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SPECTROSCOPY

The branch of science dealing with the study of interaction of


electromagnetic radiation with the matter.

QUANTA: in such interactions energy is absorbed or emitted


by the matter in discrete amounts called Quanta.
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATIONS: form of energy which is
transmitted through space at enormous velocity. It has an
alternating electrical field and associated magnetic force field
in space.

TERMINOLOGY
WAVELENGTH: The distance between two successive maxima
on an electromagnetic wave.
FREQUENCY: the number of wavelength units passing through
a given point in a unit time.
Units: cycles per second or hertz.
WAVENUMBER: number of waves per centimetre in vacuum.
Wavenumber= reciprocal of wavelength

TYPES OF SPECTRA
ABSORPTION SPECTRA:
when the light from a source
emitting a continuous spectrum is first passed through an
absorbing substance, and observed through a spectroscope, it
will be observed that certain colours are missing leaving dark
lines or bands in their place.
CONTINUOUS ABSORPTION SPECTRA: when the absorbing
material absorbs a continuous range of wavelength.

LINE ABSORPTION SPECTRA: when the absorbing material is


vapour or gas.
BAND ABSORBING SPECTRA: when the absorption spectrum is
in the form of dark bands.

EMSSION SPECTRA: when the light coming after passing


through a prism or grating is examined directly under
spectroscope.
CONTINUOUS SPECTRA: when the source emitting light is an
incandescent solid, liquid or gas at high temperature.
Characteristics:
Consists of wide range of continuous wavelength of red to
violet which appears as continuous luminous band of light.
The intensity of the spectrum is not uniform over the
entire spectrum.
The general appearances of continuous spectrum are
independent of light emitting substance.
LINE SPECTRA: when the light emitting source is in the atomic
state. Consists of discrete wavelengths extended through the
spectrum obtained from sources like mercury, sodium, neon
etc.
Characteristics:
The spectral lines are regularly spaced.
The wavelengths of the lines emitted are characteristics of
the element under consideration.
The different lines are regularly spaced but their intensity
differs.
They can be observed under dark or faint continuous
background.
BAND SPECTRA: when the emitter in the molecular state is
excited.

Characteristics:
Consists of luminous bands separated by dark spaces.
Under high resolving power, each band is seen to be
composed of a large number of fine lines.
The lines of band constitute characteristics of the
molecules and their method of excitation.