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Multi-stage Amplifiers

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Single stage limitations


Multi-stage amplifiers
Feedback

Single Stage Amplifier Limitations


vOUT
= - g m RC
vIN
rIN =

b
gm

rOUT = RC

High gain high gm and RC


High rIN low gm
Low rOUT low RC

Simple 2 Stage Amplifier


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To increase the
gain, use two
amplifiers instead
of one.
Gain is not just
the product of
the individual
gains though
Input and output
impedances must
be accounted for

Equivalent Circuit

vIN 2

rIN 2
= A1vIN
rIN 2 + rOUT 1

vOUT = A2vIN 2

vOUT
rIN 2
= A2 A1
vIN
rIN 2 + rOUT 1

Coupling
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In the simple 2 stage design, the stages are


linked by coupling capacitors
This means that the biasing networks for
each stage can be designed independently
It also means that d.c. operation is impossible
To do this:
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The capacitors must go


Each stage supplies the bias current for the
following stage

Differential Input 2 Stage Amplifier


BAD DESIGN!
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Good points
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IB3

Q1 and Q2 form a
standard differential
amplifier
RC1 forms the collector
resistor for Q2 and
provides base bias
current for Q3
Q3 forms a commonemitter amplifier

Bad point
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vOUT cant go below 0V

Using PNP Transistors


0.5 V

0.5 V

Analysis of PNP based circuit is almost identical to


NPN
Only real difference is that the currents in a PNP
transistor all flow in the opposite direction

Practical Two Stage Amplifier


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Q3 and RC2 form a

common emitter
amplifier again
Base bias current for Q3
is provided by Q2
collector
Output voltage can vary
almost right up to VS
Multi-stage amplifiers
are usually made up
from alternating NPN
and PNP stages

Example 1. Quiescent Conditions


0.5 V

With vIN = 0, we know


that:

100
I C1 = I C 2 =
= 50 mA
2
0 .5 I C 3
I C 2 = I RC1 + I B 3 =
+
RC1 b 3

0.5
\ IC 3 = b3 IC 2
R

C1
0.5

-6
= 20050 10 = 8 mA

50000

Example 2. Differential Stage


vC 2 1
1 IC 2
= g m RC1 =
RC1
vIN 2
2 VT
1 50 10 -6
=
50000 = 50
-3
2 25 10
rIN =

vIN
b
=2
iB1
gm

200
= 2
= 200 kW
0.05 / 25
rOUT = 50 kW

Example 3. Common Emitter


vOUT
= - g m RC 2
vB 3
8
= - 1000 = 320
25

200
rIN =
=
= 625 W
g m 8 / 25

rOUT = 1 kW

Example 4. Overall Response


vOUT
rIN 2
= A2 A1
vIN
rIN 2 + rOUT 1
625
= 50 320
625 + 50000
= 200

rIN = rIN 1 = 200 kW


rOUT = rOUT 2 = 1 kW

Predictability and Distortion


Problems
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IC3
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IC3 depends on current


gain of Q3

This is unpredictable
Therefore, gain and
quiescent vOUT are also
unpredictable

Linearity
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To get near the


maximum possible
output, amplifier goes
into the non-linear
region

Using Feedback
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In exactly the same way as with the operational


amplifier, non-ideal properties of the multi-stage
amplifier can be compensated for using negative
feedback.
E.g.
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Gain can be made predictable


Quiescent output level can be corrected (offset voltage
removed)
Frequency response extended (constant gain-bandwidth
product)

Explore these ideas during lab session 3.

Transistors vs. Op-Amps


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Operational Amplifiers
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Very simple to use easy calculations


Near ideal properties

Transistors
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Better frequency response


Lower noise

Todays Summary
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Multi-stage amplifiers can be considered as


many separate amplifiers connected together
Use of the equivalent circuits for the
amplifiers eases analysis
Direct coupling enables low-frequency use
Negative feedback can improve linearity and
bandwidth

2B1 Analogue Electronics Summary


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Practical Op-Amp Design


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Non-Linear Op-Amp Applications


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Comparators, Schmitt Triggers, Precision Rectifiers

Transistor Amplifiers
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How negative feedback works


GB Product, Slew Rate, Saturation etc.

Common Emitter Amplifier


Differential Amplifier
Multi-stage amplifiers

Design and analysis of all the above