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Demand forecast

The load growth of the communes area served by a utility company is the most important
factor influencing on the distribution system. Therefore, forecasting of load increases and
system reaction to these increases is essential to the planning process. There are two common
time scales of importance to load forecasting; long-range more than 10 years and shortrange, with 5 years distant. The factors, which influence on the load forecast load growth is
very much dependent on the community and its development.
Major points of power (or load) depend on the results of the average household consumption
and the usage of different types of residential sectors, commercial sectors, industrial sectors,
and public sectors.
Geographical
Factors

Population growth

Land use

City plans
Demand
Forecast

Industrial plans

Alternative energy source

Community development
Plans

1. Forecast by (T maximum)
The population growth forecast for five years is applied by formula below:
E t E 0 (1 ) t

Where:
Eo- Density of population in the present

- Growth rate in percentage

t- is a time in year
The total number of the households is equal to the populations divided by the average
household size.
1

Therefore, the number houses are given by:

H

Et
Averagehou seholdsize

Eact
T max

Where: E act- the yearly active energy consumed

T max- the number of hours per year of maximum load (T= 5,225 hours this data
taken from EDC Power Development Plan and (T = 1,440 hours for the 22% of the residential
used maximum load 4 hours a day)

Calculate E act per year

E act = E av * H *12
Where: E av- the average active energy consumed per month
H The number of households
2. Forecast by Simultaneous coefficient
Now we consider another one method to compare the calculation power load of the each
Consumption in the absence of the reliable statistic of the load data, it is recommended to
utilize the calculation method based on the application of the SIMULTANEOUS
COEFFICIENT of the individual consumes and its groups, this method has the following
form:
n

i 1

Pcal .night k 0 Pnight

i 1

Where:
P calculate day, P calculate night
Calculated load at the line section or at the bus bars of the transformer on the day and night
time.
k 0 - Simultaneous coefficient

Table 1: Simultaneous coefficient at the electrical network of 0.4 kV

Number of

SIMULTANEOUS COEFFICIENT

consumer

Until 2 kW/house

Higher than 2

Industrial
consumer

kW/house
2

0.76

0.75

0.85

0.66

0.64

0.80

0.55

0.53

0.75

10

0.44

0.42

0.65

20

0.37

0.34

0.55

50

0.30

0.27

0.47

100

0.26

0.24

0.40

200

0.24

0.20

0.35

500

0.22

0.18

0.30

Example
For the restaurant which used energy 300 kwh per month:
300 kwh/30 day = 10 kwh/day, P calculated day = 4 kw and P calculated night = 6 kw
P day- max = k 0 * n * P cal day
P F night- max = k 0 * n * P cal night

Sday max Snight max

Saverage
2
In necessary requirements to the load forecast for the choice of the distribution line,
we take the long- term with more than10 years.
The electrical load forecast is applied by formula below:
Et Eo(1 ) t

Where

- is a growth rate
Eo- is an amount of energy in the first time
t- is a time in a year or month utilization electrical energy period
E- Electrical energy & consumption expressed in (kWh, MWh)
3. Preliminary voltage determination

If the electrical power, which is going to be distributed and the length of distribution
system are known and the nominal voltage that must be rated on these system is determined
by the formula below:
U max 3 S 0.5 L

Where:
L Length of distribution system, km
S Power supply, MVA
Figure 1.2Diagram of load of each Consumption

4. Optimization of route MV line

Method to calculate X 0 of the twin-conductor single-circuit three phase, 50 Hz line in
parallel

1.4 m
1.4 m

D
D
D

1.4 m

Figure 1: Two single-circuits three phase of line with vertical circuit

Daverage 3 D1 D2 D3

D1 = D 2 ;

D 3 = 2D 1 = 2 D 2

Daverage 3 D1 D2 2D1

Daverage 3 D 1.26 D
Daverage 1.26 D

or

X 0 2. . f .0.2.Ln

DG .M . D 1.26 D

GMD
GMR

5. Power Loss Calculation

5.1. Line losses
The line losses in distribution system can be in both primary and secondary feeders. The
conductors size of primary feeders is also acceptable voltage drop and losses in the
distribution system. Line losses are function of the square of the current flowing through the
resistance (R) of the line [14]. The line loss can be calculated as:
Line Loss = I2 R/1000

(kW)

Where,
I -Phase current through the line (A)
R -Total resistance of the line (Ohm)
Total loss of the section
I I cos jI sin

or
I

( I cos ) 2 ( I sin ) 2

Loss

I 2R
R

( I cos ) 2 ( I sin ) 2
1000 1000

The average loss of the line can be calculated as:

LAverage =LLoss X LSF X 8760
Where,
LSF -Loss factor
Loss factor can be calculated as:
LSF =0.15 LF + 0.85 (LF)2
Where,
LF -Annual load factor of the line and can be calculated:
Total annual energy
5

LF =

Annual losses in primary feeder supply to many transformers can be calculated in the
following three options:
a). When only one distribution transformer is involved, loss may be calculated as a
concentrated load at the end of the line.
LAnnual =LLoss X LSF X 8760
or
LAnnual = I2m X R X [0.15 LF + 0.85 (LF)2] X 8760
LAnnual =3 X I2m X R X [0.15 LF + 0.85 (LF)2] X 8760

(for one phase)

(for three phase)

The total percentage of energy loss per year is calculated as:

2

Loss% = 3

Im R
(0.15 LF 0.85 LF 2 ) 8760 100
E

Where,
Im -Maximum current recording at substation (A)
E -Energy sent out from substation in that year (kWh)
R -Total resistance of the line (Ohm)
b). When the feeder is relatively long and serves a few transformer widely spaced, the value
of load in this feeder may be considered as a distributed load.

LLoss

I Ri
i
,
i 1 1000
n

(kW)

Where,
Ii -Portion current (A)
n -Portion of line
Ri -Portion resistance (Ohm)
LAnnual =LLoss X LSF X 8760

Total percentages of losses per year are calculated as:

Loss% = Loss X 100/E
c). When the length is short, where a larger, more closely situated number of transformer
exist, the circuit can be considered as uniform distribution load. The total load of transformer
can be assumed at a point one third (1/3) of the distance (from the tap-off at the main) for
calculating losses in the entire length of the feeder. The equivalent losses when total load is
placed 1/3 of the distance from the substation can be calculated as:
LAnnual =

1 2
I m X R X [0.15 LF + 0.85 (LF)2] X 8760
3

(for one phase)

(for three phase)

Total percentages of losses per year are calculated as:

2

Loss% =

Im R
(0.15 LF 0.85 LF 2 ) 8760 100
E

R Li Ri
i 1

Where,
Li -Portion length of the line (km)
Ri -Resistance corresponding section line in (Ohm/km)
n -Portion of the line
5.2. Power Loss Reduction
Power loss reduction =[Power loss (old system) - Power loss (new system)]
% Power loss reduction =

[Power loss (old) - Power loss (new)] X100

Power loss (old)

6. Voltage Drop
Voltage drop exists in each part of the power system from generation to the customers meter.
All equipment connected to the utility system is designed to be used at a certain definite
voltage.
The voltage drop in distribution lines are calculated as:
V I ( R cos X sin ) L (for one phase)
V

3 I ( R cos X sin ) L

Where,
I
R
X

- Current on the line (A)

- Resistance of the line (Ohm/km)
- Reactance of the line (Ohm/km)
- Angle between current and voltage
- Length of the line (km)

The primary feeder supply from one to many transformers the voltage drop can be calculated:
a). When only one transformer is involved, voltage drop can be calculated as concentrated
load at the end of the line.
V

3 I ( R cos X sin ) L

b). When the feeder is relatively long and serves a few transformers widely spaced, these
values can be derived from a circuit considered to have distributed load.
n

V 3 I i ( Ri cos X i sin ) Li
i 1

Where,
Ii
Ri
Xi

Li

- Portion current on the line (A)

- Resistance of the line (Ohm/km)
- Reactance of the line (Ohm/km)
- Angle between current and voltage
- Portion length of the line (km)
7

- Number of portion

c). When the length is short or large, closely situated to a number of transformers existing in
the circuit, can be considered as supply of uniform distributed load. The total of load can be
assumed to connect at a point 1/2 length of the feeder (from the tap off at the main to the last
transformer) for calculating voltage drop in the line.
V

3
I ( RT cos X T sin )
2

Where,
I
RT
XT

- Current on the line (A)

- Total resistance of the line (Ohm)
- Total reactance of the line (Ohm)
- Angle between current and voltage

ELECTRICAL CALCULATION
Concerning the problems dealing with the selection or choices of cross sectional
conductor areas for overhead lines and cables. The economic current density is followed by

checking for current carrying capacity, corona and radio noise (for the high voltage line)
elimination, mechanical strength, voltage drop, power losses and other factors.
Generally, the cross sectional conductor areas for local networks are to be selected
with the economical current density and maximum consumption of material and admissible
voltage drop under normal conditions.
1.1 Determination of sectional areas of conductor
Table 1.1: permissible current carrying capacity of conductor
Label of
conductor
Aluminum
A-16
A-25
A-35
A-50
A-70
A-95
A-120
A-150
A-185
A-240
A-300

Permissible
current (A)

Label of
conductor

105
135
170
215
265
320
375
440
500
590
680

Permissible
current (A)

AC-16
AC-25
AC-35
AC-50
AC-70
AC-95
AC-120
AC-150
AC-185
AC-240
AC-300

105
130
175
210
265
330
380
445
510
610
690

Label of
conductor

Permissible
current (A)

ACO-150
ACO-185
ACO-240
ACO-300
ACO-400
ACO-500

450
505
605
690
825
945

AC4-120
AC4-150
AC4-185
AC4-240

375
450
515
610

cross-sectional area of conductor is the requirement of economic density current for

the line being constructed.
FEcono

I Max
J Econo

Where:
I Max - current expressed in ampere flowing on the line conductor under peak load
F Econo - Economic cross-sectional area
J - Economic current density found by calculation
Calculated:

J calculated

U Active. Permis
n

3 li cos
i 1

U perm. = 5% Un
U react.

X 0.l
Un

Q l
i 1

Table 1.2: Economic current density J econ [A/mm 2 ]

Conductor type

Tmax (hours/year)
1,000 3,000
3,001 5,000

A-Bare conductor:
-Copper....
-Aluminum.
B-Cable with paper
isolation and core in:
-Copper..
-Aluminum
C-Cable with plastic
isolation and core in:
-Copper..
-Aluminum

> 5,000

2.5
1.3

2.1
1.1

1.8
1.0

3.0
1.8

2.5
1.6

2.0
1.5

3.5
2.2

3.1
2.0

2.7
1.9

The maximum of forecast current in regular (normal) condition:

I Max

2
2
PMax
QMax

3 U n

S Max
3 U n J econ

1.2 Determine the power losses on the transformer maximum load operation
2

P
S
PT sc L 2 nT P0 or
nT
S nT
2

U sc % S L
I %
QT

nT 0 S nT
nT 100 S nT
100

PT

PLi2 QLi2
RTi nT P0i
U N2

p Li2 QLi2
QTi
X Ti nT Q0i
U N2

Where:
P0 - Active power losses on open circuit regime

PSC - Active power losses on short circuit regime

Q0 - Reactive power losses on open circuit regime

Calculated load (S cal) for the year 2008 of each commune:

Ui

S ij

Zl
Sij

Uj
Scal

S ' 'ij
10

ST
Sl

S cali STi S Li

Pcali

PLi2 QLi2
PLi
RTi nT P0i
U N2

Qcali QLi

n Q
pLi2 QLi2
Ci
X

Ti
T
0
i
2
UN
i 1 2

2
2
S cali Pcali
Qcali

1.3 Determine the power losses on the distribution line for the maximum load
i
Z

Sij

Sij

Sij

Scalj

S ' ij S '' lj S ij
S ij Pij jQij
2

P '' ij Q '' ij
Pij
Rij
2
Un
P '' ij Q '' ij
Qij
X ij
2
Un
Where:
Pi . j

Qi . j -

Q ' 'i . j

X i. j

- Reactive resistance on section i to j

U n - Nominal voltage

i
ZA-1
Z1-2
Z2-3
U1
U2
SA-1

UA-1

S1-2
SCal1

U1-2

11

S2-3

SCal2

U3

Uj

SCal3

SCalj

U2-3

U ij

P ' ij Rij Q ' ij X ij

Ui

U j U i U i . j

ON THE MECHANICAL STRENGTH
The main Mechanical considerations in the design and strength of the conductors on
the support are:
1 - An adequate ground clearance of the conductors at maximum temperature and the
12

2 - The conductors should no break under THE conditions of maximum winds.

This is a capacity of conductors lines which relate to the mechanical load that is
subject to the weight, wind, variation of temperature and other factors. For overhead line
construction project, the metallic and concrete supports (poles)construction may be choose of
all or any necessary types, realized (carried out) with its arrangement following the route line
and verified by the mechanical strength of the conductors during calculation.
This calculation includes the determination are:
1 - Mechanical load (burden) and force, acting on the conductors (lines, wire).
2 - Mechanical strain or stress of the conductors at different points and under different
work conditions.
3 - Maximum sag of the conductor
The results of calculation of the conductor on the Mechanical strength are necessary
for proper choice, and calculation of support (strain) of conductors and the sag depend on the
span length (distance between supports).
3.1 The important steps to follow for mechanical property calculation of electrical
conductor
For the calculation of mechanical solidity and in quality of original data, the specific
loads on the electrical conductor are utilized. The load that distributes regulars (uniform) a
long the span, related to unit of length and cross section area. In the calculation, the following
Table 3.1 the order data are as follows:
Span length in meter

Sag in meter

40

0.77

50

0.96

60

1.15

70

1.35

80

1.55

90

1.75

100

1.93

Therefore, the maximum sag in the smooth surface of the land of the system is equal
to 1.75 meters.
3.2 The distance of the conductor and rope from the ground

fmax
13

.
h
hr

l
Figure 3.1 The Picture of the span " l ".
ht

1.1m
h11
1.4m
H=10.25m

fax
hr

H/10+0.5=1.75m

Figure 3.2 The Electrical support.

In our project, from the first to fifth year for the distribution line we constructed one
single-line circuit with a conductor AC-1(3*240mm) three phases. After five to fifteen years,
the distribution line must be doubled; another single-line circuit in order to make it circuits in
parallel AC-2(3*240mm) responds to long-rang forecasts, 15 years.
Where:
hr - Minimum admissible distance between earth and the lowest level conductor point
in the condition of safety
f max - Sagging of the conductor of span.
l - Length of span, distance between supports
h - Height of conductor suspension
14

ht - Height
h11- Vertical distance between conductors (wires).
Length of insulator (depends on Un and type of insulator andvaries from 0.68 m
for overhead line 35 KV to 4.9 m for overhead line 500 KV.
H - Height of support
earth, expressed in Meter
Zone where the line

(conductor) runs across

6 - 10.

20

35-110.

150

220

6.5

2 - Inaccessible place

3.5

5.5

3 - In Populated place

7.5

1 - In uninhabited place

up to 1

(desert)

industry territory
Table 3.3 the dimension of the overhead line
Nominal voltage

Distance between

[KV]

Length of span

conductor [m]

<1

[m]

0.5

6 to 10

Height of support

[m]

hm
[m]

40-50

6-7

50-100

6-7

22

1.5

100-150

15

35

150-200

6-7

110

170-250

6-7

220

250-350

7-8

330

300-400

7.5-8

3.3 The corridor width

The corridor width, in the case of maximum distance from the conductor to
Hl
the branches of the tree may be determine as in the table 3.2 and 3.3
hl

Bl
Bl +1metrer
1

15
A

1m

Bl +1metrer
2

6-7

Hl

Bl 1, 2

Bl

(3.10)

Hl 2 hl 2

8 2 7 2 3.8 m

A D Bl 1 Bl 2 2meters

(3.11)

A = 1.5 +3.8+3.8 +2 =11 m

Table 3.5 minimum admissible distance of conductor from the earth and the building or
objective
NOMINAL VOLTAGE (KV)
DISIGNATION

<1

10

20

16

35

110

150

220

330

500

utilization:
A- Normal regime

7.5

7.5

7.5

7.5

7.5

7.5

8.5

9.5

2.5

3-5

3-5

3-5

3-5

4-7

4-7

5-8

5-8

7.5

8.5

6.5

6.5

7.5

B- From Electrical wire

to electrical conductor of
rail way in the normal
regime
A- Normal regime
B- River, Canal act
(from electrical
conductor of network to
high level of water in
rain season and in the
conductor of high
temperature of
conductor)

3.4 The angle support

The angle support is at the turning point of the electrical line. Angle of the turning line
is called angle "in the plan of line, additional up to 180o to internal angle of line.
The sleeper (tie) of angle support place at the bisector of angle
Angle support may be ANGLE and INTERMEDIATE ".
180 0

Insulator fixed to pivot

Sleeper(cross arm)

17

Figure 3.5 the angle support.

3.5 The distance between the electrical conductor and lightning protection conductor to the
a=0.
2

support
ht

Figure 3.6 Conductor lightning protection

ht

Equation:
ht

Da

tg

(3.13)

0.75 0.1
0.3 0.84 m
tg 30

Where:
for one lightning protection of conductor one the metallic or conductor
support.
for double lightning protection of conductor on the metallicor conductor
support
18

3.7 The insulators of overhead lines

The fundamental assignments of the overhead lines insulators isolate the electrical
conductor from the most of cases of the strong insulation or bear the significant mechanical
loads or burdens. Insulators materials must safety the numerated requirements and are able to
work in the open air under the action of variable temperature, rain, etc... The insulators
materials are porcelain. Insulators of overhead line of all kinds are also produced by glass. An
insulator of overhead line, depending on the capacity of binding to the support, is divided in
insulators fixed to the support and suspended.
A - THE INSULATORS FIXED TO PIVOT
For the low voltage, the insulators fixed to pivot with different dimensions are taking into
consideration. For the medium voltage insulator in porcelain are taken for 20 KV and 35 KV.

Insulat
Insulator fixed to pivot 20-35
orKV

Insulat
Insulator fixed to pivot LV
or
Figure 3.8 A

Figure 3.8 B

Pivot
Pivot

Table 3.6 the insulators of 380 V

TYPE

T
T

P O R C E L A I N
3
6
19

1.7
3.2

8
2
3
6
L A S S

3.8
1.5
2.1
2.8

HC-16

18

HC-18

20

Table 3.7 insulators pivot with 10...35 KV

TYPE

Supported
voltage

KV

Leakage Destructive

with frequency
50 Hz (KV)
Dry
Rain
state
state

(+)

length

(-)

( MM )

( KN )

Mass

( Kg )

G L A S S
u c 10-A
u c 10-

60

34

90

90

210

14

1.4

55

35

90

90

265

12

2.2

P O R C E L A I N
u

63

36

95

63

265

13

1.8

82

57

125

130

385

13

3.5

120

55

195

195

700

16

12

B - SUSPENDED INSULATORS
For overhead line of voltage, 35 KV and the suspended insulators are utilized and
insulators number depends on the line voltage and support (pole) material. For overhead line
with the voltage of 6...110 KV in garland suspended insulators of 6...to 10 KV may be 1
insulator, for 20 KV = 2 for 35 KV = 3. For the electrical lines with the voltage 110 KV and
higher the suspended insulators, 35 KV and lower are utilized.

Table 3.8 testing insulators (characteristic)

Type Support voltage Support impulse
Force of
(one minute
of discharge for
penetration in
testing) 50 Hz
wave 1/50 sec
oil with unit
(kV)
dry
rain
resistance 10
state
state
( +)
(-)
20

Length

Destructive Mass

of

Electro-

leakage mechanical
way (L)

(kg)

60
70
70

62
60
82

30
32
40

95
100
125

109
105
120

.10 8 (kv) (mm)

130
130
130

290
355
400

60
70
70

3.7
5
5.3

Table 3.9 the nominal and maximum voltage of the electrical equipment (KV).
Voltage class

Maximum voltage

Nominal voltage

maximum prolonged

of electrical network voltage of network

( KV )

( KV )

( KV )
3.6

7.2

10

12

15

18

20

24

( KV )
3

3.5

3.2

3.5

3.3

3.6

6.9

6.6

7.2

10

11

11

12

14

15

15

18

16

18

18

19

20

23

22

24

The number of insulators in guar lands is determined only by the influence of line
voltage (for the lines 330 KV and higher) and for the normal conditions of pollution and line
voltage included 35 - 110 KV by the over voltage of commutation equipment. The number of
insulators in garlands is determined only by:
Equation:

n K1 * K 2 .

* U overvoltage
* U max
K1 * K 2 .
L
L
*H
H

Where:
U - Maximum voltage of line (composed voltage) [KV]
L - Length of leakage for one insulator [mm]
H - Height of insulator [mm]
K1 - Coefficient taking into account the leader (conductor) surface.

21

3.14

K2 - Coefficient taking into account the number of parallel circuit in garlands: for one
garland K2 = 1.0 and for many garlands K2 = 1.05

- Unit length of leakage way [mm / KV]

Categories:
A - Insulator working at the normal condition of atmosphere pollution
B - At the conditions of high atmospheric pollution
C - At the special condition of atmospheric pollution
Table 3.10 unit length of leakage way [mm/KV]
Unit length of leakage way mm/KV of insulator in the electrical
system
With the neutral wire
The neutral wire is not connected
connected to the ground
to the ground

Category of
decide or insulator
A

15

17

22

25

C
31
35
For the external insulation, irregularity of pollution on the insulator surface may be
taking into account.
We write again:

Leff

L
K

mm

(3.15)

Where:
L - Effective coefficient K "for the external insulation of electrical equipment
(Distribution)
K - Coefficient of effectiveness who is the value is the ratio of value of L at the
height H "of insulators.
Table 3.19 effectiveness coefficient K1for the external insulation of electrical equipment
(distribution system)
L/H
K

1.5 / 2 2 / 2.7
1

2.3 / 2.7

2.7 / 3.2

3.2 / 3.5

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.1

Determine number of insulator

n K1 K 2 .

U overvoltage
U max
K1 K 2 .
L
L
H
H

n 1 1.05

15 30
1.62 2 insulators
290
22

(3.16)

Where: L - length of leakage way

In augmenting of electrical line, that is to say in increasing of conductors line, the
solidity of garland insulators suspended decreases. The guaranteed level of suspended and
plate insulators solidity is characterized by the probability of working without hitch of
insulators P(t); or for first year of insulators exploitation P(t) is not less than 0.9970 and for
the 30 years of insulators exploitation P(t) is not less than 0.9920 and P(t) is calculated by
formula:
P t 0.9920 0.024 t 3

(3.17)

Where:
t - Year
3 - Guaranteed year of insulators exploitation
P(t) = 0.9920 - 0.024 ( 30 - 3 ) =

If P (t) = 0.9920 - 0.024 (45 - 3) = 1.008 > 0.9920

3.8 The rational power choice of transformer
The power transformer is choice with Economy and temperature condition which the
transformer works permanently during the entire life duration (about 20 years)

relating to

the nominal ambient temperature. These conditions are as follows:

1 - The ambient temperature at a transformation post or substation or cells is equal to t
= +45oC (Cambodias condition).
2 - The increase of temperature at the coil under the normal temperature condition, is
less than or equal 85 oC (Especially in Cambodia and with insulation class B).
3 - The ratio of power losses an open circuit regime and power losses in a short circuit
regime is equal to about 5, as shown in table of transformer characteristics ( the biggest value
is taking into consideration for insuring the reserve of heating insulation ).
4 - For the variation of insulator temperature to + 6 oC witch is higher than the average
value of temperature that is equal to 85 oC for a normal load, the service duration of insulation
is reduced 2 times.

23

4oC

6oC

8oC

toC
( Ambient temperature )

Figure: 3.9 life duration of insulation

- Acceleration of insulation ageing
t oC - Augmentation of ambient temperature by comparison with the temperature
corresponding to the normal condition of insulation ageing.
If the acceleration of insulator ageing is not admissible (or is big), the load of the
transformer must be diminished or decreased or the biggest powerful transformer can be
installed instead of a small power transformer (that is to say the small power transformer is
replaced by the big or biggest one).
The increase of coil temperature does not exceed 85oC depending on each insulation
class (class B-85 oC, class F, H - > 100 oC)
At the utilization place of a transformer where the average yearly temperature has a
difference of + 25 oC, the normal power of a transformer is determined by the formula:
aver . year util. Place

S nom.Tran S nom.Tran. cata log ue 1

100

3.18

Where:
Snom.Tran - Nominal calculate power of a transformer corresponding to the real ambient
temperature of utilization place.
Snom.Tran (catalogue) - Nominal power of transformer given by catalogue
average - Average yearly ambient temperature at the factory, where the transformer
was produced
average - Real temperature at the utilization place
Beyond the limit of ambient temperature ( amb.temp = + 45 oC ) the transformer
must be cooled by the forced ventilation ( Fan ).
3.8.1 The ventilation of transformer cells

24

If the transformer intended for a natural cooling is installed indoors, (in cells). A
sufficiently large ventilation opening must be provided above and below the transformer, so
that natural air movement is sure to remove the heat loss easily, usually by the canal for air
intake and by the shaft for exhaust air. For determination of inlet duct cross section of
ventilation, one can in the case of the cells in masonry, utilize the formula:

S1

A F
9.200V

(3.19)

Where:
S1 - Inlet duct cross section in [M].
A - Total power of transformer in [KVA]
F - Sum of cells cooling surface in [M]
V - Speed wind in [M / sec]
For the transformer functioning with normal power, one can assume a rise of
transformer temperature = 12 K, which is equivalent to an air throughout of 4 to 5 m /
minute per KW of heat loss. As for the rate of heat flow, it is governed by the size of the duct
cross section " S ", the height of the exhaust air (shaft) and resistance in the air way.
R = R1 + m x R2

(3.20)

Where:
R1 - Resistance and acceleration coefficients in the inlet duct.
R2 - Resistance and acceleration coefficients in the exhaust duct.
m - Ratio of inlet and exhaust cross section
If we take exhaust duct, which is 20 % larger than the inlet duct, then:
m

Inlet duct cross sec tion

1

0.83 and
Exhaust duct cross sec tion 1.2

m 2 0.69

Transformer cells construction steels for the nominal power of transformer equal to 630 KVA.

VERSION I:
For the resistance of the airway, we can consider:

Air intake:

Acceleration

1
25

Grille

0.75

Louvers

Right-angled elbow

1.5
R1 = 6.25

Exhaust Air:

Acceleration

Grille

0.75

Louvers

Right-angled elbow

1.5
R2 = 6.25

We obtain:
R = R1 + m x R2
R = 6.25 + 0.69 x 6.25 = 10.56
The " shaft height "may be calculated by the formula:

H 13.2

H 13.2

2
Plosses

S12

R Meter

(3.21)

9.6 2 10.56 5.96 m

2
3

1 12

Where:
Ploss - Power loss sum of transformer [KW].
= 12 K - Air temperature rise.
S - Air intake duct cross section [m].
R - Resistance of the airway

1m

Rain direction

S2
26

30o
H

S1

Figure: 3.10 the shaft height of substation version one

VERSION II:
For the resistance of the airway, we can consider:
Air intake:
Acceleration

Grille

0.75

Louvers

3
R1 = 4.75

Exhaust Air:
Acceleration

Grille
Right-angled
elbow

0.75
1.5
R2 = 3.25

We obtain:
R = R1 + m x R2
R = 4.25 + 0.69 x 3.25 = 6.49
The shaft height may be calculated by the formula:

H 13.2

H 13.2

2
Plosses

S12

R Meter

(3.21)

2
3

1 12

1m
S2

Rain direction

27

30o
H

S1

Figure: 3.11 the shaft height of substation version two

VERSION III:
For the resistance of the airway, we can consider:
Air intake:
Acceleration

Grille

0.75
R1
=1.75

Exhaust Air:
Acceleration

Grille
Right-angled
elbow

0.75
1.5
R2 = 3.25

We obtain:
R = R1 + m x R2
R =1.75 + 0.69 x 3.25 = 3.99
The " shaft height "may be calculated by the formula:

H 13.2

2
Plosses

S12

R Meter

H 13.2

(3.21)

2
3

1 12

1m
S2

Rain direction

28

30o
H
S1

Figure: 3.12 the shaft height of substation version three

Based on the survey and observation data, one assumes that in the dry season the wind
speed at the ground level is very slow and barely reaches 0.5 to 0.6 meter / second. Generally,
the most transformation posts or transformers cells constructed between or closely to high
buildings, which seriously obstruct the natural ventilation by the air of transformation posts
and some times its sizes are inconvenient for the construction, it is necessary to consider
sufficiently enlarging the inlet duct cross section or to augment the wind speed by means of an
electrical fan. Furthermore as we know the speed wind enters the cells through the inlet duct's
cross section in which it is normally in function of the height " H ", which must be respected
during the project study and execution, because the insufficient height " H " provokes the bad
heat exhaust or evacuation from the inside of the cells to the outside.
FOR INSTANCE:
1 - We needed to construct cells having the dimension (3m * 3m) in which it is in
corporation with one transformer having the normal power of 630 kVA. By the technical
characteristics of the transformer, we found that the sum of power loss in the transformer is
equal to about 9.6 kW. To determine the surface " S1 "of an inlet duct cross section and the
height " H ".
SOLUTION:
Under the conditions cited above, we can calculate the surface S1 by the formula:
S1

S1

A F
1,200V

(3.19)

630 3 3 630 9

0.88 m 2
1.200 0.60
720

However, we can take a rounded value of

S 1 1 .0 m 2

9.6
We calculate the height " H "as follows: ( version III ) H 13.2 12 123 3.99 2.25 m
2

We can take a rounded value of

H 2.25 meters.
2 - For instance, if we consider that
the average ambient temperature at the place

where the transformer was produced is equal to +25oC ( especially the transformers in the
29

European Countries), but the maximum temperature in Cambodia is equal to + 45oC, the
calculated nominal power of the transformer at the utilization place can be found as follows:
25 45

S nom.Tran 630 1
504 KVA
100

Where:
3.8.2

630 KVA - Nominal power of the transformer by catalogue.

Pole mounted transformer

Figure 3.8 Pole mounted transformer

Grounding
wire
500
MV lightning arrester

1250
MV fuse
switch
3000

Tran. MV / LV
22 KV / 0.4 KV

1500

4000
DAN
GER

1750
Lightning
Frame-work
Neutral
rope
wire
wire
3.9 Earthing arrangement of electrical facilities artificial earth conductor (wire)
4000
introduction

30

Electrical facilities to be installed with the protective earthings, so that there is no risk
of rise of potential under abnormal conditions, harm to human bodies and damage to the order
objects due to electric shocks and fires caused by high-voltage invasion.
Remark:
The direct current flowing in the earth (ground) electrolyses the water charged of
material salt, which soaks the earth (ground) in creating the counter electromotive force
opposing the current flow. For avoiding this phenomenon, one utilizes excessively the
altering. Current in the measures concerning the earth conductor. The earth conductor is called
the metallic conductor or the group of metallic conductor installed in the earth. There are
three (3) categories of earth conductor:
1 - For protection assuring the safety of service
2 - For the work assuring the normal regime of work
3 - For protection of the over voltage from the atmosphere: storm, lighting.
The norms regulate the following values of earth conductor:
a - For the electrical installation having U > 1000 volts and great short-circuit current
at the earth (ground)
R < 0.5

(R - resistance of earth conductor)

b - For the electrical installation (wiring) with U > 1000 volts and small short circuit
current at the earth (ground)
R < 250 / Is.c but less than 10
Is.c - short circuit current at the ground
c - For the electrical installation with U < 1000 volts:
R < 125 / Is.c but less than 2; 4 and 8 for the tensions (corresponding
voltages 660 V, 380 V and 220 V). (For installation with the total power of generator and
transformer until 100 KVA) ( Sgen orStr = 100 KVA )
R < 10
(For the protection of the winding having, different tensions supply voltage, the
minimum value of resistance of earth conductor is taken)
3.9.1 Execution of earth conductor construction
A - Natural earth conductor
The natural earth conductor is in the ground and composed of the metallic component
of metallic and reinforced concrete construction, electrical cable
B - Artificial earth conductor

31

The artificial earth conductor is normally executed from the electrodes, joined among
of other electrodes at the profound of 0.5 - 0.7 meters by the soldering. The length of
electrodes is equal to 2 - 3 meters and the electrodes are made from the circular steel with the
diameter 10 - 18 MM.
For the overhead line, the length of earth conductor varies from 10 to 40 meters and
buried at the profound from 0.3 - 0.8 meters.
C - Calculation artificial earth conductor
This calculation leads to the determination of the resistance of the ground, type of
earth conductor construction and its profound.
Formulas for the determination of earth conductor resistance

Type

Remark

from the circular
metallic tube.

4.l
Re
.l n
2. .l
d

l>d

.(3.22)

l>d

.(3.23)

II - Vertical tube, made from the circular metallic tube.

0.7m
l
l

Re

2.l 1
4t l
. l n
.l n

2. .l
d
2
4t l

d
III - Horizontal metal, made from the flat metal
t
Re

2.l 2
ln
2. .l
b.t

If earth conductor is executed from the circular tube with

diameter d, b = 2d , ( b - width of flat metal).
32

.(3.24)

Table 3.12 value of season coefficient ( KM )

Temperature oC

Zone
III

KM

1.5 to 2.3

1.3 to 1.8

(+)22 C to +24 C

IV

(+)24 C to +30 C

Where:
III - The numerator - for the vertical earth conductor
IV - The denominator - for the horizontal earth conductor
3.9.2 Earthing circuit of construction of MV/LV distribution substation (indoor or
outdoor substation)
The substation must include:
* An earth electrode for all exposed conductive parts of electrical equipment in the substation
and exposed extraneous metal including:
1 - Protective metal screens
2 - Reinforce rods in the concrete base of the substation,
3 - The common point of all current-transformer secondary windings
TABLE 3.13 INFLUENCE OF THE NATURE OF THE SOIL
Resistivity (in .m)

Clay..

0.4*10 2

Vegetal ground

0.5*10 2

1.0*10 2

2.0*10 2

Sandy ground .

3.0*10 2

220 V

3.9.3 Measuring resistivity of the soil 2

1
110
V

3
V

A
B
6m
Figure 3.14 Measuring resistivity of the soil

C
20m

33

1 - One rheostat (variable, adjustable resistance) of 10 , 5 A

2 - One ammeter of 5 A
3 - One voltmeter of 100 V
To measure simultaneously:
a - The intensity of current I that through (pass) from A to in the conductor AB and in
the earth
b - The tension between A and S
To repeat these measures by pushing down the probe " S " successively at the
distances from 1, 2 ..19, 20 meters to the earth conductor.
To draw the curve of ratio values U/I in function of the distance AS

U/I
B,
C
,,

D
S

,,

Variation of ratio U/I in function of the distance d " of the probe" S "from the earth
conductor, as AB is in order of 20meters
This curve contains:
The zone AC' in which the ratio U/I increases quickly, and the zone C'D' where the
considered ratio is constant, at the end the zone D'B' where the ratio increases quickly again.
Typical variations in soil resistivity
The resistance to earth electrode is influenced by the resistivity of surrounding soil,
the resistivity depends upon the nature of the soil.
Because it is impossible to forecast the resistivity of the soil with any degree of accuracy, it is
important to measure the resistance of an earth electrode when it is first laid down and there
after at periodic intervals. Before sinking an electrode into the ground for a new installation, it
is often advantageous to make a preliminary survey of the soil resistivity of the surrounding
site. This will enable decision to be made on the best position for the electrodes and to decide
whether any advantage is to be gained by driving rods to greater depth. Such a survey may
34

produce considerable saving in electrode and installation costs incurred trying to achieve a
required resistance.
LINE TRAVERSE
The most common method of measuring soil resistivity is often referred to as line
traverse. Four test spikes are driven in to the ground in a straight line at equal distances a ".
The instrument is connected to the test spikes as shown in figure 3.18 connections for
resistivity testing.

a/20
C1

P2

P2

C2

Figure: 3.15 Connection for resistivity testing.

DIGITAL EARTH TESTERS
The experiment in substation at BACK CHHAN commune we need earthing resistance not
more than 4 ohms, the first to find the value of resistivity of soil by measuring DIGITAL
EARTH TESTERS ".
Assuming that the soil in which the test were made is horaogenaous the resistivity is
given by formula:
2 * * a * R

(3.25)

Where:
R - Resistance measure in ohms
a - Equal two meters and depth is equal 2 / 20 = 0.1 meter, the result from measure R
= 5.2 m

35

3.9.4 Calculate the number of earthing electrodes of BAKCHHANS substation 22 / 0.4 KV

To determine the number of earthing electrodes of substation 22 / 0.4 KV, the neutral
conductor is ABSENT and at the side of 0.4 KV the neutral conductor is connected directly to
the earth.
The total length of overhead line of 22 KV is 48 kilometers. Moreover, the measured
resistivity of soil is:
Measure by DIGITAL EARTH TESTERS was made is horaogenaous the resistivity is
given by formula:
2 * * a * R

(3.25)

Where:
2 * 3.14 * 2 * 5.2 0.6531 * 10 4 .cm 0.6531 * 10 2 .m

a - test spikes spacing in meters "a" equal two (2) meters and depth is equal 2/20 = 0.1
R - The result resistance from measuring = 5.2
Resolution:
The charging current of capacitors of overhead line is occurred while there are the
single-phase short circuits with the earth, it is equal to:
I s('.)c

I s('.)c

U *L
350

(3.26)

22 * 48
3.017 A
350

* The earthing resistance for the network of 22 KV is:

Rearth

U earth
I s('.c)

Rearth

125
41.4318
3.014

(3.27)

By the norms, the earthing resistance of installation for the network 380 / 220 volts
may be less than 4 we take the minimum value of earthing resistance of 4 .
* Calculate the specific resistivity of soil:
meas *

(3.28)

0.6531 * 10 4 * 1.4 0.9143 * 10 4 .cm

36

Where:
meas - Measure specific resistance of soil
1.4 in Table

Table 3.13 value of increase coefficient of resistance for different soil and depth
Soil
characters

Depth [ m ]

* Loamy soil

0.8 to 3.8

1.4

0 to 3.0

1.2

0 to 2.0

1.1

* Limestone

0 to 2.0

1.2

of Sand

0 to 2.0

1.2

* Peat

0 to 2.0

* Sand

0 to 2.0

1.2

* Clay

0 to 2.0

1.2

* Gardens soil (0.6m)

under clay stratum.

TO NOTE THAT:
For the ROUND electrode with diameter of 12 mmM and length of 5 meters, we find
Ro.Round = 0.00227*
For CORNER electrode of diameters 50*50*5mm length of 2.5 meters, we find:
Ro.corner = 0.0034*.
The number of vertical electrode is determined by the value:
n

RO
* Rearth

(3.29)

Table 3.14value of coefficient "" in function of ratio a/l. (a - distance between electrodes
and l - Length of electrodes)
Number of electrodes
" "

Coefficient in function of a/l

3

3
2
Electrodes placed in
Contour

Electrodes placed in Row

87

0.8

0.68

10

0.83

0.7

0.55

0.78

0.67

0.59

20

0.77

0.62

0.47

0.72

0.6

0.43

30

0.75

0.6

0.4

0.71

0.59

0.42

37

50

0.73

0.58

0.38

0.68

0.52

0.37

100

0.64

0.48

0.33

200

0.61

0.44

0.3

300

0.6

0.43

0.28

We calculate that:
Ro.round= 0.00227 * 0.9143*104 = 20.75
n

20.75
8
0.68 * 4

Where:
0.68 for a / l = 1
(Moreover, electrodes are placed in Row).
S
3.10 Over voltage of electrical installation
The over voltage is called the elevation of voltage more than the nominal value,
presenting the danger of insulation of electrical equipment and electrical line.

Voltage
1.0
0.9
0.5
0.3
t

time

front

t wave

Figure: 3.17 the front wave and length wave

38

500

KILOVOLTS-CREST

12
15

400
NEGATIVE

300
POSITIVE

200
MICROSECONDS TO FLASHOVER for 34.5 KV CLASS.

Figure: 3.18

positive and negative 11/2 x 40 waves at standard air conditions.

The front wave is measured by the part of impulse from its starting to achievement of impulse
value (t

front

).

The length wave (t wave) is determined by the time from the staring of impulse action
to decreasing of its magnitude to 2 times (by experience of isolation produced with the
standard of impulse parameters twave = 40 second and tfront = 1.5 second).
The speed of wave spreading depends on inductive reactance and capacitor of
electrical line (and for overhead line V = 300M / Millie second; for

V 1/

L.C

Electrical cable V = 160 M / Millisecond and for the windings of transformers and electrical
machines v = 30 to 60 m / millisecond).
The surge impedance:
Z

U
I

LO
CO

(3.30)
Where:
Lo, Co - grandeur per unit of length
Table 3.14 the surge impedance
Type

The surge impedance [ ]

200-500

Electrical cable

40 to 50
10 to 20 kilo

Transformer
Electrical
machine

1 to 2 kilo
39

Atmosphere over voltage creates the current magnitude that is usually equal to
30 - 40 KA, but may achieve 120-160 KV. The length of impulse wave front of current is 3 to
4 second.
The sudden wave front in practice is taken equal 30 KA / second.
Notice:
The overhead line until 35 KV, the rope is used.
Bas-bare Substation 622KV
M

100-200M

SUBSTATION PROTECTION

a.

Substation 6-22KV

LINE PROTECTION

b.

Figure 3.19 a and b Line protection

3.10.1 Basic insulation levels
Several methods of providing coordination between insulation levels in the station and
on the line leading into the station 2/3 have been offered. The best method is to establish a
definite commons level for all insulation in the station and bring all isolation to or above this
level. This limits the problem to three fundamental requirements, namely, the selection of a
suitable insulation level, the assurance that the breakdown or flashover strength of all
insulation in the station will equal or exceed the selected level, and the application of
protective devices that will give the apparatus as good protection as can be justified
economically.

40

Table 3.15 basic impulse insulation levels

Column 1

Column 2
Standard Basic Impulse
Level
KV

Reference class
KV

column
3
Reduced Insulation Level
in
Use-KV

1.2

30*

45t

2.5

45*

60t

60*

75t

8.7

75*

95t

15
23
34.5
46
69

95*

110t
150
200
250
350

92
115
138
161

450
550
650
750

450
550
650

196
230
287
345

900
1050
1300
1550

900

* For distribution class equipment

t For power class equipment.
Direct lightning storks in general have a high rate of voltage rise (1000 to10 000 KV
per microsecond) and high current values (5000 to 200 000 amperes).Such strokes may occur
at any point on exposed structures whether they are line or stations. The severity of the surges
on station insulation and protective devices largely depend on whether or not adequate shield
wires are placed above the structures to intercept the lightning and conduct it to ground.
Without overhead ground wires at stations, direct strokes may damage protective devices, thus
leaving equipment insulation without adequate protection. Surge that original as direct strokes
on the line and propagate into a station are far the most common, but are generally easily bypassed to ground by the lightning protective device. Overhead ground wire above open-wire
circuits reduce the number of strokes that reach the phase conductors.
41

Table 3.16 standard impulse tests for transformers, regulation, and reactors
Impulse Tests
Oil-Type Transformers
500 kVA or Less-Oil Type
Instrument Transformers-Oil
Insulation Class
KV

Oil-Type Transformers over

500 kVA- Oil-Type
Regulating
transformers-Oil-Type
Current
limiting Reactors-Step and
Induction voltage

formers-Step and Induction

voltage regulators 250 kVA
or
Less Single-Phase and 750
kVA

Regulators Over 250 kVA

or Less Three-Phase

Three-Phase.

Chopped Wave

Full

kVA
Chopped Wave

Wave

Full
Wave

1.2
2.5
5
8.66
15

36
54
69
88
110

Min
Time
to
flashover in
microse
conds
1
1.25
1.5
1.6
1.8

25
34.5
46
69

175
230
290
400

3
3
3
3

150
200
250
350

175
230
290
400

3
3
3
3

150
200
250
350

92
115
138
161

520
630
750
865

3
3
3
3

450
550
650
750

520
630
750
805

3
3
3
3

450
550
650
750

196
230
287
345

1035
1210
1500
1785

3
3
3
3

900
1050
1300
1550

1035
1210
1500
7585

3
3
3
3

900
1050
1300
1550

KV
Crest

42

Min
Time

KV
Crest

KV
Crest

30
45
60
75
95

54
69
88
110
130

to flashover in
microse
conds
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.8
2

KV
Crest
45
60
75
95
110

Table 3.17 standard withstand test voltages for apparatus bushings

Low Frequency test RMS
Kv ( 2 )

Impulse Test 1.5*40

microsecond Full wave crest
( 2, 4 )

Insulation
Outdoor
Bushing

Classification(1)
KV

Indoor(7)

Large
Apparatus
(5)

Small
Apparatus
.( 6 )
10
10Sec 1 Min Sec
wet
Dry
wet
..
10
6
20
15
13
24
21
20
30
27
24
45
35
30

Bushings
1 Min(3)

Outdoor Bushings

Indoor(7)
Bushings

1.2
2.5
5
8.7
15

1
Min
Dry
..
21
27
35
50

23
34.5
46
69

70
95
120
175

60
80
100
145

70
95
120
175

60
80
100
145

60
80
..
..

150
200
250
350

150
200
250
350

150
200

92
115
138
161

225
280
335
385

190
230
275
315

225
280
335
385

190
230
275
315

..
..
..
..

450
550
650
750

450
550
650
750

196
230
287.5
345

465
545
680
810

385
445
555
665

465
545
680
810

385
445
555
665

..
..
..
..

900
1050
1300
1550

900
1050
1300
1550

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6

Dry
..
20
24
30
50(8)

large(5)
Small(6)
apparatus apparatus
..
30
60
45
75
60
95
75
110
95

..
45
60
75
110(8)

Bushing of a given insulation classification are in general recommended for apparatus

having a rating up to and including the insulation classification of the bushing and
may be used for apparatus of a higher voltage rating when adequate for the particular
application.
All value is withstanding test values without negative tolerance.
Wet test values are not assigned to indoor bushings.
Either positive or negative waves may be used-Whichever gives the lower value.
Bushing for use in large apparatus those intended for used in transformers rated above
500 kVA, outdoor circuit breakers, and other apparatus of corresponding
importance.
Bushing for use in small apparatus are those intended for use in transformers rated 500
kVA and less and other apparatus of corresponding importance.

43

bushing for use in indoor apparatus are those intended for use in indoor type circuit
breakers, instrument transformers, and other indoor apparatus except dry-type
instrument transformers, air-cooled transformers, air-cooled regulators, and bushings
used primarily for mechanical protection of insulated cable leads.
Bushing for small indoor apparatus may be supplied to withstand a low frequency test
of 35 KV and an impulse test of 95 KV.

3.10.2 The characteristics of protective devices

The purpose of protection device is to limit the surge voltage that may be applied to
the apparatus it protects and by phase the source to ground. It must withstand continuously the
rated power voltage for which it is designed. The ratio of the maximum surge voltage it will
permit on discharge to the maximum crest power voltage it will withstand following
discharge, called the protective ratio, is, therefore, a measure of its protective ability.
Of great importance also is its ability to discharge severe surge currents, of either high
magnitude or long duration, without injury. There are three general types of lightningprotective devices, each having its field of application; namely, the rod gap, the protective
tube, and the conventional valve-type lightning arrester.
Rod Gap - Although the rod gap has the advantage of being extremely simple and
rugged, it has two important disadvantages from a protective standpoint. First, it does not
fulfill one of the requirements of a true protective device in that it will not valve of power
voltage after it has once been flashed over by surge, the circuit must be reenergized to clear
the flashover arc each time the gap operates. Second, its breakdown voltage rises more at
short time lags than most insulation, which means that a relatively short gap is required to
provide protection against surge having steep wave fronts. It would thus have a low flashover
at long time lags that would result in numerous flashovers with consequent outages resulting
from minor lightning surges or severe switching surges. The rod gap is, therefore, generally
used only for back-up protection or on circuit where the outages with short gaps can be
tolerated or compensated for by high-speed reclosing of the circuit-energizing breaker.
Modifications of the rod gap, such as the fused gap and control gap, have been used
occasionally. The fuse gap is simply a rod gap with a fuse in series with it to interrupt the
power follow current caused by the flashover. It, therefore, has the same surge protective
characteristic as the plain rod gap and, although it prevents a circuit outage upon flashover, it
requires the replacement and maintenance of fuses. In addition, to be effective it requires
proper coordination between the fuse blowing time and adjacent relay timing. The control
gap, consisting of the double gap arrangement to approach a sphere gap characteristic, has a
somewhat better volt-time characteristic than the rod gap. It can be used with or without

44

fuses, and although it is applicable for back-up or secondary protection, it is usually

considered in the same class as the rod gaps, as far as major protection is concerned.
Protector Tube - The transmission of type protector tube has a volt-time
Characteristic, somewhat better than the rod gap and has ability to interrupt power voltage
anther flashover. It is, therefore, used extensively to prevent flashover of transmission line
insulators, disconnect switches, and bus insulators, it is also used on transmission line towers
adjacent to a station to reduce the magnitude of surge coming in on the line and thus relieve
the duty on the station arresters. The tube is not at the present time considered adequate
protection for transformer insulation, except for distribution type ratings 15 KV and below. Its
application on circuit above 15 KV requires certain limitations in system short circuit currents
and recovery voltage rates. The protector tube principle is used extensively for expulsion type
arresters in the distribution classifications 15 KV and below. Industry performance
characteristics of distribution expulsion-type lightning arresters are given in table 3.28.
Table 3.18 characteristics of distribution expulsion-type lightning arresters
Rate voltage of
Arrester KV

Front of wave impulse Sparkover

Rate of rise*
KV**

Average critical
impulse sparkover
1.5*40 second

KV / second
Min

Avg

Max

Wave KV **
29

25

23

33

45

50

32

50

70

41

75

48

71

97

53

12

100

63

84

94

61

15
125
77
101
*100 KV per second per 12 KV of Arrester rating.
**Impulse of polarity given higher sparkover voltage

114

70

CONDUCTOR

WATERTIGHT JOINT

COVER

WET PROCESS PORCELAIN HOUSING

SOLDER-SEALED (METAL TO PORCELAIN)
WET PROCESES PORCELAIN TUBE

VALVE ELEMENT

GROUND TERMINAL CONNECTION

(IN BACK NOT VISIBLE)

FOUNDATION BASE

45

Figure: 3.20 Section view of station-type lightning Arrester.

Valve-Type Arrester- The conventional valve-type lightning arrester, a typical example of
which is shown in Figure provides the highest degree of protection of all protective
devices. Its essentially flat volt-time characteristic makes it ideally suited for the protection of
transformer insulation in the higher voltage classes where the margin between operating
voltage and surge strength is relatively low. If properly applied, its discharge voltage remains
below the breakdown strength of the transformer insulation, even at short time lags.
Experience with actual lighting discharges and laboratory tests have demonstrated the ability
of the modern lightning arrester to discharge surges commensurate with direct strokes of
lightning.
Lightning arresters for A-C power circuit are rate according to the maximum line to
ground circuit voltage they will withstand. There are three classes available namely, the
station type with voltage ratings ranging from 3 to 240 KV , the line type, for 20 to 73 KV,
and distribution type, 3 to 15 KV.
The characteristics of these arresters are given in Table 3.29
Table 3.19 performance characteristics of valve-type lightning arrester
Arrester
Type and
rate voltage
KV

Sparkover
Rate
KV**
of
rise*
Agv
Max
KV
per
sec

5,000 Amperes

Agv

Max

46

10,000 Amperes

Agv

Max

20,000 Amperes

Agv

Max

Distribution
3
6
9
12
15
Line
20
25
30
37
40
50
60
73
Station
3
6
9
12
15

25
50
75
100
125

18
34
48
61
73

23
45
62
77
91

23
45
62
77
91

14
26
39
49
61

17
34
51
62
77

17
34
51
62
77

16
30
44
55
69

20
38
57
69
87

20
38
57
69
87

18
34
51
62
79

23
44
66
78
99

23
44
66
78
99

167
208
250
308
333
417
500
608

75
93
110
136
147
183
22.
267

90
111
132
163
176
220
264
320

85
105
125
154
167
208
250
302

83
101
121
149
161
202
242
297

96
116
139
172
185
232
278
342

91
111
133
164
177
225
267
328

92
111
135
164
177
222
271
328

106
128
155
189
204
255
312
378

102
122
149
181
195
245
300
361

101
121
149
181
196
243
298
360

116
139
172
208
225
280
344
414

111
133
164
199
216
268
328
396

25
50
75
100
125

13
23
35
43
53

15
26
39
50
61

15
26
39
48
59

10
20
30
40
50

11
22
33
44
55

11
22
33
43
54

11
22
32
44
54

13
25
37
448
60

12
23
35
47
58

12
24
35
47
59

14
27
39
52
65

13
26
38
51
63

20
25
30
37
40

167
208
250
308
333

72
89
106
131
136

83
102
122
151
157

80
98
117
144
150

67
83
100
124
134

74
92
110
137
148

72
89
107
133
143

72
90
108
132
144

80
90
119
146
159

77
96
115
141
154

78
100
118
145
153

86
110
130
160
169

84
107
126
155
164

50
60
73
97
109

417
500
608
808
908

178
214
261
345
388

205
246
300
397
446

196
236
288
380
427

167
200
245
323
363

184
220
270
356
400

179
214
262
345
388

179
217
262
349
394

197
239
288
384
434

191
231
297
372
420

191
234
283
377
424

211
258
313
415
467

205
250
303
403
453

121
145
169
196
242

1008
1208
1408
1633
2017

430
515
602
691
860

495
529
693
796
988

474
566
663
760
945

403
487
566
647
806

444
536
624
713
887

430
520
605
691
860

438
523
610
698
872

482
575
672
768
960

467
558
650
744
931

470
564
658
755
940

517
622
725
832
1035

502
602
702
803
1004

* 100 KV per second per 12 KV of Arrester rating

**Impulse of polarity given higher sparkover voltage
t 95%of the Arresters manufactured will have characteristics not exceeding the value in this
column. For distribution, arresters use the maximum values.
DISCHARGE VOLTAGE IN KV PER KV
OF ARRESTER RMS VOLTAGE RATING

10
8
10000

6
1000

20000

5000

4
3
2
1

STANDARD AIEE
10 X 20 MS TEST
WAVE
47

(a)
10
8
6
20000

10000

5000

1000

STANDARD AIEE
10 X 20 MS TEST
WAVE

1
1000

2000

30000

5000

10000

20000

40000

(b)

Figure: 3.21 a, b average discharge voltage characteristics of typical lightning arresters,

(number on curves represent rate of rise of current in amperes per microsecond)
(a) Line type
(b) Station type

BREAKDOWN IN KV PER KV OF
ARRESTER RMS VOLTAGE
RATING

10

Standard AIEE Test Wave

100KV / MS per 12 KV
Arrester rating

98
7
6 c

b
a

Gap
Breakdown

5
4
3
2
1
0

MICROSECONDS
48

Figure 3.22 Average impulse gap breakdown of station- and line type Arresters.
(a) Represents rate of rise of 5 KV per microsecond per KV of arrester rating.
(b) Represents rate of rise of 10 KV per microsecond per KV of arrester rating.
(3) Represents rate of rise of 20 KV per microsecond per KV of arrester rating.
*Station -type arrester, and distinguished by their heavier construction, better
protective characteristics, and higher discharge-current capacity are used for the protection of
substation and power transformers. Line-type arresters are used for the protection of
distribution transformers, small power transformer and sometimes-small distributions.
Distribution type arrester is intended primarily for pole mounting in distribution circuits for
the protection of distribution transformers up to and including 15 KV classification.
* Modern station-type arrester are designed to discharge not less than100,000
amperes; line and distribution types not less than 65,000 amperes, each with a 5 * 10
microsecond test wave. In addition, they are given an insulation test in accordance with Table
3.30
Table 3.20 insulation test for lightning arresters (withstand test voltage)
Insulation

Arrester Station-type Arrester all ratings

Line and Distribution-type
classification Voltage Arrester rated 20 KV and above
60-Cycle test
KV
Rating
voltage
Impulse
.( 1 )
Rms KV ( 2 )
test
1.5*40
sec
10
1Minute Second
full wave
Dry
Wet
crest KV
.( 2.3 )
2.5
3
21
20
60
5
6
27
24
75
8.7
9
35
30
95
15
15
50
45
110
23
25
70
60
150
34.5
37
95
80
200
46
50
120
100
250
69
73
175
145
350
92
97
225
190
450
115
121
280
230
550
138
145
335
275
650
161
169
385
315
750
196
196
465
385
900
230
242
545
445
1050
49

Line and Distribution-type

arrester rated below 20 KV
60-Cycle test
voltage
Rms KV ( 2 )

Impulse
test
1.5*40
sec

10
1Minute Second
Dry
Wet
15
21
27
35
-

13
20
24
30
-

full wave
crest KV
.( 2.3 )
45
60
75
95
-

(1) Where application is to be made of an arrester having a lower voltage rating than
the rated voltage of the circuit on which it is to be used such as on grounded neutral circuits,
the insulation test shall be that specified for the insulation class one-step lower than the rated
circuit voltage.
(2) All values are withstanding test voltages without negative tolerance.
(3) Either positive or negative polarity waves may be used- whichever gives the lower
values.
* The valve-type lightning arrester is usually made up of two elements, a gap element
capable of withstanding power voltage and a valve element capable of suppressing the current
following the discharge of the surge. The breakdown of the gap, which is affected somewhat
by the rate of voltage rise, determines the initial discharge voltage of the arrester. The voltage
drop across the valve element, which depends upon the rate of rise and magnitude of surge
current discharged, determines the arrester voltage during discharge.
For a traveling wave coming into a dead-end station, the discharges current in the
arrester is determined by the maximum voltage that the line insulation can pass, by the surge
impedance of the line, and the voltage characteristic of the arrester, according to the following
relation:
3.10.3 Calculate the current arrester
Ia

2E Ea
Z

(3.31)

Where:
Ia - Arrester current.
E - Magnitude of in coming surge voltage
Ea - Arrester terminal voltage
Z - Surge impedance of line
1 - The surge impedance of a single aerial wire with ground return is:

Where

L
C

(3.32)

L - The inductance of a single conductor parallel to the earth:

L (7.410)(10 4 ) log 10

2h
r

(3.33)

C - Its capacitance:
C

3.882 10 8
log 10

2h
r

(3.34)
50

Where:
h - Height of conductor above ground
r - Radius of conductor in same units
RESULT:

Z 138 log 10
Z 138 log

Ia
Ia

2h
r

ohms

2 *8
418.67 ohms
0.0148

2E Ea
Z

418.67

The rate of rise of current would be approximately:

21000,000
4,777 Amps / micro sec ond
418.67

A - Option (1) to choice Arrester type rated voltage 20 KV, from Fig. 3.21(b) the discharges
voltage for a current of 1,851 amperes and a rate of rise of 4,777 amperes is 3.3 * 20 = 66 KV.
Adding the manufacturing tolerance plus 15% givens 75.9 KV as the discharge voltage
provided by the 20-KV arrester for the assumed conditions, since the rate of rise has been
taken into consideration in establishing this protective level of 75.9 KV, no additional margin
need be added. There is however, a difference of 125 KV minus 75.9 equal 49.1 KV between
the protective level and the basic impulse insulation level of 125 KV of the transformer
insulation.
Suppose a direct stroke at the station discharges through the arrester a current of
50,000 amperes, rising to crest in three microseconds, with a nominal rate of rise of 20,000
amperes per microsecond. The discharge voltage from Fig. 3.21 (b) is 4.55 * 20 = 91 KV for a
20 KV arrester which plus 10% is 100.1 KV or 24.9 KV between the protective level and the
BIL of 125 KV of the transformer insulation.
B - Option ( 2 ) to choice Arrester type rated voltage 25 KV, from Fig. 3.21( b ) the
discharge voltage for current of 1,851 amperes and a rate of rise of 4,777 amperes is 3.3 * 25=
82.5 KV. Adding the manufacturing tolerance of plus 15% givens 94.87 KV, there is,
however, a difference of 125 KV - 94.87 KV = 30.13 KV between the protective level and the
basic impulse insulation level of 125 KV of the transformer insulation.

51

Suppose direct stroke at the station discharge through the arrester a current of 50,000
amperes, rising to crest in three microseconds, with a nominal rate of rise of 20,000 amperes
per microsecond. The discharge voltage from Fig.3.21 (b) is 4.55 * 25 = 113.75 KV for a 25
KV arrester which with plus 10% is 125.125 KV or 0.125 KV excess of the basic impulse
insulation level.
The option (1) to choice Arrester type and rated voltage 20 KV for line
distribution 22 KV is suffices.
Electrical equipment to install in the station or MV user's sites shall withstand the
maximum temperature, the maximum loading conditions, the wind, the weight and other
factors etc
The results of calculation of the Electrical equipment on the Mechanical solidity are
influence by the safety of the Electrical Network. It shall be confirmed that the temperature
rise of the Electrical equipment does not exceed the allowable maximum temperature of the
Electrical equipment or the maximum temperature under which there is no risk of damage to
the Electrical equipment, when the temperature rise test based on the following items and the
standard concerning the Electrical equipment is carried out.
The purpose of lighting arrester protection device is to limit the surge voltage that may
be applied to the apparatus it protects and by phase the source to ground. It must withstand
continuously the rated power voltage for which it is designed. The ratio of the maximum
source voltage it will permit on discharge to the maximum crest power voltage it will
withstand following discharge, called the protective ratio is, therefore a measure of its
protective ability.

52

THE SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT CALCULATIONS

A knowledge of 3-phase symmetrical short circuit values ( Is.c ) at strategic point of an
installation is necessary in order to dimension switchgear ( fault current rating ), cable
thermal withstand rating ); protective device and so on .....
In the practice, the RELATIVE VALUE UNITY, for overhead line only, determines
the short circuit current calculation in the high and medium voltage. In the electrical network,
the short circuit current occurs very often.
The categories of the short circuit are:
- Three phase short circuit.
- Double phase short circuit
- Single phase short circuit.
4.1 The short circuit current from (on the figure 4.1)

in.o - Instantaneous value of the normal current at the short circuit

iy - Instantaneous value of the short circuit through the period ( 0.01 second )
after the beginning of the short circuit.
Period .max, i period - Maximum and instantaneous value of the periodic
component of the short circuit
I

Real value of the establishment short circuit (by this current, one verifies

the electrical equipments, appliances act... by the heating conditions or the

thermal stability.

"

Initial real value of the periodic components of the short circuit

I period

.o

0
I app . max i a .o

Unm

2 I
0.01second

in.o
I period. m ax

2 * I period.o

Transitional processes
Figure: 4.1 A periodic components of the short circuit current ( in.o )
53

Establishment
regime

A periodic components of the short circuit current ( in.o ) that are varied by the exponent law :
i aperiod I aperiod. max .e t / Ta

(4.1)

Where :
Ta - The constant time of the deeded a periodic component.
Ta

X s .c
314 * Rs .c

(4.2)

Where:
Xs.c, Rs.c - Inductive and active resistance of the short-circuited circuit
The shock short circuit current corresponding to the time = 0.01 second.
i y I aperiod. max .e t / Ta I period. max
I period. max

Where

2 * I period.o

(4.3)
Maximum value of the periodic component

At the time moment t = 0.01, Iperiod.max = Iaperiod.max, Then:

i y I period. max I period. max .e t / ta

i y I period. max e t / Ta

To replace

1 e t / Ta K y
I period. max

Or

iy K y *

2 * I period.o 1 e t / Ta

we found that:

2 * I period.o or i y

i y I period. max 1 e t / Ta

2 * Iperiod .o 1 e t / Ta

2 * I period.o

(4.4)

Notice :
The Ky is the short circuit coefficient depending on the Ta

54

Table 4.1 value of the " Ky " ( Constant time of the short circuit) .
No

The short circuit place

At the terminal of the hydrogenerator...
At the terminal of the turbogenerator...

1
2
3

Ky
1.95
1.91

At the high voltage line without taking into

account the active
resistance.

1.8

1.4

1.3

1.2

At the remote point of the short circuit in taking

into account the active resistance.

Notice:
For the electrical installation with the voltage higher than 1000 volts the " Ta "is
taking equal to 0.05 second and Ky = 1.8
The short circuit current of shock is equal:
i y 1.8 *

(4.5)

4.2 Relative value unity system

In the practice, the RELATIVE VALUE UNITY determines the short circuit current
calculation in the high and medium voltage
* For the base value, of voltage the average values are taken as follows : Ubase =
Unom = 0.23; 0.40; 3; 6; 10.5; 20; 37; 115; 230;.....KV.
* For the base power, one can take the nominal power sum ( > 100 times ) of electrical
plants generators or the convenient number (multiple hundred) equal to : 100; 200; 300;
400;.....1000 MVA ( Sbase ).
* And the base (foundation) current is calculated by the formula:

I BASE

S BASE
3 * U BASE

(4.6)

Where:
55

UBASE - Voltage at the point the short circuit occurred.

THE BASE RESISTANCES OF THE SYSTEM ELEMENTS ARE GIVEN
IN THE RELATIVE UNITY:
1 - Relative value of the supply sources resistance:
X *base X system .

S base
S nom

(4.7)

2 - Relative value of the line resistance:

X *base X 0 l

base
2
average.nom

(4.8)

Where:
Uaverage nom - Nominal voltage
Xo, l - Resistance (reactance) per-kilometer of line and the line length
3 - Relative value of the transformer resistance:
X *base.Trans 0.01 U s.c %

S base

(4.9)

S nom.Trans

4 - Relative value of the reactor resistance:

X *base.reactor 0.01 X REACTIVE %

I base
I reactor

U nom
U base

(4.10)

Where:
Inom.reactor - Nominal current of the reactor
4.3 The resistances of the elements of electrical system in the short circuit regime

for

the short circuit calculation of the installation with the voltage higher than
1000 volts, one takes into account only the inductive resistances of the electrical overhead line
system elements that influences on the value of this current. To these elements are related the
generators, the compensators, the electrical machines, the powerful transformer, the overhead
lines (or the cables).

I - ASYNCHRONOUS ELECTRICAL MACHINES, COMPENSATORS,

56

ELECTRICAL MACHINES
The synchronous machines are considered as the inductive resistances (reactance) for
the beginning of the short circuit moment. (Ultra transitional X "d, related to the nominal
power and the nominal voltage of the generators ):
1 - For the turbo-generators.............................................
2 - For the hydro-generators with the regulating
winding....
3 - For the hydro-generators without the regulating
winding

X"d = 0.125

X"d = 0.16

X"d = 0.20

X"d = 0.20
X"d = 0.27

II - THE LINES PARAMETERS EXPRESSING IN CONCRETE (REAL) VALUE

a - The resistances of the supply source (system) in the concrete value are:
S system X *system

2
U base
S nom

(4.11)

b - The powerful of transformers:

The resistance of the two-winding transformers in the concrete values is equal
to:
X Trans 0.01 U s .c %

2
U nom

S nom.Trans

(4.12)

RTrans Ps.c .

2
U nom

S nom.Trans

(4.13)

c - Reactors.
The resistance of the reactors in the concrete unity is determine by the
formula:
X reactor 0.01 X reactor %

U nom
3 I nom

(4.14)
d - The asynchronous motors
For the calculation of the short circuit current at the asynchronous motor, one
may know:
1 - Nominal power and voltage of the motor
57

2 - Nominal speed of the motor

3 - The short time of the starting current
These parameters above cited are giving in the catalogue.
4.4 The short circuit current calculation for the unlimited power system
The electrical system with unlimited power is the system in which the voltage at the
bus bars is constant for variation of the current (including the short circuit current)

s .c

0 ; X *syst 0 ; R*syst 0

Notice:
This admissibility is possible, if in the case, the resistance or impedance of the system
do not exceed 5 - 10 % of the total resistances or impedance of the short circuit current. The
periodic current component of the phase short circuit is determined by the expression:
a - IN THE CONCRETE (REAL) VALUE, one calculates:
I s .3c

U average
2
2
Rtotal
X total

(4.15)

Rtotal X total

circuit current is:

I s .3c

U average

(4.16)

3 X total

b - IN THE RELATIVE
3 I baseVALUE,
X total one calculates:
X *total result

U base

(4.17)
I s .3c
U
/ U base
aver
I base
X *total result

(4.18)

Being given Uaver = U base, the grandeur of the short circuit in the concrete unity is
I s .3c I * s3.c I base

I base
X *total

(4.19)

In addition, we obtain that: the short circuit power is found by the formula:
58

S s .c

S base
X *total result

1.0 i
a
0.9
0.8

(4.20)

e 1 / Ta

t=0.0
1

0.7
0.6

t=0.0
5

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2

t=0.1

0.1

t=o.2

Ta

Figure 4.2 Ta

0.01 0.02
0.1

0.04

0.05

0.08

4.5 To calculate the three phases short circuit current in relative value unity
The short circuit calculation in the distribution electrical system is aimed to verify and
check the electrical apparatus and conductor working in the overload regime and for verifying
the automatic switchgear. For the verification of the capacity of switchgear and fuse, one
utilizes the first value of periodic current of three-phase short circuit I periodic [KA].
All communes are located along the National Rout No 4 between Phnom Penh to
Kampong Speu.
By the result of the Power flow and Voltage drop for the long-rang forecast the normal
cross sectional areas of conductor for distribution line that we choose respecting to the voltage
drop for all condition:
* Normal regime = - 5%
* Abnormal regime = - 10%
In our project from the 1 to 5 years for the distribution line, we construct one single
line circuit with the conductors AC - 3 * 240 mm (three phases). In addition, after 5 to 15
years the first distribution line must be doubled (another one single line circuit, make it two
circuits in parallel AC - 2 *(3 * 240 MM) it responds to the long-rang forecast (15), and
impedance of line are :
Ro = 0.124 W / km
59

Xo = 0.31 W / km
If Ro / Xo = 0.40 > 1/3 we must consider the active resistance and inductance.
K-Speu

P-Penh G.S-3
Beakchan

4km 1

7km

5km

7km

3km

Komboul

4km

18km

115/22KV

115/22KV

Figure 4.3 The scheme of Electrical Network

The capacity of transformer for installation at all communes
Rated power of
Transformer

22 / 0.4 KV
For Rural

[KVA]

400

500

1250

800

1250

800

For Industry

[KVA]

800

630

1250

1250

2500

2000

TOTAL POWER = 13,430 KVA

4.5.1 The short circuit current calculation in the point "K1"
A

X1

X2
X4

X3
K 1

X5
3

X8

X7

X6
5

X9

6
115/22KV

115/22KV

STr=50MVA
Us.c=12.5%

STr=10MVA
Us.c=12.5%

Figure 4.4 The scheme of Electrical Network

60

K1
X1

X2

X3

X4

X5

X6

X7

X8

115/22KV

115/22KV

STr=10MVA
Us.c=12.5%

Tr=50MVA
Us.c=12.5%

(a)
X1

X10

Xtr9

K1
(b)
X1

K1
(c)
Figure : 4.5 a; b; c
A - The short circuit current from A to " K1 "
1 - The nominal current of the transformer HV / MV 115 / 22 KV
Nominal Power of the transformer, STr = 20 MVA
Tension of the short circuit, Us.c = 12.5 %
IN

IN

S TR
3 *U

(4.21)

20
0.52 KA
3 22

I S 3.C
I S 3.C

(4.22)

I N 100
12.5

0.52 100
4.16 KA
12.5

B - The short circuit current from B to point " K1 "

1 - The impedance of the transformer HV / MV 115 / 22 KV
Nominal Power of the transformer, STr = 50 MVA
61

Tension of the short circuit, Us.c = 12.5 %

X Tr* U s .c % 0.01

*
X Tr
9 12.5 0.01

S BASE
STR. NOM

(4.9)

100
0.25
50

X* X0 l

Sbase
2
U AVER

(4.8)

X *10 X *2,3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8 0.155 48

100
1.537
22 2

X * X *Tr 9 X *10

X * 0.25 1.537 1.787

R* 0.062 48

100
0.61
22 2

(In this case R*S / X*S = 0.61 /1.787 = 0.34 > 1/3 and the act, resistance is taking into
account).

Z*

R* X *

3 - Total impedance:

*
Z Total
R*2 X *

*
ZTotal

(4.23)

I base

I base

S base

(4.6)

3 *U base

100
2.624 KA
1.73 22

62

I S 3.C

I s .3c

I BASE
Z TOTAL

(4.19)

2.62
1.39 KA
1.88

*
X total
Ta
*
314 * Rtotal

Ta

For

(4.2)

1.787
0.009
314 0.61

K y 1 e 0.01 / Ta 1 0.34 1.34

i y K y I s .3c 2

(4.4)
i y 1.34 1.39 1.41 2.626 KA

7 - The short circuit power is:

S s .c

S base
X *total

S s .c

100
55 .95 MVA
1.787

(4.19)
4.5.2 The short circuit current calculation in the point "K2"
A

B
K2
X1

X2 X3

X4

X5

X6

X7

X9

X8

115/22KV

115/22KV

STr=10MVA
Us.c=12.5%

Tr=50MVA
Us.c=12.5%

63

A - The short circuit current at point " K2 " from A.

A

X1

X2

X3

X4

X5

X6

X7

X8

K2
X9

Snom=20MVA

Snom=50MVA

Us.c=12.5%
(a)

Us.c=12.5%

X1

XL1

X9

(b)

K2
X*

X9
K2

(c)
Figure: 4.7 a; b; c
A-The short circuit current at point " K2 " from Kampong Speu
1-Ractive resistance of the transformer:
X Tr* U S .C %
*
X Tr
1

S BASE
S NOM

(4.9)

12.5 100

0.625
100 20

X* X0 l

S base
2
U AVER

(4.8)

X *L1 X *,2,3, 4,5, 6 , 7 ,8 0.155 48

100
1.537
22 2

X * X *Tr 1 X *L1

X * 0.625 1.537 2.162

R* 0.062 48

100
0.61
22 2
64

(In this case R*S / X*S = 0.614 /2.162 = 0.28 < 1/3 and the act, resistance is not taken into
Z* X *

account).

I base

(4.6)

S base
3 *U base

100
2.624 KA
1.73 * 22

I base

I S 3.C

I BASE
Z*

I S 3.C

2.624
1.21KA
2.162

(4.19)

Ta

Ta

For

*
X total
*
314 * Rtotal

(4.2)

1.787
0.009
314 * 0.61

Ta 0.009 e 0.01 / Ta 0.34

K y 1 e 0.01 / Ta 1 0.34 1.34
i y K y * I s .c3 * 2

(4.4)
i y 1.34 *1.21*1.41 2.286KA

S s .c

S base
X *total

(4.19)

65

S s .c

100
46 .253 MVA
2.162

B- The short circuit current at the point " K2 " B

1-The nominal current of the transformer HV / MV:
IN

50
1.313KA
3 22

2- The short circuit current at the point " K2 " B

I S 3.C

I N 100
12.5

I S 3.C

1.313 100
10.50 KA
12.5

4.5.3 The short circuit current calculation at the point K3, K4; K5,
K6; K7 and K8

4km
7km

115/22KV

K3

5km

K4

7km

K5

3km

K6

4km

18km

K7

115/22KV

K8

Sn=20MVA

Sn=50MVA

Us.c=12.5%
Figure 4.8 The scheme of Electrical Network

Us.c=12.5%

A

B
X1

X2

X3

X4

K3

K4

X5
K5

X6

X7

X8

K6

K7

K8

Snom=20MVA

Snom=50MVA

Us.c=12.5%
(a)

Us.c=12.5%

XTr1
(b)

X9

XL1

Xl2

K3
66

XTr9

X*1

X*

K3

(c)

Figure: 4.9 a,b,c, Short circuit point K3

A - The short circuit current at point K3 from A
1 - Reactive resistance of the transformer:
X Tr* U S .C % *
*
X Tr
1

S BASE
S NOM

(4.9)

12.5 100
*
0.62
100 20

2 - Reactive and active resistance of the line network:

X* X0 *l *

S base
2
U AVER

X * 2 0.155 * 4 *

R*2 0.062* 4 *

(4.8)

100
0.128
22 2

100
0.051
222

X*S1 = X*2 + X*Tr1 = 0.128 + 0.62 = 0.876

(In this case R*2 / X*S1 = 0.051 /0.876 = 0.058 < 1/3 and the act, resistance is not taken
Z* X *

into account).

I base
I base

(4.6)

S base
3 *U base

100
2.624 KA
1.73 * 22

I
I S 3.C base
X *Total

67

(4.19)

2.624
2.995 KA
0.876

I S 3.C

B - The short circuit current at point K3 from B

1 - The reactive resistance of the transformer:
X Tr* U S .C % *

S BASE
S NOM

(4.9)

XTr9 = 12.5*0.01* (100 / 50) = 0.25

2 - The reactive and active resistance of the line network:

X* X0 *l *

S base

(4.8)

2
U AVER

XL2 = 0.155*44*100 / 22 = 1.409

RL2 = 0.062*44*100/22 = 0.563
X*S1 = XL2 + XTr9 = 1.409 + 0.25 = 1.659
(In this case R*2 / X*S1 = 0.563 / 1.659 < 1/3 and the act, resistance is not taken into
Z* X *

account).

I base
I base

S base

(4.6)

3 *U base
100
2.624 KA
1.73 * 22

I S 3.C

I base
X *Total

I S 3.C

2.624
1.581 KA
1.659

(4.19)

Ta

Ta

*
X total
*
314 * Rtotal

1.659
0.009
314 * 0.563

(4.2)

68

For

K y 1 e 0.01 / Ta 1 0.34 1.34

i y K y * I s .c3 * 2

(4.4)

6 - The short circuit power is:

S s .c

S base
X *total

(4.19)
S s .c

100
37.608 MVA
2.659

We have :
TABLE 4.2 The short circuit current
From A
The point of short circuit

From B
I(3)s.c
[ KA ]

I(3)s.c
[ KA ]

K1

4.16

1.39

K2

1.21

10.5

K3

2.995

1.581

K4

2.68

1.829

K5

2.3

2.059

K6

1.929

2.499

K7

1.8

2.75

K8

1.655

3.176

4.5.4 The short circuit current calculation at the point K9 K10 "; K11 "; K12 ";
K13 and K14
69

B
A

K9

K10

115/22KV

K11

K12

K13

K14

115/22KV

Sn=20MVA

Sn=50MVA

Us.c=12.5%

Us.c=12.5%

Figure 4.10 The scheme of Electrical Network

A - The short circuit current at point K11 from A
A

B
X1

X2

Snom=20MVA

X3

K9

X4

K10

X5

K11

X6

K12

X7

K13

Us.c=12.5%

X8

X9

K14
Snom=50MVA
Us.c=12.5%

(a)

XTr1

XL1

XL2

K11
(b)
X*1

X*2

K11
(C)

70

XTr9

1 - The reactive resistance of the transformer XTR1 + XTR9

X*S1 = XTr1 + XTr9 = 0.625 + 0.25 = 0.785
2 - The reactive and active resistance of the line network:

X* X0 *l *

S base
2
U AVER

X * 2 0.155 * 48 *

R*L 0.062 * 48 *

100
1.537
22 2

100
0.61
22 2

X * X *1 X * 2
X * 0.785 1.537 2.322

(In this case R*S / X*S = 0.61 / 2.322 = 0.26 < 1 / 3 and the act, resistance is not taken into
account).
3 - The base current:

I base

I base

S base
3 *U base

100
2.624 KA
1.73 * 22

I
I S 3.C base
X *Total
I S 3.C

(4.6)

(4.19)

2.624
1.130 KA
2.322

Ta

Ta

For

*
X total
*
314 * Rtotal

(4.2)

2.624
0.01
314 * 0.61

71

(4.4)

i y 1.4 * 1.130 * 1.41 2.230KA

i y K y * I s .c3 * 2

S s .c

S
base
X *total

S s .c

100
43.06 MVA
2.322

(4.19)

4.6 Choice the electrical equipment

4.6.1 over current of Electrical Installation
Over currents due to overloading or to short-circuit, faults (between phases and earth)
are detected by protective devices up-stream and down-stream of the power transformer(s).
These devices cause the faulty circuit to be cut-off electrically from the power supply.
TABLE 4.3 Equipment choices
Calculated grandeur of parameter

Smaller then or

Grandeur of parameter in

equal to

catalogue

Ucal = 22 KV

< Unom.cal = 24KV

Ical.nom = 173.24

< Inom.catalogue = 630 A

Ishock = 1.39

< Icatalogue.break = 20 KA

ichock.cal.max = 2.624

< idinamic.catal = 50 KA

4.7 Single phase short circuit in the medium voltage line

A - In the Medium voltage line with the neutral conductor that is not
connected directly or indirectly to the Earth, when the single phase short circuit ( between
VB
VA
Vc
phase and Earth ) is occurred, the short circuit current flows the capacitors of phase as shown
in the pictures below:

a
A
(TRANSFO)

GENERATOR

B
C

CB

CC
ICOB

72

CA

ICOC

ICOA

A
UA

ICOA
ICOB
ICOC
UC
Figure:
C 4.12 a Single phase

UB
B

VB

A
GENERATOR
C

VA=0

VC

73

B CB

IC'B CC

IC'C

IC
c

IC'B
Ic

I c. I c. ,c I c. ,b 0

I c. I c. ,c I c. ,b

Ic

UA

IC'C

0
UB'=UAB

C'=ground
UAC
Figure: 4.12 -b Short circuit phasesUto

UBC

In the normal regime of work, the phase voltages relatives to the Earth

(V

)
A ,VB ,VC

are symmetrical and the capacitors currents of phase relatively to the Earth are

(I

COA , I COB , I COC

and symmetrical
) ( Figure 4.12 . a ).

I CO U PH * * C

(4.24)

Where: C - Capacitor phases relatively to the Earth.

We note that the geometric sums of capacitors currents for three phases are
EQUAL TO NIL.
In the abnormal regime of the short circuit to the Earth, the voltage at one
damage point is equal to zero and the voltage of the others phases that are not damaged
times of3 phase voltage and becomes equal to the composed voltage ( or line

increases in
voltage )

U 'B

increase too in

and the capacitors currents of the no-damage phases B, C

, ' U
CA
BA U
3 C

times.

The capacitors currents damage phases A will be equal to zero, as the capacitor seems
short-circuited.
74

For the current at the damage point, we can write it as follows:

IC

I C ' B I C 'C

4.25)

Finally, the capacitor current I c is 3 times more than the capacitor current of phase
in the normal regime.
I C 3 * I CO 3 * U ph * * C

(4.26)

We can conclude that the current Ic depend on:

1 - Electrical network voltage of phase
2 - Frequency
3 - Capacitors of phase relatively to the earth that depend on the electrical line
construction and its length
Approximately, the current Ic (expressed in Ampere) may be found by the following
formulas.
a - For the overhead line network: (empirical formula)
IC

U *l
350

A
(4.27)

Where: U = Composed voltage (line voltage KV)

L = KM
Ic

22 * 48
3.017 Amperes
350

The result of calculation of short circuit in the distribution Electric system is aimed to
verify and check the Electrical apparatus and conductor working in the overload regime and
for choosing the Electrical equipment, which mean all Electrical equipment its withstand to
the current short circuit, current shock. In addition, very importance for setting the relay
protection of circuit breaker to protect from short-circuits.

75

ECONOMIC CALCULATION
For the distribution electrical network project, it is important to consider the
Rational voltage choice and at the same time the electrical network schemes and the powerful
transformers. If the known and given rational voltage entails the determination of electrical
lines parameters and chosen circuit breakers of substation, transformer cells, and therefore the
expenses of conductor metal, electrical energy losses and exploitation costs.

76

For the transmission of electrical energy from the supply sources to the consumers, the
necessary capital costs c " depend on the transmitted power " S ", distance " l " between the
supply sources and consumers.
The capital cost for the distribution electrical lines system constructions are expressed by the
sum:
C = Cl + Cequ + Cad

(5.1)

Where:
Cl - Capital cost for the overhead line (cable) construction.
C = Clo * l
Cequ - Capital cost for the equipment installation (circuit breaker, switchgear,
disconnector, separator, short circuitor, measurement transformer, reactors bus bars, discharge,
and powerful transformer).
Cad - Additional capital in electrical energy supply source for covering the power
losses in the distribution electrical network system.
The exploitations expenditures are equal to:
D = Dloss + Dd + Dserv + Dexploit

(5.2)

Where:
Dloss - Electrical energy loss cost.
Dd - Depreciation deduction
Dexploit - Exploitation deduction
Dserv - Service staff deduction
When the number of options is equal to 3 and more, we utilize the formula of yearly cost as
follows:
Z=D+C*K

(5.3)

Where:
K Specific economic efficiency factor (K = E N =1/T)
In the real case, we consider only:
D = Dloss + Dd + Dexploit ( Dserv is the same for all option ).

(5.4)

Or
Dd = Doverhead line + Dtransformer cell

(5.6)

Here:
(In referring to the norm of table)