicate

the

scope

of

yo u r

s y s t e m . A ny t h i n g w i t h i n t h e b ox r e p r e s e n t s f u n c t i o n a l i t y
t h a t i s i n s c o p e a n d a ny t h i n g o u t s i d e t h e b ox i s n ot .

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Use Case Diagram

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Librarian:
M a i n f u n c t i o n a l i t i e s o f l i b r a r i a n i n t h i s s y st e m i n c l u d e
a d d i n g n e w u s e r s a n d b o o k d et a i l s t o t h e s y st e m . M a j o r
tasks

in

librar y

l i ke

issuing,

r et u r n i n g ,

reissuing

are

p e r fo r m e d by t h e l i b r a r i a n . L i b r a r i a n c a n a l s o c a l c u l a t e
t h e fi n e a m o u n t o f t h e u s e r s . H e c a n a l s o v i e w d et a i l s o f

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t h e b o o k s , u s e r s i n d i ff e r e n t w ay s l i ke l o st b o o k , i s s u e d
b o o k s , r e st r i c t e d u s e r s , fi n e d u s e r s et c .
Student:
S t u d e n t s a r e a l s o p r o v i d e d w i t h m a ny fe a t u r e s i n t h i s
system. They can view t heir issued books. They can also
v i e w t h o s e b o o k s w h i c h h ave r u n o u t o f d u e d a t e . T h e y c a n
v i e w t h e i r fi n e d et a i l s . O n e o f t h e m a i n fe a t u r e s i s t h a t
t hey can reser ve t he book online
Te a c h e r :
Te a c h e r s r o l e i n t h e L i b r a r y M a n a g e m e n t S y st e m i s s a m e
a s t h a t o f st u d e n t s . T h e y a r e a b l e t o v i e w t h e i r a c c o u n t
i n fo r m a t i o n , t h e i r i s s u e s . T h e y c a n a l s o s e a r c h fo r b o o k s
in

the

l i b r a r y.

E xc e pt

the

fe a t u r e

fi n e

management

of

st u d e n t a l l ot h e r i s i n c l u d e d h e r e .

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SYSTEM ANALYSIS

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SYSTEM ANALYSIS
A l l p r o j e c t s a r e fe a s i b l e w h e n g i ve n u n l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s
a n d i n fi n i t e t i m e . I t i s b ot h u n n e c e s s a r y a n d p r u d e n t t o
e v a l u a t e t h e fe a s i b i l i t y o f a p r o j e c t a t t h e e a r l i e st p o s s i b l e
t i m e . A fe a s i b i l i t y st u d y i s n ot w a r r a n t e d fo r s y st e m s i n
w h i c h e c o n o m i c j u st i fi c a t i o n i s o bv i o u s , t e c h n i c a l r i s k i s
l ow, fe w l e g a l p r o b l e m s a r e e x p e c t e d a n d n o r e a s o n a b l e
a l t e r n a t i ve e x i st s . A n e st i m a t e i s m a d e o f w h et h e r t h e
i d e n t i fi e d

user

needs

m ay

be

s a t i s fi e d

using

current

s o f t w a r e a n d h a r d w a r e t e c h n o l o g i e s . T h e st u d y w i l l d e c i d e
if

the proposed

s y st e m

will be

c o st

e ff e c t i v e

from the

b u s i n e s s p o i n t o f v i e w a n d i f i t c a n b e d e ve l o p e d i n t h e
g i ve n e x i st i n g b u d g et a r y c o n st r a i n t s . T h e fe a s i b i l i t y st u d y
s h o u l d b e r e l a t i ve l y c h e a p a n d q u i c k . T h e r e s u l t s h o u l d
i n fo r m t h e d e c i s i o n o f w h et h e r t o g o a h e a d w i t h a m o r e
d et a i l e d a n a l y s i s .

Fe a s i b i l i t y st u d y m ay b e d o c u m e n t e d a s a s e p a r a t e d r e p o r t
t o h i g h e r o ffi c i a l s o f t h e t o p - l e ve l m a n a g e m e n t a n d c a n b e
included

as

an

appendix

to

the

s y st e m

s p e c i fi c a t i o n .

Fe a s i b i l i t y a n d r i s k a n a l y s i s i s r e l a t e d i n m a ny w ay s . I f
t h e r e i s m o r e p r o j e c t r i s k t h e n fe a s i b i l i t y o f p r o d u c i n g t h e
quality software is reduced.

T h e st u d y i s d o n e i n t h e s e p h a s e s .
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O p e r a t i o n a l Fe a s i b i l i t y
Te c h n i c a l Fe a s i b i l i t y
E c o n o m i c a l Fe a s i b i l i t y
B e h av i o r a l Fe a s i b i l i t y
S o f t w a r e Fe a s i b i l i t y
H a r d w a r e Fe a s i b i l i t y

3 . 1 . Op e r a t i o n a l Fe a s i b i l i t y

P r o p o s e d p r o j e c t s a r e b e n e fi c i a l o n l y i f t h e y c a n b e t u r n e d
i n t o i n fo r m a t i o n s y s t e m s t h a t w i l l m e et t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s
operating

requirements.

fe a s i b i l i t y

asks

d e ve l o p e d

and

if

the

i n st a l l e d .

Simply
s y st e m
Are

st a t e d ,

this

t e st

of

will

work

when

it

is

there

major

barriers

to

i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ? H e r e a r e q u e st i o n s t h a t w i l l h e l p t e st t h e
o p e r a t i o n a l fe a s i b i l i t y o f a p r o j e c t .

The

purpose

of

the

operational

fe a s i b i l i t y

st u d y

is

to

d et e r m i n e w h et h e r t h e n e w s y s t e m w i l l b e u s e d i f i t i s
d e ve l o p e d a n d i m p l e m e n t e d . A n d w h et h e r t h e r e w i l l b e
r e s i st a n c e f r o m u s e r s t h a t w i l l u n d e r m i n e t h e p o s s i b l e
a p p l i c a t i o n b e n e fi t s .

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T h e r e w a s n o d i ffi c u l t y i n , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t h e s y s t e m a n d
the

proposed

s y st e m

is so

e ff e c t i ve ,

user friendly

and

f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l i a b l e s o t h a t t h e u s e r s i n t h e c o m p a ny w i l l
fi n d t h a t t h e n e w s y st e m r e d u c e t h e i r h a r d - st e p s . I f t h e
u s e r s o f t h e s y st e m a r e f u l l y aw a r e o f t h e i n t e r n a l w o r k i n g
of

the

s y st e m

then

the

users

will

n ot

be

facing

a ny

c o n st r a i n t s

m ay

problem in r unning t he system.

3 . 2 . Te ch n i c a l Fe a s i b i l i t y

st u d y

i m p r o ve

of
the

function,
ability

p e r fo r m a n c e
to

create

and

an

accept able

system.

Te c h n i c a l Fe a s i b i l i t y i s f r e q u e n t l y t h e m o st d i ffi c u l t a r e t o
a c h i e ve a t t h e st a g e o f p r o d u c t e n g i n e e r i n g p r o c e s s .
Considering

that

are

normally

associated

with

the

t e c h n i c a l fe a s i b i l i t y i n c l u d e
D e ve l o p m e n t R i s k
R e s o u r c e Av a i l a b i l i t y
Te c h n o l o g y

Te c h n i c a l Fe a s i b i l i t y st u d y d e a l s w i t h t h e h a r d w a r e a s w e l l
a s s o f t w a r e r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h e s c o p e w a s w h et h e r t h e w o r k
fo r t h e p r o j e c t i s d o n e w i t h t h e c u r r e n t e q u i p m e n t s a n d

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t h e e x i st i n g s o f t w a r e t e c h n o l o g y h a s t o b e e x a m i n e d i n t h e
fe a s i b i l i t y st u d y. T h e o u t c o m e w a s fo u n d t o b e p o s i t i ve .

I n t h e p r o p o s e d s y st e m , d a t a c a n b e e a s i l y st o r e d a n d
managed using dat abase management system software. The
r e p o r t s a n d r e s u l t s fo r v a r i o u s q u e r i e s c a n b e g e n e r a t e d
e a s i l y. T h e r e fo r e t h e s y st e m i s t e c h n i c a l l y fe a s i b l e .

3 . 3 . E c o n o m i c a l Fe a s i b i l i t y

J u st i fi c a t i o n o f a ny c a p i t a l s o u t l ay i s t h a t i t w i l l r e d u c e
expenditure or improve t he quality of ser vice, which in
t u r n m ay b e e x p e c t e d t o p r o v i d e i n c r e a s e d p r o fi t s a n d
r e p u t a t i o n . T h e t e c h n i q u e o f c o st b e n e fi t a n a l y s i s i s o f t e n
u s e d a s a b a s i s fo r a s s e s s i n g e c o n o m i c fe a s i b i l i t y. C o st
b e n e fi t fe a s i b i l i t y i n c l u d e s b ot h h a r d w a r e a n d s o f t w a r e
fe a s i b i l i t y.
Proposed

system

was

d e ve l o p e d

with

the

av a i l a b l e

r e s o u r c e s . S i n c e c o st i np u t fo r t h e s o f t w a r e i s a l m o st n i l
the

output

of

the

software

is

a l w ay s

p r o fi t .

Hence

s o f t w a r e i s e c o n o m i c a l l y fe a s i b l e . I n t h e e x i st i n g s y st e m ,
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m a np ow e r i s r e q u i r e d . I n t h e p r o p o s e d s y s t e m , n u m b e r o f
e m p l oye e

to

be

i n vo l v e d

is

reduced

d r a st i c a l l y.

So

the

proposed system is said to be economic.

I n t h e e x i st i n g s y st e m , t h e st o r a g e o f r e c o r d s s h o u l d b e
p r o p e r l y d o n e a n d s e c u r i t y s h o u l d b e p r o v i d e d fo r t h e
r e c o r d s . I n t h e p r o p o s e d s y st e m , t h e s o f t w a r e p r o v i d e s
high secur ity of data and maintenance and it hardly needs
one or two persons to operate t he system.

3 . 4 . B e h av i o r a l Fe a s i b i l i t y

People are inherently resist ant to changes and computer is


k n ow n

fo r

facilit ating

changes.

An

m a d e o f h ow st r o n g l y t h e u s e r st a ff

e st i m a t e

should

be

r e a c t s t ow a r d s t h e

d e ve l o p m e n t s o f t h e c o m p u t e r i z e d s y st e m .

I n t h e e x i st i n g s y st e m m o r e m a np ow e r i s r e q u i r e d a n d t i m e
f a c t o r i s m o r e . I n t h e p r o p o s e d s y st e m , b ot h m a np ow e r
and time factors are reduced and also unnecessar y burden
is reduced. Thus, t he remaining people are made to engage
i n s o m e ot h e r i m p o r t a n t w o r k . T h e r e fo r e t h e s y st e m i s
b e h av i o r a l l y fe a s i b l e .

3 . 5 . S o f t w a r e Fe a s i b i l i t y
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E v e n t h o u g h s o f t w a r e i s d e v e l o p e d i n a ve r y h i g h s o f t w a r e
e n v i r o n m e n t , i t w i l l b e s u p p o r t e d by m a ny ot h e r p l a t fo r m s
and environments wit h minimum challenges.
3 . 6 . H a r d w a r e Fe a s i b i l i t y
The

software

e x i st i n g .

Here

can

be

the

d e ve l o p e d

with

consideration

is

resource
that

already

the

e x i st i n g

hardware resources suppor t t he technologies t hat are to


b e u s e d by t h e n e w s y st e m . N o h a r d w a r e w a s n e w l y b o u g h t
fo r t h e p r o j e c t a n d h e n c e . S o f t w a r e i s s a i d t o a c h i e ve
h a r d w a r e fe a s i b i l i t y.

3.6. E-R Diagram


The

e n t i t y- r e l a t i o n s h i p

d e ve l o p e d

to

facilities

model

(E-R)

database

data

model

design

by

was

a l l ow i n g

s p e c i fi c a t i o n o f a n e n t e r p r i s e s c h e m a t h a t r e p r e s e n t s t h e
o v e r a l l l o g i c a l st r u c t u r e o f a d a t a b a s e . T h e E - R d a t a m o d e l
is

one

of

s e ve r a l

aspect

of

the

semantic

model

lies

data

in

its

models;

the

semantic

representation

of

the

m e a n i n g o f t h e d a t a . T h e E - R m o d e l i s ve r y u s e f u l i n
mapping

the

meanings

and

interactions

of

real-world

e n t e r p r i s e s o n t o a c o n c e pt u a l s c h e m a . B e c a u s e o f t h i s
u s e f u l n e s s , m a ny d a t a b a s e d e s i g n t o o l s d r aw o n c o n c e pt s
f r o m t h e E R m o d e l . T h e E - R d a t a m o d e l e m p l oy s t h r e e
basic

n ot a t i o n s :

entity

s et s ,

relationship

s et s ,

and

attr ibutes.
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A relationship is an association among several entities. A
r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a s et o f t h e s a m e t y p e .

An entity is a t hing or object in t he real world t hat is


d i st i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m a l l ot h e r o b j e c t s . Fo r e x a m p l e , e a c h
p e r s o n i n a n e n t e r p r i s e i s a n e n t i t y. A n e n t i t y h a s a s et o f
p r o p e r t i e s , a n d a l l t h e v a l u e s fo r s o m e s et o f p r o p e r t i e s
m ay u n i q u e l y i d e n t i f y t h e e n t i t y. Fo r i n st a n c e , a p e r s o n
m ay

h ave

person_id

property

whose

value

uniquely

i d e n t i fi e s t h a t p e r s o n . A n e n t i t y i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a s et o f
a t t r i b u t e s . A t t r i b u t e s a r e d e s c r i pt i v e p r o p e r t i e s p o s s e s s e d
by e a c h m e m b e r o f a n e n t i t y.
T h e E n t i t y- R e l a t i o n s h i p d i a g r a m c o n s i st s o f t h e fo l l ow i n g
major components:

R e c t a n g l e s , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e n t i t y s et s .

Ellipses, which represent attr ibutes

D i a m o n d s , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s et s .

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L i n e s , w h i c h l i n k a t t r i b u t e s t o e n t i t y s et s a n d
e n t i t y s et s t o

Double

r e l a t i o n s h i p s et s .

ellipses,

which

represent

multivalued

attr ibutes

Dashed ellipses , which denote der ived attr ibutes

D o u b l e l i n e s , w h i c h i n d i c a t e t ot a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f
a n e n t i t y i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p s et

Double rectang les , which represent weak entity


s et s .

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ER Diagram

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REQUIRMENTS

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REQUIREMENTS
4 . 1 H a r d w a r e r e qu i r e m e n t s
Minimum Requirements
Processor

Intel

Pentium

Pro

or

Processor

running 1.33 MHz


Hard Disk

: 1.2 GB Hard Disk

RAM

: Client Level Minimum 128 MB

R e c o m m e n d e d r e q u i r e m e n t s fo r p e a k p e r f o r m a n c e
Processors

: Intel Pentium III r unning 450 MHz

RAM

: C l i e n t L e ve l M i n i m u m 5 1 2 M B

D i s p l ay Ty p e

S VG A c o l o r M o n i t o r

Keyboard

: Enhanced 104 Standard

Mouse

: PS/2 2 Button

4 . 2 S o f t w a r e r e qu i r e m e n t s
R e q u i r e d O p e r a t i n g s y st e m
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O p e r a t i n g S y st e m

: W I N D OW S 2 0 0 0 / 2 0 0 3 / X P / N T

To o l s U s e d
A S P. N E T
SQL SERVER 2005

4 . 3 . A b o u t t h e L a n g u a ge
Implement ation Language

A S P. n et
C#
SQL
Software features
.NET F ramework
T h e . N E T F r a m e w o r k i s a m u l t i - l a n g u a g e e n v i r o n m e n t fo r
b u i l d i n g , d e p l oy i n g a n d r u n n i n g X M L We b s e r v i c e s a n d
a p p l i c a t i o n s . . N E T i s a n e w M i c r o s o f t d e ve l o p m e n t
p l a t fo r m t h a t a l l ow s d e v e l o p e r s t o q u i c k l y c r e a t e w e b r e a d y a p p l i c a t i o n s i n w h a t e ve r p r o g r a m m i n g l a n g u a g e t h e y
choose. It is also called as a Device- to-Device independent
p l a t fo r m . . N E T i s a i m e d a t a c c e l e r a t i n g t h e n e x t
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g e n e r a t i o n o f d i st r i b u t e d c o m p u t i n g . . N E T i s a
r e vo l u t i o n a r y n e w p l a t fo r m , b u i l d o n o p e n i n t e r n et
p r ot o c o l s a n d st a n d a r d s , w i t h t o o l s a n d s e r v i c e s t h a t m i x
c o m p u t i n g a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s i n n e w w ay s .
T h e . N E T f r a m e w o r k i s t h e i n f r a st r u c t u r e fo r t h e n e w
M i c r o s o f t . N E T p l a t fo r m . T h e . N E T F r a m e w o r k i s a c o m m o n
e n v i r o n m e n t fo r b u i l d i n g , d e p l oy i n g a n d r u n n i n g We b
a p p l i c a t i o n s a n d We b s e r v i c e s . T h e . N E T F r a m e w o r k
contains a common language r untime and common class
l i b r a r i e s l i ke - A D O . N E T, A S P. N E T

a n d w i n d ow s fo r m s - t o

p r o v i d e a d v a n c e d st a n d a r d s e r v i c e s t h a t c a n b e i n t e g r a t e d
i n t o a v a r i et y o f c o m p u t e r s y st e m s .
T h e . N E T f r a m e w o r k p r o v i d e s a fe a t u r e - r i c h a p p l i c a t i o n
e n v i r o n m e n t , s i m p l i fi e d d e ve l o p m e n t a n d e a s y i n t e g r a t i o n
b et w e e n a n u m b e r s o f d i ff e r e n t d e v e l o p m e n t l a n g u a g e s .
The .NET F ramework is language neutral. Cur rently it
s u p p o r t s C + + , C # , Vi s u a l B a s i c a n d J s c r i pt ( t h e M i c r o s o f t
ve r s i o n o f J av a S c r i pt ) . M i c r o s o f t s Vi s u a l S t u d i o . N E T i s a
c o m m o n d e ve l o p m e n t fo r t h e n e w . N E T F r a m e w o r k .

I t i s d e s i g n e d t o f u l fi l l t h e fo l l ow i n g o b j e c t i ve : To p r o v i d e a c o n s i s t e n t o b j e c t - o r i e n t e d p r o g r a m m i n g
e n v i r o n m e n t w h et h e r o b j e c t c o d e i s st o r e d a n d l o c a l l y
e xe c u t e d b u t i n t e r n et d i st r i b u t e d o r e xe c u t e d
r e m ot e l y.
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To p r o v i d e a c o d e - e xe c u t i o n e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t
m i n i m i z e s s o f t w a r e d e p l oy m e n t a n d ve r s i o n i n g
c o n fl i c t s .
To p r o v i d e a c o d e - e xe c u t i o n e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t
p r o m ot e s s a fe e xe c u t i o n o f c o d e , i n c l u d i n g c o d e
c r e a t e d by a n u n k n ow n o r s e m i - t r u st e d t h i r d p a r t y.
To m a ke t h e d e v e l o p e r e x p e r i e n c e c o n s i s t e n t a c r o s s
widely var ying types of applications, such as
Wi n d ow s - b a s e d a p p l i c a t i o n s a n d We b - b a s e d
applications.

. N E T P R O G R A M M I N G L A N G UAG E S
T h e . N E T F r a m e w o r k p r o v i d e s a s et o f t o o l s t h a t h e l p t o
build cod t hat works wit h t he .NET F ramework. Microsof t
p r o v i d e s a s et o f l a n g u a g e s t h a t a r e a l r e a d y . N E T
compatible. C#.NET is one of t hose languages.

A S P. N E T
A S P. N E T i s a u n i fi e d We b d e v e l o p m e n t p l a t fo r m t h a t
provides t he ser vices necessar y to build enter pr ise-class
We b a p p l i c a t i o n s . W h i l e A S P. N E T i s l a r g e l y s y n t a x
c o m p a t i b l e w i t h A c t i ve S e r v e r P a g e s ( A S P ) , i t a l s o p r o v i d e s
a n e w p r o g r a m m i n g m o d e l a n d i n f r a st r u c t u r e t h a t a l l ow s
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c r e a t i n g a p ow e r f u l n e w c l a s s o f a p p l i c a t i o n s . A S P. N E T i s
f u l l y s u p p o r t e d by t h e . N E T F r a m e w o r k , a l l ow i n g o n e t o
t a ke f u l l a d v a n t a g e o f t h e C o m m o n L a n g u a g e R u n t i m e
( C L R ) , t y p e s a fet y, i n h e r i t a n c e , a n d a l l o f t h e ot h e r
fe a t u r e s o f t h a t p l a t fo r m .
A S P. N E T i s c o m p i l e d . N E T- b a s e d e n v i r o n m e n t ; o n e c a n
a u t h o r a p p l i c a t i o n s i n a ny . N E T c o m p a t i b l e l a n g u a g e ,
i n c l u d i n g Vi s u a l B a s i c , C # a n d J s c r i pt . D e ve l o p e r s c a n
e a s i l y a c c e s s t h e b e n e fi t s o f t h e s e t e c h n o l o g i e s , w h i c h
include a managed Common Language Runtime
e n v i r o n m e n t , t y p e s a fet y, i n h e r i t a n c e , a n d s o o n .
A S P. N E T h a s b e e n d e s i g n e d t o w o r k s e a m l e s s l y w i t h
W Y S I W YG H T M L e d i t o r s a n d ot h e r p r o g r a m m i n g t o o l s ,
i n c l u d i n g M i c r o s o f t Vi s u a l S t u d i o . N E T. N ot o n l y d o e s t h i s
m a ke We b d e ve l o p m e n t e a s i e r, b u t i t a l s o p r o v i d e s a l l t h e
b e n e fi t s t h a t t h e s e t o o l s h ave t o o ff e r, i n c l u d i n g a G U I
t h a t d e v e l o p e r s c a n u s e t o d r o p s e r ve r c o n t r o l s o n t o a We b
page, as well as fully integrated debugging suppor t.

Vi s u a l C # . N E T

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Microsoft C# (pronounced C shar p) is a new programming
l a n g u a g e d e s i g n e d fo r b u i l d i n g a w i d e r a n g e o f e n t e r p r i s e
applications t hat r un on t he .NET F ramework. An
e vo l u t i o n o f M i c r o s o f t C a n d M i c r o s o f t C + + , C # i s s i m p l e ,
m o d e r n , t y p e s a fe , a n d o b j e c t o r i e n t e d . C # c o d e i s
c o m p i l e d a s m a n a g e d c o d e , w h i c h m e a n s i t b e n e fi t s f r o m
t he ser vices of t he common language r untime.
T h e s e s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e l a n g u a g e i n t e r o p e r a b i l i t y, g a r b a g e
c o l l e c t i o n , e n h a n c e d s e c u r i t y, a n d i m p r o v e d ve r s i o n i n g
s u p p o r t Vi s u a l C # . N E T i s c u r r e n t l y p a r t o f t h e Vi s u a l
S t u d i o . N E T. M i c r o s o f t Vi s u a l C # . N E T i s t h e t o o l s et fo r
c r e a t i n g X M L We b S e r v i c e s a n d M i c r o s o f t . N E T c o n n e c t e d
a p p l i c a t i o n s fo r M i c r o s o f t Wi n d ow s a n d t h e We b .
T h e r o b u st d e ve l o p m e n t p a c k a g e , w h i c h u s e s t h e
c o m p o n e n t - o r i e n t e d C # d e ve l o p m e n t l a n g u a g e , o ff e r s a
l a n g u a g e a n d e n v i r o n m e n t fo r c r e a t i n g n e x t - g e n e r a t i o n
s o f t w a r e . Vi s u a l C # . N E T d e l i v e r s s u p e r i o r f u n c t i o n a l i t y fo r
st r e a m i n g b u s i n e s s p r o c e s s e s , i n c l u d i n g :
R a p i d d e s i g n , d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d d e p l oy m e n t s u p p o r t
fo r c r e a t i n g a n d c o n s u m i n g X M L We b S e r v i c e s .
Fo r m d e s i g n e r s a n d v i s u a l c o n t r o l s fo r c r e a t i n g r i c h
Wi n d ow s - b a s e d a p p l i c a t i o n s .
A u t h o r i n g t o o l s a n d s e r v i c e s fo r b u i l d i n g p ow e r f u l
Microsoft.NET
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S e r ve r- b a s e d s o l u t i o n s
M i g r a t i o n t o o l s fo r c o n v e r t i n g j av a - b a s e d p r o j e c t s t o
t he Microsoft .NET development environment.

Wi t h Vi s u a l C # . N E T, d e v e l o p e r s c a n b u i l d s o l u t i o n s fo r t h e
b r o a d e st r a n g e o f c l i e n t s , i n c l u d i n g w i n d ow s , t h e We b , a n d
mobile or embedded devi ces. Using t his elegant
p r o g r a m m i n g l a n g u a g e a n d t o o l , d e ve l o p e r s c a n l e v e r a g e
t h e i r e x i st i n g C + + a n d J av a s k i l l s a n d k n ow l e d g e t o b e
successful in t he .NET environment.

MS- SQL
Microsoft SQL Ser ver is a relational model database
s e r ve r p r o d u c e d by M i c r o s o f t
I t i n c l u d e s n a t i ve s u p p o r t fo r m a n a g i n g X M L d a t a , i n
a d d i t i o n t o r e l a t i o n a l d a t a . Fo r t h i s p u r p o s e , i t d e fi n e d a n
xml data type that could be used either as a data type in
dat abase columns or as literals in quer ies. It includes
fo l l ow i n g fe a t u r e s :

Fa st R e c o v e r y :
A n e w f a st e r r e c o v e r y o pt i o n i m p r o ve s av a i l a b i l i t y o f S Q L
S e r ve r d a t a b a s e s . A d m i n i st r a t o r s c a n r e c o n n e c t t o a
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r e c o ve r i n g d a t a b a s e a f t e r t h e t r a n s a c t i o n l o g h a s b e e n
r o l l e d fo r w a r d .

S Q L S e r ve r M a n a g e m e n t S t u d i o :
S Q L S e r ve r 2 0 0 5 i n c l u d e s S Q L S e r ve r M a n a g e m e n t S t u d i o ,
a new integrated suite of management tools wit h t he
f u n c t i o n a l i t y t o d e ve l o p , d e p l oy, a n d t r o u b l e s h o ot S Q L
S e r ve r d a t a b a s e s , a s w e l l a s e n h a n c e m e n t s t o p r e v i o u s
functionality

Vi s u a l S t u d i o I n t e g r a t i o n :
T i g h t i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h M i c r o s o f t Vi s u a l S t u d i o a n d t h e
. N E T F r a m e w o r k st r e a m l i n e s d e ve l o p m e n t a n d d e b u g g i n g
o f d a t a - d r i ve n a p p l i c a t i o n s . D e ve l o p e r s c a n b u i l d d a t a b a s e
o b j e c t s , s u c h a s st o r e d p r o c e d u r e s , u s i n g a ny . N E T
language and can seamlessly debug across .NET and
Tr a n s a c t - S Q L ( T S Q L ) l a n g u a g e s .

Data Mining:
Microsoft

SQL

S e r ve r

2005

Analysis

Ser vices

(SSAS)

p r o v i d e s t o o l s fo r d a t a m i n i n g w i t h w h i c h yo u c a n i d e n t i f y
r u l e s a n d p a t t e r n s i n yo u r d a t a , s o t h a t yo u c a n d et e r m i n e
w hy t h i n g s h a p p e n a n d p r e d i c t w h a t w i l l h a p p e n i n t h e
f u t u r e g i v i n g yo u p ow e r f u l i n s i g h t t h a t w i l l h e l p yo u r
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c o m p a ny m a ke b et t e r b u s i n e s s d e c i s i o n s

DESIGN
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SYSTEM DESIGN
S y st e m d e s i g n t r a n s fo r m s a l o g i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f w h a t
a

g i ve n

s y st e m

s p e c i fi c a t i o n s .

is
The

required

to

s p e c i fi c a t i o n s

do

into
are

the

p hy s i c a l

c o n ve r t e d

into

p hy s i c a l r e a l i t y d u r i n g d e ve l o p m e n t . T h e d e s i g n fo r m s a
b l u e p r i n t o f t h e s y st e m a n d h ow t h e c o m p o n e n t s r e l a t e t o
e a c h ot h e r.

The

design

phase

proceeds

according

to

an

orderly

s e q u e n c e o f st e p s b e g i n n i n g w i t h r e v i e w a n d a s s i g n m e n t o f
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t a s k s a n d e n d i n g w i t h p a c k a g e d e s i g n . D u r i n g t h e fi r st
st a g e , o u t p u t d e s i g n , a n a n a l y st d et e r m i n e s w h a t d a t a t h e
a p p l i c a t i o n p r o d u c e s a n d h ow t o o r g a n i z e a n d p r e s e n t t h a t
data.

S y st e m D e s i g n i s t h e p r o c e s s o f p l a n n i n g o f s y st e m o r t o
r e p l a c e o r c o m p l e m e n t a n e x i st i n g s y st e m . B u t b e fo r e t h i s ,
planning

should

understood

about

be

done.

the

old

It

m u st

s y st e m

be

and

thoroughly

d et e r m i n e

h ow

c o m p u t e r s c a n m a ke i t s o p e r a t i o n s m o r e e ff e c t i ve .

T h e I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s y st e m d e s i g n c a n w i t h a s i n g l e
word

and

that

is

q u a l i t y.

Design

is

the

phase

where

q u a l i t y i s fo st e r e d i n t h e s o f t w a r e d e v e l o p m e n t . D e s i g n
provides us wit h representation of software t hat can be
a s s e s s e d fo r t h e q u a l i t y.

Design

is

requirement

the
into

only

w ay

to

software

translate

development

c u st o m e r s

and

software

s u p p o r t st e p s t h a t fo l l ow. Wi t h o u t d e s i g n t h e r e i s a r i s k o f
building

an

u n st a b l e

s y st e m

that

will

fail

when

small

c h a n g e s a r e m a d e ; o n e t h a t m ay b e d i ffi c u l t t o t e st ; o n e
w h o s e q u a l i t y c a n n ot b e a s s e s s e d u n t i l l a t e t h e s o f t w a r e
process.

T h e fi r st st e p i n t h e d e s i g n i s t o d e s i g n o u t p u t a n d i np u t
within

p r e d e fi n e d

guidelines.

In

Chinmaya Arts And Science College For Women

the

i np u t

design

user
39

Online Library Management System


or iginated

i np u t s

are

conver ted

into

computer

based

fo r m a t . S o u r c e d a t a a r e i np u t i n t o t h e s y st e m by u s i n g
d i s ket t e s .

T h e g o a l o f d e s i g n i n g i np u t d a t a i s t o m a i n d a t a e n t r y
easy and free from er rors as possible. The allocated space
fo r e a c h fi e l d , fi e l d s e q u e n c e a n d fo r m a t o n w h i c h d a t a
fi e l d s a r e e n t e r e d a r e i m p o r t u n e d . Fo r m s a n d m e a n s a r e
d e s i g n i n s u c h w ay t h a t u s e r c a n e n t e r t h e d a t a ve r y
e a s i l y.

The

design

implement ation

of

face
the

begins

s y st e m

on

the

recommended

d et a i l e d
in

the

fe a s i b i l i t y st u d y. E m p h a s i s i s o n t r a n s l a t i n g p e r fo r m a n c e
s p e c i fi c a t i o n i n t o d e s i g n s p e c i fi c a t i o n .

A f t e r d e s i g n i n g i np u t a n d o u t p u t , t h e d a t a i s o r g a n i z e d i n
the

database

as

per

the

requirement

of

the

u s e r,

an

i n t e g r a t e d a p p r o a c h t o fi l e d e s i g n i n t h e d a t a b a s e . T h e
a i m i s t o h a n d l e I n fo r m a t i o n a s a n i n t e g r a t e d w h o l e w i t h
minimum
design

redundancy

phase

is

and

improved

transition

from

p e r fo r m a n c e .
a

user

The

or iented

document to the programmers or the data base personnel.


T h e d e s i g n p h a s e fo c u s e s o n t h e d et a i l e d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n
o f t h e s y st e m . T h e s y s t e m d e s i g n g o e s t h r o u g h t w o p h a s e s
o f d e ve l o p m e n t : l o g i c a l a n d p hy s i c a l d e s i g n .

A d a t a fl ow d i a g r a m i s o n e w h i c h s h ow s t h e l o g i c a l fl ow o f
a s y st e m a n d d e fi n e s t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e s y st e m . Fo r a
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candidate

it

describes

the

i np u t

(source),

output

( d e st i n a t i o n ) , d a t a b a s e a n d p r o c e d u r e s , a l l i n a fo r m a t
t h a t m e et s t h e u s e r s r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h e l o g i c a l d e s i g n
s p e c i fi e s o u t p u t , i np u t a n d s c r e e n l ayo u t s .

Fo l l ow i n g

the

logical

design

produces

the

working

is

s y st e m

p hy s i c a l
by

design

d e fi n i n g

the

which
design

s p e c i fi c a t i o n s t h a t t e l l t h e p r o g r a m m e r e x a c t l y w h a t t h e
c a n d i d a t e s y st e m m u st d o . I n t u r n t h e p r o g r a m m e r w r i t e s
the

necessar y

programs

or

m o d i fi e s

the

software

that

a c c e pt s i np u t f r o m t h e n e c e s s a r y c a l c u l a t i o n s t h r o u g h t h e
e x i st i n g fi l e o r d a t a b a s e , p r o d u c e s t h e r e p o r t s o n a h a r d
c o py

or

d i s p l ay s

it

on

the

screen

and

maintains

an

updated database at all times.


S p e c i fi c a l l y t h e p hy s i c a l d e s i g n c o n s i st s o f t h e fo l l ow i n g
st e p s :
S p e c i f y i np u t / o u t p u t m e d i a
Design t he dat abase and specify backup procedures
D e s i g n p hy s i c a l i n fo r m a t i o n fl ow t h r o u g h t h e s y s t e m

s et

of

fundamental

software

design

c o n c e pt s

has

d e ve l o p e d o ve r t h e p a st fo u r d e c a d e s . A l t h o u g h t h e d e g r e e
o f i n t e r e st i n e a c h c o n c e pt v a r i e d o ve r t h e ye a r s , e a c h h a s
st o o d t h e t e st t i m e . E a c h p r o v i d e s t h e s o f t w a r e d e s i g n e r
w i t h t h e fo u n d a t i o n f r o m w h i c h m o r e s o p h i st i c a t e d d e s i g n

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m et h o d s c a n b e a p p l i e d . E a c h h e l p s t h e s o f t w a r e e n g i n e e r s
t o a n s w e r t h e fo l l ow i n g q u e st i o n s :
What cr iter ia can be used to par tition software into
individual components?
H ow i s a f u n c t i o n o r d a t a st r u c t u r e d et a i l s e p a r a t e d
f r o m a c o n c e pt u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s o f t w a r e ?

5.1. Module Description


The main t hree users included in t his Librar y Management
S y st e m a r e

Librarian

Students

Fa c u l t i e s

5.1.1 Librarian:
M a i n f u n c t i o n a l i t i e s o f l i b r a r i a n i n t h i s s y st e m i n c l u d e
a d d i n g n e w u s e r s a n d b o o k d et a i l s t o t h e s y st e m . M a j o r
tasks

in

librar y

l i ke

issuing,

r et u r n i n g ,

reissuing

are

p e r fo r m e d by t h e l i b r a r i a n . L i b r a r i a n c a n a l s o c a l c u l a t e
t h e fi n e a m o u n t o f t h e u s e r s . H e c a n a l s o v i e w d et a i l s o f
t h e b o o k s , u s e r s i n d i ff e r e n t w ay s l i ke l o st b o o k , i s s u e d
b o o k s , r e st r i c t e d u s e r s , fi n e d u s e r s et c .

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5.1.2 Student
S t u d e n t s a r e a l s o p r o v i d e d w i t h m a ny fe a t u r e s i n t h i s
system . t hey can view t heir issued books. They can also
v i e w t h o s e b o o k s w h i c h h ave r u n o u t o f d u e d a t e . T h e y c a n
v i e w t h e i r fi n e d et a i l s . O n e o f t h e m a i n fe a t u r e i s t h a t
t hey can reser ve t he book online
5 . 1 . 3 Fa c u l t i e s
Te a c h e r s r o l e i n t h e L i b r a r y M a n a g e m e n t S y st e m i s s a m e
a s t h a t o f st u d e n t s . T h e y a r e a b l e t o v i e w t h e i r a c c o u n t
i n fo r m a t i o n , t h e i r i s s u e s . T h e y c a n a l s o s e a r c h fo r b o o k s
in

the

l i b r a r y.

E xc e pt

the

fe a t u r e

fi n e

management

of

st u d e n t a l l ot h e r i s i n c l u d e d h e r e .

5.2. Database Design


Database Design

A d a t a b a s e i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f i n t e r r e l a t e d d a t a st o r e d w i t h
m i n i m u m r e d u n d a n c y t o s e r v e m a ny a p p l i c a t i o n s . I n t h e
database

environment,

used

the

by

managing

its

several
ow n

common
users.

data,

data

I n st e a d

authorized

are
of

av a i l a b l e
each

users

and

or

user

share

data

across applications with the database software managing


t h e d a t a a s e n t i t y.
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Database

design

is

one

of

the

impor t ant

parts

in

d e ve l o p i n g s o f t w a r e . I t i s a p r o c e s s o f c o n c e pt u a l d e s i g n o f
d a t a . I t m i n i m i z e s t h e a r t i fi c i a l i t y o f u s i n g s e p a r a t e fi l e s .
I t i s a d e fi n i t i o n o f t h e e n t i r e i n fo r m a t i o n c o n t e n t o f t h e
o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d i t s p e c i fi e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b et w e e n t h e
data.

relational

database

c o n s i st s

of

collection

of

tables

h av i n g a t t r i b u t e s , a r e a s s i g n e d t o a u n i q u e n a m e . A r ow i n
t h e t a b l e r e p r e s e n t s a r e l a t i o n s h i p a m o n g a s et o f v a l u e s .
The

global

relations,

relational
which

redundancy

and

database

a l l ow s
also

is

to

aborting

a l l ow s

us

generate

i n fo r m a t i o n
to

st o r e

s et

of

without

and

r et r i e v e

i n fo r m a t i o n i n e a s e .

Ta b l e s a r e o r g a n i z e d a s t o :
Reduce redundant dat a
Minimize

addition,

d e l et i o n

and

updating

of

anomalies
Simplify

quer ying

and

r et r i e v i n g

data

from

the

database

D a t a b a s e n o r m a l i z a t i o n s o m et i m e s r e fe r r e d t o a s c a n o n i c a l
s y n t h e s i s , i s a t e c h n i q u e fo r d e s i g n i n g r e l a t i o n a l d a t a b a s e
t a b l e s t o m i n i m i z e d u p l i c a t i o n o f i n fo r m a t i o n a n d , i n s o
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d o i n g , t o s a fe g u a r d t h e d a t a b a s e a g a i n st c e r t a i n t y p e o f
logical
The

o r st r u c t u r a l p r o b l e m s ,

o ve r a l l

o b j e c t i ve

in

the

namely

data

development

of

anomalies.
database

technology has been to treat dat a as an organizational


resource

and

management

as

an

system

integrated

a l l ow s

data

to

whole.
be

Database

p r ot e c t e d

and

o r g a n i z e d s e p a r a t e l y f r o ot h e r r e s o u r c e s . D a t a b a s e i s a n
integrated

collection

of

data.

This

is

the

d i ff e r e n c e

b et w e e n l o g i c a l a n d p hy s i c a l d a t a
Higher

degrees

of

nor malization

typically

i n vo l ve

more

t a b l e s a n d c r e a t e t h e n e e d fo r a l a r g e r n u m b e r o f j o i n s ,
w h i c h c a n r e d u c e p e r fo r m a n c e . A c c o r d i n g l y, m o r e h i g h l y
normalized

tables

are

typically

used

in

database

a p p l i c a t i o n s i n vo l v i n g m a ny i s o l a t e d t r a n s a c t i o n s ( e . g . a n
A u t o m a t e d Te l l e r M a c h i n e ) , w h i l e l e s s n o r m a l i z e d t a b l e s
tend to be used in database applications that need to map
complex

relationships

b et w e e n

data

entities

and

data

attr ibutes.

The organization of t he dat a in t he dat abase aims to


a c h i e ve t h r e e m a j o r o b j e c t i v e s .
Data integration
Data Integr ity
Data Independence

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The dat abases are implemented using a DBMS package.
Each

particular

DBMS

has

unique

character istics

and

g e n e r a l t e c h n i q u e s fo r d a t a b a s e d e s i g n .

Nor malization
The

process

of

normalization

is

concerned

with

the

t r a n s fo r m a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e pt u a l s c h e m a t o a c o m p u t e r
represent

able

fo r m .

Nor malization

reduces

the

redundancies and anomalies.

1 . F i r st N o r m a l Fo r m
A r e l a t i o n i s s a i d t o b e i n F i r st N o r m a l Fo r m ( 1 N F ) i f a n d
only if each attr ibute of t he relation is atomic.
F i r st

normal

fo r m

does

n ot

a l l ow

multivalued

and

c o m p o s i t e v a l u e d a t t r i b u t e s . I t st a t e s t h a t t h e d o m a i n o f
a n a t t r i b u t e m u st i n c l u d e o n l y a t o m i c v a l u e s a n d t h a t
v a l u e o f a ny a t t r i b u t e i n a t u p l e m u st b e s i n g l e v a l u e f r o m
the domain of that attr ibute.

2 . S e c o n d N o r m a l Fo r m
A

table

that

is

in

fi r st

normal

fo r m

(1NF)

m u st

m e et

a d d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i a i f i t i s t o q u a l i f y fo r s e c o n d n o r m a l
fo r m . S p e c i fi c a l l y : a 1 N F t a b l e i s i n 2 N F i f a n d o n l y i f ,
g i ve n a ny c a n d i d a t e ke y a n d a ny a t t r i b u t e t h a t i s n ot a
c o n st i t u e n t

of

candidate

ke y,

the

n o n - ke y

attr ibute
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d e p e n d s u p o n t h e w h o l e o f t h e c a n d i d a t e ke y r a t h e r t h a n
j u st a p a r t o f i t .

3 . T h i r d N o r m a l Fo r m
I n t h e t h i r d N o r m a l Fo r m ( 3 N F ) , r e l a t i o n s h o u l d n ot h ave a
n o n ke y a t t r i b u t e . T h a t i s t h e r e s h o u l d b e n o t r a n s i t i ve
d e p e n d e n c y o f a ny n o n - ke y a t t r i b u t e o n t h e p r i m a r y ke y.
T h e c r i t e r i a fo r t h e 3 N F a r e :
1 ) T h e t a b l e m u st b e i n 2 N F
2)

Tr a n s i t i ve

dependencies

m u st

be

eliminated.

So

all

r e c o r d s m u st r e l y o n l y o n t h e p r i m a r y ke y.

TA B L E S
Login Database

Field

Data Type [, Size]

Properties

Username

varchar(100)

Pr imar y Key

Password

varchar(50)

N ot N u l l

User type

int

N ot N u l l
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User details Database

Field

Data Type [, Size]

Properties

Account

int

Pr imar y Key

F ull Name

varchar(50)

N ot Nu l l

DateOfBir th

int

N ot Nu l l

Department

varchar(50)

N ot Nu l l

U s e r Ty p e

int

N ot Nu l l

UserName

varchar(50)

N ot Nu l l

Password

varchar(50)

N ot Nu l l

P a s s Ye a r

int

Book Limit

int

Address

varchar(50)

N ot Nu l l

E-mail

varchar(50)

N ot Nu l l

approve

int

N ot Nu l l

Status

varchar(50)

N ot Nu l l

Nu m b e r

Name

Department Database

Field

Data Type [, Size]

Properties
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D e pt i d

int

Pr imar y Key

D e pt n a m e

varchar(50)

N ot N u l l

Book details Database

F ield Name

Data Type [, Size]

Properties

Date

d a t et i m e

N ot Nu l l

Accession

int

Pr imar y Key

number
C l a s s i fi c a t i o n

int

Number
B o o k Nu m b e r

varchar(50)

N ot Nu l l

Book Name

varchar(50)

N ot Nu l l

Edition

varchar(30)

Aut hor Name

varchar(50)

Publishers

varchar(50)

N ot Nu l l

Name
Place of

varchar(50)

publish
Price

fl o a t

Pagination

int

N ot Nu l l

Rack number

varchar(50)

N ot Nu l l

Resource id

int

N ot Nu l l
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Source of

varchar(50)

N ot Nu l l

supply
B i l l Nu m b e r

int

Remarks

varchar(50)

Status

varchar(50)

N ot Nu l l

Book classification Database

Field

Data Type [, Size]

Properties

C l a s s i fi c a t i o n

int

Pr imar y Key

varchar(50)

N ot N u l l

number
C l a s s i fi c a t i o n
type

Comments Database

Field

Data Type [, Size]

Properties

C_id

int

Pr imar y Key

Account

int

N ot N u l l

int

N ot N u l l

Number
Accession
number
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Comment

varchar(50)

N ot N u l l

Book count Database

Field

Data Type [, Size]

Properties

Book number

varchar(50)

Pr imar y Key

To t a l C o u n t

int

N ot N u l l

Av a i l a b l e C o u n t

int

N ot N u l l

Issuing Database
Field

Data Type [, Size]

Properties

Issue id

int

Pr imar y Key

Accession

int

N ot N u l l

int

N ot N u l l

number
Account
Number
P a s s ye a r

int

Issue_Date

d a t et i m e

N ot N u l l

Due_Date

d a t et i m e

N ot N u l l

R et u r n _ d a t e

d a t et i m e

N ot N u l l

Reissue

count

int
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Status

varchar(50)

N ot N u l l

Reservation Database

Field

Data Type [, Size]

Properties

Reser vation id

int

Pr imar y Key

Account

int

N ot N u l l

Nu m b e r
P a s s ye a r

int

Book name

varchar(50)

N ot N u l l

Aut hor Name

varchar(50)

N ot N u l l

A l l ot t e d d a t e

d a t et i m e

Status

varchar(50)

N ot N u l l

Other materials Database

Field

Data Type [, Size]

Properties

Accession

int

Pr imar y Key

Date

d a t et i m e

N ot Nu l l

Title

varchar(50)

N ot Nu l l

Resource id

int

N ot Nu l l

Status

varchar(50)

N ot Nu l l

Num

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Category Database

Field

Data Type [, Size]

Properties

Resource Id

int

Pr imar y Key

Categor y

varchar(50)

N ot Nu l l

Name

Other issuing Database

Field

Data Type [, Size]

Properties

Issue Id

int

Pr imar y Key

Accession

Int

N ot Nu l l

int

N ot Nu l l

Issue_Date

d a t et i m e

N ot Nu l l

R et u r n d a t e

d a t et i m e

Status

varchar(50)

Nu m b e r
Account
Nu m b e r

N ot Nu l l

Suggestion Database

Field

Data Type [, Size]

Properties
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S id

int

Pr imar y Key

Account

int

N ot Nu l l

Nu m b e r
Subject

varchar(MAX)

Content

varchar(MAX)

R e p l ay

varchar(MAX)

N ot Nu l l

5 . 3 . D a t a Fl o w D i a g r a m
T h e D a t a F l ow D i a g r a m w a s fi r st d e v e l o p e d by L a r r y
C o n st a t n t i n e a s a w ay o f e x p r e s s i n g s y st e m r e q u i r e m e n t s
i n g r a p h i c a l fo r m , w h i c h l e d t o t h e m o d u l a r d e s i g n o f t h e
s y s t e m . D et a i l e d s y st e m d e s i g n i s d a t a fl ow b a s e d
m et h o d o l o g y. T h e a p p r o a c h b e g i n s w i t h a s y st e m
s p e c i fi c a t i o n t h a t i d e n t i fi e s i np u t a n d o u t p u t a n d
d e s c r i b e s t h e f u n c t i o n a l a s p e c t o f t h e s y st e m . T h e s y st e m
s p e c i fi c a t i o n s a r e u s e d a s a b a s i s fo r t h e g r a p h i c
r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a fl ow s a n d p r o c e s s e s . T h i s
design phase par titions a program into small independent
m o d u l e s . T h e y a r e a r r a n g e d i n a h i e r a r c hy fo r m . I t i s a n
a t t e m pt t o m i n i m i z e t h e c o m p l e x i t y a n d m a ke a p r o b l e m
m a n a g e a b l e by s u b d i v i d i n g i t i n t o s m a l l e r s e g m e n t s
T h e D a t a F l ow D i a g r a m i s o n e o f t h e i m p o r t a n t t o o l s u s e d
by s y s t e m a n a l y s i s . D a t a F l ow D i a g r a m s a r e m a d e u p o f a
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number of symbols, which represent system components.
M o st

data

fl ow

modeling

m et h o d s

use

fo u r

kinds

of

s y m b o l s . T h e s e s y m b o l s a r e u s e d t o r e p r e s e n t fo u r k i n d s
o f s y st e m c o m p o n e n t s . P r o c e s s e s , d a t a st o r e s , d a t a fl ow s
a n d e x t e r n a l e n t i t i e s . Un l i ke d et a i l e d fl ow c h a r t , D a t a
F l ow D i a g r a m s d o n ot s u p p l y d et a i l e d s u b s c r i pt i o n o f t h e
m o d u l e s b u t g r a p h i c a l l y d e s c r i b e s a s y st e m s d a t a a n d
h ow t h e d a t a i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e s y st e m .

T h e D F D , a l s o k n ow n a s b u b b l e c h a r t h a s t h e p u r p o s e o f
clarifying

s y st e m

requirement

and

identifying

t r a n s fo r m a t i o n , w h i c h i s t h e p r i m a r y p h a s e o f s o f t w a r e
d e ve l o p m e n t . A D F D c o n s i st s o f a s e r i e s o f b u b b l e s j o i n e d
by l i n e s . T h e b u b b l e s r e p r e s e n t d a t a t r a n s fo r m a t i o n a n d
l i n e s r e p r e s e n t d a t a fl ow s i n t h e s y st e m .

DFD symbols
I n t h e D F D , t h e r e a r e fo u r s y m b o l s , t h e y a r e a s fo l l ow s ;

S q u a r e , d e fi n e s a s o u r c e ( o r i g i n a t o r ) o r
d e st i n a t i o n o f s y st e m d a t a
A r r o w,
a pipeline

i d e n t i fi e s d a t a fl ow - d a t a i n m ot i o n . I t i s

t h r o u g h w h i c h i n fo r m a t i o n fl ow s

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C i r c l e o r a b u b b l e , r e p r e s e n t s a p r o c e s s t h a t
t r a n s fo r m s i n c o m i n g d a t a fl ow ( s ) i n t o o u t g o i n g d a t a
fl ow ( s )
O p e n r e c t a n g l e , d a t a st o r e - d a t a a t r e st , o r a
temporar y repositor y dat a
C o n st r u c t i n g D F D
S e v e r a l r u l e s o f t h u m b a r e u s e d i n d r aw i n g D F D .
T h e d i r e c t i o n o f fl ow f r o m t o p t o b ot t o m a n d f r o m l e f t
to r ight
T h e p r o c e s s s h o u l d b e n a m e d fo r e a s y r e fe r e n c e
A r r ow s s h o u l d n ot c r o s s e a c h ot h e r.
N ot e t h a t D F D d e s c r i b e s w h a t d a t a fl ow r a t h e r t h a n h ow
t h e y a r e p r o c e s s e d , s o i t d o e s n ot d e p e n d o n h a r d w a r e ,
software,

data

st r u c t u r e

or

fi l e

st r u c t u r e .

The

DFD

enables t he software engineers to develop models. As t he


D F D i s r e d e fi n e d t o g r e a t l e ve l s o f d et a i l s , t h e a n a l y st
p e r fo r m s

an

implicit

functional

decomposition

of

the

s y s t e m . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e D F D r e fi n e m e n t r e s u l t s i n a
c o r r e s p o n d i n g r e fi n e m e n t o f d a t a a s i t m o ve s t h r o u g h t h e
processes that embody the application.
Fe w g u i d e l i n e s t o a i d t h e d e r i v a t i o n o f D F D
T h e l e ve l 0 D F D s h o u l d d e p i c t t h e s o f t w a r e / s y st e m a s
a single bubble.
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P r i m a r y i np u t a n d o u t p u t s h o u l d b e n ot e d .
R e fi n e m e n t

should

begin

by

isolating

candidate

p r o c e s s e s , d a t a o b j e c t s a n d st o r e s t o b e r e p r e s e n t e d
in t he next level.
A l l a r r ow s a n d b u b b l e s s h o u l d b e l a b e l e d w i t h i n a
meaningful name.
I n fo r m a t i o n fl ow c o n t i n u i t y m u st b e m a i n t a i n e d f r o m
l e ve l t o l e ve l
O n e b u b b l e a t a t i m e s h o u l d b e r e d e fi n e d .

T h e l e ve l 0 D F D i s e x p a n d e d t o l e v e l 1 D F D . T h e p r o c e s s e s
represented in t he level 1 DFD can be fur t her expanded to
l e ve l 2 D F D . T h e r e fi n e m e n t c o n t i n u e s u n t i l e a c h b u b b l e
p e r fo r m s a s i n g l e f u n c t i o n . T h a t i s b u b b l e r e p r e s e n t s a
function t hat is easily implemented as a prog ram. A dat afl ow d i a g r a m ( D F D ) i s a g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e
" fl ow " o f d a t a t h r o u g h a n i n fo r m a t i o n s y s t e m . D F D s c a n
also

be

used

fo r

the

visualization

of

data

processing

( st r u c t u r e d d e s i g n ) .

O n a D F D , d a t a i t e m s fl ow f r o m a n e x t e r n a l d a t a s o u r c e o r
a n i n t e r n a l d a t a st o r e t o a n i n t e r n a l d a t a st o r e o r a n
exter nal data sink, via an inter nal process.

DFD

provides

no

i n fo r m a t i o n

about

the

timing

or

o r d e r i n g o f p r o c e s s e s , o r a b o u t w h et h e r p r o c e s s e s w i l l
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o p e r a t e i n s e q u e n c e o r i n p a r a l l e l . I t i s t h e r e fo r e q u i t e
d i ff e r e n t f r o m a fl ow c h a r t , w h i c h s h ow s t h e fl ow o f c o n t r o l
t h r o u g h a n a l g o r i t h m , a l l ow i n g a r e a d e r t o d et e r m i n e w h a t
o p e r a t i o n s w i l l b e p e r fo r m e d , i n w h a t o r d e r, a n d u n d e r
w h a t c i r c u m st a n c e s , b u t n ot w h a t k i n d s o f d a t a w i l l b e
i np u t t o a n d o u t p u t f r o m t h e s y st e m , n o r w h e r e t h e d a t a
w i l l c o m e f r o m a n d g o t o , n o r w h e r e t h e d a t a w i l l b e st o r e d
( a l l o f w h i c h a r e s h ow n o n a D F D ) .

Level 0:

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Level 1.1

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Level 1.2

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Level 1.3

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5 . 4 . I np u t d e s i g n
I np u t

design

is

the

process

of

c o n ve r t i n g

the

user

o r i g i n a t e d i np u t t o a c o m p u t e r b a s e d fo r m a t . T h e d e s i g n
fo r h a n d l i n g i np u t s p e c i fi e s h ow d a t a a r e a c c e pt e d fo r
c o m p u t e r p r o c e s s i n g . I np u t d e s i g n i s a p a r t o f o ve r a l l
system design t hat needs careful attention and if includes
s p e c i f y i n g t h e m e a n s by w h i c h a c t i o n s a r e t a ke n . A s y st e m
u s e r i n t e r a c t i n g t h r o u g h a w o r k st a t i o n m u st b e a b l e t o t e l l
t h e s y st e m w h et h e r t o a c c e pt i np u t p r o d u c e a r e p o r t o r
e n d p r o c e s s i n g . T h e c o l l e c t i o n o f i np u t d a t a i s c o n s i d e r e d
t o b e t h e m o st e x p e n s i ve p a r t o f t h e s y st e m d e s i g n . S i n c e
t h e i np u t s h ave t o b e p l a n n e d i n s u c h a m a n n e r a s s o a s
t o g et t h e r e l e v a n t i n fo r m a t i o n e x t r e m e c a r e i s t a ke n t o
o b t a i n t h e i n fo r m a t i o n . I f t h e d a t a g o i n g i n t o t h e s y st e m i s
incorrect then the processing and outputs will magnify
t h e s e e r r o r s . I np u t d e s i g n i s t h e p r o c e s s o f c o n ve r t i n g t h e
user
based

oriented

d e s c r i pt i o n

business

s y st e m s

of

the

into

i np u t s

to

programmer

computer
or iented

s p e c i fi c a t i o n . I n a c c u r a t e i np u t i s t h e m o st c o m m o n c a u s e
o f d a t a p r o c e s s i n g e r r o r s . I f t h e i np u t d e s i g n i s p o o r,
p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e r e o p e r a t o r s m u st e n t e r d a t a f r o m s o u r c e
documents per mits bad dat a to enter a computer system.
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T h e m a i n o b j e c t i v e o f t h e i np u t d e s i g n i s t o s p e c i f y h ow
t h e i n fo r m a t i o n i s p u t i n t o a fo r m t h a t i s a c c e pt a b l e t o t h e
c o m p u t e r.

E a c h S c r e e n m u st h ave i t s ow n s et o f c o m m a n d b u t t o n s ,
l a b e l s et c p r o v i d e d by t h e s y st e m i n t h e i np u t d e s i g n , u s e r
o r g a n i z e d i np u t s a r e c o n ve r t e d i n t o c o m p u t e r b a s e d fo r m a t
i np u t d e s i g n , t h e e m p h a s i s o n p r o d u c i n g t h e h a r d c o py o f
t h e i n fo r m a t i o n r e q u e st e d o r d i s p l ay i n g t h e o u t p u t i n a
p r e d e fi n e d fo r m a t .

T h e s y st e m a l s o n e e d s t o i n c l u d e a p p r o p r i a t e m e s s a g e s
w h i c h e n s u r e t h a t t h e u s e r c a n u n d e r st o o d t h e c o n t e x t .
T h e i np u t d a t a i s v a l i d a t e d t o m i n i m i z e t h e e r r o r s i n t h e
d a t a e n t r y. U s e r i s n e v e r l e f t i n a st a t e o f c o n f u s i o n a s t o
what

is

happening;

i n st e a d

appropr iate

messages

and

a c k n ow l e d g e m e n t m e s s a g e s a r e d i s p l ay e d
The major activities car r ied out are
Collection of needed data from the source
C o n v e r s i o n o f d a t a i n t o c o m p u t e r a c c e pt e d fo r m
Ve r i fi c a t i o n o f c o n v e r t e d d a t a
C h e c k i n g d a t a fo r a c c u r a c y

T h e fo l l ow i n g a r e m a j o r i np u t s c r e e n s u s e d fo r O N L I N E
L I B R A R Y M A N AG E M E N T S Y S T E M

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Login
T h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e s y st e m i s m a i n l y c o n t r o l l e d by t h i s
fo r m . T h e i np u t h e r e i s a u s e r n a m e a n d a p a s s w o r d . O n l y
a person wit h valid user name and password can access t he
system. Aut hor ized users are provided wit h user name and
password.

N e w U s e r R e g i st r a t i o n
T h r o u g h t h i s fo r m a p e r s o n c a n s u b m i t a r e q u e st t o t h e
librarian
should

fo r

the

provide

access
the

permission

required

of

the

i n fo r m a t i o n

s y st e m .
as

per

He
the

r e g i st r a t i o n fo r m . I f t h e l i b r a r i a n a c c e pt s t h e r e q u e st , h e
w i l l g et p r i v i l e g e t o a c c e s s t h e l i b r a r y s y st e m .
A d d B o o k D et a i l s
B e fo r e l et t i n g a u s e r t o l e n d a b o o k f r o m t h e l i b r a r y, w e
n e e d t o ke e p t h e l i st o f i t e m s av a i l a b l e i n t h e l i b r a r y. B y
p r o v i d i n g t h e i n fo r m a t i o n s p e c i fi e d a s p e r t h i s fo r m , w e
can add a new book to t he librar y system.

Search Document
T h e b o o k s av a i l a b l e i n t h e l i b r a r y c a n b e s e a r c h e d i n
d i ff e r e n t w ay s by p r o v i d i n g e i t h e r a u t h o r n a m e , t i t l e o r
b ot h .

5.5. Output Design

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The

output

is

m o st

impor t ant

and

direct

source

of

i n fo r m a t i o n t o t h e u s e r. T h e o u t p u t s h o u l d b e p r o v i d e d i n
a m o st e ffi c i e n t fo r m a t t e d w ay. A n e ffi c i e n t a n d i n t e l l i g e n t
o u t p u t o f t h e s y st e m i m p r o v e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b et w e e n
the user and help in decision making.

The

output

fo r m

of

an

i n fo r m a t i o n

system

should

a c c o m p l i s h o n e o r m o r e o f t h e fo l l ow i n g o b j e c t i v e s .
C o n v e y i n fo r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e p a st a c t i v i t i e s , u r g e n t
st a t u s o r p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e f u t u r e
Signal

impor t ant

e ve n t s ,

opportunities

problem

or

warning
Tr i g g e r a n a c t i o n
C o n fi r m a n a c t i o n
The output design has been done so that the results of
p r o c e s s i n g s h o u l d n e c o m m u n i c a t e d t o t h e u s e r. E ff e c t i v e
o u t p u t d e s i g n w i l l i m p r o ve t h e c l a r i t y a n d p e r fo r m a n c e o f
o u t p u t s . O u t p u t i s t h e m a i n r e a s o n fo r d e ve l o p i n g t h e
system

and t he basis on which t hey

will evaluate t he

usefulness of the application.

Output design phase of t he system is concer ned wit h t he


Convergence

of

i n fo r m a t i o n

to

the

end

u s e r-

friendly

m a n n e r. T h e o u t p u t d e s i g n s h o u l d b e e ffi c i e n t , i n t e l l i g i b l e
s o t h a t s y st e m r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e e n d u s e r i s i m p r o ve d
a n d t h e r e by e n h a n c i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f d e c i s i o n m a k i n g .
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The

main

output

environment

in

the

ONLINE

LIBRARY

M A N AG E M E N T S Y S T E M

Librarian
Main

output

fo r

the

librarian

include

viewing

the

b o o k d et a i l s i n d i ff e r e n t w ay l i ke l o st b o o k , i s s u e d b o o k s
et c , v i e w i n g t h e u s e r d et a i l s . T h e m a i n f u n c t i o n s l i ke
i s s u e , r e i s s u i n g , r et u r n i n g a r e p e r fo r m e d by t h e l i b r a r i a n .
F i n e c a l c u l a t i o n i s a l s o d o n e by t h e l i b r a r i a n . H e c a n a l s o
p o st r e p l i e s fo r t h e c o m m e n t s p o s t e d by t h e u s e r s .

Student
M a i n o u t p u t m o d u l e s fo r t h e st u d e n t u s e r a r e . T h e y c a n
view t heir issued books. They can also view t hose books
w h i c h h ave r u n o u t o f d u e d a t e . T h e y c a n v i e w t h e i r fi n e
d et a i l s . O n e o f t h e m a i n fe a t u r e i s t h a t t h e y c a n r e s e r v e
the book online
Te a c h e r
M a i n o u t p u t m o d u l e s fo r t h e f a c u l t y i n t h e L i b r a r y
M a n a g e m e n t S y st e m i s s a m e a s t h a t o f st u d e n t s . T h e y a r e
a b l e t o v i e w t h e i r a c c o u n t i n fo r m a t i o n , t h e i r i s s u e s . T h e y
c a n a l s o s e a r c h fo r b o o k s i n t h e l i b r a r y. E xc e pt t h e fe a t u r e
fi n e m a n a g e m e n t o f st u d e n t a l l ot h e r i s i n c l u d e d h e r e .

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SYSTEM TESTING

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SYSTEM TESTING
S o f t w a r e t e st i n g i s a n i m p o r t a n t d i s c i p l i n e , a n d c o n s u m e s
s i g n i fi c a n t , a m o u n t o f e ff o r t . A p r o p e r st r a t e g y i s r e q u i r e d
to

carr y

out

t e st i n g

activities

s y st e m a t i c a l l y

and

e ff e c t i ve l y. T h u s t e st i n g st r a t e g y p r o v i d e s a f r a m e w o r k o r
s et o f a c t i v i t i e s , w h i c h a r e e s s e n t i a l fo r t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e
project.

This

m ay

include

planning,

designing

of

t e st

c a s e s , e xe c u t i o n o f p r o g r a m w i t h t e st c a s e s , i n t e r p r et a t i o n
o f t h e o u t c o m e a n d fi n a l l y c o l l e c t i o n a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f
data.

Te st i n g i s a m a j o r q u a l i t y c o n t r o l m e a s u r e u s e d d u r i n g
s o f t w a r e d e v e l o p m e n t . I t s b a s i c f u n c t i o n i s t o d et e c t e r r o r s
i n t h e s o f t w a r e . E ff e c t i ve s o f t w a r e t e st i n g w i l l c o n t r i b u t e
to t he deliver y of higher quality software products, more
s a t i s fi e d u s e r s , l ow e r m a i n t e n a n c e c o st s , m o r e a c c u r a t e ,
a n d r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s . H ow e ve r i n e ff e c t i v e t e st i n g w i l l l e a d
to

the

opposite

results.

Hence

software

t e st i n g

is

n e c e s s a r y a n d i m p o r t a n t a c t i v i t y o f s o f t w a r e d e ve l o p m e n t
process.

T h e t e st i n g p r o c e s s st a r t s w i t h a t e st p l a n t h a t i d e n t i fi e s
a l l t h e t e st i n g r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s t h a t m u st b e p e r f o r m e d
and

s p e c i fi e s

species

the

guidelines

schedule;
fo r

allocate

t e st i n g .

the

Te s t

resources
plan

and

s p e c i fi e s
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c o n d i t i o n s t h a t s h o u l d b e t e st e d , d i ff e r e n t u n i t s t o b e
t e st e d

and

integrated

the

manner

t o g et h e r.

s p e c i fi c a t i o n

in

Fo r

document

which

d i ff e r e n t
is

the
t e st

produced,

modules
units

which

will

t e st

l i st

all

be

case
the

d i ff e r e n t t e st c a s e s w i t h t h e e x p e c t e d o u t p u t . D u r i n g t h e
t e st i n g o f u n i t t h e s p e c i fi e d t e st c a s e s a r e e xe c u t e d a n d
t h e r e s u l t i s c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e e x p e c t e d o u t p u t . T h e fi n a l
o u t p u t o f t h e t e st i n g p h a s e i s t h e t e st r e p o r t a n d e r r o r
r e p o r t . E a c h t e st r e p o r t c o n t a i n s t h e s et o f t e st c a s e s a n d
t h e r e s u l t o f e xe c u t i n g t h e c o d e w i t h t h e s e t e st c a s e s .
Error report

w i l l h ave t h e e r r o r s e n c o u n t e r e d

and the

a c t i o n t a ke n t o r e m o v e t h e e r r o r s .

6 . 1 . Te st T y p e s
Te st i n g t y p e i n c l u d e ,
6 . 1 . 1 Un i t t e st i n g
Un i t t e st i n g fo c u s e s o n t h e s m a l l e st u n i t o f s o f t w a r e
d e s i g n o f t h e m o d u l e . T h e m o d u l e s o f t h e s y st e m a r e
s e p a r a t e d a n d t e st e d . D u r i n g p r o g r a m m i n g st a g e , u n i t
t e st i n g i s c a r r i e d o u t . E a c h m o d u l e i s fo u n d t o w o r k
satisfactor ily wit h t he output expected from it.
T h e u n i t t e st i n g i s i m p l e m e n t e d by c r e a t i n g s e v e r a l u s e r s
a n d a l l ow i n g t h e m t o u s e a l l i n d i v i d u a l m o d u l e s . T h u s t h e

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u n i t t e st i n g i s s u c c e s s f u l l y c o m p l et e d . T h e n e x t st e p i s
i n t e g r a t i o n t e st i n g .
6 . 1 . 2 I n t e g r a t i o n t e st i n g
T h e o b j e c t i ve o f i n t e g r a t i o n t e st i n g i s t o t a ke t h e u n i t
t e st e d m o d u l e s a n d t o b u i l d p r o g r a m st r u c t u r e . D a t a c a n
b e l o st a c r o s s a n i n t e r f a c e . O n e m o d u l e c a n h ave a d ve r s e
e ff e c t o n o n e a n ot h e r. S u b f u n c t i o n s w h e n c o m b i n e d d o
n ot p r o d u c e t h e d e s i r e d g o a l . I n t e g r a t i o n t e st i n g i s d o n e t o
c r e a t e a p r o g r a m st r u c t u r e u n c o ve r i n g t h e e r r o r s a c r o s s
an inter face. All t he modules are combined tested as a
whole.
6 . 1 . 3 S y st e m t e st i n g
A c o m m o n p a t t e r n i n t e st i n g i s t h a t w e e v a l u a t e a p r o d u c t
in ter ms
o f o u r e x p e c t a t i o n s ; n ot w i t h r e s p e c t t o a s p e c i fi c a t i o n o r
a st a n d a r d . C o n s e q u e n t l y, t h e g o a l i s n ot t o fi n d f a u l t s ,
b u t t o d e m o n st r a t e p e r fo r m a n c e . B e c a u s e o f t h i s w e t e n d
t o a p p r o a c h s y st e m t e st i n g f r o m a f u n c t i o n a l st a n d p o i n t
r a t h e r t h a n f r o m a st r u c t u r a l o n e . H e r e s u b s y st e m s a r e
i n t e g r a t e d t o g et h e r t o fo r m t h e s y s t e m . I n s y st e m t e st i n g
t h e s y st e m i s t e st e d a ga i n st t h e s y s t e m r e q u i r e m e n t s t o
s e e i f a l l t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e m et a n d i f t h e s y st e m
p e r fo r m s a s s p e c i fi e d by t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s .

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6 . 1 . 4 Va l i d a t i o n t e st i n g
A f t e r t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n t e g r a t i o n t e st i n g , t h e
s o l u t i o n i s c o m p l et e l y a s s e m b l e d a s a p a c k a g e . A f t e r t h e
i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e m o d u l e s t h e v a l i d a t i o n t e st i n g fo r t h e
s y s t e m st a r t s . T h e v a l i d a t i o n s u c c e e d s w h e n t h e s o f t w a r e
functions in a manner t hat can be responsively expected.
A f t e r t h e v a l i d a t i o n t e st o n e o f t h e t h r e e p o s s i b l e
c o n d i t i o n s e x i st s :
T h e f u n c t i o n o r p e r fo r m a n c e c h a r a c t e r i st i c s
c o n fi r m e d t o t h e s p e c i fi c a t i o n a c c e pt e d .
A d e v i a t i o n f r o m t h e s p e c i fi c a t i o n i s o c c u r s a n d a
d e fi c i e n c y l i st i s c r e a t e d .
6 . 1 . 4 . 1 W h i t e B ox Te st i n g

W h i t e b ox t e st i n g , s o m et i m e s c a l l e d g l a s s - b ox t e st i n g , i s
a t e st c a s e d e s i g n p h i l o s o p hy t h a t u s e s t h e c o n t r o l
st r u c t u r e d e s c r i b e d a s p a r t o f c o m p o n e n t - l e ve l d e s i g n t o
d e r i ve t e st c a s e s .
U s i n g W h i t e b ox t e st i n g m et h o d s i t c a n b e e n s u r e d t h a t :
All independent

paths

within a

m o d u l e h ave

been

e xe r c i s e d a t l e a st o n c e
E xe r c i s e a l l l o g i c a l d e c i s i o n s .
E xe c u t e a l l l o o p s a t t h e i r b o u n d a r i e s a n d w i t h i n t h e i r
operational bounds.
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E xe r c i s e

inter nal

data

st r u c t u r e s

to

ensure

their

v a l i d i t y.

6.1.4.2

Black

B l a c k B ox Te st i n g

B ox

Te st i n g

is

t e st i n g

without

k n ow l e d g e

inter nal workings of t he item being tested.

of

the

Fo r e x a m p l e ,

w h e n b l a c k b ox t e st i n g i s a p p l i e d t o s o f t w a r e e n g i n e e r i n g ,
t h e t e s t e r w o u l d o n l y k n ow t h e " l e g a l " i np u t s a n d w h a t t h e
expected

outputs should be,

b u t n ot

a c t u a l l y a r r i ve s a t t h o s e o u t p u t s .
that

black

b ox

t e st i n g

can

be

h ow t h e p r o g r a m

It is because of this

considered

t e st i n g

with

r e s p e c t t o t h e s p e c i fi c a t i o n s , n o ot h e r k n ow l e d g e o f t h e
p r o g r a m i s n e c e s s a r y.

6 . 1 . 5 U s e r a c c e pt a n c e t e st i n g
U s e r a c c e pt a n c e t e st i n g i s t h e ke y fe a t u r e fo r t h e s u c c e s s
o f a ny s y st e m . T h e u s e r a c c e pt a n c e t e st i n g c a n b e c h e c ke d
by t h e a c c e pt a n c e o f t h e fo l l ow i n g :
I np u t S c r e e n D e s i g n
Output Screen Design
Message to guide t he user

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6 . 2 . Te st C a s e s
1. Login

Obser ved

Input

Expected Output

Va l i d u s e r n a m e

Successful login

Output
Successful login

& password
Invalid

Un s u c c e s s f u l

Un s u c c e s s f u l

username &

login

login

password

2 . Vi e w d i ff e re n t b o o k d e t a i l s

Input

Expected Output

Obser ved
Output

D et a i l s o f t h e

Successfully

Successfully

books in the

d i s p l ay t h e

d i s p l ay t h e

librar y can be

results

results
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v i e w e d i n m a ny
w ay s s u c h a s
issued books,
r e s e r ve d b o o k s ,
l o st b o o k s .

D et a i l s

o f t h e st u d e n t w h o
is holding a
par ticular book
can also be viewed

3 . Vi e w D i ff e re n t U s e r D e t a i l s

Input

Expected Output

Obser ved
Output

D et a i l s o f t h e

Successfully

Successfully

users such as

d i s p l ay t h e

d i s p l ay t h e

authorized users,

results

results

unauthor ized
u s e r s , r e st r i c t e d
users
4 . Ad d B o o k D e t a i l s

Input

Expected Output

Obser ved
Output

New book entr y to

Successfully

Successfully

the librar y

added

added
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5 . Ad d Ne w U s e r

Input

Expected Output

Obser ved
Output

N e w u s e r r e q u e st

Successfully

Successfully

is placed

added

added

6 . S e a rc h i n g

Input

Expected Output

Obser ved

B o o k d et a i l s i s

Successfully

Output
Successfully

provided

d i s p l ay t h e

d i s p l ay t h e

results

results

7. Issuing

Input

Expected Output

Obser ved
Output
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B o o k d et a i l s a n d

Book issued

Book issued

u s e r d et a i l s i s
provided.
8 . Re t u r n i n g

Input
B o o k d et a i l s a n d
u s e r d et a i l s i s

Expected Output

Obser ved

Fine calculated,

Output
Fine

b o o k r et u r n e d

calculated,

provided.

book
r et u r n e d

9 . Re i s s u e

Input
B o o k d et a i l s a n d

Expected Output
Book is reissued

u s e r d et a i l s i s

Obser ved
Output
Book is
reissued

provided.

10. Deleting Details


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Input
P a s s o u t ye a r

Expected Output

Obser ved

Successfully

Output
Successfull

d e l et e d t h e d et a i l s

y d e l et e d
t h e d et a i l s

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IMPLEMENTATION
AND MAINTANANCE

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IMPLEMENTATION & MAINTANANCE

7 . 1 . I mp l e m e n t a t i o n
I m p l e m e n t a t i o n p h a s e i s t h e p h a s e , w h i c h i n vo l ve s t h e
p r o c e s s o f c o n ve r t i n g a n e w s y st e m d e s i g n i n t o a n
o p e r a t i o n a l o n e . I t i s t h e ke y st a g e i n a c h i e v i n g a
s u c c e s s f u l n e w s y st e m .
I m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s t h e st a g e i f t h e p r o j e c t , w h e r e t h e
t h e o r et i c a l d e s i g n i s t u r n e d i n t o a w o r k i n g s y st e m . A t t h i s
st a g e t h e m a i n w o r k l o a d , t h e g r e a t e st u p h e a l a n d t h e
m a j o r i m p a c t o n e x i st i n g p r a c t i c e s s h i f t t o u s e r
d e p a r t m e n t . I f t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n st a g e i s n ot p l a n n e d
a n d c o n t r o l l e r s c a r e f u l l y, I t c a n c a u s e c h a o s .
T h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n st a g e i s a s y st e m p r o j e c t i n i t s ow n
r i g h t . I t i n vo l v e s c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g , i n ve st i g a t i o n o f t h e
c u r r e n t s y s t e m a n d i t s c o n st r a i n t s o n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ,
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d e s i g n m et h o d s t o a c h i e v e t h e c h a n g e o ve r p r o c e d u r e s ,
a n d e v a l u a t i o n o f c h a n g e o ve r m et h o d s .
T h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p l a n c o n s i st s o f t h e fo l l ow i n g
st e p s
Te st i n g t h e d e v e l o p e d s y st e m w i t h i n t h e s a m p l e d a t a
D et e c t i o n a n d c o r r e c t i o n o f e r r o r s
Making necessar y changes in t he system
Tr a i n i n g a n d i n vo l ve m e n t o f u s e r p e r s o n n e l
I n st a l l a t i o n o f

software utilities

Implement ation Procedures


T h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p h a s e i s l e s s c r e a t i ve t h a n s y st e m
d e s i g n . A s y s t e m p r o j e c t m ay b e d r o p p e d a t a ny t i m e p r i o r
t o t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , a l t h o u g h i t b e c o m e s m o r e d i ffi c u l t
w h e n i t g o e s t o t h e d e s i g n p h a s e . T h e fi n a l r e p o r t t o t h e
implement ation phase includes procedural char ts record
l ayo u t a n d a w o r k a b l e p l a n fo r i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e c a n d i d a t e
system. Implement ation is used to t he process of
c o n ve r t i n g a n e w o r r e v i s e d s y st e m d e s i g n i n t o a m
o p e r a t i o n a l o n e . C o n ve r s i o n i s o n e a s p e c t o f
implement ation. Several procedures are unique to t he
implement ation phase.
Conversion begins wit h a review of t he project plan, t he
s y s t e m t e st d o c u m e n t a t i o n , a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p l a n . T h e

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p a r t i e s i n vo l v e d a r e t h e u s e r, t h e p r o j e c t t e a m ,
programmers and operators

The conversion por tion of implement ation plan is


fi n a l i z e d a n d a p p r o v e d

P a r a l l e l p r o c e s s i n g b et w e e n t h e e x i st i n g a n d t h e n e w
system is initialized.

Assuming the problems, parallel processing is


discontinued. Implement ation results are documented
fo r p r e fe r e n c e .

C o n v e r s i o n i s c o m p l et e d . P l a n s fo r t h e p o st
i m p l e m e n t a t i o n r e v i e w a r e p r e p a r e d . Fo l l ow i n g t h e
r e v i e w, t h e n e w s y st e m i s o ffi c i a l l y o p e r a t i o n a l .

User training
A f t e r t h e s y st e m i s i m p l e m e n t e d s u c c e s s f u l l y, t r a i n i n g o f
t h e u s e r i s o n e o f t h e m o st i m p o r t a n t s u b t a s k s o f t h e
d e ve l o p e r. Fo r t h i s p u r p o s e u s e r s a r e t r a i n e d t o o p e r a t e
t h e d e ve l o p e d s y st e m . B ot h t h e h a r d w a r e a n d s o f t w a r e
s e c u r i t i e s a r e m a d e t o r u n t h e d e ve l o p e d s y s t e m
successfully in future. User manuals are prepared and
provided to t he users.
D e ve l o p m e n t r e s e a r c h p r o v i d e s i n t e r e st i n g i n s i g h t s i n t o
h ow t h e c o m p u t e r u s e r s t h i n k a b o u t t h e i r e x p o s u r e t o t h e
n e w s y st e m
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A n a l y st s h o u l d p o s e a n a c c u r a t e i d e a o f t h e u s e r s t h a t
n e e d t o b e t r a i n e d . T h e y m u st k n ow w h a t t h e i r r o l e s w i l l
b e , a n d h ow t h e y c a n u s e t h e s y s t e m a n d w h a t t h e s y st e m
w i l l d o , a n d w h a t t h e s y st e m w i l l n ot d o .
T h e t r a i n i n g c o u l d c o ve r :

Fa m i l i a r i z a t i o n w i t h t h e s y s t e m i t s e l f

Tr a i n i n g i n u s i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n , i . e . t h e s o f t w a r e
application

G o o d c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l , b u t t h i s c a n n ot
replace training

T h e r e i s n o s u b st i t u t e fo r h a n d s o n o p e r a t i o n o f t h e
system while lear ning its use

Conversion
Conversion is t he process of changing from t he old system
t o t h e n e w o r m o d i fi e d o n e . C o n ve r s i o n s h o u l d b e
a c c o m p l i s h e d q u i c k l y a s d e l ay s a n d l o n g c o n ve r s i o n
p e r i o d s c a u s e f r u st r a t i o n a n d t h e t a s k o f a l l i n vo l ve d
i n c l u d i n g t h e a n a l y st a n d t h e u s e r b e c o m e s m o r e d i ffi c u l t
C o n v e r s i o n p l a n s h o u l d b e fo r m u l a t e d i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h
t h e u s e r s . T h e c o n ve r s i o n p l a n i n c l u d e s a d e s c r i pt i o n a l l
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a c t i v i t i e s t h a t m u st o c c u r t o i m p l e m e n t t h e n e w s y s t e m
a n d i t p u t i n t o o p e r a t i o n . T h i s i n c l u d e s i d e n t i fi c a t i o n o f
p e o p l e r e s p o n s i b l e a n d t i m et a b l e fo r e a c h a c t i v i t y t h a t i s
to be car r ied out.
D u r i n g t h e p l a n n i n g o f c o n ve r s i o n , t h e a n a l y st s h o u l d
fo r m a l i st c o n t a i n i n g a l l t a s k s i n c l u d i n g t h e fo l l ow i n g :

L i st a l l i t e m s fo r c o n ve r s i o n

I d e n t i f y i n g a l l d a t a r e q u i r e d t o b u i l d n e w c o n ve r s i o n

Identify t he all controls to be used dur ing conversion

Ve r i f y c o n v e r s i o n s c h e d u l e

The conversion plan should anticipate possible problems


a n d w ay s t o d e a l w i t h t h e m .
S y st e m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n m o ve s t h e s y st e m c l o s e r t o
r e a l i z a t i o n . S y st e m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s t h e t h i r d p h a s e i f
t h e s y st e m p r o c e s s t h e t i m e w h e r e t h e p r o g r a m s a r e
w r i t t e n , t e st e d a n d i n st a l l e d . S i n c e a n o r g a n i z a t i o n h a s
invested
Here this

activity is actually concer ned with the

d e ve l o p m e n t o f s o f t w a r e . I t i n c l u d e s v a r i o u s o p e r a t i o n s :
Programming
Te st i n g

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Integration of modules into a progressively more
c o m p l et e s y st e m .

7 . 2 SY S T E M S E C U R I T Y M E A S U R E S
A ny s y st e m d e ve l o p e d s h o u l d b e s e c u r e d a n d p r ot e c t e d
a g a i n st p o s s i b l e h a z a r d s . T h e s y st e m m ay h ave t o f a c e t h e
u nw a n t e d e v e n t s c a l l e d t h r e a t s . C o m p u t e r s y st e m i s
s e c u r e a g a i n st a p a r t i c u l a r t h r e a t i f c o u n t e r m e a s u r e h ave
b e e n t a ke n t o r e d u c e a n a c c e pt a b i l i t y l ow - l e ve l a m o u n t o f
l o s s t h a t t h e t h r e a t m ay b e e x p e c t e d t o c a u s e o ve r a g i ve n
per iod of time. The secur ity problem can be divided into
fo u r r e l a t e d i s s u e s : s e c u r i t y, i n t e g r i t y, p r i v a c y a n d
c o n fi d e n t i a l i t y. T h e s e p r o b l e m s m ay a d ve r s e l y a ff e c t t h e
ability of t he computer system car r y out its intended
tasks.

7.2.1 SYSTEM SECURIT Y


S y st e m s e c u r i t y r e fe r s t o t h e t e c h n i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s a n d
procedures applied to the hard wares and operating
s y s t e m t o p r ot e c t a g a i n st d e l i b e r a t e o r a c c i d e n t a l d a m a g e
f r o m a d e fi n e d t h r e a t . I n c o n t r a st , d a t a s e c u r i t y i s t h e
p r ot e c t i o n o f d a t a f r o m l o s s , d i s c l o s u r e , m o d i fi c a t i o n a n d
d e st r u c t i o n . T h e s e c u r i t y fe a t u r e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d w h i l e
d e ve l o p i n g t h e s y st e m , s o a s t o avo i d t h e e r r o r s a n d
o m i s s i o n s t h a t m ay l e a d t o s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s .
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7.2.2 SYSTEM INTEGRIT Y


S y st e m i n t e g r i t y r e fe r s t o t h e p r o p e r f u n c t i o n i n g o f
h a r d w a r e a n d p r o g r a m s , a p p r o p r i a t e p hy s i c a l s e c u r i t y,
a n d s a fet y a ga i n st e x t e r n a l t h r e a t s . A t h r e a t t o a c o m p u t e r
s y s t e m i s a ny e v e n t t h a t a d ve r s e l y a ff e c t s t h e o n e o r m o r e
a s s et s o r r e s o u r c e s , w h i c h m a ke u p t h e s y st e m . A n e v e n t
c a n b e a ny o f t h e fo l l ow i n g

I n t e r r u pt i o n o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n
D e st r u c t i o n o f H a r d w a r e .
M o d i fi c a t i o n o f s o f t w a r e .
Removal of programs.
D i s c l o s u r e o f i n fo r m a t i o n .
T h e r e a r e m a ny m et h o d s fo r h a n d l i n g a t h r e a t
Avo i d i t by a l t e r i n g t h e d e s i g n .
T h r e a t r et e n t i o n
Threat reduction
I n c o m p a r i s o n , d a t a i n t e g r i t y m a ke s s u r e t h a t d a t a
d o n t d i ff e r f r o m t h e i r o r i g i n a l fo r m a n d h ave b e e n
accidentally or intentionally disclosed, altered or
d e st r oye d .

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7 . 2 . 3 P R I VAC Y
P r i v a c y d e fi n e s t h e r i g h t s o f t h e u s e r s o r o r g a n i z a t i o n t o
d et e r m i n e w h a t i n fo r m a t i o n t h e y a r e w i l l i n g t o s h a r e w i t h
or

a c c e pt

from

p r ot e c t e d

ot h e r s

a ga i n st

and

h ow

u nw e l c o m e ,

organization
unfair

or

can

be

e x c e s s i ve

d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n fo r m a t i o n a b o u t i t .

7.2.4CONFIDENTIALIT Y
The

ter m

c o n fi d e n t i a l i t y

s e n s i t i ve

i n fo r m a t i o n

possible

invasion

of

is

database

in

p r i v a c y.

special

It

is

st a t u s
to

g i ve n

minimize

an

attr ibute

to
the
of

i n fo r m a t i o n t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s i t s n e e d fo r p r ot e c t i o n . I n
c o n t r a st p r i v a c y i s l a r g e l y a p r o c e d u r a l m a t t e r o f h ow
i n fo r m a t i o n i s u s e d . B y c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e s e c u r i t i e s I h ave
t a ke n s o m e p r e c a u t i o n s . T h e y a r e

P hy s i c a l s e c u r i t y o r p r ot e c t i o n f r o m fi r e , fl o o d a n d
ot h e r p hy s i c a l d a m a g e .
Data

base

integr ity

through

data

validation

techniques.
control

measures

through

passwords

on

regular

basis.

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A p r o c e d u r e fo r p r ot e c t i n g s y st e m s m a ke s u r e t h a t t h e
f a c i l i t y i s p hy s i c a l l y s e c u r e , p r o v i d e a r e c o v e r y / r e st a r t
c a p a b i l i t y , a n d h a s a c c e s s t o b a c k u p fi l e s . T h e t h r e a t o f
e x t e r n a l a t t a c k o n a c o m p u t e r s y st e m i s v i r t u a l l y l a st . T h e
l i st o f p ot e n t i a l l i st s i s e r r o r a n d o m i s s i o n s , d i s g r u n t l e d
and

d i s h o n e st

e m p l oye e s ,

fi r e ,

natural

disasters

and

exter nal att ack.

In

database

environment,

there

are

three

types

of

f a i l u r e . T h e y a r e c a t a st r o p h i c , l o g i c a l a n d st r u c t u r a l . A
c a t a st r o p h i c f a i l u r e i s o n e w h e r e p a r t o f a d a t a b a s e i s
u n r e a d a b l e . I t i s r e st o r e d u s i n g t h e r o l l fo r w a r d m et h o d o f
m e m o r y.

database

is

logical

failure

i n t e r r u pt e d

occurs

(e.g.

when

p ow e r

activity
failure)

to

the

with

no

c a u s e o f c o m p l et i n g t h e c u r r e n t l y e xe c u t i n g t r a n s a c t i o n . A
typical

example

of

st r u c t u r a l

damage

is

pointer

i n c o r r e c t l y st o r e d i n a r e c o r d t h a t p o i n t t o u n r e l a t e d o r
non-existent dat a.

The

application

st o r e s

data

in

SQL

S e r ve r

2005,

thus

s y s t e m p r o v i d e s p ow e r f u l s e c u r i t y m e a s u r e s . T h e s y s t e m i s
capable

to

cope

with

the

changes

in

the

organization

p o l i c i e s . T h e r e c o n st r u c t i o n o f t h e s y s t e m w i l l i n c r e a s e i t s
fl e x i b i l i t y.

The secur ity measures of a computer system should be


s p e c i fi e d a t a n e a r l y st a g e i n t h e d e s i g n o f t h e s y s t e m .
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D u r i n g t h e s y st e m o p e r a t i o n e a c h u s e r s h o u l d u n d e r st a n d
t h e p r o c e d u r e s r e q u i r e d t o ke e p t h e s y st e m s e c u r e . T h e r e
a r e m a ny p o s s i b l e t h r e a t s t o t h e s e c u r i t y a n d i n t e g r i t y o f
a ny s y st e m w h e r e m o r e t h a n o n e u s e r i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h
t h e s y st e m . S o f t w a r e i n t e g r i t y h a s b e c o m e i n c r e a s i n g l y
i m p o r t a n t . T h e a t t r i b u t e m e a s u r e s a s y st e m s a b i l i t y t o
w i t h st a n d a t t a c k s , b ot h a c c i d e n t a l a n d i n t e n t i o n a l o n i t s
s e c u r i t y.
Security

measures

are

provided

to

prevent

u n a u t h o r i z e d a c c e s s o f t h e s y st e m a n d t h e d a t a b a s e a t
var ious

l e ve l s .

In

this

project

the

data

s e c u r i t y,

data

v a l i d a t i o n c h e c k i n g m et h o d s a r e a p p l i e d u s i n g a p a s s w o r d
authentication.
username

and

A d m i n i st r a t o r s
password

fo r

should
the

enter

r e q u e st i n g

their
access.

Password protection and simple procedures to change t he


u n a u t h o r i z e d a c c e s s a r e p r o v i d e d t o t h e a d m i n i st r a t o r s .
T h e s y st e m a l l ow s t h e a d m i n i st r a t o r t o e n t e r t h e s y s t e m
only

7 . 3 . M a i n te n a n c e
T h e m a i n t e n a n c e - p h a s e c o n s i st s o f m a i n t e n a n c e t a s k t o
ke e p

the

product

up

and

running.

The

maintenance

i n c l u d e s a ny g e n e r a l e n h a n c e m e n t , c h a n g e s a n d a d d i t i o n s ,
w h i c h m i g h t b e r e q u i r e d by t h e e n d - u s e r s . T h e s e d e fe c t s
and

d e fi c i e n c i e s

d e ve l o p i n g

are

organization

to

usually
enable

documented
future

by

the

solutions

and
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k n ow n

issues

addressing

in

a ny

future

maintenance

releases.

Software

maintenance

is

the

process

of

modifying

s o f t w a r e s y st e m o r c o m p o n e n t a f t e r i t s d e l i v e r y i n o r d e r t o
correct

faults,

attr ibutes,

or

improve
to

the

a d a pt

to

p e r fo r m a n c e
the

changed

Maintenance covers a wide range of


correcting

the

documentation

coding
and

and

t e st

design

data,

and

and

ot h e r

environment.

activities including
errors,

updating

upgrading

the

the
user

s u p p o r t . T h e r e i s a n a g i n g p r o c e s s t h a t c a l l s fo r p e r i o d i c
maintenance of hardware and software. Maintenance

is

a l w ay s n e c e s s a r y t o ke e p t h e s o f t w a r e u s a b l e a n d u s e f u l .
H a r d w a r e a l s o r e q u i r e s p e r i o d i c m a i n t e n a n c e t o ke e p t h e
s y s t e m i n t o i t s st a n d a r d s . S o f t w a r e m a i n t e n a n c e a c t i v i t i e s
c a n b e c l a s s i fi e d i n t o :
C o r r e c t i ve m a i n t e n a n c e
A d a pt i ve m a i n t e n a n c e
P e r f e c t i ve m a i n t e n a n c e

C o r r e c t i ve m a i n t e n a n c e r e m o ve s s o f t w a r e f a u l t s .

P e r f e c t i ve
changing

maintenance
its

improves

f u n c t i o n a l i t y.

The

the

s y st e m

o b j e c t i ve

of

without
p e r fe c t i v e

m a i n t e n a n c e s h o u l d b e t o p r e ve n t f a i l u r e s a n d o pt i m i z e
the software.
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A d a pt i ve m a i n t e n a n c e m o d i fi e s t h e s o f t w a r e t o ke e p i t u p
t o d a t e w i t h i t s o p e r a t i ve e n v i r o n m e n t . I t m ay b e n e e d e d
because of changes in t he user requirements, changes in
t a r g et p l a t fo r m , o r c h a n g e s i n e x t e r n a l i n t e r f a c e s . M i n o r
a d a pt i ve

changes

should

be

handled

by

normal

m a i n t e n a n c e p r o c e s s . M a j o r a d a pt i ve c h a n g e s s h o u l d b e
c a r r i e d o u t a s , a s e p a r a t e d e ve l o p m e n t p r o j e c t .

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SCREENSHOTS

SCREENSHOTS
1.Login

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2 . L i b ra r i a n H o m e

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3 . Ad d i n g Ne w b o o k

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4 . Ne w M e m b e r Re g i st ra t i o n fo r m

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5.Issuing a book

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6 . R et u r n i n g a b o o k

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7 . Fa c u l t i e s h o m e Pa ge

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8 . S t u d e n t s h o m e Pa ge

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CONCLUSION

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CONCLUSION
O u r p r o j e c t i s o n l y a h u m b l e ve n t u r e t o s a t i s f y t h e n e e d s
i n a l i b r a r y. I t i s e ffi c i e n t s o f t w a r e t h a t i n c l u d e s a l l t h e
b a s i c f u n c t i o n a l i t i e s l i ke m a k i n g d a t a e n t r i e s fo r n e w
b o o k s , n e w s p a p e r s a n d m a ga z i n e s , r e g i st e r i n g a n e w u s e r,
e d i t i n g a n d d e l et i n g r e c o r d s t h a t a r e r e q u i r e d fo r s m o ot h
f u n c t i o n i n g o f a l i b r a r y. A d d i t i o n a l l y t h e u s e r l o g i n a n d
b o o k h i st o r y a r e a l s o st o r e d a n d c a n b e a c c e s s e d by t h e
librarian.
It also facilit ates t he librar ian to create new user groups
a n d e d i t t h e i r a c c e s s l e ve l s a n d f u n c t i o n s ( l i ke t h a t o f t h e
assist ants). Apar t from t his t he general users are also
g i ve n t h e r i g h t s t o n ot o n l y ke e p t r a c k o f t h e b o o k s t h a t
t h e y h ave i s s u e d a n d fi n e s d u e b u t t h e y t o o c a n s e a r c h fo r
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t h e b o o k s / m a g a z i n e s / n e w s p a p e r s t h a t i n t e r e st t h e m .
S e ve r a l u s e r f r i e n d l y c o d i n g h ave a l s o a d o pt e d . T h i s
p a c k a g e s h a l l p r o v e t o b e a p ow e r f u l p a c k a g e i n s a t i s f y i n g
all t he requirements of t he organization.

9 . 1 . M e r i t s o f t h e s y ste m

After

we

problems
LIBRARY

h ave
in

c o m p l et e d

the

the

e x i st i n g

project

s y st e m

MANAGEMENT

we

would

SYSTEM

are

sure

the

o ve r c o m e .

The

process

made

computer ized to reduce human er rors and to increase t he


e ffi c i e n c y.

T h e m a i n fo c u s

of this project

is to lessen

h u m a n e ff o r t s . T h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e r e c o r d s i s m a d e
e ffi c i e n t , a s a l l t h e r e c o r d s a r e st o r e d i n t h e d a t a b a s e ,
t h r o u g h w h i c h d a t a c a n b e r et r i e v e d e a s i l y.
T h e fo l l ow i n g
project

o b j e c t i ve s

has

been

achieved

with

this

I t i s u s e r f r i e n d l y, e a s y t o u s e , c a t e r s v a st u s e r s i n
v a r i o u s l i b r a r i e s , h ave g o o d d o c u m e n t a t i o n .
It

provides

multi

user

c a p a b i l i t y,

fl e x i b l e

can

be

u p g r a d e d a s p e r t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s . It has been designed


with V B . N et a s f r o n t e n d , w h i c h s e r v e s a s o n e o f t h e
b e st s o f t w a r e fo r c r e a t i o n o f fo r m s . A l l i np u t o u t p u t
s c r e e n s h ave b e e n p u t i n t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g m e n u s

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and

sub

menus.

This

menu

d r i ve n

approach

add

values to t he software.
It has been developed using modular approach. Sub
modules

are

design

and

integrated

with

the

main

m o d u l e . F i n a l l y, t h e s e m a i n m o d u l e s a r e c o m b i n e d
w i t h t h e o v e r a l l p r o j e c t t h u s e l i m i n a t i n g by p a s s o f
e ve n a m i n o r r e q u i r e m e n t s o f u s e r.
B e fo r e t h e u s e o f t h i s s o f t w a r e , t h e u s e r i s b e i n g
p r o v i d e d a u t h e n t i c a t i o n fo r e a c h m o d u l e . U s e r c a n
operate

only

those

modules

fo r

which

he

has

authentication.
This

software

will

be

used

fo r

computer ization

of

B o o k s S e a r c h . I t w i l l b e u s e d a s m a n a g e m e n t t o o l fo r
var ious activities in t he librar ies. More precisely it
w i l l b e u s e d t o a u t o m a t e v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s i n l i b r a r y.

9.2 Future Scope


This application be easily implemented under var ious
s i t u a t i o n s . We c a n a d d n e w fe a t u r e s a s a n d w h e n w e
require. Reusability is possible as and when required in
t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n . T h e r e i s fl e x i b i l i t y i n a l l m o d u l e s .
S o m e o f t h e fe a t u r e s t h a t c a n b e i n c l u d e d a r e :

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C a n p r o v i d e f r e e a s w e l l r e st r i c t e d a c c e s s t o a
particular group of user in accordance with the
librarians wish and rule.
Purchase of books t hrough online is one of t he main
s c o p e o f L i b r a r y M a n a g e m e n t S y st e m i n f u t u r e .

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Data Base System Concepts by Avi Silberschatz, Henry F Korth,
S Sudarshan
2. Software Engineering by K.K. Aggarwal & Yogesh Singh, New Age
International Publishers
3. www.codeproject.com
4. www.google.co.in
5. www.guruji.com
6. www.wikiepedia.com

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