The load growth of the communes area served by a utility company is the most important
factor influencing on the distribution system. Therefore, forecasting of load increases and
system reaction to these increases is essential to the planning process. There are two common
time scales of importance to load forecasting; longrange more than 10 years and shortrange, with 5 years distant. The factors, which influence on the load forecast load growth is
very much dependent on the community and its development.
Major points of power (or load) depend on the results of the average household consumption
and the usage of different types of residential sectors, commercial sectors, industrial sectors,
and public sectors.
Geographical
Factors
Population growth
Land use
City plans
Load
Demand
Forecast
Load density
Industrial plans
Community development
Plans
1. Forecast by (T maximum)
The population growth forecast for five years is applied by formula below:
E t E 0 (1 ) t
Where:
Eo Density of population in the present
Et
Averagehou seholdsize
Eact
T max
Where:
P calculate day, P calculate night
Calculated load at the line section or at the bus bars of the transformer on the day and night
time.
k 0  Simultaneous coefficient
SIMULTANEOUS COEFFICIENT
consumer
Higher than 2
Industrial
consumer
kW/house
2
0.76
0.75
0.85
0.66
0.64
0.80
0.55
0.53
0.75
10
0.44
0.42
0.65
20
0.37
0.34
0.55
50
0.30
0.27
0.47
100
0.26
0.24
0.40
200
0.24
0.20
0.35
500
0.22
0.18
0.30
Example
For the restaurant which used energy 300 kwh per month:
300 kwh/30 day = 10 kwh/day, P calculated day = 4 kw and P calculated night = 6 kw
P day max = k 0 * n * P cal day
P F night max = k 0 * n * P cal night
Where
 is a growth rate
Eo is an amount of energy in the first time
t is a time in a year or month utilization electrical energy period
E Electrical energy & consumption expressed in (kWh, MWh)
3. Preliminary voltage determination
If the electrical power, which is going to be distributed and the length of distribution
system are known and the nominal voltage that must be rated on these system is determined
by the formula below:
U max 3 S 0.5 L
Where:
L Length of distribution system, km
S Power supply, MVA
Figure 1.2Diagram of load of each Consumption
1.4 m
1.4 m
D
D
D
1.4 m
Daverage 3 D1 D2 D3
D1 = D 2 ;
D 3 = 2D 1 = 2 D 2
Daverage 3 D1 D2 2D1
Daverage 3 D 1.26 D
Daverage 1.26 D
or
X 0 2. . f .0.2.Ln
DG .M . D 1.26 D
GMD
GMR
(kW)
Where,
I Phase current through the line (A)
R Total resistance of the line (Ohm)
Total loss of the section
I I cos jI sin
or
I
( I cos ) 2 ( I sin ) 2
Loss
I 2R
R
( I cos ) 2 ( I sin ) 2
1000 1000
LF =
Annual peak load X 8760
Annual losses in primary feeder supply to many transformers can be calculated in the
following three options:
a). When only one distribution transformer is involved, loss may be calculated as a
concentrated load at the end of the line.
LAnnual =LLoss X LSF X 8760
or
LAnnual = I2m X R X [0.15 LF + 0.85 (LF)2] X 8760
LAnnual =3 X I2m X R X [0.15 LF + 0.85 (LF)2] X 8760
Loss% = 3
Im R
(0.15 LF 0.85 LF 2 ) 8760 100
E
Where,
Im Maximum current recording at substation (A)
E Energy sent out from substation in that year (kWh)
R Total resistance of the line (Ohm)
b). When the feeder is relatively long and serves a few transformer widely spaced, the value
of load in this feeder may be considered as a distributed load.
LLoss
I Ri
i
,
i 1 1000
n
(kW)
Where,
Ii Portion current (A)
n Portion of line
Ri Portion resistance (Ohm)
LAnnual =LLoss X LSF X 8760
1 2
I m X R X [0.15 LF + 0.85 (LF)2] X 8760
3
Loss% =
Im R
(0.15 LF 0.85 LF 2 ) 8760 100
E
R Li Ri
i 1
Where,
Li Portion length of the line (km)
Ri Resistance corresponding section line in (Ohm/km)
n Portion of the line
5.2. Power Loss Reduction
Power loss reduction =[Power loss (old system)  Power loss (new system)]
% Power loss reduction =
6. Voltage Drop
Voltage drop exists in each part of the power system from generation to the customers meter.
All equipment connected to the utility system is designed to be used at a certain definite
voltage.
The voltage drop in distribution lines are calculated as:
V I ( R cos X sin ) L (for one phase)
V
3 I ( R cos X sin ) L
Where,
I
R
X
The primary feeder supply from one to many transformers the voltage drop can be calculated:
a). When only one transformer is involved, voltage drop can be calculated as concentrated
load at the end of the line.
V
3 I ( R cos X sin ) L
b). When the feeder is relatively long and serves a few transformers widely spaced, these
values can be derived from a circuit considered to have distributed load.
n
V 3 I i ( Ri cos X i sin ) Li
i 1
Where,
Ii
Ri
Xi
Li
 Number of portion
c). When the length is short or large, closely situated to a number of transformers existing in
the circuit, can be considered as supply of uniform distributed load. The total of load can be
assumed to connect at a point 1/2 length of the feeder (from the tap off at the main to the last
transformer) for calculating voltage drop in the line.
V
3
I ( RT cos X T sin )
2
Where,
I
RT
XT
ELECTRICAL CALCULATION
Concerning the problems dealing with the selection or choices of cross sectional
conductor areas for overhead lines and cables. The economic current density is followed by
checking for current carrying capacity, corona and radio noise (for the high voltage line)
elimination, mechanical strength, voltage drop, power losses and other factors.
Generally, the cross sectional conductor areas for local networks are to be selected
with the economical current density and maximum consumption of material and admissible
voltage drop under normal conditions.
1.1 Determination of sectional areas of conductor
Table 1.1: permissible current carrying capacity of conductor
Label of
conductor
Aluminum
A16
A25
A35
A50
A70
A95
A120
A150
A185
A240
A300
Permissible
current (A)
Label of
conductor
105
135
170
215
265
320
375
440
500
590
680
Permissible
current (A)
AC16
AC25
AC35
AC50
AC70
AC95
AC120
AC150
AC185
AC240
AC300
105
130
175
210
265
330
380
445
510
610
690
Label of
conductor
Permissible
current (A)
ACO150
ACO185
ACO240
ACO300
ACO400
ACO500
450
505
605
690
825
945
AC4120
AC4150
AC4185
AC4240
375
450
515
610
I Max
J Econo
Where:
I Max  current expressed in ampere flowing on the line conductor under peak load
F Econo  Economic crosssectional area
J  Economic current density found by calculation
Calculated:
J calculated
U Active. Permis
n
3 li cos
i 1
X 0.l
Un
Q l
i 1
Tmax (hours/year)
1,000 3,000
3,001 5,000
ABare conductor:
Copper....
Aluminum.
BCable with paper
isolation and core in:
Copper..
Aluminum
CCable with plastic
isolation and core in:
Copper..
Aluminum
> 5,000
2.5
1.3
2.1
1.1
1.8
1.0
3.0
1.8
2.5
1.6
2.0
1.5
3.5
2.2
3.1
2.0
2.7
1.9
2
2
PMax
QMax
3 U n
S Max
3 U n J econ
1.2 Determine the power losses on the transformer maximum load operation
2
P
S
PT sc L 2 nT P0 or
nT
S nT
2
U sc % S L
I %
QT
nT 0 S nT
nT 100 S nT
100
PT
PLi2 QLi2
RTi nT P0i
U N2
p Li2 QLi2
QTi
X Ti nT Q0i
U N2
Where:
P0  Active power losses on open circuit regime
S ij
Zl
Sij
Uj
Scal
S ' 'ij
10
ST
Sl
S cali STi S Li
Pcali
PLi2 QLi2
PLi
RTi nT P0i
U N2
Qcali QLi
n Q
pLi2 QLi2
Ci
X
Ti
T
0
i
2
UN
i 1 2
2
2
S cali Pcali
Qcali
1.3 Determine the power losses on the distribution line for the maximum load
i
Z
Sij
Sij
Sij
Scalj
S ' ij S '' lj S ij
S ij Pij jQij
2
P '' ij Q '' ij
Pij
Rij
2
Un
P '' ij Q '' ij
Qij
X ij
2
Un
Where:
Pi . j
Qi . j 
U n  Nominal voltage
UA1
S12
SCal1
U12
11
S23
SCal2
U3
Uj
SCal3
SCalj
U23
U ij
U j U i U i . j
Sag in meter
40
0.77
50
0.96
60
1.15
70
1.35
80
1.55
90
1.75
100
1.93
Therefore, the maximum sag in the smooth surface of the land of the system is equal
to 1.75 meters.
3.2 The distance of the conductor and rope from the ground
fmax
13
.
h
hr
l
Figure 3.1 The Picture of the span " l ".
ht
1.1m
h11
1.4m
H=10.25m
fax
hr
H/10+0.5=1.75m
ht  Height
h11 Vertical distance between conductors (wires).
Length of insulator (depends on Un and type of insulator andvaries from 0.68 m
for overhead line 35 KV to 4.9 m for overhead line 500 KV.
H  Height of support
Table 3.2 the maximum admissible distance between conductors (overhead Lines) and
earth, expressed in Meter
Zone where the line
6  10.
20
35110.
150
220
6.5
2  Inaccessible place
3.5
5.5
3  In Populated place
7.5
1  In uninhabited place
up to 1
(desert)
industry territory
Table 3.3 the dimension of the overhead line
Nominal voltage
Distance between
[KV]
Length of span
conductor [m]
<1
[m]
0.5
6 to 10
Height of support
[m]
hm
[m]
4050
67
50100
67
22
1.5
100150
15
35
150200
67
110
170250
67
220
250350
78
330
300400
7.58
Bl
Bl +1metrer
1
15
A
1m
Bl +1metrer
2
67
Hl
Bl 1, 2
Bl
(3.10)
Hl 2 hl 2
8 2 7 2 3.8 m
A D Bl 1 Bl 2 2meters
(3.11)
Table 3.5 minimum admissible distance of conductor from the earth and the building or
objective
NOMINAL VOLTAGE (KV)
DISIGNATION
<1
10
20
16
35
110
150
220
330
500
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
8.5
9.5
2.5
35
35
35
35
47
47
58
58
7.5
8.5
6.5
6.5
7.5
17
support
ht
Equation:
ht
Da
tg
(3.13)
0.75 0.1
0.3 0.84 m
tg 30
Where:
for one lightning protection of conductor one the metallic or conductor
support.
for double lightning protection of conductor on the metallicor conductor
support
18
Insulat
Insulator fixed to pivot 2035
orKV
Insulat
Insulator fixed to pivot LV
or
Figure 3.8 A
Figure 3.8 B
T
T
P O R C E L A I N
3
6
19
1.7
3.2
8
2
3
6
L A S S
3.8
1.5
2.1
2.8
HC16
18
HC18
20
Supported
voltage
KV
Leakage Destructive
with frequency
50 Hz (KV)
Dry
Rain
state
state
(+)
length
load
()
( MM )
( KN )
Mass
( Kg )
G L A S S
u c 10A
u c 10
60
34
90
90
210
14
1.4
55
35
90
90
265
12
2.2
P O R C E L A I N
u
63
36
95
63
265
13
1.8
82
57
125
130
385
13
3.5
120
55
195
195
700
16
12
B  SUSPENDED INSULATORS
For overhead line of voltage, 35 KV and the suspended insulators are utilized and
insulators number depends on the line voltage and support (pole) material. For overhead line
with the voltage of 6...110 KV in garland suspended insulators of 6...to 10 KV may be 1
insulator, for 20 KV = 2 for 35 KV = 3. For the electrical lines with the voltage 110 KV and
higher the suspended insulators, 35 KV and lower are utilized.
Length
Destructive Mass
of
Electro
leakage mechanical
way (L)
load (kN)
(kg)
60
70
70
62
60
82
30
32
40
95
100
125
109
105
120
130
130
130
290
355
400
60
70
70
3.7
5
5.3
Table 3.9 the nominal and maximum voltage of the electrical equipment (KV).
Voltage class
Maximum voltage
Nominal voltage
maximum prolonged
( KV )
( KV )
3.6
7.2
10
12
15
18
20
24
( KV )
3
3.5
3.2
3.5
3.3
3.6
6.9
6.6
7.2
10
11
11
12
14
15
15
18
16
18
18
19
20
23
22
24
The number of insulators in guar lands is determined only by the influence of line
voltage (for the lines 330 KV and higher) and for the normal conditions of pollution and line
voltage included 35  110 KV by the over voltage of commutation equipment. The number of
insulators in garlands is determined only by:
Equation:
n K1 * K 2 .
* U overvoltage
* U max
K1 * K 2 .
L
L
*H
H
Where:
U  Maximum voltage of line (composed voltage) [KV]
L  Length of leakage for one insulator [mm]
H  Height of insulator [mm]
K1  Coefficient taking into account the leader (conductor) surface.
21
3.14
K2  Coefficient taking into account the number of parallel circuit in garlands: for one
garland K2 = 1.0 and for many garlands K2 = 1.05
Categories:
A  Insulator working at the normal condition of atmosphere pollution
B  At the conditions of high atmospheric pollution
C  At the special condition of atmospheric pollution
Table 3.10 unit length of leakage way [mm/KV]
Unit length of leakage way mm/KV of insulator in the electrical
system
With the neutral wire
The neutral wire is not connected
connected to the ground
to the ground
Category of
decide or insulator
A
15
17
22
25
C
31
35
For the external insulation, irregularity of pollution on the insulator surface may be
taking into account.
We write again:
Leff
L
K
mm
(3.15)
Where:
L  Effective coefficient K "for the external insulation of electrical equipment
(Distribution)
K  Coefficient of effectiveness who is the value is the ratio of value of L at the
height H "of insulators.
Table 3.19 effectiveness coefficient K1for the external insulation of electrical equipment
(distribution system)
L/H
K
1.5 / 2 2 / 2.7
1
2.3 / 2.7
2.7 / 3.2
3.2 / 3.5
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.1
U overvoltage
U max
K1 K 2 .
L
L
H
H
n 1 1.05
15 30
1.62 2 insulators
290
22
(3.16)
(3.17)
Where:
t  Year
3  Guaranteed year of insulators exploitation
P(t) = 0.9920  0.024 ( 30  3 ) =
relating to
23
4oC
6oC
8oC
toC
( Ambient temperature )
3.18
Where:
Snom.Tran  Nominal calculate power of a transformer corresponding to the real ambient
temperature of utilization place.
Snom.Tran (catalogue)  Nominal power of transformer given by catalogue
average  Average yearly ambient temperature at the factory, where the transformer
was produced
average  Real temperature at the utilization place
Beyond the limit of ambient temperature ( amb.temp = + 45 oC ) the transformer
must be cooled by the forced ventilation ( Fan ).
3.8.1 The ventilation of transformer cells
24
If the transformer intended for a natural cooling is installed indoors, (in cells). A
sufficiently large ventilation opening must be provided above and below the transformer, so
that natural air movement is sure to remove the heat loss easily, usually by the canal for air
intake and by the shaft for exhaust air. For determination of inlet duct cross section of
ventilation, one can in the case of the cells in masonry, utilize the formula:
S1
A F
9.200V
(3.19)
Where:
S1  Inlet duct cross section in [M].
A  Total power of transformer in [KVA]
F  Sum of cells cooling surface in [M]
V  Speed wind in [M / sec]
For the transformer functioning with normal power, one can assume a rise of
transformer temperature = 12 K, which is equivalent to an air throughout of 4 to 5 m /
minute per KW of heat loss. As for the rate of heat flow, it is governed by the size of the duct
cross section " S ", the height of the exhaust air (shaft) and resistance in the air way.
R = R1 + m x R2
(3.20)
Where:
R1  Resistance and acceleration coefficients in the inlet duct.
R2  Resistance and acceleration coefficients in the exhaust duct.
m  Ratio of inlet and exhaust cross section
If we take exhaust duct, which is 20 % larger than the inlet duct, then:
m
0.83 and
Exhaust duct cross sec tion 1.2
m 2 0.69
Transformer cells construction steels for the nominal power of transformer equal to 630 KVA.
VERSION I:
For the resistance of the airway, we can consider:
Air intake:
Acceleration
1
25
Grille
0.75
Louvers
Rightangled elbow
1.5
R1 = 6.25
Exhaust Air:
Acceleration
Grille
0.75
Louvers
Rightangled elbow
1.5
R2 = 6.25
We obtain:
R = R1 + m x R2
R = 6.25 + 0.69 x 6.25 = 10.56
The " shaft height "may be calculated by the formula:
H 13.2
H 13.2
2
Plosses
S12
R Meter
(3.21)
1 12
Where:
Ploss  Power loss sum of transformer [KW].
= 12 K  Air temperature rise.
S  Air intake duct cross section [m].
R  Resistance of the airway
1m
Rain direction
S2
26
30o
H
S1
Grille
0.75
Louvers
3
R1 = 4.75
Exhaust Air:
Acceleration
Grille
Rightangled
elbow
0.75
1.5
R2 = 3.25
We obtain:
R = R1 + m x R2
R = 4.25 + 0.69 x 3.25 = 6.49
The shaft height may be calculated by the formula:
H 13.2
H 13.2
2
Plosses
S12
R Meter
(3.21)
1 12
1m
S2
Rain direction
27
30o
H
S1
Grille
0.75
R1
=1.75
Exhaust Air:
Acceleration
Grille
Rightangled
elbow
0.75
1.5
R2 = 3.25
We obtain:
R = R1 + m x R2
R =1.75 + 0.69 x 3.25 = 3.99
The " shaft height "may be calculated by the formula:
H 13.2
2
Plosses
S12
R Meter
H 13.2
(3.21)
1 12
1m
S2
Rain direction
28
30o
H
S1
S1
A F
1,200V
(3.19)
630 3 3 630 9
0.88 m 2
1.200 0.60
720
S 1 1 .0 m 2
9.6
We calculate the height " H "as follows: ( version III ) H 13.2 12 123 3.99 2.25 m
2
where the transformer was produced is equal to +25oC ( especially the transformers in the
29
European Countries), but the maximum temperature in Cambodia is equal to + 45oC, the
calculated nominal power of the transformer at the utilization place can be found as follows:
25 45
S nom.Tran 630 1
504 KVA
100
Where:
3.8.2
Grounding
wire
500
MV lightning arrester
1250
MV fuse
switch
3000
Tran. MV / LV
22 KV / 0.4 KV
1500
4000
DAN
GER
1750
Lightning
Framework
Neutral
rope
wire
wire
3.9 Earthing arrangement of electrical facilities artificial earth conductor (wire)
4000
introduction
30
Electrical facilities to be installed with the protective earthings, so that there is no risk
of rise of potential under abnormal conditions, harm to human bodies and damage to the order
objects due to electric shocks and fires caused by highvoltage invasion.
Remark:
The direct current flowing in the earth (ground) electrolyses the water charged of
material salt, which soaks the earth (ground) in creating the counter electromotive force
opposing the current flow. For avoiding this phenomenon, one utilizes excessively the
altering. Current in the measures concerning the earth conductor. The earth conductor is called
the metallic conductor or the group of metallic conductor installed in the earth. There are
three (3) categories of earth conductor:
1  For protection assuring the safety of service
2  For the work assuring the normal regime of work
3  For protection of the over voltage from the atmosphere: storm, lighting.
The norms regulate the following values of earth conductor:
a  For the electrical installation having U > 1000 volts and great shortcircuit current
at the earth (ground)
R < 0.5
b  For the electrical installation (wiring) with U > 1000 volts and small short circuit
current at the earth (ground)
R < 250 / Is.c but less than 10
Is.c  short circuit current at the ground
c  For the electrical installation with U < 1000 volts:
R < 125 / Is.c but less than 2; 4 and 8 for the tensions (corresponding
voltages 660 V, 380 V and 220 V). (For installation with the total power of generator and
transformer until 100 KVA) ( Sgen orStr = 100 KVA )
R < 10
(For the protection of the winding having, different tensions supply voltage, the
minimum value of resistance of earth conductor is taken)
3.9.1 Execution of earth conductor construction
A  Natural earth conductor
The natural earth conductor is in the ground and composed of the metallic component
of metallic and reinforced concrete construction, electrical cable
B  Artificial earth conductor
31
The artificial earth conductor is normally executed from the electrodes, joined among
of other electrodes at the profound of 0.5  0.7 meters by the soldering. The length of
electrodes is equal to 2  3 meters and the electrodes are made from the circular steel with the
diameter 10  18 MM.
For the overhead line, the length of earth conductor varies from 10 to 40 meters and
buried at the profound from 0.3  0.8 meters.
C  Calculation artificial earth conductor
This calculation leads to the determination of the resistance of the ground, type of
earth conductor construction and its profound.
Formulas for the determination of earth conductor resistance
Type
Remark
4.l
Re
.l n
2. .l
d
l>d
.(3.22)
l>d
.(3.23)
0.7m
l
l
Re
2.l 1
4t l
. l n
.l n
2. .l
d
2
4t l
d
III  Horizontal metal, made from the flat metal
t
Re
2.l 2
ln
2. .l
b.t
.(3.24)
Zone
III
KM
1.5 to 2.3
1.3 to 1.8
(+)22 C to +24 C
IV
(+)24 C to +30 C
Where:
III  The numerator  for the vertical earth conductor
IV  The denominator  for the horizontal earth conductor
3.9.2 Earthing circuit of construction of MV/LV distribution substation (indoor or
outdoor substation)
The substation must include:
* An earth electrode for all exposed conductive parts of electrical equipment in the substation
and exposed extraneous metal including:
1  Protective metal screens
2  Reinforce rods in the concrete base of the substation,
3  The common point of all currenttransformer secondary windings
TABLE 3.13 INFLUENCE OF THE NATURE OF THE SOIL
Resistivity (in .m)
0.4*10 2
Vegetal ground
0.5*10 2
1.0*10 2
2.0*10 2
Sandy ground .
3.0*10 2
220 V
1
110
V
3
V
A
B
6m
Figure 3.14 Measuring resistivity of the soil
C
20m
33
U/I
B,
C
,,
D
S
,,
Variation of ratio U/I in function of the distance d " of the probe" S "from the earth
conductor, as AB is in order of 20meters
This curve contains:
The zone AC' in which the ratio U/I increases quickly, and the zone C'D' where the
considered ratio is constant, at the end the zone D'B' where the ratio increases quickly again.
Typical variations in soil resistivity
The resistance to earth electrode is influenced by the resistivity of surrounding soil,
the resistivity depends upon the nature of the soil.
Because it is impossible to forecast the resistivity of the soil with any degree of accuracy, it is
important to measure the resistance of an earth electrode when it is first laid down and there
after at periodic intervals. Before sinking an electrode into the ground for a new installation, it
is often advantageous to make a preliminary survey of the soil resistivity of the surrounding
site. This will enable decision to be made on the best position for the electrodes and to decide
whether any advantage is to be gained by driving rods to greater depth. Such a survey may
34
produce considerable saving in electrode and installation costs incurred trying to achieve a
required resistance.
LINE TRAVERSE
The most common method of measuring soil resistivity is often referred to as line
traverse. Four test spikes are driven in to the ground in a straight line at equal distances a ".
The instrument is connected to the test spikes as shown in figure 3.18 connections for
resistivity testing.
a/20
C1
P2
P2
C2
(3.25)
Where:
R  Resistance measure in ohms
a  Equal two meters and depth is equal 2 / 20 = 0.1 meter, the result from measure R
= 5.2 m
35
(3.25)
Where:
2 * 3.14 * 2 * 5.2 0.6531 * 10 4 .cm 0.6531 * 10 2 .m
a  test spikes spacing in meters "a" equal two (2) meters and depth is equal 2/20 = 0.1
R  The result resistance from measuring = 5.2
Resolution:
The charging current of capacitors of overhead line is occurred while there are the
singlephase short circuits with the earth, it is equal to:
I s('.)c
I s('.)c
U *L
350
(3.26)
22 * 48
3.017 A
350
Rearth
U earth
I s('.c)
Rearth
125
41.4318
3.014
(3.27)
By the norms, the earthing resistance of installation for the network 380 / 220 volts
may be less than 4 we take the minimum value of earthing resistance of 4 .
* Calculate the specific resistivity of soil:
meas *
(3.28)
Where:
meas  Measure specific resistance of soil
1.4 in Table
Table 3.13 value of increase coefficient of resistance for different soil and depth
Soil
characters
Depth [ m ]
* Loamy soil
0.8 to 3.8
1.4
0 to 3.0
1.2
0 to 2.0
1.1
* Limestone
0 to 2.0
1.2
of Sand
0 to 2.0
1.2
* Peat
0 to 2.0
* Sand
0 to 2.0
1.2
* Clay
0 to 2.0
1.2
TO NOTE THAT:
For the ROUND electrode with diameter of 12 mmM and length of 5 meters, we find
Ro.Round = 0.00227*
For CORNER electrode of diameters 50*50*5mm length of 2.5 meters, we find:
Ro.corner = 0.0034*.
The number of vertical electrode is determined by the value:
n
RO
* Rearth
(3.29)
Table 3.14value of coefficient "" in function of ratio a/l. (a  distance between electrodes
and l  Length of electrodes)
Number of electrodes
" "
3
2
Electrodes placed in
Contour
87
0.8
0.68
10
0.83
0.7
0.55
0.78
0.67
0.59
20
0.77
0.62
0.47
0.72
0.6
0.43
30
0.75
0.6
0.4
0.71
0.59
0.42
37
50
0.73
0.58
0.38
0.68
0.52
0.37
100
0.64
0.48
0.33
200
0.61
0.44
0.3
300
0.6
0.43
0.28
We calculate that:
Ro.round= 0.00227 * 0.9143*104 = 20.75
n
20.75
8
0.68 * 4
Where:
0.68 for a / l = 1
(Moreover, electrodes are placed in Row).
S
3.10 Over voltage of electrical installation
The over voltage is called the elevation of voltage more than the nominal value,
presenting the danger of insulation of electrical equipment and electrical line.
Voltage
1.0
0.9
0.5
0.3
t
time
front
t wave
38
500
KILOVOLTSCREST
12
15
400
NEGATIVE
300
POSITIVE
200
MICROSECONDS TO FLASHOVER for 34.5 KV CLASS.
Figure: 3.18
front
).
The length wave (t wave) is determined by the time from the staring of impulse action
to decreasing of its magnitude to 2 times (by experience of isolation produced with the
standard of impulse parameters twave = 40 second and tfront = 1.5 second).
The speed of wave spreading depends on inductive reactance and capacitor of
electrical line (and for overhead line V = 300M / Millie second; for
V 1/
L.C
Electrical cable V = 160 M / Millisecond and for the windings of transformers and electrical
machines v = 30 to 60 m / millisecond).
The surge impedance:
Z
U
I
LO
CO
(3.30)
Where:
Lo, Co  grandeur per unit of length
Table 3.14 the surge impedance
Type
Overhead line
200500
Electrical cable
40 to 50
10 to 20 kilo
Transformer
Electrical
machine
1 to 2 kilo
39
Atmosphere over voltage creates the current magnitude that is usually equal to
30  40 KA, but may achieve 120160 KV. The length of impulse wave front of current is 3 to
4 second.
The sudden wave front in practice is taken equal 30 KA / second.
Notice:
The overhead line until 35 KV, the rope is used.
Basbare Substation 622KV
M
100200M
Overhead line
SUBSTATION PROTECTION
a.
Substation 622KV
LINE PROTECTION
b.
40
Column 2
Standard Basic Impulse
Level
KV
Reference class
KV
column
3
Reduced Insulation Level
in
UseKV
1.2
30*
45t
2.5
45*
60t
60*
75t
8.7
75*
95t
15
23
34.5
46
69
95*
110t
150
200
250
350
92
115
138
161
450
550
650
750
450
550
650
196
230
287
345
900
1050
1300
1550
900
Table 3.16 standard impulse tests for transformers, regulation, and reactors
Impulse Tests
OilType Transformers
500 kVA or LessOil Type
Instrument TransformersOil
Insulation Class
KV
or Less ThreePhase
ThreePhase.
Chopped Wave
Full
Wave
Full
Wave
1.2
2.5
5
8.66
15
36
54
69
88
110
Min
Time
to
flashover in
microse
conds
1
1.25
1.5
1.6
1.8
25
34.5
46
69
175
230
290
400
3
3
3
3
150
200
250
350
175
230
290
400
3
3
3
3
150
200
250
350
92
115
138
161
520
630
750
865
3
3
3
3
450
550
650
750
520
630
750
805
3
3
3
3
450
550
650
750
196
230
287
345
1035
1210
1500
1785
3
3
3
3
900
1050
1300
1550
1035
1210
1500
7585
3
3
3
3
900
1050
1300
1550
KV
Crest
42
Min
Time
KV
Crest
KV
Crest
30
45
60
75
95
54
69
88
110
130
to flashover in
microse
conds
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.8
2
KV
Crest
45
60
75
95
110
Insulation
Outdoor
Bushing
Classification(1)
KV
Indoor(7)
Large
Apparatus
(5)
Small
Apparatus
.( 6 )
10
10Sec 1 Min Sec
wet
Dry
wet
..
10
6
20
15
13
24
21
20
30
27
24
45
35
30
Bushings
1 Min(3)
Outdoor Bushings
Indoor(7)
Bushings
1.2
2.5
5
8.7
15
1
Min
Dry
..
21
27
35
50
23
34.5
46
69
70
95
120
175
60
80
100
145
70
95
120
175
60
80
100
145
60
80
..
..
150
200
250
350
150
200
250
350
150
200
92
115
138
161
225
280
335
385
190
230
275
315
225
280
335
385
190
230
275
315
..
..
..
..
450
550
650
750
450
550
650
750
196
230
287.5
345
465
545
680
810
385
445
555
665
465
545
680
810
385
445
555
665
..
..
..
..
900
1050
1300
1550
900
1050
1300
1550
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6
Dry
..
20
24
30
50(8)
large(5)
Small(6)
apparatus apparatus
..
30
60
45
75
60
95
75
110
95
..
45
60
75
110(8)
43
bushing for use in indoor apparatus are those intended for use in indoor type circuit
breakers, instrument transformers, and other indoor apparatus except drytype
instrument transformers, aircooled transformers, aircooled regulators, and bushings
used primarily for mechanical protection of insulated cable leads.
Bushing for small indoor apparatus may be supplied to withstand a low frequency test
of 35 KV and an impulse test of 95 KV.
44
Average critical
impulse sparkover
1.5*40 second
KV / second
Min
Avg
Max
Wave KV **
29
25
23
33
45
50
32
50
70
41
75
48
71
97
53
12
100
63
84
94
61
15
125
77
101
*100 KV per second per 12 KV of Arrester rating.
**Impulse of polarity given higher sparkover voltage
114
70
WATERTIGHT JOINT
COVER
FOUNDATION BASE
45
Agv
Max
46
10,000 Amperes
Agv
Max
20,000 Amperes
Agv
Max
Distribution
3
6
9
12
15
Line
20
25
30
37
40
50
60
73
Station
3
6
9
12
15
25
50
75
100
125
18
34
48
61
73
23
45
62
77
91
23
45
62
77
91
14
26
39
49
61
17
34
51
62
77
17
34
51
62
77
16
30
44
55
69
20
38
57
69
87
20
38
57
69
87
18
34
51
62
79
23
44
66
78
99
23
44
66
78
99
167
208
250
308
333
417
500
608
75
93
110
136
147
183
22.
267
90
111
132
163
176
220
264
320
85
105
125
154
167
208
250
302
83
101
121
149
161
202
242
297
96
116
139
172
185
232
278
342
91
111
133
164
177
225
267
328
92
111
135
164
177
222
271
328
106
128
155
189
204
255
312
378
102
122
149
181
195
245
300
361
101
121
149
181
196
243
298
360
116
139
172
208
225
280
344
414
111
133
164
199
216
268
328
396
25
50
75
100
125
13
23
35
43
53
15
26
39
50
61
15
26
39
48
59
10
20
30
40
50
11
22
33
44
55
11
22
33
43
54
11
22
32
44
54
13
25
37
448
60
12
23
35
47
58
12
24
35
47
59
14
27
39
52
65
13
26
38
51
63
20
25
30
37
40
167
208
250
308
333
72
89
106
131
136
83
102
122
151
157
80
98
117
144
150
67
83
100
124
134
74
92
110
137
148
72
89
107
133
143
72
90
108
132
144
80
90
119
146
159
77
96
115
141
154
78
100
118
145
153
86
110
130
160
169
84
107
126
155
164
50
60
73
97
109
417
500
608
808
908
178
214
261
345
388
205
246
300
397
446
196
236
288
380
427
167
200
245
323
363
184
220
270
356
400
179
214
262
345
388
179
217
262
349
394
197
239
288
384
434
191
231
297
372
420
191
234
283
377
424
211
258
313
415
467
205
250
303
403
453
121
145
169
196
242
1008
1208
1408
1633
2017
430
515
602
691
860
495
529
693
796
988
474
566
663
760
945
403
487
566
647
806
444
536
624
713
887
430
520
605
691
860
438
523
610
698
872
482
575
672
768
960
467
558
650
744
931
470
564
658
755
940
517
622
725
832
1035
502
602
702
803
1004
10
8
10000
6
1000
20000
5000
4
3
2
1
STANDARD AIEE
10 X 20 MS TEST
WAVE
47
(a)
10
8
6
20000
10000
5000
1000
STANDARD AIEE
10 X 20 MS TEST
WAVE
1
1000
2000
30000
5000
10000
20000
40000
(b)
BREAKDOWN IN KV PER KV OF
ARRESTER RMS VOLTAGE
RATING
10
98
7
6 c
b
a
Gap
Breakdown
5
4
3
2
1
0
MICROSECONDS
48
Figure 3.22 Average impulse gap breakdown of station and line type Arresters.
(a) Represents rate of rise of 5 KV per microsecond per KV of arrester rating.
(b) Represents rate of rise of 10 KV per microsecond per KV of arrester rating.
(3) Represents rate of rise of 20 KV per microsecond per KV of arrester rating.
*Station type arrester, and distinguished by their heavier construction, better
protective characteristics, and higher dischargecurrent capacity are used for the protection of
substation and power transformers. Linetype arresters are used for the protection of
distribution transformers, small power transformer and sometimessmall distributions.
Distribution type arrester is intended primarily for pole mounting in distribution circuits for
the protection of distribution transformers up to and including 15 KV classification.
* Modern stationtype arrester are designed to discharge not less than100,000
amperes; line and distribution types not less than 65,000 amperes, each with a 5 * 10
microsecond test wave. In addition, they are given an insulation test in accordance with Table
3.30
Table 3.20 insulation test for lightning arresters (withstand test voltage)
Insulation
Impulse
test
1.5*40
sec
10
1Minute Second
Dry
Wet
15
21
27
35

13
20
24
30

full wave
crest KV
.( 2.3 )
45
60
75
95

(1) Where application is to be made of an arrester having a lower voltage rating than
the rated voltage of the circuit on which it is to be used such as on grounded neutral circuits,
the insulation test shall be that specified for the insulation class onestep lower than the rated
circuit voltage.
(2) All values are withstanding test voltages without negative tolerance.
(3) Either positive or negative polarity waves may be used whichever gives the lower
values.
* The valvetype lightning arrester is usually made up of two elements, a gap element
capable of withstanding power voltage and a valve element capable of suppressing the current
following the discharge of the surge. The breakdown of the gap, which is affected somewhat
by the rate of voltage rise, determines the initial discharge voltage of the arrester. The voltage
drop across the valve element, which depends upon the rate of rise and magnitude of surge
current discharged, determines the arrester voltage during discharge.
For a traveling wave coming into a deadend station, the discharges current in the
arrester is determined by the maximum voltage that the line insulation can pass, by the surge
impedance of the line, and the voltage characteristic of the arrester, according to the following
relation:
3.10.3 Calculate the current arrester
Ia
2E Ea
Z
(3.31)
Where:
Ia  Arrester current.
E  Magnitude of in coming surge voltage
Ea  Arrester terminal voltage
Z  Surge impedance of line
1  The surge impedance of a single aerial wire with ground return is:
Where
L
C
(3.32)
2h
r
(3.33)
C  Its capacitance:
C
3.882 10 8
log 10
2h
r
(3.34)
50
Where:
h  Height of conductor above ground
r  Radius of conductor in same units
RESULT:
Z 138 log 10
Z 138 log
2h
r
ohms
2 *8
418.67 ohms
0.0148
2E Ea
Z
A  Option (1) to choice Arrester type rated voltage 20 KV, from Fig. 3.21(b) the discharges
voltage for a current of 1,851 amperes and a rate of rise of 4,777 amperes is 3.3 * 20 = 66 KV.
Adding the manufacturing tolerance plus 15% givens 75.9 KV as the discharge voltage
provided by the 20KV arrester for the assumed conditions, since the rate of rise has been
taken into consideration in establishing this protective level of 75.9 KV, no additional margin
need be added. There is however, a difference of 125 KV minus 75.9 equal 49.1 KV between
the protective level and the basic impulse insulation level of 125 KV of the transformer
insulation.
Suppose a direct stroke at the station discharges through the arrester a current of
50,000 amperes, rising to crest in three microseconds, with a nominal rate of rise of 20,000
amperes per microsecond. The discharge voltage from Fig. 3.21 (b) is 4.55 * 20 = 91 KV for a
20 KV arrester which plus 10% is 100.1 KV or 24.9 KV between the protective level and the
BIL of 125 KV of the transformer insulation.
B  Option ( 2 ) to choice Arrester type rated voltage 25 KV, from Fig. 3.21( b ) the
discharge voltage for current of 1,851 amperes and a rate of rise of 4,777 amperes is 3.3 * 25=
82.5 KV. Adding the manufacturing tolerance of plus 15% givens 94.87 KV, there is,
however, a difference of 125 KV  94.87 KV = 30.13 KV between the protective level and the
basic impulse insulation level of 125 KV of the transformer insulation.
51
Suppose direct stroke at the station discharge through the arrester a current of 50,000
amperes, rising to crest in three microseconds, with a nominal rate of rise of 20,000 amperes
per microsecond. The discharge voltage from Fig.3.21 (b) is 4.55 * 25 = 113.75 KV for a 25
KV arrester which with plus 10% is 125.125 KV or 0.125 KV excess of the basic impulse
insulation level.
The option (1) to choice Arrester type and rated voltage 20 KV for line
distribution 22 KV is suffices.
Electrical equipment to install in the station or MV user's sites shall withstand the
maximum temperature, the maximum loading conditions, the wind, the weight and other
factors etc
The results of calculation of the Electrical equipment on the Mechanical solidity are
influence by the safety of the Electrical Network. It shall be confirmed that the temperature
rise of the Electrical equipment does not exceed the allowable maximum temperature of the
Electrical equipment or the maximum temperature under which there is no risk of damage to
the Electrical equipment, when the temperature rise test based on the following items and the
standard concerning the Electrical equipment is carried out.
The purpose of lighting arrester protection device is to limit the surge voltage that may
be applied to the apparatus it protects and by phase the source to ground. It must withstand
continuously the rated power voltage for which it is designed. The ratio of the maximum
source voltage it will permit on discharge to the maximum crest power voltage it will
withstand following discharge, called the protective ratio is, therefore a measure of its
protective ability.
52
Real value of the establishment short circuit (by this current, one verifies
"
I period
.o
0
I app . max i a .o
Unm
2 I
0.01second
in.o
I period. m ax
2 * I period.o
Transitional processes
Figure: 4.1 A periodic components of the short circuit current ( in.o )
53
Establishment
regime
A periodic components of the short circuit current ( in.o ) that are varied by the exponent law :
i aperiod I aperiod. max .e t / Ta
(4.1)
Where :
Ta  The constant time of the deeded a periodic component.
Ta
X s .c
314 * Rs .c
(4.2)
Where:
Xs.c, Rs.c  Inductive and active resistance of the shortcircuited circuit
The shock short circuit current corresponding to the time = 0.01 second.
i y I aperiod. max .e t / Ta I period. max
I period. max
Where
2 * I period.o
(4.3)
Maximum value of the periodic component
i y I period. max e t / Ta
To replace
1 e t / Ta K y
I period. max
Or
iy K y *
2 * I period.o 1 e t / Ta
we found that:
2 * I period.o or i y
i y I period. max 1 e t / Ta
2 * Iperiod .o 1 e t / Ta
2 * I period.o
(4.4)
Notice :
The Ky is the short circuit coefficient depending on the Ta
54
Table 4.1 value of the " Ky " ( Constant time of the short circuit) .
No
1
2
3
Ky
1.95
1.91
1.8
1.4
1.3
1.2
Notice:
For the electrical installation with the voltage higher than 1000 volts the " Ta "is
taking equal to 0.05 second and Ky = 1.8
The short circuit current of shock is equal:
i y 1.8 *
(4.5)
I BASE
S BASE
3 * U BASE
(4.6)
Where:
55
S base
S nom
(4.7)
X *base X 0 l
base
2
average.nom
(4.8)
Where:
Uaverage nom  Nominal voltage
Xo, l  Resistance (reactance) perkilometer of line and the line length
3  Relative value of the transformer resistance:
X *base.Trans 0.01 U s.c %
S base
(4.9)
S nom.Trans
I base
I reactor
U nom
U base
(4.10)
Where:
Inom.reactor  Nominal current of the reactor
4.3 The resistances of the elements of electrical system in the short circuit regime
for
the short circuit calculation of the installation with the voltage higher than
1000 volts, one takes into account only the inductive resistances of the electrical overhead line
system elements that influences on the value of this current. To these elements are related the
generators, the compensators, the electrical machines, the powerful transformer, the overhead
lines (or the cables).
ELECTRICAL MACHINES
The synchronous machines are considered as the inductive resistances (reactance) for
the beginning of the short circuit moment. (Ultra transitional X "d, related to the nominal
power and the nominal voltage of the generators ):
1  For the turbogenerators.............................................
2  For the hydrogenerators with the regulating
winding....
3  For the hydrogenerators without the regulating
winding
X"d = 0.125
X"d = 0.16
X"d = 0.20
X"d = 0.20
X"d = 0.27
2
U base
S nom
(4.11)
2
U nom
S nom.Trans
(4.12)
RTrans Ps.c .
2
U nom
S nom.Trans
(4.13)
c  Reactors.
The resistance of the reactors in the concrete unity is determine by the
formula:
X reactor 0.01 X reactor %
U nom
3 I nom
(4.14)
d  The asynchronous motors
For the calculation of the short circuit current at the asynchronous motor, one
may know:
1  Nominal power and voltage of the motor
57
s .c
0 ; X *syst 0 ; R*syst 0
Notice:
This admissibility is possible, if in the case, the resistance or impedance of the system
do not exceed 5  10 % of the total resistances or impedance of the short circuit current. The
periodic current component of the phase short circuit is determined by the expression:
a  IN THE CONCRETE (REAL) VALUE, one calculates:
I s .3c
U average
2
2
Rtotal
X total
(4.15)
Rtotal X total
U average
(4.16)
3 X total
b  IN THE RELATIVE
3 I baseVALUE,
X total one calculates:
X *total result
U base
(4.17)
We receive:
I s .3c
U
/ U base
aver
I base
X *total result
(4.18)
Being given Uaver = U base, the grandeur of the short circuit in the concrete unity is
I s .3c I * s3.c I base
I base
X *total
(4.19)
In addition, we obtain that: the short circuit power is found by the formula:
58
S s .c
S base
X *total result
1.0 i
a
0.9
0.8
(4.20)
e 1 / Ta
t=0.0
1
0.7
0.6
t=0.0
5
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
t=0.1
0.1
t=o.2
Ta
Figure 4.2 Ta
0.01 0.02
0.1
0.04
0.05
0.08
4.5 To calculate the three phases short circuit current in relative value unity
The short circuit calculation in the distribution electrical system is aimed to verify and
check the electrical apparatus and conductor working in the overload regime and for verifying
the automatic switchgear. For the verification of the capacity of switchgear and fuse, one
utilizes the first value of periodic current of threephase short circuit I periodic [KA].
All communes are located along the National Rout No 4 between Phnom Penh to
Kampong Speu.
By the result of the Power flow and Voltage drop for the longrang forecast the normal
cross sectional areas of conductor for distribution line that we choose respecting to the voltage
drop for all condition:
* Normal regime =  5%
* Abnormal regime =  10%
In our project from the 1 to 5 years for the distribution line, we construct one single
line circuit with the conductors AC  3 * 240 mm (three phases). In addition, after 5 to 15
years the first distribution line must be doubled (another one single line circuit, make it two
circuits in parallel AC  2 *(3 * 240 MM) it responds to the longrang forecast (15), and
impedance of line are :
Ro = 0.124 W / km
59
Xo = 0.31 W / km
If Ro / Xo = 0.40 > 1/3 we must consider the active resistance and inductance.
KSpeu
PPenh G.S3
Beakchan
4km 1
7km
5km
7km
3km
Komboul
4km
18km
115/22KV
115/22KV
22 / 0.4 KV
For Rural
[KVA]
400
500
1250
800
1250
800
For Industry
[KVA]
800
630
1250
1250
2500
2000
X1
X2
X4
X3
K 1
X5
3
X8
X7
X6
5
X9
6
115/22KV
115/22KV
STr=50MVA
Us.c=12.5%
STr=10MVA
Us.c=12.5%
K1
X1
X2
X3
X4
X5
X6
X7
X8
115/22KV
115/22KV
STr=10MVA
Us.c=12.5%
Tr=50MVA
Us.c=12.5%
(a)
X1
X10
Xtr9
K1
(b)
X1
K1
(c)
Figure : 4.5 a; b; c
A  The short circuit current from A to " K1 "
1  The nominal current of the transformer HV / MV 115 / 22 KV
Nominal Power of the transformer, STr = 20 MVA
Tension of the short circuit, Us.c = 12.5 %
IN
IN
S TR
3 *U
(4.21)
20
0.52 KA
3 22
(4.22)
I N 100
12.5
0.52 100
4.16 KA
12.5
*
X Tr
9 12.5 0.01
S BASE
STR. NOM
(4.9)
100
0.25
50
X* X0 l
Sbase
2
U AVER
(4.8)
100
1.537
22 2
X * X *Tr 9 X *10
R* 0.062 48
100
0.61
22 2
(In this case R*S / X*S = 0.61 /1.787 = 0.34 > 1/3 and the act, resistance is taking into
account).
Z*
R* X *
3  Total impedance:
*
Z Total
R*2 X *
*
ZTotal
(4.23)
I base
S base
(4.6)
3 *U base
100
2.624 KA
1.73 22
I S 3.C
I s .3c
I BASE
Z TOTAL
(4.19)
2.62
1.39 KA
1.88
Ta
For
(4.2)
1.787
0.009
314 0.61
(4.4)
i y 1.34 1.39 1.41 2.626 KA
S base
X *total
S s .c
100
55 .95 MVA
1.787
(4.19)
4.5.2 The short circuit current calculation in the point "K2"
A
B
K2
X1
X2 X3
X4
X5
X6
X7
X9
X8
115/22KV
115/22KV
STr=10MVA
Us.c=12.5%
Tr=50MVA
Us.c=12.5%
X1
X2
X3
X4
X5
X6
X7
X8
K2
X9
Snom=20MVA
Snom=50MVA
Us.c=12.5%
(a)
Us.c=12.5%
X1
XL1
X9
(b)
K2
X*
X9
K2
(c)
Figure: 4.7 a; b; c
AThe short circuit current at point " K2 " from Kampong Speu
1Ractive resistance of the transformer:
X Tr* U S .C %
*
X Tr
1
S BASE
S NOM
(4.9)
12.5 100
0.625
100 20
X* X0 l
S base
2
U AVER
(4.8)
100
1.537
22 2
X * X *Tr 1 X *L1
R* 0.062 48
100
0.61
22 2
64
(In this case R*S / X*S = 0.614 /2.162 = 0.28 < 1/3 and the act, resistance is not taken into
Z* X *
account).
I base
(4.6)
S base
3 *U base
100
2.624 KA
1.73 * 22
I base
I BASE
Z*
I S 3.C
2.624
1.21KA
2.162
(4.19)
Ta
For
*
X total
*
314 * Rtotal
(4.2)
1.787
0.009
314 * 0.61
(4.4)
i y 1.34 *1.21*1.41 2.286KA
S base
X *total
(4.19)
65
S s .c
100
46 .253 MVA
2.162
50
1.313KA
3 22
I N 100
12.5
I S 3.C
1.313 100
10.50 KA
12.5
4.5.3 The short circuit current calculation at the point K3, K4; K5,
K6; K7 and K8
4km
7km
115/22KV
K3
5km
K4
7km
K5
3km
K6
4km
18km
K7
115/22KV
K8
Sn=20MVA
Sn=50MVA
Us.c=12.5%
Figure 4.8 The scheme of Electrical Network
Us.c=12.5%
B
X1
X2
X3
X4
K3
K4
X5
K5
X6
X7
X8
K6
K7
K8
Snom=20MVA
Snom=50MVA
Us.c=12.5%
(a)
Us.c=12.5%
XTr1
(b)
X9
XL1
Xl2
K3
66
XTr9
X*1
X*
K3
(c)
S BASE
S NOM
(4.9)
12.5 100
*
0.62
100 20
X* X0 *l *
S base
2
U AVER
X * 2 0.155 * 4 *
R*2 0.062* 4 *
(4.8)
100
0.128
22 2
100
0.051
222
into account).
(4.6)
S base
3 *U base
100
2.624 KA
1.73 * 22
67
(4.19)
2.624
2.995 KA
0.876
I S 3.C
S BASE
S NOM
(4.9)
X* X0 *l *
S base
(4.8)
2
U AVER
account).
S base
(4.6)
3 *U base
100
2.624 KA
1.73 * 22
I base
X *Total
I S 3.C
2.624
1.581 KA
1.659
(4.19)
Ta
*
X total
*
314 * Rtotal
1.659
0.009
314 * 0.563
(4.2)
68
For
(4.4)
S base
X *total
(4.19)
S s .c
100
37.608 MVA
2.659
We have :
TABLE 4.2 The short circuit current
From A
The point of short circuit
From B
I(3)s.c
[ KA ]
I(3)s.c
[ KA ]
K1
4.16
1.39
K2
1.21
10.5
K3
2.995
1.581
K4
2.68
1.829
K5
2.3
2.059
K6
1.929
2.499
K7
1.8
2.75
K8
1.655
3.176
4.5.4 The short circuit current calculation at the point K9 K10 "; K11 "; K12 ";
K13 and K14
69
B
A
K9
K10
115/22KV
K11
K12
K13
K14
115/22KV
Sn=20MVA
Sn=50MVA
Us.c=12.5%
Us.c=12.5%
B
X1
X2
Snom=20MVA
X3
K9
X4
K10
X5
K11
X6
K12
X7
K13
Us.c=12.5%
X8
X9
K14
Snom=50MVA
Us.c=12.5%
(a)
XTr1
XL1
XL2
K11
(b)
X*1
X*2
K11
(C)
70
XTr9
X* X0 *l *
S base
2
U AVER
X * 2 0.155 * 48 *
R*L 0.062 * 48 *
100
1.537
22 2
100
0.61
22 2
X * X *1 X * 2
X * 0.785 1.537 2.322
(In this case R*S / X*S = 0.61 / 2.322 = 0.26 < 1 / 3 and the act, resistance is not taken into
account).
3  The base current:
I base
I base
S base
3 *U base
100
2.624 KA
1.73 * 22
(4.6)
(4.19)
2.624
1.130 KA
2.322
Ta
For
*
X total
*
314 * Rtotal
(4.2)
2.624
0.01
314 * 0.61
71
i y K y * I s .c3 * 2
S
base
X *total
S s .c
100
43.06 MVA
2.322
(4.19)
Smaller then or
Grandeur of parameter in
equal to
catalogue
Ucal = 22 KV
Ical.nom = 173.24
Ishock = 1.39
< Icatalogue.break = 20 KA
ichock.cal.max = 2.624
< idinamic.catal = 50 KA
a
A
(TRANSFO)
LOAD
GENERATOR
B
C
CB
CC
ICOB
72
CA
ICOC
ICOA
A
UA
ICOA
ICOB
ICOC
UC
Figure:
C 4.12 a Single phase
UB
B
VB
A
GENERATOR
C
VA=0
VC
73
B CB
IC'B CC
IC'C
IC
c
LOAD
IC'B
Ic
I c. I c. ,c I c. ,b 0
I c. I c. ,c I c. ,b
Ic
UA
IC'C
0
UB'=UAB
C'=ground
UAC
Figure: 4.12 b Short circuit phasesUto
UBC
In the normal regime of work, the phase voltages relatives to the Earth
(V
)
A ,VB ,VC
are symmetrical and the capacitors currents of phase relatively to the Earth are
(I
and symmetrical
) ( Figure 4.12 . a ).
(4.24)
increases in
voltage )
U 'B
increase too in
, ' U
CA
BA U
3 C
times.
The capacitors currents damage phases A will be equal to zero, as the capacitor seems
shortcircuited.
74
IC
I C ' B I C 'C
4.25)
Finally, the capacitor current I c is 3 times more than the capacitor current of phase
in the normal regime.
I C 3 * I CO 3 * U ph * * C
(4.26)
U *l
350
A
(4.27)
22 * 48
3.017 Amperes
350
The result of calculation of short circuit in the distribution Electric system is aimed to
verify and check the Electrical apparatus and conductor working in the overload regime and
for choosing the Electrical equipment, which mean all Electrical equipment its withstand to
the current short circuit, current shock. In addition, very importance for setting the relay
protection of circuit breaker to protect from shortcircuits.
75
ECONOMIC CALCULATION
For the distribution electrical network project, it is important to consider the
Rational voltage choice and at the same time the electrical network schemes and the powerful
transformers. If the known and given rational voltage entails the determination of electrical
lines parameters and chosen circuit breakers of substation, transformer cells, and therefore the
expenses of conductor metal, electrical energy losses and exploitation costs.
76
For the transmission of electrical energy from the supply sources to the consumers, the
necessary capital costs c " depend on the transmitted power " S ", distance " l " between the
supply sources and consumers.
The capital cost for the distribution electrical lines system constructions are expressed by the
sum:
C = Cl + Cequ + Cad
(5.1)
Where:
Cl  Capital cost for the overhead line (cable) construction.
C = Clo * l
Cequ  Capital cost for the equipment installation (circuit breaker, switchgear,
disconnector, separator, short circuitor, measurement transformer, reactors bus bars, discharge,
and powerful transformer).
Cad  Additional capital in electrical energy supply source for covering the power
losses in the distribution electrical network system.
The exploitations expenditures are equal to:
D = Dloss + Dd + Dserv + Dexploit
(5.2)
Where:
Dloss  Electrical energy loss cost.
Dd  Depreciation deduction
Dexploit  Exploitation deduction
Dserv  Service staff deduction
When the number of options is equal to 3 and more, we utilize the formula of yearly cost as
follows:
Z=D+C*K
(5.3)
Where:
K Specific economic efficiency factor (K = E N =1/T)
In the real case, we consider only:
D = Dloss + Dd + Dexploit ( Dserv is the same for all option ).
(5.4)
Or
Dd = Doverhead line + Dtransformer cell
(5.6)
Here:
(In referring to the norm of table)
For overhead line we take: Doverhead line = 6 %. C
For transformer cells we take: Dtransformer cell = 10 %. C
77
78
(5.7)
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