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SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT

Number 3 June 1994

While bicycles are


being banned in
Central Chinese Cities...
p.14

Pedicabs come
to New York
p.10

Also inside:
Car Culture Invades
Eastern Europe p. 4

Women “Mobilized”
in Africa p. 6
SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT has been
Dismantling the Apartheid City nominated for a Right Livelihood Award
in South Africa p. 8 and for Best New Publication by UTNE Reader.

“Car Trouble”
in The Philippines p. 12
SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT

Sustainable Transportation:
Are We Winning the Battle But Losing the War?

Letter from the Executive Director and Program Director

Much of ITDP’s efforts in the past year for funding non-motorized transport pro- impacts. Meanwhile, MDB-subsidized
have been dedicated to reforming the jects in Peru, Sierra Leone, Mozambique, highway construction continues unabat-
nature of transport-sector lending by India, Chile, Ghana, Mali, and Tunisia. ed. Thus, we could be winning the battle
Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) This is indeed significant progress and we and yet losing the war.
like the World Bank. The MDB Transport can all be proud of having helped to bring ITDP has also launched a “Sustainable
Sector Task Force, which was set up last about this change. Human Settlements” Initiative. Low
year by the U.S. Department of Treasury The World Bank has also agreed to income neighborhoods and squatter set-
at the urging of ITDP, EDF, IIEC, and the look at the economic assessment proce- tlements continue to be bulldozed in
U.S. E.P.A., has been the central vehicle dures they use to make transportation order to make room for new highways
for this effort. The Task Force has been investment decisions. ITDP’s recent pub- that are primarily used by high income
helping advise the U.S. Treasury and the lication Counting on Cars, Counting Out motorists, simultaneously aggravating
U.S. Executive Director of the World Bank People, is a thorough review of how cur- the shortage of low income housing. The
on how to vote on particular projects and rent procedures are biased in favor of pri- spread of low density squatter settle-
programs of the World Bank. ITDP and vate cars and against other forms of trans- ments at the periphery of many large
the Task Force have been pressing for a port. We are still hopeful that these meth- cities in developing countries is being dri-
fundamental review of MDB transport ods will be fundamentally revised, rather ven by two processes: the displacement of
sector lending for a long time, to serve as than merely tinkered with. low income people from central cities and
a guide to future policy. This document While very encouraged by these a general lack of affordable housing. The
was intended to evaluate the impact that developments, we are, however, con- fact that these settlements are informal
the World Bank’s transport sector lending cerned that the increasing MDB support also means that most of them do not have
has had on their broad development goals for non-motorized transport projects is proper sewage, drainage, or garbage col-
of economic development, meeting basic indirectly related to efforts to simply pri- lection, leading to serious problems of
human needs, and promoting environ- vatize public rail and transit systems as a disease and water pollution. These
mental sustainability. It was the view of panacea for addressing transport prob- sprawling low density settlements are
most of the Task Force that past World lems. The new World Development Report extremely expensive to retrofit with infra-
Bank lending had fallen short in meeting and probably the Transport Sector structure and are trapping millions of
these goals, and that a new policy direc- Review as well, are likely to strongly pro- people in a costly dependence on long-
tion needed to be outlined. mote the privatization of public bus and distance bus commutes. Higher density
The Transport Sector Review is cur- rail lines, while leaving unaddressed the publicly-subsidized housing closer to city
rently being drafted by World Bank staff, massive public subsidies to road and centers would allow people to walk or
and initial copies of the draft were circu- highway infrastructure. While the long bicycle to work, but the withdrawal of
lated to the Task Force for comment. We term impacts of privatization are much funds for low income housing has made it
expect the Bank to open up the next draft debated, one likely result is increasing difficult for governments to encourage a
to a wider audience for comment. The public transit fares, decreased ridership, more environmentally sustainable pattern
World Bank deserves credit for making and the loss of service to low volume and of human settlements.
this process far more open to outsiders low income areas. This assessment has driven ITDP to
than is normally the case. They also Our concern is that the bicycle projects seek common cause with the Habitat
deserve credit for their recent cover arti- will be used as political cover for a broad- International Coalition, (HIC) the world’s
cles promoting non-motorized transport er privatization agenda which is likely to largest coalition of housing rights advo-
in Bank’s World and World Bank News, and have negative environmental and equity cates. A vast network of housing-oriented

On the 10th anniversary of ITDP's first project, “Bikes Not Bombs”, ITDP would like to
thank our over 2000 supporters who have kept the struggle alive. Our particular thanks
go to the Turner Foundation and the New Land Foundation for their continuing support.

2
JUNE 1994

C o n t e n t s
Number 3 June 1994
Sustainable TRANSPORT
is a publication of:
Articles: The Institute for
Transportation and Development Policy
Eastern Europe: 4 611 Broadway, Rm. 616
Paving the Way to Environmental Disaster? New York, NY 10012
Tel. (212)260-8144
Women Take Back the Streets 6 Fax (212)260-7353
Overcoming Gender Obstacles to Women's Mobility in Africa Editors: Walter Hook, Brian Williams,
Karen Overton, Ney Oliveira
South Africa: 8
Dismantling the Apartheid City Art Director: Cliff Harris
Board of Directors:
The Philippines: 12 Keith Oberg, President,
The Road to Ruin Matteo Martignoni, Vice President,
Joanna Johnson, Treasurer,
Will Bicycles Be Banned in Major Chinese Cities? 14 Walter Hook, Secretary,
Big Highway Push Planned Michael Replogle,
Lisa McGowan,
Harriet Parcells,
Features: Marijke Torfs,
Robin Stallings,
Letter from ITDP's Executive Director and Program Director 2 Elliott Sclar,
Jennifer Jones,
News Briefs 10 Setty Pendakur
All views expressed in the articles in this pub-
New Titles 18 lication are the views of the authors and not
necessarily the views of ITDP. Sustainable
Bulletin Board 19 Transport welcomes submissions of articles
about non-motorized transportation and
information about sustainable transportation
activities worldwide, as well as letters and
community groups exists in developing tion-housing-environment connection. other comments.
countries, and 300 of them, from 60 coun- One of the chief accomplishments of ITDP is a non-profit research, dissemi-
tries, are directly or indirectly affiliated ITDP’s mission to the Philippines was to nation, and project-implementing agency
with HIC. In the Fall of 1993, ITDP raise the consciousness of housing and which seeks to promote the use of non-
became a member of HIC, and attended environmental activists and public offi- motorized vehicles (NMVs) and the broad-
the organization’s annual meeting in cials from around the world of the inter- er implementation of sustainable trans-
Manila, the Philippines. Working through connectedness of the issues of housing, portation policies worldwide. ITDP is reg-
istered in the United States as a charitable
the Habitat and the Environment transportation, and the environment.
agency eligible for tax-deductible contribu-
Subcommittee headed by Peter Friedland, While NGOs struggle to pass resolutions tions under the Internal Revenue Service
ITDP presented a program entitled for the “right-to-affordable-housing”, it is code. Members include bicycle activists,
“Highways, Evictions and Resettlement” becoming clear that the right to “afford- transportation planners, economic devel-
to a large group of coalition members. able mobility” is also a critical concern for opment specialists, small businesspeople,
ITDP has also become a member of the low income people. Housing activists are environmentalists, and other professionals,
United Nations Non-Governmental often very effective in fighting for the primarily but not exclusively U.S. citizens.
Committee on Human Settlements. ITDP rights of squatters who are being evicted
recently gave presentations first to the but do not often question the underlying
Committee, and then at the Committee- automobile-oriented development para-
sponsored conference “Planning for digm which leads to the widespread evic- Cover: photos by George Bliss(above)
Sustainable Communities” at City tions in the first place. On the other hand, and Peter Meitzler (below)
University of New York. environmentalists often miss the impor-
After working together we realized tant role that insufficient investment into
that many housing activist organizations low income housing, insufficient support
Printed on recycled paper
do not immediately see the transporta- continued on p.16

3
SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT

Eastern Europe:
example, 58% of all passenger trips were
made by public transport, 31% by walking
and bicycling, and only 11% by private
car, compared to the U.S. where 86% of all
trips are made by private car. In
Paving the Way to Environmental Disaster? Czechoslovakia, 35% of all passenger trips
were made by walking or bicycling and
52% by public transport, while only 13%
of trips were made by private car. With
by Walter Hook many fewer people driving private cars,
air quality could be dramatically
Before the political transformations of were an instrumental force in the transi- improved by stricter emissions standards
1989, Eastern Europe and the former Soviet tion to democracy. and cleaner fuels.
Union had an abysmal environmental However, in face of the need to funda- The increase in private car use actually
record. The combination of inadequate pol- mentally restructure the economy, many began in the early 1980s, before the fall of
lution controls, energy inefficiency, and an of the initial environmental concerns seem communism. Between 1980 and 1990, for
over-reliance on coal for fuel led to some of to have fallen by the wayside. The new example, the number of passenger cars
the highest emission levels per unit of GNP governments seem to believe that the tran- per 1000 people increased in Poland from
in the World. In the transport sector, the sition to Western capitalism will in and of 157 to 282 and in Eastern Germany from
domestically produced two-stroke engine itself resolve the environmental problems 150 to 296. This rapid motorization had
cars such as the East German Trabant and that they face. already begun to depress the number of
the Wartburg were major sources of air Here in the West, we know better. The bicyclists in Eastern Europe. Roads are
pollution, and became a symbol of Eastern existence of free markets and a large envi- increasingly congested, air quality on the
Europe’s environmental problems. ronmental movement did not prevent the roads deteriorating and the risk of being
In other ways, however, the Eastern U.S. from becoming the most auto-depen- struck by a car is increasing dramatically,
European and former Soviet transportation dent country in the world, responsible for particularly in major cities. Until the fall of
systems had tremendous potential for long some 48% of the global CO2 emissions communism, however, these increases
term environmental sustainability. Use of that cause global warming. Roughly a had no major effect on the share of total
private cars was heavily discouraged, and quarter of these emissions come from the passenger trips made by public trans-
some of the most extensive public transit transport sector, principally cars and portation.
systems in the world were built and main- trucks. In the rush to embrace Western After 1989, however, things began to
tained. Heavy subsidies and low fares kept democracy and Western capitalism, change dramatically. In Eastern Germany
ridership on the transit systems increasing Eastern Europe is also being pushed to in the three years since unification, auto
registrations per 1000 inhabitants have
grown by 57%, while public transit rider-
In the last three years, half of Russian domestic ship has fallen by 47%! The number of
autos per 1000 inhabitants, currently at
freight has shifted from rail to truck, and public 296, is projected to increase to 458 by the
year 2000. While the changes are not as
transit ridership in Eastern Germany has fallen 47%. fast in other Eastern European countries,
motor vehicle fleets are nevertheless
increasing at the alarming rate of 6% to
into the late 1980s. With few cars on the embrace Western-style car culture. Auto 10% per year, some of the fastest growth
road, bicycling and walking were encour- use is exploding, and governments are ill- rates in the world. It is likely that these
aged, particularly in secondary cities. As a prepared to regulate the likely dramatic increases will further accelerate as their
result of these policies, the region is in the increases in air and water pollution. economies recover from economic restruc-
unique position of being able to learn from Prior to the collapse of the Soviet turing.
mistakes made in the West and create a Union, very few people in Eastern Europe While after years of feeling themselves
transportation system which is economi- drove cars. Due to tight restrictions on second class citizens, and seeing their
cally and environmentally sustainable. imports and low domestic production lev- lower quality cars as a symbol of inferior
Much of the severe environmental els, people had to wait over ten years to status, it is inevitable that Eastern
degradation in Eastern and Central Europe buy a car. Once they received the car it Europeans will want the same luxuries
and the former Soviet Union was the result was generally of relatively poor quality. that they see their Western European
of both a political system insensitive to the There was also, as a matter of policy, very counterparts enjoying. But many of their
environmental concerns being raised by few gasoline stations, repair shops, and Western European counterparts are doing
citizens groups, and the enormous waste other service facilities for private cars. everything they can to control the use of
of natural resources caused by the ineffi- This made the heavily subsidized transit the private vehicle, by investing in bicycle
ciencies of a centrally-planned economy. system a much more attractive option. and public transportation infrastructure,
As a result, the environmental movements In Hungary, in the late 1980s, for banning motor traffic in central cities, and

4
JUNE 1994

traffic calming residen- EBRD and EIB high-


St. Petersburg
tial streets. way projects are also
Tallinn
In Holland, 10% of planned in Slovenia,
the surface transporta- and some $40 million
tion budget is now in the Slovak Republic.
Riga
spent on bicycle facili- Moscow Finally, the EBRD is
ties, and now more financing part of the
than 30% of all trips Kaliningrad Vilnius major expansion of the
there are made by bicy- Gdansk Vienna-Budapest
cle. Subsidies to public Minsk motorway. While the
Berlin
transportation have Poznan Warsaw
MDBs have been
been increased to $5.7 pushing these new
billion a year, and taxes Dresden Kiev road projects, in fair-
Katowice
on automobile purchas- Prague ness much of the
Ostrava
es and gasoline have Crakow Lvov impetus for new high-
Plzen Kosice
been increased signifi- way construction is
cantly. These policies Linz Bratislava coming in part from
Vienna
are projected to dra- Gyor Budapest Kishinev Eastern European
matically reduce CO2 Ljubljana
Odessa
Governments. While
Szeged
emissions by the year Triesté some road capacity
2000. Even here in the Rijeka expansion is likely to
Zagreb Belgrade
U.S., learning from a Bucharest be necessary, particu-
history of mistakes, we larly for road freight in
have recently mandat- East-West corridors
Planned Highway Bar Sophia
ed intermodal trans- due to changing trade

Source: EBRD
portation planning Istanbul
flows, some of the
Existing Highway
through the Intermodal rapid shift to road-
Surface Transportation based transport is
Efficiency Act, and are being driven by the
working toward the New Highways Planned for Eastern and Central Europe cost increases and
development of a regu- deterioration in service
latory framework to minimize the environ- pressing for improved cost recovery from of public transportation and rail.
mental impacts of growing motor vehicle road users. Thus, public subsidies are Meanwhile, the MDBs have shown less
traffic through the Clean Air Act shifting dramatically away from public enthusiasm for funding Eastern European
Amendments of 1990. transport towards private motor vehicle rail and public transit projects which are
Sadly, just as Western Europe and the use. On Warsaw’s MZK, their public bus in serious need of modernization. One
U.S. are shifting public subsidies back in and tram system, operating subsidies major exception to this was the recent
favor of less-polluting public transporta- were slashed between 1990 and 1991 from approval of a World Bank loan to
tion and non-motorized vehicles, the like- $51 million to $38 million, and subsidies Budapest for upgrading their public trans-
ly result of structural adjustment policies have been falling consistantly for the past port system.
being encouraged by the IMF and MDBs 6 years. Local busfares increased between In the former Soviet Union, less for-
is to shift the balance of subsidies heavily 1989 and 1990 from 1200 Zl to 2000 Zl, eign financing is likely to go into new
in favor of private motor vehicles. This is which in terms of relative purchasing highway construction, and more will be
likely to lead to devastating environmen- power in the U.S., would be equivalent to dedicated to road maintenance.
tal impacts, particularly because the envi- an increase from $1.15 to $1.85. As a Nevertheless, structural adjustment in
ronmental regulatory framework to con- result, in the same year, monthly ridership Russia is causing a major shift in traffic
trol traffic-related air and water pollution fell from 36 million to 32.1 million. from rail to roads. One half of the domes-
has yet to develop, and the institutional While public transit ridership is being tic freight shifted from rail to truck
capacity to enforce the equivalent of a decimated, major new highways are being between 1992 and 1993. This is the result
Clean Air Act does not yet exist. built with Multilateral Development Bank of the rise in the freight rates (1200%),
The World Bank, the European Bank funds (partially with U.S. taxpayers' faster even than the inflation rate (1100%),
for Reconstruction and Development money) in Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, and deterioration of service due to eco-
(EBRD), and the European Investment Slovenia, Belarus, and elsewhere. The nomic chaos. While improving cost recov-
Bank (EIB) are rapidly expanding the level EBRD is financing $43 million and the EIB ery is going to be necessary to end the
of investment into highway infrastructure $25 million of major highways in Bulgaria, inefficiencies and improve maintenance in
and motor vehicle manufacturing in and another $40 million in Poland. In the rail sector and public transit, unless
Eastern Europe. At the same time, they are Romania, the World Bank, the EBRD, and cost recovery is handled gradually and
pushing for rapid increases of user fees on the EIB are financing $256 million worth simultaneously pursued for road-based
public transportation, while insufficiently of highway projects. Some $90 million of continued on p.16

5
SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT

WOMEN TAKE
BACK THE
STREETS
Overcoming Gender Obstacles to
Women's Mobility in Africa
By Karen Overton

ZAMBEZIA,Mozambique – Dona Helena was pedaling to a


local health clinic with emergency medical supplies when her
bicycle was surrounded by a crowd of young men from the vil-
lage. Shouting insults and throwing stones, they chased her as far
as the village center. Fortunately, she escaped with only cuts and
bruises. These young men were not Renamo guerilla soldiers
who tried to prevent her from getting to work by bike. They were
local men who felt threatened by the power that the bicycle had
given to Dona Helena, the power to come and go as she pleased.
For Dona Helena, the bicycle is simply the most efficient and
affordable means of doing her critically important job.
Dona Helena did not take the attack lightly. She reported it to

Kor Nam
the village elders and told them that if they wished to continue to
receive emergency medical supplies that the perpetrators would
have to be punished and that further harassment of women on Meetings with members of groups such as the Women’s
bicycles would have to stop. Later, the young men were duly Organization of Mozambique and the Rural Association of
punished for their act, and it was decided that women would be Mozambican Women confirmed the notion that women don’t
allowed to ride bicycles to improve their mobility. know how to ride bicycles. In a country where the per capita
News of this incident and the final judgment in Dona income is US $62, a bicycle is still a luxury good. When a bike
Helena’s favor spread throughout the area, and some of Dona becomes available, men generally take control of it. Therefore,
Helena’s female colleagues at the Ministry of Health were most women are never given the opportunity to learn this skill.
inspired to use the bikes provided by ITDP's “Bikes for Africa” However, the lack of knowledge cannot be equated with the lack
project in their health outreach efforts. of desire. In order to get women on bicycles, therefore, not only
Clearly, improving mobility for African women is fraught did male opposition to women riding bikes have to be overcome,
with many challenges, including sexism and cultural stereotypes but women had to be taught how to ride. “Bikes for Africa’s”
that discourage women from cycling. When asked why so few cycling-instruction sessions for women generated an enormous
women ride bicycles, the residents of Beira gave telling respons- amount of enthusiasm. Women took turns on the bikes while two
es: "women don’t know how to ride bikes; it’s not ladylike for colleagues ran alongside, helping to maintain their balance and
women to spread their legs; women are afraid to ride bikes; cheering when someone was able to cycle on their own.
women can’t be trusted to ride bikes because they may go off and Another factor that discourages cycling is Mozambican dress.
have affairs, and; the man of the house deserves to ride a bike The capulana, typical attire for women, is a 2 meter cloth imprint-
more than the woman.” A better understanding of Mozambican ed with African motifs. While beautiful, it impedes the motion
culture and the structures of women’s oppression which lie necessary to cycle. This is particularly true when riding a men’s
behind such statements provide information critical in designing bike, which is the most commonly imported model. Drawing
future projects that will empower women by giving them access upon American history, in which the bloomer was designed
to basic mobility. specifically to give women the freedom to ride a bicycle and

One Mozambican man said, “Women can't be trusted to ride bikes


because they may go off and have affairs.”

6
JUNE 1994

became one mark of the suffrage movement, Bikes for Africa had turned the bicycle over to their husband. In the Beira project,
designed the capuleta (a capulana for the bicicleta). This attempt bicycles were sold below cost to women farmers through a
to influence fashion, however, did not meet with much success revolving credit program. When interviewed, many of these
due to the cultural and financial constraints of Mozambican women reported that their husbands primarily rode the bicycles.
women. When asked why they did not ride the bicycle themselves, the
Fear of cycling is commonly cited as an obstacle. In fact, roads response was usually something along the lines of “because I
in Africa are extremely dangerous. The number of deaths per love my man, he rides the bicycle”.
10,000 motor vehicles is often as much as 60 times higher than in This response, however, reflects less their true desire than
developed countries, and more than 75% of all the people killed their sense of social obligation. It turns out that in some cases
are pedestrians and bicyclists. Non-motorized vehicle users are husbands, wanting to get the bicycle, had encouraged their wives
literally being terrorized off the streets. Meanwhile, roads rarely to enter the program and then to turn the bicycle over to them.
provide separate slow moving vehicle lanes or sidewalks. This For some women, the fact that they had been able to get a bicycle
means that pedestrians, women headloading large bundles of to benefit the household was satisfactory enough. But other
goods, men pushing large handcarts, bicycles, motorcycles, women tried to maintain control over their bicycle, and it led to
buses, taxis, trucks, and private automobiles all share the same conflict. One report held that one women was beaten by her hus-
poorly maintained roads. Consequently, people are often struck band when she resisted his attempt to stop her from riding the
by motor vehicles. In many African countries, young people are bike.
at greater risk of being killed by a car than by common diseases. However, these cultural obstacles, as our initial story illus-
Navigating a bicycle among darting pedestrians, speeding motor trates, are not insurmountable. In cases where women were given
vehicles, and potholes requires both skill and courage. A report bicycles to facilitate income generating activities, such as to bring
from Ghana indicated that fear for safety was a leading factor goods to market, men tended to be more supportive of women
that caused parents to prohibit
cycling among their kids, which
has inhibited the development of
a bicycle culture.
Aside from road safety, there
are other fears. Many cyclists are
afraid of traveling to the city cen-
ter because of the possibility of
being stopped by the police.
Approximately 85% of
Mozambicans do not speak
Portuguese, the country’s official
language, and women are less
likely to speak Portuguese than
men. Consequently, women are
not only unaware of the traffic
laws regulating cycling, but also
feel vulnerable when dealing
with the police. A traffic ticket
may cost up to one third of a

Eric Shulman
day’s salary - a price that women
cannot afford to pay. In Beira,
some women stated that this was
the reason they never cycled to the urban center. This reinforced bicycling. Fathers were also supportive at times when the bicycle
ITDP's position that when designing a comprehensive bicycle made it possible for a daughter to obtain an education. Finally,
project, institutional reform needs to be addressed as well as when the women are providing a service such as health care
infrastructr issues. delivery which is critical to the community, facilitating this work
In Beira, as mentioned above, men often associate female with a bicycle was also tolerated after initial resistance.
cycling with promiscuity. Several men reported that the cycling In the Beira project, several women utilized the bike to
position was unladylike. Pants, for the same reason, are also improve a thriving bizi (small business operation). For Dona
found unacceptable. One man went as far as to suggest that Jarinda Joao, the bicycle enables her to take to market the fish
increased mobility for women might encourage a new found that her husband catches. By doing so, she is able to increase her
sense of freedom that could then lead to extra-marital affairs. profits by one third because the intermediary transporter was cut
This association proves most useful as a justification which limits out. In another case, Dona Maria Arminda, who earns her income
women’s mobility. by transporting coal, was able to double her profits because the
In projects aiming at improving women’s mobility to promote bicycle allowed her to reduce the time spent in travel and
empowerment, such as ITDP’s Beira Bicycle Bank, it was often increase the amount of coal transported.
found that many of the intended female recipients of the bicycle continued on p.17

7
SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT

South Africa:
Mobility in the Post-Apartheid City
by John Griffin

May 2nd, 1994 is the first working day trip to the city center for non-
in post-apartheid South Africa. However, work related reasons such as
the job of dismantling apartheid’s legacy shopping that can generally be
will require the dedication of future gen- handled more locally.
erations. Apartheid is built into the very While transportation for
urban fabric of South Africa. The separa- Blacks is confined to public
tion of races in urban space is one legacy rail, bus or multi-passenger
of apartheid which will take decades to taxi to get to and from the
dismantle. townships, the transportation
The central business districts of South needs of South Africa’s white
African cities are surrounded by vast rings population are met almost
of under-utilized land which act as a entirely by the automobile.
buffer zone between the races. At the With household incomes for
extreme periphery lie the sprawling settle- Black South Africans among
ments known as townships that are home the lowest fifth in the world,
to some three-quarters of South Africa’s only one person in one hun-
non-white citizens. For decades apartheid dred can afford to own a car.
planners systematically placed Blacks in In contrast, one in two South
these townships far from city centers, and African Whites owns an auto-
far from white suburban enclaves. mobile. Planners have there- The Townships
Separation of the races within urban fore designed cities to meet
space was so important to the system of the needs of the white-owned automobile, activities, apartheid planning has also
apartheid that apartheid planners were not the majority of the population. Not exacerbated air and water pollution, an
willing to tolerate the enormous costs and surprisingly, South Africa’s automobile increasing threat to public health.
inefficiencies associated with bringing the industry is one of the most advanced in Although an extensive rail network exists
labor force back and forth from the town- the world, and most major Japanese, in South Africa, it operates far below
ships each day. Most of these costs are German, and American automobile manu- capacity, owing mainly to riders’ concern
paid by Blacks, who are forced to travel as facturers have facilities there. In no uncer- for personal safety and the fact that the
far as 100 kilometers to get to their jobs, tain terms, the apartheid city depends on system was not designed to account for
usually by train, bus or taxi. They have to the automobile. the huge urban migration of the last thirty
devote one-fifth of their incomes to trans- Many South African planning conven- years. The relatively few township train
port costs, and spend as much as six hours tions have been borrowed from the United stations are located far from where most
per day commuting. But because the States. Just as in the U.S., South African people live. Taxis and buses are what
township dwellers could not possibly culture has a strong anti-urban bias, most Blacks reluctantly depend on despite
afford to pay the full cost of this lengthy which validates above all else the private being very expensive.
trip each day, the South African govern- suburban single family home reachable Although little addressed by planners
ment subsidizes rail and bus transport only by automobile. These values affect until now, non-motorized transport is an
between the townships and employment low-income South Africans as much if not option that could play an important role
centers by more than US$500 million more than wealthy classes, abetting the in both improving access to rail stations
annually. Thus, the spatial inefficiency of problem of highly inefficient settlement and facilitating trips within the townships.
the Apartheid city has enormous costs patterns. The latter is critical to the development of
paid by Whites and Blacks alike. The legacy of the apartheid city will independent Black-owned businesses
Economic activity in the townships, live on long after apartheid has fallen. The within the townships, which in turn is
except for the provision of basic needs, inefficiencies of a dispersed land use pat- critical in reducing the need for both work
was banned by law until recently, reduc- tern will continue to inflate transportation and non-work related trips to the central
ing the availability of employment in the costs, and keep South Africa dependent cities. In short, non-motorized transport
Photos: John Griffin

townships. This means not only that on imported oil, absorbing precious for- has the potential to increase the mobility
almost everyone has to commute to far off eign currency. By generating long distance of the vast majority of South Africans in
white-dominated urban centers to work, travel requirements and the need for an equitable and environmentally sustain-
but also that people have to make the long numerous trips for non-work-related able way. Non-motorized transport could

8
JUNE 1994

also be a critical element in a post-

ITDP’s AfriBike:
apartheid city which allows greater mobil-
ity for all of its citizens.
The State of Non-Motorized Transport in
Non-Motorized Transport and the South African Entrepreneur the New South Africa
Don Lesotho is an active participant in South Africa’s vibrant informal econo- Despite an amenable climate and ter-
my. He sells soup bones to residents of Soweto’s burgeoning squatter settlements. rain in most parts of the country, cycle use
Three times a week Lesotho crams into a 15-passenger mini taxi and heads into is extremely limited in South Africa.
Johannesburg from his home in the Orlando section of Soweto. There he meets his Except in urban centers where Black
supplier, a wholesale butcher who stocks Johannesburg’s wealthy northern sub- laborers occasionally use work-bikes to
urbs with prime cuts of beef. The butcher is all too happy to part with the bones move goods, bicycles are mainly the
and Lesotho is well aware that for most of his clientele, he will be providing the domain of the affluent classes who use
only meat in their diets. them for recreation. This is largely
To reach his customers, Lesotho loads his modified luggage carrier with as because of the long distances between
many bones as will fit, and pushes off for one of the four Soweto shanty towns work and home, the lack of proper facili-
where his clientele lives. The closest of these settlements lies three miles away. ties such as bike parking and bike lanes,
Having no choice but to walk, Lesotho can only sell as many bones per day as will lack of safety, and the dominant attitude
fit on one cart. Driven both by a strong entrepreneurial spirit as well as by the need which associates the bicycle with back-
to provide for his extended family of eight, his dreams center around tapping into wardness. Fear of having the bicycle
the potential of Soweto, South Africa’s largest township and home to perhaps as stolen, high cost and lack of availability of
many as three million people. Without an affordable means of transport for himself credit to purchase the bicycle are also
and his bones, Lesotho’s market is restricted by the distance where his feet will obstacles for lower income Blacks.
carry him. Yet,many of these obstacles to greater
With a small pick-up truck being far beyond his means, Lesotho has thought non-motorized vehicle use in South Africa
about the possibility of purchasing a one-speed tricycle with front-load capacity of can be overcome through concerted
over 100 pounds. However, the $400 price tag is beyond any amount he could efforts by both government planners and
hope to save. Getting a loan from the local satellite of the Small Business NGOs.
Development Corporation is a possibility, but he is hesitant, not wanting to be in Foremost among the priorities for
debt, nor trustful of an outsider connected to the state who might ask for a cut from planners in post-apartheid South Africa
his earnings. Until he finds a way to improve his mobility, Lesotho is all too aware will be the need to make the link between
that his business will remain a subsistence activity. land use and transportation policy.
Afribike, the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy’s latest initia- Employment opportunities will need to be
tive in southern Africa, is working to promote bicycles as tools for development in generated within the townships and large
South Africa. Together with South African Council of Hawkers and Informal firms located near existing residential
Businesses (ACHIB) as well as other non governmental organizations, Afribike will areas. Affordable housing will have to be
work to create an urban-based center where street vendors will be able to acquire made available to Blacks in central cities.
locally-made load-carrying bicycles or tricycles to help build their businesses in an Unsustainable low-density sprawl and
affordable and environmentally sustainable way. The bikes will be made available urban fragmentation will have to be cur-
through a lease-to-own arrangement enabling business women and men of the tailed through land use controls. If these
smallest scale to benefit from owning their own work bikes. The long term goals of changes gradually take place, trip dis-
the Afribike project are to promote land use and transportation policies that are tances would decrease and walking and
equitable, environmentally sustainable and economically viable for all South non-motorized vehicle use could become
Africans in the post-apartheid era. increasingly viable. In the meantime, non-
motorized vehicles could play an increas-
ingly important role not only in improv-
ing mobility within the townships and as
a way of reaching train stations, but work-
bikes could play a key role in facilitating
small business development by street ven-
dors both within the townships and in the
central cities.
The instability of the South African
economy has led to a drastic drop in for-
mal sector employment, driving many
people to seek jobs as petty traders selling
goods and services on street corners, in
backyards, or wherever customers can be
Ice cream vendor continued on p.17

9
SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT

DHAKA, BANGLADESH
Ban On Pedicabs and Street Hawkers
ed with beach boardwalks
and tourist areas such as Sustainable T
Harbor Place in Baltimore.

News
Leads to Ouster of Ruling Party Mayor The New York and Amster-
In the name of ‘modernization’, the dam initiatives are unique in
Mayor of Dhaka from the ruling that they plan to focus on
Bangladesh National Party banned the more general transportation
use of tricycle rickshaws last year. needs, not only in tourist
Supposedly, the presence of poor areas. Just as motorcars can
trishaw drivers around expensive hotels become more energy efficient, modern motorized cab for trips under 5 blocks,
where important foreign visitors were bicycle technology such as lighter metals competitive with a cab for a trip between
staying was embarrassing the govern- and lower gearing has made human the East and West Village, and more
ment. Trishaws are the main form of powered taxis more energy-efficient and expensive than a cab for longer trips.
transportation in Dhaka, and provide hence easier to pedal. PONY is a project of the Center for
jobs for 300,000 people. At the same The New York initiative, founded by Appropriate Transport (CAT) , a non-
time, the government cleared the pave- local activist and non-motorized vehicle profit organization promoting human-
ments of street-hawkers, depriving hun- designer George Bliss, will be a coopera- powered and other low cost transporta-
dreds of thousands of others of the tively-owned private business called tion technologies to meet the basic needs
means of earning a living. Making the PONY (Pedicabs of New York). PONY of community residents in New York
trishaw drivers and street vendors invis- will begin operation in May, 1994, pro- City. ITDP is a member of CAT and a
ible, however, will not make them go viding human-powered taxi service
away. In the first democratic elections between the East and West Village,
for mayor ever in Bangladesh, the ruling Soho, Little Italy, connecting these areas
party mayor was soundly defeated by to each other and to local subway sta-
the opposition Awami League, and both tions. PONY is also planning a call-in
policies have been rescinded. service primarily for elderly and dis-
In another incident in Bangladesh, a abled people wishing to make several
young woman on her way to medical short trips within their neighborhood for
school in a rickshaw was killed by a shopping and other necessities that are
truck driver. In the wake of the previous inappropriate for the use of a motorized
government actions, the killing set off a taxicab. PONY will also likely receive a
demonstration which nearly turned vio- permit to operate along the recently
lent. In grief and outrage, students of the opened promenade along the Hudson
Salimullah Medical College Hospital River between Battery Park City and
and the Dental Medical College went on 14th Street. The new promenade promis-
a rampage stoning trucks in their path. es to be an important link in the City’s
Peter Meitzler

They formed a procession ending at the planned system of non-motorized bike-


National Press Club. Here, they declared ways and ‘greenways’. The human-pow-
a strike in all of the nation’s medical ered taxi service will not only be a very
schools and demanded the immediate convenient and enjoyable way of seeing Pedicabs, banned in Dhaka, are
punishment of the truck driver. Their the waterfront, it is also critical to mak-
march was joined by other organizations ing the area accessible particularly to technical advisor.
in urging government authorities to ban elderly and disabled people. The new pedicab business in central
the entry of trucks into the city during Initially, the cost of the pedicab ser- Amsterdam has been launched by the
the daytime. vice will be $0.50 per minute. If the students of the Haarlem Business
pedicab is occupied half the time, this School. The initial phase of the project
NEW YORK AND AMSTERDAM will give the driver $15 per hour plus used imported Indonesian becaks. They
tips, a reasonable wage. This billing charged $1.50 per kilometer, and
Pedicab Businesses Inaugurated method has the advantage that the pas- received an average of 3 rides per hour.
senger can monitor the time themselves, The pedicabs were faster than taxis for
While bicycle rickshaws are being while removing any incentive for the very short distances. Dutch television
banned in Dhaka and Jakarta because driver to speed. Most pedicab services sponsored a race between a pedicab and
they are ‘primitive,’ new bicycle rick- catering primarily to tourists charge a taxicab. Both vehicles were immediate-
shaw businesses have sprung up all over $1.00 per minute, which price the service ly ensnarled in traffic. The taxi won the
the United States and Holland. There are out of the range for basic transportation race by a few seconds, but the taxi fare
around 50 small pedicab businesses in needs. The intent is that the pricing was double the fare of the pedicab.
the U.S., and most of them are associat- structure should be cheaper than a Most of the pedalers complained that

10
JUNE 1994

Transportation Laboratwa Esperance. The


Lab is a human-power assem-
tiative, began as a gesture by Americans
opposed to U.S. trade policy towards
bly, maintenance, and Nicaragua. Setting up chapters across

Briefs
research facility inaugurated the country, Americans donated thou-
last spring by ITDP’s sands of bicycles which were shipped to
“Mobility Haiti” project in Nicaragua to local organizations in
cooperation with the Hospital Managua and Leon. Bike shops were set
Albert Schweitzer and the up and today they are viable businesses
Project Help Mission. that no longer depend on their
the Indonesian rickshaws were too Recent correspondence from Haiti American friends for support. While
heavy and clumsy. The business is look- notes that despite the political turmoil, BNB maintains a strong connection with
ing for private investors or bank loans to repair, fabrication, training, and mainte- their Nicaraguan counterparts, it is now
finance phase two of the project. They nance work continues the Laboratwa focusing on youth at home. Bikes Not
plan to switch to new lightweight Esperance. With the oil embargo now Bombs, independent of ITDP since 1992,
Dutch-made rickshaws. So far, most effectively in place, the carts, trailers and may now be contacted at their new
investors have been interested in the wheeled stretchers are proving essential address: 59 Amory Street, Room 103-A,
vehicles primarily for advertising and to the Hospital Albert Schweitzer’s daily Roxbury, MA 02119 Telephone (617)
publicity purposes. operations. A working relationship with 442-0004.
The introduction of the pedicab onto a supplier in the Dominican Republic Karen Overton has also set up the
Amsterdam’s streets is intended to cor- has been established, and a local bicycle “Recycle a Bicycle Project” for
mechanic/manager has been hired to Transportation Alternatives. The project,
continue the bike mechanic training pro- based in Washington Heights in New
gram. Income generated from sales and York City, will take recycled bicycles,
repairs at the Lab are able to pay the which are on the Department of
salaries of staff, and the costs of parts Sanitation’s list of products difficult to
and materials. dispose of, and will train people from
The material assistance and technical the community how to refurbish the
training provided by ITDP, with the cycles for their own use and for resale.
support of the Hospital Albert The project not only reduces the amount
Schweitzer and Project Help, demon- of garbage, it gives low income people
strate that in a short time and with mini- job skills and an education about trans-
mal funding, non-motorized transport portation and environment issues.
can create jobs and benfits in poor com-
munities. SARAWAK, BORNEO
Stop the Madness, Stop the Logging
ROXBURY, MASSACHUSETTS Roads
AND NEW YORK CITY
Bicycle Recycling Projects Take Off The construction of new roads into
taking the streets in New York. Borneo’s rain forest has not only facili-
In February, Bikes Not Bombs tated the continued deforestation there,
respond with the municipal govern- announced the grand opening celebra- but is also threatening the very survival
ment’s plan to drastically reduce motor tion of its Bicycle Recycling and Youth of one of the last hunter-gatherer soci-
vehicle traffic in the center city, which Training Center, located in the Boston eties in the world, the Penan tribe. The
was approved by the citizens of neighborhood of Roxbury. This repre- majority of these people, numbering less
Amsterdam in a local referrendum by a sents a great leap forward in advancing than 8,000, have been placed in resettle-
wide margin in a recent election . their goal of promoting ecological, peo- ment camps. To protect their culture and
ple-centered transportation alternatives their environment, the Penan men,
BOREL, HAITI in communities around the world. At women and children have constructed
the Center, members of the community wooden barricades and blocked the
Mobility Haiti: Progress Against will be able to repair bicycles, train roads. For the Penan people, these new
All Odds young people in bicycle mechanics and roads are destroying their culture.
maintain an office, and store bicycle While the roads do not seem to be
The latest container shipment of related resource materials. Donated or being financed directly by Multilateral
bicycles, spare parts and tools cleared recycled bicycles will also be prepared Development Bank (MDB) funds, MDB
customs in Port Au Prince March of for shipment to Central America. funding of other major highway links in
1994, and all have safely arrived at the Bikes Not Bombs, the first ITDP ini- continued on p.15

11
SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT

The Philippines:
On the Road to Ruin?

By Brian Williams

The Philippines has been left


behind in Southeast Asia’s
“Economic Miracle”. Snarled traffic,
choking diesel fumes from the ubiq-
uitous jeepney and frequent power
outages running three to four hours
a day in Metro Manila have created
an urban nightmare with no end in
sight. With a per capita Gross
Domestic Product of $2,300 in 1990,
the Philippines is among the poorest
countries in the region. Thirty-eight
percent of Manila residents live
below the poverty line and forty per-
cent live in squatter settlements.
Meanwhile, local government policy,
together with technical and financial
assistance from the Japanese govern-
ment, promotes building highways
to ease congestion so the wealthiest Pedicabs and horsecarts navigate floods in Manila.
ten percent of the population who
can afford a car can breeze in and out of Manila’s two business way to be built over the existing Philippine National Railway-
districts unencumbered by the squalor that surrounds them. bed, 10,483 squatter families will be relocated to distant settle-
In an attempt to vault the country in to the realm of “Newly ments in the periphery.
Industrialized Country” status, the Fidel Ramos administration Not only will this massive expressway construction require
has recently initiated its “Philippines-2000” program, including relocation, it will also induce more costly low-density urban
massive amounts of public and private financial investment in sprawl by ensuring wealthier suburban white-collar workers
infrastructure development in the Transport Sector. The linchpin greater access to the inner core of the city in the short-term. It will
of the transport program is the Metro Manila Urban Expressway also force those relocated to travel longer distances to traditional
system, which is trumpeted as the final solution to the City’s traf- employment centers and force them to pay upwards of 30% of
fic woes. It consists of three circumferential and eleven radial their already low incomes on transportation expenses.
expressways with selected upgrading of crucial feeder secondary
Non-Motorized Transportation: Beating the High Costs of
highways. The total cost of the project is already slated to be over
Imported Oil
$1 billion and will take five years to complete. Technical assis-
tance for the required feasibility studies, environmental impact While more highways are being constructed for use by motor
reviews and cost-benefit analyses are mainly provided by the vehicles, low-income Filipinos are turning to non-motorized
Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Major fund- transport. Because of the economic restructuring and currency
ing for the projects are provided by the Japanese Overseas devaluation imposed by the International Monetary Fund after
Economic Cooperation Fund, the World Bank and the Asian the “People’s Power” revolution which toppled the Marcos
Development Bank. administration, the costs of imported oil soared. The resulting
While new highways in Manila may reduce congestion in the economic dislocation forced local residents to consider alternative
short-run, in the long-run they will increase the frequency and modes of transportation less reliant on imported oil.
Photos: Brian Williams

distance of trips made by rich and poor alike. For example, due to The non-motorized pedicab, which had all but disappeared
planned highway construction within the urban core, many by 1986, have returned in large numbers, providing convenient,
squatter settlements will have to be relocated. As a result of part non-polluting door-to-door service. According to a recent World
of the Manila South Tollway construction, an elevated express- Bank-sponsored study, non-motorized vehicle use is up to 33.7%

12
JUNE 1994

The Manila South Tollway will displace 10,483 families to the periphery.
of total trip-making in some parts of portation are encouraged and land use with the fastest growth rates in the World,
Metro-Manila. One additional non-motor- regulations are used to discourage sprawl, China, has a transport sector dominated by
ized alternative being utilized is the use of congestion and air-pollution will increase. non-motorized transport. In economically
animal-drawn carts. Not only are both of This is particularly important in the successful Japan, bicycle use is also
these modes more cost-effective and non- Philippines as the latent demand for pri- increasing rapidly, particularly as a way of
polluting, but they are also better able to vate automobiles would ultimately con- reaching commuter rail stations. Non-
navigate Manila’s flooded streets during gest the entire network of planned roads motorized vehicles expand the catchment
the monsoon season. Pedicabs are also under the ”Philippines - 2000“ program. area around mass-transit stations by some
used like small trucks, for short distance As the gap between rich and poor Manila 35 times. Because pedicabs in Manila use
freight delivery within neighborhoods, residents grows and as a growing upper- less road space per person per lane per
particularly in Malate and Ermita. The middle class begins to emerge, rates of pri- hour than private motor vehicles even with
resurgent pedicab industry has generated vate automobile ownership will increase. high occupancy, switching to this alterna-
thousands of jobs for under-em-ployed As was recently noted in the Economist, in tive actually could reduce congestion.
squatter residents. neighboring Malaysia, “a 40% rise in In the Philippines, the possibility of
In Metro Manila, the non-motorized incomes between 1987 and 1991 was making non-motorized transportation part
transport sector of a sustainable
has been so suc- transportation
cessful that it solution still
began to compete exists. Unlike
with private jeep- Bangkok, the
ney service, pri- urban transport
marily for those situation in Man-
requiring a change ila remains within
in travel mode the realm of a sus-
along the way to tainable future,
complete their but the timing is
trip. As a result, critical. Adequate
under the Metro provision of slow
Manila Council moving vehicle
Or-dinance No. 6, lanes for non-
pedicabs operat- motorized vehi-
ing along high- cles and dedicat-
ways and major ed public transit
thoroughfares lanes must be
within Manila implemented at
were banned in the same time that
1990, ostensibly road capacity is
because of “con- e x p a n d e d .
gestion”. This, Pedicab service in Manila providing access to commuter rail station Manila's non-
despite the fact motorized trans-
that pedicabs use half the road space of accompanied by a 290% rise in car sales”. port industry must be integrated and
private cars, and surveys show that pri- And Philippine government leaders need coexist with any publicly-subsidized high-
vate motor vehicles are the major cause of only travel to nearby Bangkok if they want way project.
congestion on Manila roads due to their to see the likely results of their current While roads are necessary for econom-
sheer number (72% of all traffic during the transportation plans. ic development, who uses the roads and at
morning peak period in twelve critical what price should be a matter of public
The Role of Non-Motorized Transporta-
intersections). It is difficult to see how this discussion. In the absence of policies to
tion For Cost-Effective Mobility
more efficient and non-polluting mode of reserve road space for non-motorized
travel should be banned because of “con- While the use of pedicabs are often users and constrain the use of private
gestion”! viewed by developing country govern- motor vehicles, the Manila transportation
Here in the U.S., we have learned that ments as a symbol of their economic system will increasingly serve only the
building more highways alone can never “backwardness”, we are slowly learning needs of automobile-owning elites at the
reduce traffic congestion, and only encour- that in reality, the opposite may be the expense of the transport needs of the
ages greater use of polluting motor vehi- case. majority of the Filipinos. ◆
cles. Unless alternative modes of trans- It may be no accident that the countries

13
SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT

Will Bicycles Be Banned in Major Chinese Cities?


Big Highway Push Planned

by Walter Hook
China is the most bicycle-friendly The plan met with a huge outcry, as General Motors, Mazda, Ford, Mercedes
country on earth. In its capital, Beijing, Chinese citizens appealed to the mayor to are all working hard to break into the mar-
more than half of the people commute to reconsider the bike ban and ban cars ket. In Business Week, Ford Motor
their jobs by bicycle, and in Shanghai more instead. Company’s Executive Vice-President is
than 40% bicycle to work. China also pro- On top of this, bicycle parking fees are quoted as saying, “My #1 priority in 1994
duces 40% of the world’s bicycles, some 40 being increased and bicycle taxes are is China.” With the car market slumping
million a year. Despite having some of the being imposed, all to discourage their in Western Europe, the U.S., and Japan,
most densely populous cities in the World, increasing use. “the prospect of millions of potential
the bicycle has made Chinese cities quite Traffic in Shanghai is rapidly moving Chinese drivers has auto executives
pleasant to move around in. While there is toward gridlock. But while increased bicy- around the world drooling.”
considerable air pollution, most of it cle use may be part of the problem, the China may be the only country in the
comes from industrial and residential use main cause of growing congestion is the world where bicycles are seen as part of
of low-grade coal, rather than from the increasing number of cars and motorcycles the congestion problem, rather than part
transport sector. Imagine what of the solution. As a passenger
the impact would be for the air on a bus filled to capacity uses
in China, and for global warm- about 1/3 of the road space
ing, if the half a billion Chinese that a bicyclist uses, part of the
people currently using bicycles solution to China’s growing
were to switch to motorcycles or congestion problem requires
private cars. But this is precisely encouraging some long-dis-
what is happening. tance bike commuters to
For years, owning a bicycle switch back to the buses. For
in China was a privilege. years, China underinvested in
Bicycles were subsidized and its bus systems, allowing them
rationed to favored employees to deteriorate. And with cars
through the workplace, and and trucks sharing the road
only one person in four had a space with bikes and buses,
bicycle. As a result, the bicycle the buses are slowing down,
was seen as a high-status con- inducing more and more peo-
sumer good. It was a way of ple to take their bicycles which
George Bliss

avoiding riding on the crowded are faster. While many munici-


buses. Couples going out on a pal officials are increasing
date tend to ride on a single Are bicycles really causing the congestion problem, or are cars? restrictions on bicycle traffic,
bicycle the way we would drive restrictions on motor vehicles
in a car in the U.S.. on the road. There are still only 1.2 million are being relaxed in some cities, leading to
With the economic reforms, the use of motor vehicles in China, and only about a virtual explosion of automobile and
the bicycle has exploded. As bicycle 100,000 private cars, or about one for motorcycle traffic. Yet every extra car on
rationing came to an end, annual produc- every 10,000 people. Most of the motor the road takes up as much road space as
tion of bicycles in China rose from under vehicle fleet is trucks, taxis, and cars 12 bicycles and as much parking space as
10 million per year in 1980 to just under 40 owned by public and private companies. at least 20 bicycles.
million in 1990. In major cities bicycle con- Nevertheless, the number of private cars Several factors have led to the popular-
gestion and chaotic bicycle parking has on the road is increasing at an alarming ity of the bicycle in China. First, bicycles
become a major problem. rate. Annual car production and sales, cur- are affordable. With average incomes cur-
This explosion in bicycle use has led to rently at around 400,000 per year, are rently around $350.00 per year, many
a reaction by government authorities. In expected to quadruple by the year 2000 to other forms of transportation are unaf-
Shanghai and Guangzhou (Canton) there nearly 1.6 million vehicles annually. fordable. Only one person in 10,000 can
are plans to ban bicycles on many of the Motorcycle use could grow even faster. afford a private car in China. Secondly,
main thoroughfares. Last year, Mayor Li Volkswagen, Daihatsu, Peugeot, and Chinese cities are flat, and urban planning
Ziliu decided to solve the congestion prob- Chrysler Jeep working in joint-venture has been used to create a safe and pleasant
lem of Guangzhou by banning bicycles with Chinese firms control 76% of the cycling environment. One third of the
and motorcycles from the downtown area. Chinese motor vehicle market, and continued on p.19

14
JUNE 1994

Sustainable Transportation
tries around the globe. At home, bikes lems, and complain of the excessive

News Briefs go to a variety of youth organizations.


While this effort provides mobility to
strain. Safety is also a concern. Rickshaw
drivers average at least one minor acci-
continued from p.11 people who otherwise could not afford dent per working day. A new study
it, the project also keeps bikes from US blames design flaws. Weak brakes
the area is indirectly responsible for the landfills. Pedals for Progress began its account for 25 percent of collisions,
deforestation and destruction of the work with the ITDP in 1991 as it awaited according to the study; 17 percent occur
Penan culture. What typically seems to its own non-profit status. For more infor- because of skidding while turning a cor-
happen is that the MDBs negotiate with mation, contact David at 86 East Main ner, and 15 percent involve passengers
the borrowing countries like Malaysia Street, High Bridge, NJ 08829. being thrown out of their seats when the
and Indonesia for a network of new or driver applies the brakes.
improved roads. The MDBs then let the WASHINGTON, D.C. The Indian government has finally
governments know which roads would decided to invest in upgrading the cycle
pass an MDB Environmental Impact
Clinton Administration Proposes End rickshaw. It is time, government engi-
Assessment (EIA), and which would
to Public Transit Operating Subsidies: neers say, to design a better cycle rick-
raise international concerns. The Banks
Nationwide Fare Hikes Possible shaw. The research of dozens of individ-
then agree to fund only those less envi- The Clinton Administration’s Office ual Indian and foreign innovators and
ronmentally controversial links in the of Management and Budget Director research institutes will be collected in a
proposed network. Leon Panetta was originally proposing coordinated effort to build a vehicle that
The net effect, however, is that the to phase out operating subsidies to pub- is both safer and easier to pedal.
MDB loans underwrite the construction lic transportation over the next three
of the whole network, as government years. Such a plan would have cut $202 BANGKOK UPDATE
funds can now be concentrated on the million dollars in Federal assistance to
more environmentally sensitive sections mass transit operations. The move
Congestion Driving People Mad
of the road link, while MDB funds tend would have led to increasing public Traffic congestion in Bangkok is so
to be concentrated on the less controver- transportation fares around the country, bad that businesses and high income res-
sial links. The only way this problem and probably further loss of ridership. idents are buying apartments in the cen-
could be avoided would be if MDB loans Given the enormous annual subsidies to tral city in order to reduce the distance
were made conditional on the EIA of the private motor vehicle transport, estimat- they need to commute. As a result, land
entire planned road network, not just on ed at $2,500 per passenger car per year, prices in Bangkok have skyrocketed,
specific links. this penny-wise pound-foolish policy from $500/ sq. meter in 1986 to
For more information, contact the can only further lock us into an economi- $4000/sq. meter today. This pressure to
Rainforest Awareness Project, 2611 cally and environmentally damaging develop central city land, along with the
Delwood Avenue, Durango, CO 81301. dependence on the automobile. The rapid expansion of the road network, is
Campaign for New Transportation leading to the displacement of low
NAUSORI, FIJI Priorities, the American Public Transit income squatters currently occupying
Association, and other groups are fight- the land.
Bikes Bolster Business ing the plan. The Senate and House sub- The displacement of squatters is lead-
Bikes are good business in Fiji these committees restored all but $2 million of ing to a serious problem of homeless-
days. Two companies, LEANJAC and the cuts, but it could be cut again by the ness. According to Soomsook
WITHJAC, have been formed by youth Appropriations Committee or when the Boonyabancha, the Asian representative
to venture into the world of business. full Congress votes on the budget. of the Habitat International Coalition, 1.2
The former is run by students from million people are threatened with evic-
Lelean Memorial School while WITH- INDIA tion in Bangkok, and over 20,000 were
JAC is run by the Junior Achievement evicted last year alone.
Company made up of 30 unemployed
India Decides to Invest in Upgrading Traffic congestion in Bangkok is liter-
youth. In November of 1993, they
the Cycle Rickshaw ally driving people crazy. At a terminal-
received a container of 150 bicycles from While the traditional cycle-rickshaw ly congested intersection in Bangkok, a
the New Jersey- based organization, has done good service for more than 5 traffic cop cracked under the pressure of
Pedals for Progress. Proven as a viable million rickshaw drivers, some 7% of trying to direct the never-ending flow of
undertaking, these young adults have India’s workforce, they also have their cars. He switched all traffic lights to
requested another shipment to distribute disadvantages. They are heavy, use out- green simultaneously and danced gaily
this Spring. moded designs and materials, and are amid the ensuing chaos. At a local psy-
Pedals for Progress, initiated by not designed with the maximum com- chiatric hospital he was diagnosed as
returned Peace Corps volunteer David fort of the driver or the passenger in suffering from an unspecified “mental
Schweidenback, is dedicated to provid- mind. Rickshaw cyclists often suffer illness.” ◆
ing bikes to the working poor in coun- from work-related back and leg prob-

15
SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT

Letter
continued from p.3 EasternEurope powerful vested interests pushing for
the unlimited expansion of new high-
continued from p.5 way capacity, with disastrous effects on
for public transportation, or over-invest- the global environment.
ment into roads and highways and motor transport modes, the likely result will be There is no mystery as to why this is
vehicle manufacturing facilities has the decimation of rail and public trans- occurring. Car sales in the U.S., Western
played in the current environmental port in favor of private motor carriers Europe, and even Japan are stagnating.
degradation. and private cars. U.S. auto manufacturers are dreaming
The transportation provisions of Even more alarming is the number of making billions of dollars on the
Agenda 21, (one of the two agreements of International Finance Corporation largely untapped Eastern European
signed at the Rio Earth Summit), are pri- (IFC, the private sector-lending arm of market. The poor quality Eastern
marily under the human settlements sec- the World Bank), EIB, and EBRD invest- European cars are unlikely to pose any
tion, which means that policy reform and ments into motor vehicle manufacturing serious competition to American,
new U.N. support for sustainable trans- facilities. The EBRD is planning to Japanese, and Western European car
portation projects is likely to come from finance $100 million of a car plant in manufacturers.
the United Nations Commission on Uzbekistan, and is probably going to co- Pent up demand for private cars in
Human Settlements (HABITAT) and its finance with the IFC the VW-Skoda Eastern Europe is inevitably going to
NGO forums. Planning for the next inter- plant in the Czech Republic. Its largest lead to a rapid increase in auto use in the
national meeting of the United Nations loan to Hungary to date is a $65 million medium term. But unless Eastern
Commission on Human Settlements loan to a joint venture with General European environmentalists, bicyclists,
(HABITAT) in Istanbul in 1996 is already Motors. Audi-VW and Suzuki just urban planners, and other progressives
underway, and ITDP has been participat- invested in major plants in Hungary, mobilize now to work towards a more
ing in these meetings in order to ensure and Fiat in Poland, although the extent environmentally sustainable transporta-
that environmentally sustainable trans- of EBRD involvement is unknown. tion future, the environmental improve-
portation policy be high on the agenda. These massive investments into the ments in other sectors resulting from the
In the next year, ITDP will be focusing motor vehicle manufacturing industry political changes in 1989 will be invisible
most of its policy energy on reforming are the best way to ensure that the coun- behind a cloud of car exhaust. ◆
MDB lending in East and Central Europe tries of Eastern Europe will develop
and East Asia. It is these two parts of the
world where automobile use is growing
the fastest, over 10% per year in some vehicle production facilities in Eastern
countries. Meanwhile, these areas have
traditions of non-motorized transporta-
tion and public transit use which can be
and Central Europe are joint ventures
with U.S. automobile manufacturers. For
this reason, as U.S. citizens, we have a
ITDP
built upon. The environmental implica- responsibility to do what we can to
welcomes advertising of
tions of this explosion in automobile use encourage more environmentally sustain- products and services con-
has prompted us to seek common cause able and equitable transportation policies sistent with our mission.
with environmentalists and other activists in these countries. ◆ Call (212)260-8144 for
in these regions.
It is fair to ask what business we, as information.
Americans, have telling people in Eastern Walter Hook and Brian Williams
Europe and developing countries how to
set up their transportation systems when
our country is hardly a model of environ-
mental sustainability and equity. Most of
us at ITDP are also working hard on
For Sale:
reforming the U.S. transportation system, Bicycle Cargo Trailers
although usually wearing different hats.
We know the problems associated with
Haul groceries, furniture, lumber (even 4’ x 8’ plywood!) and more
automobile dependence better than any- with your bike. 280 pound capacity. Handles L-O-N-G loads with
one. But more than this, as Americans we ease. Works great on narrow paths & roadways. Converts from box
have influence over how the MDBs spend to flatbed in seconds.
their money. Billions of dollars of U.S.
Brochure 50¢
money is going to new highway and
motor vehicle manufacturing facilities in Fresh Aire Deliv.
these countries. MDB financing is lever- 216 N. Hazel St.
aging billlions more in private equity Ames, IA 50010-5948
investment. Furthermore, most of the new

16
JUNE 1994

South Africa
cal turmoil and competition from low cost erate much needed employment.
Chinese and Indian imports. If the bicycle Subsidies, tax breaks, or loans from
continued from p.9 industry is to rebuild itself, government Multilateral Development Banks could be
support may be required. Since bicycle used to bring in the most modern bicycle
found. Well aware of the employment cri- manufacturing is labor-intensive, rescuing manufacturing technology, making the
sis in the country and anxious to maintain the bicycle industry would also help gen- price of a bicycle manufactured in South
control over the political economy, the Africa competitive with imports and
government has turned a blind eye affordable to the average South African.
toward informal activity and in some The total cost of such assistance would be
cases has even encouraged it. For many minimal next to the high price already
small entrepreneurs in South Africa, at paid in other transport subsidies.
least half of whom are women, the poten- Additional measures including public
tial to turn these micro-enterprises into education and the building of a cycle-
viable businesses has been hindered by friendly infrastructure will be necessary to
the inability to easily move their wares to maximize safety for cyclists.
marketplaces; to strategic sites such as The problems faced by the new gov-
transit hubs; or directly to customers. For ernment to forge national unity will be for-
many, this obstacle could be overcome by midable. Apartheid’s effects will be felt
the use of a low cost bicycle or tricycle. long after the term has fallen from public
(See “Non-Motorized Transport and the use, especially regarding the excessive dis-
South African Entrepreneur”) tances that South Africans will be forced to
However, the use of bicycles, work- travel in order to find economic liveli-
bikes and other non-motorized vehicles hood. It is likely that the poor will be the
has been hurt by the collapse of the South last to benefit from new policies enacted to
African bicycle industry. Once a robust redress apartheid’s effects. Transportation
industry exporting bicycles all over and land use policies that emphasize the
Southern Africa, the South African bicycle potential of non-motorized transport will
industry has been reduced to a single util- increase the mobility of all South Africans
ity cycle factory functioning only part- This woman's recycling business would be while having the least economic and envi-
time. It was nearly destroyed by the eco- more profitable is she had a dumptrike ronmental costs. ◆
nomic disruptions related with the politi- or a hand truck.

Women Take Back Streets


continued from p.7
vehicles, as demonstrated by the “Bikes
for Africa” and other projects, have the
potential to help address this problem.
While significant cultural obstacles to the
In some cases, women who cycled did hours a year, walking to their fields and use of bicycles by women exist and must
so to reduce the time needed to make trips carrying things, while men on average be addressed, they have not proven to be
to their machamba (small plots of farm spend only some 531 hours a year insurmountable.
land). In Mozambique, the majority of involved in basic transport. Their most Overcoming the obstacles to women’s
women are responsible for feeding the common trips include fetching fuel and mobility in Africa requires working close-
family based on their subsistence farming. water, making trips to their small plots of ly with African women’s organizations
This work is unpaid activity and only land and to the market place, and access- who are sensitive to the local culture.
occasionally can a surplus be generated ing social services. With a majority of the Women’s groups can advocate for the
and sold in a local market. In this instance, population in most African countries acceptance of non-motorized vehicle use
cycling does not translate directly into unable to afford access to a motor vehicle, by women within the family and commu-
monetary benefits. However, on the aver- most of this travel is done on by women nity structure, and can mitigate against the
age women saved 28 hours per month. on foot, carrying objects on their heads. likely backlash by men against women’s
Rather than spending their time on ardu- The World Bank’s approach to economic empowerment. By working with local
ous head-loading and walking, the extra development in the transport sector, such women’s groups, making bicycles avail-
time was dedicated to activities such as as paving new highways, will do little to able at moderate cost with low-cost credit,
farming, child-care, and domestic chores address the basic mobility needs of the and linking bicycle use to income-generat-
which contribute to the improvement in majority of the African population. Only ing activities or critical community needs,
the quality of life. by directly addressing the basic mobility lack of basic mobility, one of the key
In Africa, women are responsible for needs of women who bear most of the obstacles to women’s economic empower-
the majority of goods movement. transport burden will economic develop- ment in Africa, can be overcome. ◆
Currently, Mozambican women spend ment in Africa be achieved.
over 4 hours a day, and as much as 1648 The bicycle and other non-motorized

17
SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT

The Bicycle Advocacy Resource Guide.


Edited by Ron Goodman of People
Power and the Bicycle Federation of
NEW Walter Hook. 1993. pp. 12. $2.50.
Write ITDP, 611 Broadway, Rm
America. 1993. pp. 154. $10. To order,
write the Bicycle Federation of America, TITLES 616, New York, NY 10012.

1506 21st St. NW, Suite 200, Washington “The Privatization of Japan’s National
DC, 20036. Railroad at the Emergence of Third-Sector
Companies: A Model for Eastern Europe and Developing
The Bicycle in Africa: Luxury or Necessity ? Countires? By Walter Hook. 1993. pp. 26. $5.00. To
By John Howe and Ron Dennis. IHE Working Paper IP- order, write ITDP, 611 Broadway, Rm 616, New York,
3. September 1993. pp. 28. To order, write IHE Delft, NY 10012.
PO Box 3015, 2601 DA Delft, The Netherlands.
Reclaiming Our Cities & Towns: Better Living With Less
The Costs of the Car: A Preliminary Study of the Traffic. By David Engwicht. 1993. pp. 190. $12.95 + $2.50
Environmetal and Social Costs Associated with Private Car shipping. To order, write New Society Publishers, 4527
Use in Ontario. By Pollution Probe. 1991. pp. 70. To Springfield Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19143.
order, write Pollution Probe, 12 Madison Avenue,
Toronto, Ontario M5R 2S1. The Road From Rio: An NGO Action Guide to Environment
and Development. By Michael McCoy and Patrick
“Congestion Management and Air Quality: Lessons from McCully of World Information Service on Energy. 1993.
Bangkok and Mexico City” in the Asian Journal of pp. 112. $12. To order, write: Citizens Network, 73
Environmental Management. By Setty Pendakur. 1993. To Spring St., #402, New York, NY 10012.
order, write ITDP, 611 Broadway Rm 616, New York,
NY 10012. Roads Are Not Enough: New Perspectives on Rural
Transport Planning in Developing Countries. By Jonathan
Counting On Cars, Counting Out People: A Critique of the Dawson and Ian Barwell of Intermediate Technology
World Bank’s Economic Assessment Procedures for the Publications. 1993. pp. 79. $15.50. To order, write
Transport Sector and their Environmental Implications. By Women Ink, 777 UN Plaza, New York, NY 10017.
Walter Hook of the ITDP. Winter 1994. pp. 41. $8 ppd.
To order, write ITDP, 611 Broadway, Rm. 616, New Transit in Canada: A Handbook for Environmentalists.
York, NY 10012. By Joell Vaderwagen for Greenpeace-Canada. 1991. pp.
101. To order, write Greenpeace, 185 Spadina Avenue
Encylceopedia: The Alternative Buyer’s Guide to Quality #600, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2C6.
Cycling Around the World. By Alan Davidson & Jim
McGurn of Open Road, Ltd. 1993. pp. 88. $10 ppd. To Transportation Action Guide: Fair and Sustainable Mobility
order, write Center for Appropriate Transport (CAT) 49 in the 1990s. By Rob Kennedy and Sarah Clark Stuart of
E. Houston St., New York, NY 10012. the Environmental Defence Fund. 1993. pp. 154. $8. To
order, write EDF Publications, 257 Park Avenue South,
The Role of Non-Motorized Transportation and Public New York, NY 10010.
Transit in Japan’s Economic Success. By Walter Hook.
Transportation Research Board, January 1994. Paper Transportation and Global Climate Change. Edited by
No. 94-0954. pp. 33. $4.00 ppd. To order, write ITDP, David L. Greene and Danilo J. Santini. American
611 Broadway, Rm 616, New York, NY 10012. Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. 1993. pp. 357.
$30 To order, write American Council for an Energy-
Get America On Track. By the Campaign for New Efficient Economy, 2140 Shattuck Avenue Suite 202,
Transportation Priorities. 1994. pp. 6. $3 or $4 for 6 or Berkely, CA 94704.
more copies. To order, write CNTP, 900 Second Street,
NE Suite 308, Washington, DC 20002. “The Urban Age; Urban Transportation Issue”. Vol. II, No.
1. Fall 1993. pp 24. From the World Bank Urban
“The Importance of Gender in Urban Planning” in Gender Management Program. $40 subscription. To order,
and Development: A Practical Guide. Edited by Lisa write Editor - Urban Age, Room S4-031, 1818 H St, NW,
Ostergaard. 1992. pp. 220. $18.50. To order, write Washington DC 20433.
Routledge, Chapman & Hill Inc., 29 West 35th Street,
New York, NY 10001. Winning Back the Cities. By Newman and Kenworthy.
1993. $12. To order, write Transportation Alternatives,
“Non-Motorized Transport as a Traffic Congestion 92 St. Marks Place, New York, NY 10009.
Mitigation Measure” Paper presented at the Executive
Conference on Traffic Congestion Management by

18
JUNE 1994

BULLETIN BOARD
International Symposium on Non-Motorized Nairobi, Kenya. Telephone 254-2-443219.
Transportation, Beijing, China, May 23 – 25, 1994. Beijing
Polytechnic University. In English and Chinese. For more Global Forum ‘94: Cities and Sustainable Development. June
information or to register, call L.David Shen, Dept. of Civil 24 – July 3, 1994. Contact Global Forum ‘94 at Eastgate Castle
Engineering, Florida International University, The State Street, Castlefield, Manchester M3 4LZ, UK. Telephone 44-61-
University of Florida at Miami, Miami, FL 33199, Tel:305-348- 234-3741.
3055, Fax: 305-348-2802.
International Human Powered Vehicle Championships.
Land Use, Lifestyle, and Transport, A Transatlantic August 1 - 7, 1994. Eureka, California. Showcase of technologi-
Collaboration on Transportation, Land Use, and Air Quality, cal innovations ranging from utilitarian load hauling quadra-
Sponsored by the Center for Clean Air Policy and the cycles to aerodynamic speed bicycles. Competition, sympo-
University of Kassel, Germany. University of Kassel, Kassel, sium and trade show for air, land, water, and all terrain
Germany, May 25 – 27, 1994. For more information, contqct human powered vehicles. Contact the IHPVA at PO Box
the Center for Clean Air Policy, 444 North Capitol St., Suite 51255, Indianapolis, IN 46251-0255.(Annual membership $25)
502, Washington, D.C. 20001, 202-624-7709, Fax: 202-508-3289.
Pro Bike Conference. September 6 – 10, 1994. Portland,
International Seminar on Gender, Urbanization and Oregon. Contact the Bicycle Federation of America at 1818 R
Envirnonment. June 13 – 16, 1994. Nairobi, Kenya. Contact St., NW Washington, DC 20009.
Diana Lee Smith at The Mazingira Institute. PO Box 14564. ◆ ◆ ◆

China
shared between bus and bicycle, is the funds, displacing many homes and small
only hope. Separating bike traffic from businesses.
continued from p.14 motor vehicle traffic is also important This rapid increase in the number of
wherer separate bike lanes don't already motor vehicles has begun to scare non-
road space has been preserved for bicycles exist. In this way, the travel speeds of motorized vehicle users off some streets.
and another third for pedestrians. buses could be increased, and many of the In 1992 alone 58,729 people were killed by
Sycamore and other trees were also plant- bus passengers who switched to bicycle motor vehicles, a death rate per vehicle 30
ed along the bikeways to shade and pro- could be attracted back to the public tran- times as high as in most developed coun-
tect cyclists from sun, wind, and light rain. sit system. tries. In other words, the .1% of the popu-
Even a significant amount of goods Instead of focusing on these solutions lation wealthy enough to own a car in
movement in China is handled by bicycle, to China’s increasing gridlock, some staff China is literally driving the majority of
particularly for farmers selling their goods memebers of the World Bank, the Asian the population who are bicyclists or
in the free markets and for the newly Development Bank (ADB), and Japanese pedestrians from public streets with the
emergent small private businesses which bi-lateral aid agencies have been encour- threat of physical violence.
had trouble gaining access to trucks, fuel aging banning the bicycle on major thor- This policy of accommodating the
oil, and parking. Work bicycles make a lot oughfares. MDBs are also financing the automobile while restricting the use of
of sense in extremely dense urban areas, as rapid expansion of highway infrastruc- bicycles and other non-motorized vehicles
they take up less road space for movement ture. Between 1988 and 1992, China built doesn’t make any sense here in the U.S.,
and parking, and generate no pollution. 505 Km of expressways. To their credit, but it makes even less sense in China.
While heavy loads often make for hard some of the Bank-financed highway pro- With China’s population density they will
work, it is not inevitable that moderniza- jects will include bicycle lanes. Today reach complete gridlock on their roadways
tion need take the form of motorized China has a network of 1300 kilometers of much faster than here in the U.S. If the
trucks. With recent developments in non- expressway, but already 2000 kilometers same percentage of people in China drove
motorized transportation technology, low more are under construction. There are automobiles as drive them here in the U.S.,
cost work bikes can be made to carry enor- plans to construct another 15,200 kilome- they would have to pave over 40% of their
mous loads while still being easy to pedal. ters by the year 2000. Most of this new arable farmland for new highways in
If Chinese cities hope to solve their construction has been financed by low order to accommodate them. Obviously,
congestion problems, they are going to interest loans from the World Bank, the China will reach the limits of the feasibili-
have to restrict the use of private cars and Asian Development Bank, and Japan’s ty of automobile culture much faster than
motorcycles from interfering with the Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund other countries. But much damage can be
buses. Banning private cars and motorcy- worth over $1.7 billion. Major ring-roads done in the meanwhile. The global envi-
cles on most major streets in central are being build around Shanghai and ronmental implications of an automobile-
Chinese cities, creating a network of roads Guangzhou with World Bank and ADB dependent China are truly terrifying. ◆

19
Sustainable
Tr a n s p o r t
We need your financial
support! It’s time for a change in
the environmentally and socially
destructive transportation policies
of the past! But we are up against
an industry which controls 18% of
the U.S. GNP. We aren't going to
make it without generous support
from people like you! Your tax
deductible charitable contribution
will help convince people all
around the world that what is best
for our future is not the automo-
Yes, I support ITDP's efforts! Here is my donation of: bile.
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