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IS 5547 (1983): Application guide for capacitor voltage


transformers [ETD 34: Instrument Transformers]

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fS : 5547 - 1983

Indian Standard
APPLICATION GUIDE F-OR
CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS

(First Revision)
Instrument

Transformers

Sectional

Committee,

Chairman

ETDC

34

Representing
Jyoti Ltd, Vadodara

SHRI J. S. NEQI

Members
V. B. DESAI (Alternate to
Shri J. S. Negi )
Siemens India Ltd, Bombay
SHRI C. D. BA~UL
SHRI S. M. KELKAR ( Alternate)
The Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation
Ltd,
SHRI A. K. BARMAN
Calcutta
SHRI K. C. BHATTACHARYYA (Alternate)
National Physical Laboratory ( CSIR ), New Delhi
SHRI V. K. BATRA
SHRI V. N. SHARMA ( Alternate )
Madhya Pradesh Electricity Roard, Jabalpur
SHRI A. C. BEDEKAR
All India Instruments Manufacturers and Dealers
SHILIJ. J. DAR~WALA
Association, Bombay
SHRI c. P. soou (Alternate I )
SHRI 0. P. PURI ( Alternate II )
Maharashtra State Electricity Board, Bombay
SHRI
P. S. DESHMUE~
SHRI S. G. KASHI ( Alternate )
DIRECTOR ( PROTECTION& INSTRU- Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi
MENTATICN )
DEPUTY DIRECTOR ( PROTECTION
& INSTRUMENTATION) ( Alternate )
Gujarat Electricity Board, Vadodara
SHEI N. D. GADGIL
Inspection Wing, Directorate General of Supplies
SHRI K. L. GARG
& Disposals, New Delhi
SHRI R. P. SEHGAL (Alternate )
Silkaans, Bombay
SI~RI
S. D. JINSIWALE
SHEI S. R. ALURKAR (Alternate )
Research
Designs
&
Standards
Organization
JOINT DIRECTOR ( TI )-2
( Ministry of Railways ), Lucknow
DEPUTY DIRECTOR ( TI )-3 ( dlternate )
SHRI

( Continued on page 2
0
INDIAN

Copyright 1983

STANDARDS

INSTITUTION

This publication
is protected under the Indian Copyright Act ( XIV of 1957) and
reproduction in whole or in part ,by any means except with written permission of the
publisher shall be deemed to be an infringement of copyright under the said Act.

IS r5547 - 1983
( Continued from page 1 )
Members

Representing

SHRI R. N. KHARSHIN~KAR

Tata Consulting

Engineers,

SHRI R. C. BAJPAI ( Alternate )


SRRI S. K. LAWBA
SHRI E. J. MARABLESRWARWALLA

Bombay

Voltas Ltd, Thane


The
Bombay
Electric
Supply and Transport
Undertaking, Bombay
SHRI K. C. M~RANRAJ ( Allernate )
Tata
Hydro-Electric
Power
Supply
Co Ltd,
SHRI M. B. MEHTA
Bombay
SHRI S. DORAISWAMY ( Alternate )
SHRI V. V. MOO~I
Crompton Greaves Ltd, Bombay
SHRI A. K. GOVIL ( Alternate )
Central Public Works Department, New Delhi
SHRI R. NATARAJAN
SURVEYOR
OF WORKS
( ELECTRICAL )-I ( Alternate )
The English Electric Co of India Ltd, Madras
SHRIN.NATH
SHRI R. SUBRAMANIAM ( Alternate )
Prayog Electricals Pvt Ltd, Bombay
SHRI P. U. PATWARUHAN
SHRI A. V. NARKE (Alternate )
Automatic Electric Ltd, Bombay
SHRI 0. P. PURI
SHRI S. V. KARKHANIS ( Alternate )
Punjab State Electricity Board, Patiala
SHRI P. S. SATNAM
U. P. State Electricity Board, Lucknow
SHRI B. S. SHARMA
Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd, New Delhi
SHRI D. SURYANARAYANA
SHRI A. V. SOMAN ( Alternate I )
SHRI H. S. VALIA (Alternate II )
Tamil Nadu Electricity Board, Madras
SHRI N. THYAGARAJAN
SHRI S. K. RAXASUBRAMANIAN
( Alternate )
Directorate
General of Technical
Development j
SHRI J. M. UDIA
New Delhi
SHRI L. GOPALA KRISHNA ( Aiternate)
Karnataka Electricity Board, Bangalore
SHRI B. K. VENKATESH
Director General, IS1 ( Ex-ojicio Member )
SHRI S. P. SACHDEV,
Director ( Elec tech )
Secretary
SHRI SUKH BIR SINGH
Assistant Director ( Elec tech ), IS1

IS u5547- 1983

Indian Standard
APPLICATION GUIDE FOR
CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS

( First Revision )
0.

FOREWORD

0.1This

Indian Standard
( First Revision ) was adopted by the Indian
Standards
Institution
on 28 April 1983, after the draft finalized by the
Instrument
Transformers
Sectional Committee
had been approved by the
Electrotechnical
Division Council.

0.2 Capacitor
synchroscopes,

voltage transformers
are being employed
protective relays tariff-meters,
etc.

for line voltmeters,

0.3 Although the performance


of capacitor voltage transformer
does not
equal that of an electromagnetic
voltage transformer
due to dependence
of
its performance
on the supply frequency, switching transients, magnitude of
connected ,burden, etc, the capacitor voltage transformer
is more economical than an electromagnetic
voltage transformer
when the nominal
system voltage increases above 66 kV.
-0.4 The trend of higher transmission
voltages and the increasing
use of
power-line carrier for protection and telephony has accentuated
the use of
capacitor voltage transformers.
0.5 This standard is closely associated
hence should be read along with it.

with

IS : 3156

( Part 4 )-1978*

and

0.6 This standard was first published in 1967. This revision has been undertaken to align it with IS : 3 156 ( Part 4 )-1978
and to incorporate
the
developments
that have taken place since its first publication.
0.7 For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement
of this
standard is complied with, the final value, observed or calculated expressing the result of a test, shall be rounded off in accordance
with IS : 2196Ot.
The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value
should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard.
*Specification
for voltage transformers
: Part 4 Capacitor
revision ).
SRules for rounding off numerical values ( revised ).
3

voltage

transformer

(first
LG.

IS:5547

- 1983

1. SCOPE
1.1 This guide covers the application of capacitor voltage
use with electrical measuring
and protective devices.

transformers

for

2. TERMINOLOGY

2.0 For the purpose of this guide, the definitions given in IS : 1885( Part 28)1973* and 1-S : 3156 ( Part 1 )-1978t
and IS : 3156 (Part 4)-1978$
shall
apply *

SECTION
3. INFORMATION

3.1 In addition
capacitor

voltage

GENERAL

TO BE GIVEN

WIIH ENQUIRY

to the information
called in Section 1 of this standard, for
transformer,
the following information
is to be furnished:

a) Whether

the capacitor voltage


be used for carrier coupling;

b)
Cl

AND ORDER

If so, the carrier

frequency

transformer

range;

( CVT

) is required

to

and

For non-composite
CVTs where the electromagnetic
unit is manufactured separately to match an existing high voltage coupling
capacitor or a capacitor potential divider the nominal capacitance
and dielectric dissipation factor of the capacitors
and the intermediate voltage.

3.2 Reference

Range of Frequency
- The variation in the operating
power frequency has significant
influence on the accuracy of a capacitor
voltage transformers.
Normally a capacitor voltage transformer is tuned to
yield the best accuracy at the rated frequency
( 50 Hz ) and to comply
with the limits of an accuracy class as long as the operating frequency does
not deviate beyond the reference
ranges of frequency
for measuring
or
protective
purpose capacitor
voltage
transformer.
When the operating
frequency deviates beyond the reference range of frequency, the accuracy
limits are likely to be exceeded.
Coincident
influential
factors
are the
power factor and the magnitude
of connected
burden.
Where accuracy
is important,
as in tariff metering
applications,
it is desirable to obtain
accuracy curves for the capacitor voltage transformer corresponding
to the
limiting operating frequencies.
They are available from the manufacturers.
3.2.1 For capacitor voltage transformers meant for metering applications,
the reference range of frequency as per IS : 3156 (Part 4)-1978t as 99percent
*Electrotechnical
vocabulary : Part 28 Instrument transformers.
tspecification for voltage transformers : Part 1 General requirements (first revision ).
JSpecification
for capacitor voltage transformers : Part 4 Capacitor voltage transformer ( Jirst revision) .
<,i:

IS:5547-

1983

to 101 percent of the rated frequency.


For capacitor voltage transformers
meant for protection
applications,
the reference
range of frequency
is
97 percent to 103 percent of the rated frequency.
The above frequency
variations are normally encountered
in system operations.
Should these
system frequency limits are likely to be exceeded, this should be communicated to the manufacturer.
The accuracy
and output with the modified
frequency range are to be negotiated between the supplier and the manufacturer.
It is to be understood
that during system fault conditions the
metering accuracy shall not be available.
3.2.2 A typical illustration showing the variation of accuracy of capacitor
voltage transformers with operating frequency and power factor of the burden
is given in Fig. 1.

FIG. 1 TYPICAL ILLUSTRATION OF VARIATION ck ACCURACY


OF CAPACITOR VOLYAGE TRANSFORMERSWITH OPERATING
FREQUENCY AND POWER FACTOR OF THE BURDEN

.
IS : 5547 - I983

3.3 CAPACITOR
VOLTAGE
TRANSFORMER
LING CAPACITOR
FOR CARRIER COUPLING

USED

AS COUP-

3.3.1 For purpose of carrier coupling any device connected between the
earth end of the intermediate
voltage capacitor and the earth shall have a
high impedance
in comparison
to the impedance
of the intermediate
voltage capacitor at the rated frequency.
Practical
experience
indicates
that if the impedance
of the intermediate voltage capacitor at rated frequency is of the order of 1 000 times
the impedance of the carrier frequency
coupling device, the influence on
the operation of the capacitor voltage transformer
is negligible.
3.3.2 The carrier frequency
power loss in the electromagnetic
portion
shall not exceed 0.5 dB over the entire carrier frequency range. If loss is more
than 0.5 dB, a carrier frequency choke is to be inserted between the intermediate voltage terminal
and the electromagnetic
unit of the capacitor
voltage transformer.
The value of the impedance of this choke shall be SO
chosen as to limit the loss to less than O-5 dB.
NOTE - If the stray capacitance
and stray conductors of the LV terminal of the
capacitor
divider of the CVT is within the limits given in Appendix A, 8.7 and
A-2.2 of IS : 9348-1979*.
Coupling capacitor and capacitor potential divider, it may
not be necessary to fit a carrier frequency
choke for preventing
loss of carrier
frequency signal in the rlrctromagnetic
portion.

FACTORS
INFLUENCING
THE CHOICE
OF
CAPACITANCE
AND
OUTPUT
OF CAPACITOR
TRANSFORMERS
3.4

VALUE
OF
VOLTAGE

3.4.1 The maximum output from a capacitor


voltage
transformer
is
governed by the range of frequency over which the accuracy has to be maintained.
The change in error with variation of frequency is mainly a change
The permissible rated
in phase when the burden is of unity power factor.
output rnay be derived from the expression:
W = x ( Cl +

c, ) vi2 0

where
w=

Maximum

X=

Factor depending upon the losses in the capacitors


electromagnetic
portion and the frequency,

rated output in VA,

Capacitance

of primary

Capacitance

of intermediate

Intermediate
Phase-angle
*Co\lpling

permissible

capacitor

voltage
error

and capacitor

voltage

capacitor

voltage

in farads,

capacitor

in volts, and

change
divider.

in minutes

and the

per Hz.

in farads,

ICS : 5547 i 198j


34.2
Therefore,
for a given accuracy over a given frequency
range the
output can be increased by increasing
the value of the capacitance
while
keeping the same intermediate
voltage
or vice-versa.
The capacitance
required may be reduced to the economic limits by a suitable selection of
the intermediate
voltage.
On the other hand, when the capacitance
values
are fixed by other considerations
for example
carrier
coupling
requirements, the rated output depends upon among other things, the permissible
phase angle error changes per Hz.

have certain
design limitations
3.4.3
Capacitor
voltage
transformers
because of the need to suppress ferroresonance
oscillations a.s detailed in 4.1.
These limitations also impose certain constraints
on the output obtainable
from capacitor voltage transformers.
3.4.4 Because of these inherent limitations, it is not possible to obtain a
very high output and accuracy
from capacitor
voltage transformer.
It
would, therefore,
be advisable
if the rated burden
specified with dual
purpose capacitor voltage transformer
is limited to the output exclusively
As the output for the operation of the protective
required for metering.
relays, etc, is mostly required for short time duration and as the relaying
accuracy is applicable with a different frequency
range,
for purpose of
testing for metering accuracy the output necessary exclusively for metering
application only may be considered.
However, for protective application,
the total simultaneous burden on both the protective and metering windings
may be specified with the appropriate frequency range.
3.4.5 For capacitor voltage transformers with a protective winding meant
to be used in a residual voltage connection
( Bank of 3 windings connected
in broken delta ) class 6P is quite adequate.

SECTION
LIMITATIONS

OF CAPACITOR

4. FERRORESONANCE

VOLTAGE

IN CAPACITOR

TRANSFORMERS

VOLTAGE

TRANSFOR-

MERS
4.1 Capacitor

voltage transformers
are susceptible to ferroresonance
oscillations under primary and secondary
short circuit conditions.
This phenomenon occurs due to interchange
of energy between the capacitor
of the
divider and non-linear
inductance
of the electromagnetic
unit. It results
in severe distortions of the output voltage and poor design can result in
sustained sub-harmonic
oscillations. The latter can be avoided at the design

4:L

stage by taking suitable precautions.


Some of the usuaily adopted methods
A combination
of the methods
may be used for the
are given below.
prevention of ferroresonance
occurrence.

a)

Maintaining
the working flux density of the electromagnetic
units
at much lower levels as compared wiih the conventional
voltage
transformers.

b)

Greater
utilization
of the linear position of the magnetization
curve by using strip wound cores, thus avoiding local saturation
effects.

C) Providing

an air gap in the magnetic


circuit to maintain
the
linearity of magnetizing
inductance over a wide range of operating
conditions.

Connecting
secondary.

a suitable

damping

resistance

permanently

across

the

Depl.oying auxiliary tuning and damping


e>magnetic
unit.
In this case, it is necessary
tions, are-taken
to avoid introduction
the process of damping ferroresonance
5. RESPONSE

PRIMARY

OF CAPACITOR
VOLTAGE
VOLTAGE
TRANSIENTS

networks in the electrothat additional precauof additional


transients in
effects.

TRANSFORMER

TO

5.1. Capacitor voltage transformers


are subject to transient oscillations
on
the secondary voltage when there is a sudden change in the primary
voltage. Such oscillations may effect operations of distance relays.
The operation of capacitor voltage transformers
voltage conditions
may be improved
by keeping
secondary side to as low a value as possible.
6. WSE OF CAPACITOR

SATURABLE

VOLTAGE
BURDENS

under such transient


the burdens on the

TRANSFORMERS

WITH

6.1 Use of capacitor

voltage transformers
which are likely to saturate at
the rated voltage, is to be avoided.
Also, use of auxiliary voltage transformers in conjunction
with the capacitor voltage transformers,
is to be
avoided. This is because saturable burdens are likely to cause ferroresonante oscihations
on the secondary side of the CVT.
It is preferable to
order multiple secondary CVTs in place of auxiliary VTs.
7. CAPACITOR

VOLTAGE

TRANSFORMER

CONNECTIONS

7.1 Capacitor voltage transformers shall not be operated with the secondary
windings connected in closed delta because excessive current may circulate
in closed delta.
8