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CONTENTS

1.1: Scientific Investigation Scientific skills, and scientific attitucles and noble
values
1.2: Steps in a Scientific Investigation
1.3: A Scientific Investigation Method
1.4: To understand examples of investigation using the scientific investigation
method
2.1:
2.2:
2.3:
2.4:
2.5:
2.6:
2.7:
2.8:
2.9:
2.10:

Kinetic Theory of matter


Changes in the state of matter
Structure of an atom
Proton number and nucleon number
Isotopes and examples of isopotes
Classifacation of elements in the periodic table
Atoms, Molecules and Ion
Physical properties of substances made of atoms, molecules and ions
Properties of metals and non-metals
Purification sustance- Distillation and crystallisation

3.1:
3.2:
3.3:
3.4:
3.5:
3.6:
3.7:
3.8:
3.9:
3.10:

Body coordination Nervous system and the endocrine system


Component part of the human nervous system
Types of neurones, receptors and effectors and their functions
Reflex actions and apath of an impluse in a reflex arc
Main part of the brain and their functions
Differents parts of the cerebrum and their functions
Main Endocrine glands and their functions of the hormones secreted
Effects of hormonal imbalance on health
Effects of drug abuse on body coordination and health
Effects of excessive consumption of alcohol

4.1:
4.2:
4.3:
4.4:
4.5:
4.6:
4.7:
4.8:
4.9:
4.10:
4.11:
4.12:
4.13:
4.14:

Heredity and Variation Cells, genes, DNA and chromosomes


Process of mitosis
Process of meiosis
To compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis
Dominant traits and recessive traits in human beings
Gregor Mendels mechanism of trait inheritance
Present day theory to explain Mendels experiment.
Mono-hybrid crosses (Phenotype or Genotype)
Determination of sex chromosomes in humans
Sex determination in human beings
Occurrence of identical and non-identical twins
Comparison between identical and non-identical twins
Chromosome mutation, gene mutation and their consequences.
Continuous variation and discontinuous variation

5.1: Radio active substances


5.2: The process of radio active decay
5.3: To compare and contrast the characteristic of alpha, beta and gamma
radiation.
5.4: Nuclear fission and nuclear power station

5.5:
5.6:
5.7:
5.8:

Production of nuclear energy through fusion


Uses of radio active substances
Effect of the usage of radio active substances
Nuclear Disaster

6.1: Energy and chemicals changes Physical changes


6.2: Chemical changes
6.3: Compare and contrast physical and chemical changes and examples of
physical and chemical changes in our daily lives.
6.4: Exothermic and endothermic reactions
6.5: Heat changes that occur during industrial chemical reactions
6.6: Reactivity series of metals with water and acids
6.7: Reactivity series of metals with oxygen and arrangement of metals in order of
reactivity.
6.8: Proses and product electrolysis of an electrolyte using carbon electrodes.
6.9: Uses of electrolysis extraction of a metal, purification of a metal and
electroplating.
6.10: Production of electrical energy from chemical reactions.
6.11: Chemical reactions that occur in the presence of light.
7.1: Light, colour and sight Images formed by a plane mirror
7.2: Formation and characteristics of image by light rays passing through a convex
and a concave lens
7.3: A lens camera and a pin-hole camera
7.4: Formation of image a periscope and a telescope
7.5: Similarities and differences between a camera and a human eye
7.6: Dispersion of light
7.7: Primary and secondary colours and coloured filters
7.8: Appearance of coloured objects under white and coloured lights
7.9: Importance of colour in daily life
8.1:
8.2:
8.3:
8.4:
8.5:
8.6:
8.7:
8.8:

Turning a pure metal into an alloy changes its properties


Alloys, their composition, properties and uses
Properties and uses of ammonia in a daily life
Haber process for making ammonia.
Use of ammonia to produce fertilisers, ammonium salts and urea
Manufacturing activities that cause pollution
Effects of improper disposal of industrial waste
Preparation of ammonia sulphate (an ammonium fertiliser)

THEME:

1.1

LeArning
Area

Introducing Science
Scientific Investigation Scientific skills,
and scientific attitudes and noble values

Notes:
1)

Science is a process which stresses on the inquiry method and to help us


solve problems and achieve this present day comfort.

2)

At the same time, the study of science develops our skills to understand
what happens around us. To achieve this, it involves creative thinking and
scientific skills.

3)

Science investigation skills emphasise on the inquiry process to carry out


research on the environment as well as to develop positive attitudes.

4)

The inquiry processes involve observation, measurement and


interpretation of experimental data to form the basic scientific approach.

5)

The effective and proper use of various common laboratory apparatus


and equipment are the skills a student must acquire before proceeding
further in the study of science.

6)

Technology is the application of the knowledge of science for practical


purposes in our lives to make our lives comfortable.

Review Questions
1)

Differentiate between science and technology.


Science: _______________________________________________________
Technology: ____________________________________________________

2)

How has the knowledge of science helped you and your family in
everyday life? State four examples.
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

3)

State the importance of scientific investigation method to obtain scientific


knowledge.
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

1.2

LeArning
Area

Introducing Science
Scientific Investigation Steps in a
scientific investigation

Notes:
1)
2)
3)

4)

5)
6)
7)
8)
9)

Generally, scientific investigation begins with determining the problem


which is presented in a question form to obtain a solution.
The next step is to form a hypothesis which is a smart guess to try and
explain the problem. An experiment has to be carried out to prove that it
is true.
In planning how to test your hypothesis or smart guess, you need to think
of what to do first and what to do next. This involves what apparatus to
use, what observations to make, what measurements to take and how to
record the observations and measurement.
Certain conditions in an experiment need to be controlled. These are
called variables. The types of variables are constant variables,
independent or manipulated variables, and dependent or responding
variables which depend on the change to independent variables.
All observations and results have to be recorded accurately. Data
collected is usually quantitative (by measurement) or qualitative (needs
no measurement)
To analyse data more easily, it can be presented in the form of a table,
straight line graph or a pie chart.
Interpretation of data must be done honestly and rationally, without being
emotional, to extract new important information.
A conclusion about the validity of the hypothesis is made, whether it is
right or wrong. If it is right, the hypothesis is accepted. Otherwise, a new
hypothesis has to be made if it is wrong.
A full report on the findings of the scientific investigation is prepared.

Review Questions
1)

Explain the meaning of variable in an experiment.


_______________________________________________________________

2)

State four ways you can record your data.


_______________________________________________________________

3)

Guessing what is inside a black box is similar to


______________________________________________________________.

THEME:

1.3

LeArning
Area

Introducing Science
Scientific Investigation A Scientific
Investigation Method

Notes:
1)

The scientific investigation method is to question and understand


systemically the environment around us.

2)

This method stresses on learning to enhance thinking skills and scientific


skills.

3)

Scientific skills involve science process skills and manipulative skills.

4)

Science process skills is a process which encourages thinking in a


creative, critical, analytical and systematic manner.

5)

Science process skills involve the processes of:


a)

aim of experiment

b)

identifying the problem

c)

Identifying the variables

d)

Identifying the hypothesis

e)

Controlling the variables

f)

Planning the scientific investigation method

g)

Carrying out the experiment

h)

Analysis of data

i)

Interpretation of data

j)

Making a conclusion

Review Questions
1)

2)

State the main steps carried out in a scientific investigation method.


a)

___________________________________________________________

b)

___________________________________________________________

c)

___________________________________________________________

d)

___________________________________________________________

e)

___________________________________________________________

Explain the term making a hypothesis.


_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

1.4

Introducing Science

LeArning
Area

Scientific Investigation T
o understand
To
examples of investigation using the
scientific investigation method

Notes:
The diagram shows two balloons P and Q which
are filled with gas.
When the two balloons are let go, P rises but Q
falls to the floor. For the following statements,
9)
which are hypothesis and which are not? Tick (9
in the suitable boxes.
Hypothesis

Not a hypothesis

a)

Balloon P is filled with a gas which is


lighter than air

b)

Balloon Q is filled with air.

c)

Balloon P is filled with only a little air.

d)

Balloon Q will rise if it is placed in a big


container which is filled with carbon
dioxide gas.

e)

Balloon Q will rise if it is added with a


little hydrogen gas.

f)

Gas in balloon Q is compressed.

Review Questions
1)

The diagram shows a simple pendulum made by


tying a metal bob to a string. The simple
pendulum makes a complete swing from P to R
and back to P.
How does the length of the simple pendulum
affect the time of the oscillation of the
pendulum?
a)

Suggest a suitable hypothesis for this activity.


___________________________________________________________

b)

In the experiment to test your hypothesis, what is the variable which


is
(i)

constant: _______________________________________________

(ii) manipulated: ____________________________________________


(iii) responding: _____________________________________________

THEME:

2.1

LeArning
Area

MATTER IN NATURE
The Kinetic Theor
y of Matter
Theory
(P
ar
ticle Movement)
(Par
article

Notes:
1) Particles in a solid
a)
In a solid, the particles are packed together closely in a regular
pattern. The particles are in fixed position and they cannot move
around but they vibrate and spin in their positions. They move
forwards and backwards and from side to side. They do not move
away from their fixed positions.
b)
All solids are rigid and have a fixed shape and a fixed volume.
c)
Solids cannot be squashed as there are no spare spaces for the
particles to move to, so solids are not compressible.
d)
Solids have high densities and very strong attractive forces between
the particles.
2) Particles in a liquid
a)
The particles are still close together but they can move about in a
random manner past one another.
b)
A liquid will take a shape if it is placed in a container. The particles
will move around and take up the shape of the new container.
c)
The particles are still held together by attractive forces. If they are
squashed or compressed, there are no spaces for them to move into.
They cannot be compressed.
d)
Liquids do not have a fixed shape but they do have a definite
volume.
e)
Liquids have moderate densities.
3) Particles in a gas
a)
The particles are spread out, move around a lot and have big spaces
in between them. The particles are not held together so they move
around freely.
b)
As the particles are not held together in any way, a gas does not
have a shape or volume.
c)
Gases spread out to fill all available space. They can fill large and
small containers, whatever their sizes.
d)
Since particles in a gas are so spread out, they can be compressed.
e)
Attractive forces in between gas particles are weak and gases have
very low densities.

Review Questions
1)

State of matter in the given diagram has high energy contents.


Explain: ______________________________________________
2) Why cant particles in a liquid be compressed?
3) Why do gases completely fill a container quickly?
4) The three states of matter, solid, liquid and gas are different because of
differences in the __________________ and __________________ of their
particles.

THEME:

2.2

LeArning
Area

MATTER IN NATURE
Matter and substance Changes in the
state of matter (absorption or release of heat)

Notes:
1)

2)

3)

4)

Freezing when a liquid is cooled, heat is released and the particles lose
energy. Their kinetic energy gradually decreases and they move more
slowly. As the temperature falls, the particles continue to lose more and
more energy. At the freezing point, the particles become close enough to
allow the force of attraction to cause them to return to their fixed
positions in the solid state. The particles have a regular arrangement and
have enough energy to vibrate about their fixed positions. The liquid has
turned into a solid. eg. water ice.
Melting When a solid is strongly heated, the particles absorb energy and
their kinetic energy gradually increases. They vibrate more vigorously
about their fixed positions. As heating continues, the particles gain more
energy. At the melting point, they vibrate so vigorously that they break
free from one another. They overcome the attractive forces that held them
together, become randomly arranged and free to move about and further
apart. The substance has turned from a solid into a liquid eg. ice water.
Boiling The process that changes the state of matter from liquid to gas.
Heat is absorbed. When a liquid is heated continually, the particles gain
more kinetic energy, the attractive forces between the liquid particles
slowly weaken and the particles become further apart. At the boiling
point, the particles break free from one another from the surface of the
liquid and escape into the air. The particles now move at great speed and
are very far apart. The substance has changed from a liquid into a gas eg.
Water water vapour.
Sublimation A process that changes the state of matter from solid to
gas or from gas to solid without going through the liquid state. This
process involves heat absorption. The particles gain heat energy and
kinetic energy. Soon, the kinetic energy becomes strong enough to
overcome the attractive forces between the particles. A gas is formed.
When cooled, heat is lost by the gas, causing it to change into solid state
again e.g. iodine, solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) and ammonium chloride.

Review Questions
1)

State the differences between boiling and evaporation.


_______________________________________________________________

2)

3)

Name three physical processes that involve heat absorption.


a)

___________________________________________________________

b)

___________________________________________________________

c)

___________________________________________________________

State the processes involved in the transformation of water from ice to


water to steam.

THEME:

2.3

LeArning
Area

MATTER IN NATURE
Matter and substance Structure of an atom

Notes:
1)

Matter is made up of elements. An element is a substance which cannot


be broken down into simpler substances by chemical methods. An
element is made up of small particles which are always moving. These
particles are called atoms.

2)

An atom is the smallest particle of an element that can take part in a


1
chemical reaction. A single atom measures 10 000 000 mm across.

3)

An element contains identical atoms of the same type and size.

4)

An atom has a central part, the nucleus, which contains the subatomic
particles called protons, neutrons and electrons.
a) Each proton has positive electrical charge, almost like a tiny electrical
battery.
b) Neutrons are the same size as protons but they have no electrical
charge. They are not free to move freely.
c) Electrons are much smaller than protons and neutrons. They are not
in the nucleus. They are negatively charged particles in the atom,
travelling in orbits or fixed paths about the nucleus. Electrons in the
outer shell have more energy than those in the inner shells.
d) Usually an atom has the same number of protons and electrons, so
the positive and negative charges are equal which means that the
whole atom has no electrical charge.

5)

The mass of an atom is immensely small. It is more appropriate to use the


gram as the unit for measuring the mass of an atom.

Review Questions
1)

State two differences between a proton and an electron.


_______________________________________________________________

2)

Which sub atom has a relative mass of I?


_______________________________________________________________

3)

A neutral atom loses a few electrons. How will this effect the
characteristic of the atom?
_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

2.4

MATTER IN NATURE
Matter and substance Proton number
and nucleon number

LeArning
Area
Notes:
1.

a)
b)
c)

d)
e)
2.

a)

b)

Electrons have almost no mass compared with protons and neutrons,


so the mass of an atom is mainly in its nucleus.
Everything is made up from about 100 simple substances called
elements. Each element has a different number of protons in its
atoms. This is called its atomic number.
Proton number is the number which shows the number of protons
found in an atom.
egs. Oxygen has 8 protons in its atom, so the proton number for
oxygen is 8.
The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons in a
neutral atom. Therefore, the proton number also determines the
number of electrons in a neutral atom.
Every element has a proton number.
Nucleon number is the number which shows the total number of
protons and neutrons in an atom.
eg. Carbon has 6 protons and 6 neutrons in its atom. So, the nucleon
number for carbon is 12.
Since the mass of an atom is mainly in its nucleus, the nucleon
number is approximately the mass of an atom.

Review Questions
1)

Uranium has a proton number of 92 and a nucleon number of 238. How


many protons, electrons and neutrons are in its atom?

2)

Here are four atoms: Atom A


Atom B
Atom C
Atom D
a)

3)

neutron

:
:
:
:

3 electrons, mass number 7


142 neutrons, mass number 232
3 neutrons, mass number 6
5 electrons, mass number 11

Which elements are A, B, C and D?


A: ________________________________________________________
B: ________________________________________________________
C: ________________________________________________________
D: ________________________________________________________
Q

The diagram shows an element.


a) The subatom P is ___________ and Q is ___________.
b) The nucleon number for the atom is ____________.
c) The atom is neutral. Why?
P

THEME:

2.5

LeArning
Area

MATTER IN NATURE
Matter and substance Isotopes and
examples of isopotes

Notes:
1)

Usually, an element is made up of one kind of atoms.

2)

The atoms of some elements are not all alike. Some have more neutrons
than others.

3)

A sample of hydrogen gas has three different versions called isotopes.

4)

Except in a few cases, elements contain isotopes in almost constant


proportions and so appear to act as if all their atoms are equal in weight.

5)

A well-known example of isotope occurs in chlorine


Isotope 1 : Nucleus Protons 17
Total weight 35 units
Neutrons 18
Electrons 2, 8, 7

Isotope 2 : Nucleus

Protons 17
Total weight 37 units
Neutrons 20
Electrons 2, 8, 7
The above two chlorine isotopes have identical chemical properties but
different weights. They contain the same number of protons but different
number of neutrons.
6)

Isotopes can be defined as the atom of an element having the same


proton number but a different nucleon number.

7)

The isotopes of an element which are similar possess different physical


properties;
eg. Carbon-14 isotope is denser than carbon-12 isotope.

8)

The isotopes of an element which are similar possess similar chemical


properties;
eg. All oxygen isotopes support combustion.

9)

Some natural elements have two or three isotopes. Tin has 10 isotopes.

10) Isotopes can also be manufactured artificially.

Review Questions
1)

Chlorine 35 and chlorine 37 are isotopes of chlorine. State the


difference between the physical properties of the two isotopes.
_______________________________________________________________

2)

Isotope Uranium 235 is radio-active. What does the number 235 signify?
_______________________________________________________________

3)

The element P has a nucleon number 14 and a proton number 6. State the
number of electrons and neutrons for the isotope of the element P.
_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

2.6

LeArning
Area

MATTER IN NATURE
Matter and substance Classification of
elements in the periodic table

10

Notes:
1)
2)
3)

4)
5)

6)

7)

The periodic table was constructed by Russian chemist Dmitric Mededeleer (1834
1907) in 1968 to classify elements in a chart.
Elements have been placed systematically in the periodic Table according to their
properties and atomic number.
Each element is represented by a symbol of one or two letters.
Examples:
oxygen, O
chlorine, Cl
Sulphur, S
zinc, Zn
Carbon, c
sodium, Na (as in natrium)
Magnesium, Mg
Potassium, K (as in kalium)
Copper, Cu
silver, Ag (as in argentum)
(as in cuprum)
Iron, Fe (as in ferrum)
Every element in the periodic Table is given a number called the atomic number (or
proton number) and a relative mass number (or nucleon number)
a)
In the Periodic Table, each vertical column of element is called a group, labelled I
VIII arranged down the left and right sides. Elements in a group share similar
chemical properties eg. helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon in group VIII
are non-metallic noble gases and unreactive.
b) Moving down each group, certain features of the elements change: the outermost
electrons move easily and the density of the element increases
a)
Each horizontal row is called a period. As we move a period starting from elements
on the left to the elements on the right, we will see a change in properties from
metallic to non-metallic. The number of electrons in the outer shell of the elements
increases.
b) The melting points of the elements gradually increase to a maximum in group IV,
the carbon elements, decreasing again towards group VIII, the noble gases.
In the middle of the table, from scandium to zinc, from the yttrium to cadmium, and from
hafnium to mercury are the transition metals. They have high densities and are good
conductors of heat and electricity.

Review Questions
1)

The table below shows the Periodic Table, P, Q, R, S, T and U and represent specific
elements.

a)
b)
c)

Explain how the elements are arranged in the Periodic Table.


Name the element Q.
Which of the elements P, R, S and T are
(i) metallic
(ii) non-metallic
______________________________
______________________________

d)

Name a pair of elements that possess the same chemical properties.


________________________________________________________________________
State one property for the elements in (d).
________________________________________________________________________

e)

THEME:

2.7

MATTER IN NATURE

LeArning
Area

Matter and substance Atoms,


Molecules and Ions

11

Notes:
1.

a)
b)
c)
d)

Democritus, the father of atomic theory, made the indivisible particle


atom. Atom originates from the Greek word atomos meaning indivisible
as an atom is defined as the smallest particle of an element that can exist.
An atom is an electrically neutral unit made up of a positively charged
nucleus (protons and neutrons) with negatively charged electrons moving
round the nucleus.
Atoms of an element are identical, of the same size and the same type.
eg. A piece of aluminium foil consists of only aluminium atoms all of
which have the same size.
Different elements would contain atoms of different sizes.

2)

Atoms of many elements combine chemically with either atoms of the same
element or atoms of different elements to form molecules.
a) When atoms of the same elements combine together, a molecule of an
element is formed. Molecules of elements consist of a fixed number of one
kind of atom chemically combined together.
b) Some molecules consist of a variable number of the same atoms eg.
Oxygen, graphite and diamond.
Oxygen gas contains molecules of oxygen molecules. Each of these
oxygen molecules usually consists of two oxygen atoms. Diatomic
molecules are molecules that contain only two atoms each eg. oxygen,
nitrogen, hydrogen, chlorine, bromine and iodine.
c) When atoms of different elements combine, a molecule of compound is
formed. Molecules of compounds consist of a fixed number of different
kinds of atoms chemically combined together.

3)

When chemical changes occur in an element, its atoms may gain or lose
electrons to form charged particles called ions.
a) If an atom loses electrons, it will form a positive ion. eg. a sodium atom
losing one electron becomes a sodium ion with the symbol, Na+
b) If an atom gains electron, it will form a negative ion. eg. a chlorine atom
gaining one electron becomes a chloride ion with the symbol, Cl.

Review Questions
1)

Do metals or non-metals form negative ions?


_____________________________________________________________________

2)

An atom becomes an ion when it ________________________________________

3)

Describe the difference between the molecules of an element and the molecules
of a compound.
_____________________________________________________________________

4)

State the number and types of atoms present based on the chemical formula of
the following compounds:
a) N2

: ___________________

b) H2O : ___________________

c) CO2

: ___________________

d) N H4 Cl : ___________________

THEME:

2.8

LeArning
Area

MATTER IN NATURE

12

Matter and substance Physical proper


ties
properties
of substances made of atoms, molecules and ions

Notes:
1)

Substance made of atoms


a) A substance made of atoms contains atoms that are held together by very
strong forces of attraction called metallic bonding. That is why the atoms
are arranged close to one another, compact and in an orderly manner.
b) Metallic bonding between these atoms require great heat energy to hold
them together or to separate them. That is why substances made of atoms
have very high melting and boiling points.

2)

Substance made of molecules


a) Substances made of molecules contain molecules that are held together by
van der Waals forces which are rather weak. That is why the molecules are
arranged in a not so orderly manner and further apart. Molecules can exist
as solids (eg. naphthalene), as liquids (eg. water) and as gases (eg. carbon
dioxide).
b) Van der Waals forces which bond the molecules require little heat energy.
This is why substances made of molecules have low boiling melting points.
c) Molecules are electrically neutral and do not contain ions or electrical
charges, so are unable to conduct electricity and are non-electrolytes.

3)

Ions
a) The ions in substances are held together by strong electrostatic force or
ionic bonding. This great force results in close, compact and orderly
arrangement of the ions to form solids at room temperatures.
b) Great heat energy is required to split the ions held together by electrostatic
force. These substances made of ions have high melting and boiling points.
c) In the solid state, substances made of ions cannot conduct electricity
because the electrically charged ions cannot move freely. In the liquid
state, these electrically charged ions can move freely carrying electrical
charges from one place to another.

Review Questions
1)

Compare the properties of substances made of atoms and substances made of


ions in terms of electric conductivity.
_____________________________________________________________________

2)

Why do substances made of molecules melt easily?


_____________________________________________________________________

3)

Name an attractive force that binds ions in a substance made of ions.


_____________________________________________________________________

4)

Why is magnesium oxide not considered a substance made of ions?


_____________________________________________________________________

THEME:

2.9

LeArning
Area

MATTER IN NATURE
Matter and substance Proper
ties of
Properties
metals and non-metals

13

Notes:
1)

Metals
a) All metals are solids, except for mercury at room temperature.
b) About 75% of all the elements in a Periodic Table are metals. Most
metals have high densities.
c) Particles in solid metals are arranged with little space between them
so they cannot be compressed. The particles are tightly packed and
do not change shape easily due to strong metallic bonding, making
metals good conductors of heat.
d) Atoms of metals can easily glide over one another under stress
making the metals ductile and malleable.
e) Due to strong metallic bonding or strong attractive forces between
atoms, metals have high melting and boiling points.
f) Metallic atoms contain many free-moving electrons. This makes
metals good conductors of electricity.

2)

Non-metals
a) Non-metals which include elements like oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur
are commonly gases, liquids or solids with low melting and boiling
points.
b) Their electrons are tightly held to their atoms so non-metallic
substances do not readily conduct electricity or heat.
c) Non-metals cannot be hammered into sheets or drawn out into wires,
ie. not malleable and not ductile.
d) They have dull surfaces and are brittle.
e) At room temperature, carbon and sulphur exist as solids, bromine
exists as a liquid and oxygen and nitrogen exist as gases.

Review Questions
1)

What makes a metal a good conductor of electricity?


_______________________________________________________________

2)

Name the hardest substance.


_______________________________________________________________

3)

Why are some non-metals called noble gases?


_______________________________________________________________

4)

Describe the way how particles in a solid metal like copper are arranged.
_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

2.10

LeArning
Area

MATTER IN NATURE

Matter and substance Purif


ying substances
Purifying
Distillation and Cr
ystallisation
Crystallisation

Notes:
1.

a)

b)

c)
d)
2.

a)
b)

c)
d)

A sample of fairly pure ethanol can be obtained from a mixture of


ethanol and water by distillation because ethanol is distilled at 78C
which is the boiling point of ethanol, and water is distilled at 100C,
which is the boiling point of water.
Distillation is a process where a solution is heated in a distilling flask
until its liquid component boils and changes into its gaseous state
(evaporation). The vapour is cooled and condensed in the Liebig
condensor into its pure liquid state, the distillate.
Pure liquid ethanol is obtained after condensation of ethanol vapour
in the cool Liebig condenser and the distillate, ethanol, is collected in
the conical flask.
The distillation purification method can be used to separate a mixture
of two liquids if they have different boiling points.
Crystallisation or the process of formation of crystals can occur in a
saturated solution.
When a solvent eg. water, will not let any more solute, eg. sodium
chloride (or common salt), dissolve in it, we say that the solution is a
saturated solution. Only a certain amount of solute will dissolve in a
solvent.
There are so many spaces for the solute particles to fit into. This
means once the spaces are filled, no more solute particles can fit in.
The solution is said to be saturated.
If the cooling process of the saturated solution in crystallisation is
slow, larger crystals are formed but if the cooling process is fast,
smaller crystals are formed.

Review Questions
1)

A mixture consists of liquid A with a boiling point of 66C and liquid B


with a boiling point of 98C.
a) How can the two liquids be separated?
___________________________________________________________
b)

Which liquid will evaporate first? Why?


___________________________________________________________

2)

Name two household products that can be obtained by the process of


crystallisation?
___________________________________________________________

3)

14

How can you determine whether a sample of ethanol is pure or not?


___________________________________________________________

THEME:

3.1

LeArning
Area

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE


Systems that control body coordination
Ner
vous system and the endocrine system
Nervous

Notes:
1)
2)
3)

4)

5)

Body coordination means the way a body manages all its part to work
together to the benefit of the organism and depend on one another in
order to work efficiently.
Body coordination is necessary when a body is stimulated by hormones
or nervous impulses from the surrounding and needs to react.
As parts of an organism have to be stimulated before they become active,
there must be coordination of these parts so that they work together with
one another. This control is provided by two systems the nervous
system and the endocrine system.
The central nervous system passes on impulses from one part of the
organism to another and sorts them out so that the important impulses
reach the organs they affect first. At first, the control of reactions occurs
in the cerebrum or concious part of the brain, but once coordination has
taken place, the control is gradually taken over by the cerebellum and
reaction occurs.
Although hormones are important in coordination, they are produced in
glands which are under the control of the central nervous system.
Hormones are transported to specific parts of the body through the blood
circulatory system. eg. hormones secreted by the pancreas controls the
level of glucose in the blood. Since the endocrine system does not have
delivery tubes or ducts, they release their chemical products, hormones,
directly into the blood stream.

Review Questions
1)
2)
3)

Name the system(s) that are involved in body coordination.


_______________________________________________________________
What will happen if a person does not possess a nervous system?
_______________________________________________________________
a) Name the glands in the diagram labelled
P: ____________, Q: ____________, R: ____________,
P
S: ____________, T: ____________,
b) How do these glands react towards impulses from
Q
the central nervous system?
R
_________________________________________
c) Which endocrine gland controls other endocrine
S
glands?
_________________________________________
d) Which gland stabilises the glucose content in the
blood-stream?
T
_________________________________________
e) What happens to the excess glucose in the blood system to ensure a
healthy body?
__________________________________________________________

15

THEME:

3.2

Learning
Area

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE


Body coordination Component par
ts of the
parts
human ner
vous system
nervous

16

Notes:
1)

It is very important that humans and all living things be sensitive to their
environment. This sensitivity enables you to get food, avoid danger and
make life comfortable. This is the job of the nervous system.

2)

A stimulus is detected by the nerve cells or nerve endings called


receptors which detect light, sound, pressure, pain and temperature
changes.

3)

The nervous system is divided into two parts the central nervous
system consisting of the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral
nervous system made up of the cranial nerves and spinal nerves. These
nerves connect the central nervous system to all parts of the body.

4)

Nerve cells are called neurones which carry messages or nerve impulses
around the nervous system.

5)

Each neurone has a cell body containing a nucleus.

6)

Signals or nerve impulses are picked up by dendrites or nerve endings,


enter the cell body and leave by another long fibre, an axon. Dendrites
carry nerve impulses to the cell body and then move down the axon.

7)

The signals in the nerves travel in the form of tiny electrical impulses
carried by the axon which is covered by the myelin sheath.

8)

When the signal reaches the end of a neurone, the message is passed
across a gap called a synapse to the dendrites of another neurone.

Review Questions
1)

State the difference between a somatic nervous system and an autonomic


nervous system.
_______________________________________________________________

2)

Name the components of the human nervous system.


_______________________________________________________________

3)

What is the difference between the central nervous system and the
peripheral nervous system?
_______________________________________________________________

4)

What is a neurone?
_______________________________________________________________

5)

Give the function of the synapse at the end of a neurone.


_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

3.3

LeArning
Area

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE

17

Body coordination T
ype of neurones, receptors
Type
and effectors and their functions

Notes:
1)

Human beings have three types of neurones to send signals or nerve


impulses to specific directions.

2)

The ability of organisms to respond to particular stimuli has become


highly developed in specialised tissues and organs. These include certain
specialised nerve tissues or closely associated cells or organs, called
receptors, which are sensitive to particular kinds of stimuli in the
environment eg. eyes for light, ears for sound.

3)

Effectors, organs or tissue such as muscles or glands react to the nerve


impulse by being stimulated. The nervous system links receptors to
effectors.

4)

The three types of neurones perform different functions. Found in the


body are sensory neurones, motor neurones and relay neurones which
make up a chain of nerve cells that carry an impulse through the nervous
system.

5)

A sensory neurone picks up stimuli from the internal or external


environment and converts each stimulus into a nerve impulse. The
impulse travels along the sensory neurone until it reaches a relay neurone
(or interneurone), usually in the brain or spinal cord.

6)

A relay neurone carries nerve impulses from one neurone to another.


Some pass impulses from sensory neurones to motor neurones.

7)

A motor neurone sends an impulse from the central nervous system to a


muscle and the muscle contracts in response.

Review Questions
1)

The diagram shows a neurone


P

Q
R
a)
b)
c)
d)

Name the type of neurone shown


___________________________________________________________
Name the parts of the neurone marked P, Q and R.
P: ________________ Q: ________________ R: _________________
In which part of the body can this neurone be found?
___________________________________________________________
State the function of this neurone
___________________________________________________________

THEME:

3.4

LeArning
Area

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE


Body coordination Refle
x actions and a
Reflex
path of an impulse in a refle
x arc
reflex

18

Notes:
1)
2)
3)

4)
5)

6)
7)
8)

A reflex is an automatic response that occurs very rapidly and without


conscious control
The contraction of skeletal muscles is usually controlled by the brain. However,
in some reflex actions, skeletal muscles contract with the involvement of the
spinal cord only not the brain.
When you touch a sharp object, such as a cactus thorn, sensory neurones send
impulses to the spinal cord. The impulses then pass to interneurones (or relay
neurones) in the spinal cord. From there, the impulses pass directly to motor
neurones in your arm or hand. The muscles then contract and your hand jerks
up and away from the sharp thorn. By removing your hand quickly, this reflex
action protects you from getting badly hurt.
Other impulses travel up your spinal cord and to your brain. When these
impulses reach your brain, your brain interprets them as a sharp pain in your
finger.
In the case of removing your hand from a hot object, a muscle in your arm is the
effector. It moves when it receives an impulse. Glands, eg. salivary glands and
glands in the pan creas, can also be effectors and release a secretion when they
receive an impulse.
Reflex actions protect us from getting hurt or from danger. They are controlled
by the spinal cord.
Examples of reflex actions sneezing, cough, blinking of eyes, knee jerks,
pulling hand away from sharp or hot objects or decreasing of pupil size of eye in
bright light.
The path taken by an impulse consists of an arrangement of at least three
neurones. This pathway passes through the central nervous system and it is
called the reflex arc.

Review Questions
1)
2)
3)
4)

Define the term reflex action.


What enables you to detect temperature changes in a room?
State the reflex arc in a knee jerk.
hot light
buld

R Substance X

muscle
nerve
ending
S

Gap Y

The above diagram shows the body part involved in a reflex action.
a) Label the parts P, Q, R, S, X and Y.
P: ________________, Q: ________________, R: ________________,
S: ________________, X; ________________, Y: ________________,
b)

Even though pulling away the hand from the hot bulb is a reflex action, why
does the person still feel pain?

THEME:

3.5

LeArning
Area

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE


Body coordination Main par
ts of the
parts
brain and their functions

19

Notes:
1)

2)
3)

4)
a)

b)

c)

The human brain has so many vital jobs to do that it is considered the
most important organ in the body. The brain functions in thinking,
remembering, making movement and feeling. It also controls important
body functions like heartbeat and breathing.
The brain contains about 100 billion neurones, all of which are
interneurones. Each of the neurones may receive messages from up to
10 000 other neurones and may send messages to about 1000 more.
Three layers of connective tissue cover the brain. The space between the
outermost layer and the middle layer is filled with a watery liquid. The
skull, the layers of connective tissue and fluid protect the brain from
injury.
The human brain is made up of three parts, the cerebrum, the cerebellum
and the medulla oblongata.
Cerebrum the largest part, divided into the right hemisphere and the left
hemisphere. The right hemisphere contains the neurones that send
impulses to the skeletal muscles on the left side of the body associated
with creativity and art. The left hemisphere controls the right side of the
body, associated with voluntary actions like Mathematical skills, speech,
writing and logical thinking. When you reach with your right hand for a
pencil, the messages that tell you to do so come from the left half of your
cerebrum.
Cerebellum the second largest part of the brain. It controls the
coordination of the body in movement, posture and balance, especially
when running or walking. Each hemisphere of the cerebellum consists of
internal white matter and an exterior of gray matter (mainly neurone cell
bodies).
Medulla oblongata lies between the cerebellum and spinal cord. It
controls involuntary actions that occur automatically eg. peristalsis,
heartbeat, breathing and blood pressure. It also controls reflex actions
such as swallowing, sneezing, coughing and knee-jerks.

Review Questions
1)

Which part of the brain controls memory?


_______________________________________________________________

2)

Why is writing considered a voluntary action?


_______________________________________________________________

3)

Damage to the medulla oblongata brings about death. Explain


_______________________________________________________________

4)

Which part of the brain controls


i) reading
iii) body-balance
ii) breathing
iv) muscle and bone growth

THEME:

3.6

LeArning
Area

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE


Body coordination Different par
ts of the
parts
cerebrum and their functions

20

Notes:
1)
2)

3)

4)

5)

The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. It is the main base of
consciousness, various sensations, memory, voluntary actions,
intelligence and reason.
Different parts of the cerebrum do different jobs. Some areas deal with
sight and other areas deal with speech or hearing. The right hemisphere
of the cerebrum mainly allows us to express emotion and controls music
and art abilities. The left hemisphere mainly controls our ability to think
logically, use Mathematics and for speech.
In the auditory area, we experience the sensation of sound and its
different pitch, loudness and quality. We can also determine where the
sound is coming from, what is making it and, if it is a musical sound, what
kind of instrument is being used.
The olfactory lobes on the cerebral cortex are concerned with smell, the
optic or visual lobes are the centres for the sense of sight, the gustatory
area is responsible for taste and the somato sensory areas are
responsible for touch, pain, pressure and perception of body position.
The cortex evaluates, compares and puts together sensations into
meaningful concepts.
Example:
When we view an object, not only do we get a sense of light and dark but
we also experience the size and shape of the object, its colour and
various degrees of the brightness of light.

Review Questions
1)

State the functions of the labelled parts


of the cerebrum.

C
A

B
G

A: _______________________________

B: _______________________________

C: _______________________________
D: _______________________________
E:

_______________________________

F:

_______________________________

G: _______________________________
2)

Which part of the cerebrum controls nerve signals from the skin?
______________________________________________________________

THEME:

3.7

LeArning
Area

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE


Body coordination Main endocrine glands and
the functions of the hormones secreted

21

Notes:
1)

The human body has two systems that regulate its activities, the nervous
system and the endocrine system,
2) The endocrine system works with the nervous system to help control many
parts of the body. It controls the long-term activities in the body such as growth
and reproduction, and helps prepare the body for stress.
3) The endocrine system is made up of glands and hormones. The function of the
glands is to make hormones and secrete them into the blood stream.
4) Hormones are chemical messages which cause changes in other organs and
tissue. These organs and tissue contain the target cells.
5) Hormones are transported by the blood and reach all cells in the body but target
cells respond to a particular hormone. The body has seven major endocrine
glands and more than fifty different hormones.
6) Pituitary gland the master gland, about the size of a pea, located at the base of
the brain. It releases about nine different hormones that control other glands.
One hormone is HGH human growth hormone, which controls how fast the
muscles, bones and organs grow and determines the height when adulthood is
reached. Other pituitary hormones control the production of thyroxin, sperms,
ova and secretion of milk by the milk glands.
7) Thyroid gland situated in the neck, controlled by the pituitary gland and
produces the hormone, thyroxine. It controls metabolism, the rate at which the
tissues use energy. Thyroxine contains the element iodine a lack of iodine in
the diet leads to goiter, a swelling of the thyroid gland.
8) Adrenal gland found just above the kidneys. It produces a hormone, adrenalin
which prepares the body for sudden action. Anything that makes you nervous or
excited will cause adrenaline to be secreted, your heartbeat increases and in
turn increases the flow of blood to the muscle. Breathing speeds up and your
liver increases the sugar level in your blood. All these will increase energy to
deal with emergencies. In a state of fear, adrenaline causes the contraction of
muscles, paleness and jerking of hands.
9) Pancreas produces hormones, insulin and glucagon, to control sugar level in
the blood.
10) Ovary produces estrogen (controls the changes in a young girls body such as
breast development) and progesterone (development of eggs and menstrual
cycle).
11) Testes release a male hormone testosterone which is necessary for sperm
production and physical changes such as hair growth in underarms and face,
and voice change.

Review Questions
1)

Why is the endocrine system called ductless glands?


____________________________________________________________________

2)

Which part of the brain connects the nervous system with the endocrine system?
____________________________________________________________________

3)

What is the function of insulin in a human body?


____________________________________________________________________

THEME:

3.8

LeArning
Area

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE


Body coordination Effects of hormonal
imbalance on health

22

Notes:
1)

Pituitary gland undersecretion of the growth hormone during the years of


skeletal growth of an individual results in dwarfism, but not accompanied by
physical deformity, mental inferiority or retardation. An adult dwarf may reach a
height no taller than 3 or 4 feet and is usually sexually immature. Over
secretion of the growth hormone before adulthood results in gigantism, an
overgrowth of the skeleton as tall as 7 or 8 feet.

2)

Thyroid gland a deficient dietary supply of iodine gives rise to the dwarfed
condition called cretinism, retarded physical, sexual and mental development,
and a lowered metabolic rate. Lack of thyroxin in adults results in thickness
and puffiness of skin, coarseness and brittleness of hair and fingernails,
physical and mental lethargy, weight gain, slower pulse rate, reduced blood
pressure, a decreased body temperature and goitre.
Excessive thyroxin causes an enlargement of the thyroid gland, an increased
metabolic rate, weight loss, higher pulse rate, excessive perspiration and
protrusion of the eyeballs.

3)

Pancreas excessive insulin results in low level of blood glucose while lack of
insulin causes diabetes, a low level of insulin in the blood. Diabetics have high
blood glucose level, lowered glycogen content and decreased synthesis of fatty
acid.

4)

Secondary sexual characteristics (female) are the rounded feminine contours of


the body, deposition of body fat, pelvic enlargement and appearance of pubic
hair.

5)

Secondary sexual characteristics (male) are further development of the penis,


appearance of hair on face and other body parts, a more prominent larynx,
deeper voice, greater mascular development and strength, and sexual desire.

Review Questions
1)

State three functions of hormones in body coordination.


_____________________________________________________________________

2)

Lack of which hormone causes mental retardation in children?


_____________________________________________________________________

THEME:

3.9

LeArning
Area

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE


Body coordination Effects of drug abuse on
body coordiniation and health

23

Notes:
1)

A drug is any chemical that causes changes in a persons body or behaviour.


Many drugs affect the functioning of the nervous system.

2)

The deliberate misuse of drugs for purposes other than medical ones is called
drug abuse. Medicines can also be abused drugs if they are used in a way for
which they were not intended

3)

Abused drugs start to affect the body very shortly affer they are taken. Different
drugs have different effects.

4)

Most common abused drugs such as marijuana, cocaine and alcohol, are
especially dangerous because they act on the brain and other parts of the
nervous system.

5)

Alcohol can cause confusion, poor muscle coordination and blurred vision.
These effects are especially dangerous such as when driving a car. The person
can become violent.

6)

Most abused drugs can change a persons mood and feelings. The mood of a
person under the influence of marijuana may change from calm to anxious.

7)

Causes of drug abuse:


a) To escape from personal problems
b) mixing with drug - addicts
c) wanting to try
d) to obtain a high feeling or excitement
e) to increase sexual pleasure

Review Questions
1)

Define the term drug abuse.


_____________________________________________________________________

2)

State three effects of drug abuse on body coordination.


_____________________________________________________________________

3)

What steps should be taken to prevent people from taking dangerous drugs
such as narcotics?
_____________________________________________________________________

4)

Name a dangerous drug that should be avoided. Explain.


_____________________________________________________________________

THEME:

3.10

LeArning
Area

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE


Body coordination Effects of e
xcessive
ex
consumption of alcohol

24

Notes:
1)

Alcohol (ethanol) is a drug found in many beverages including beer, wine,


cocktails and hard liquor. Alcohol is a powerful depressant.

2)

Alcohol is absorbed quickly by the digestive system. If a person drinks


alcohol on an empty stomach, the alcohol enters the blood and gets to the
brain and other organs almost immediately. If alcohol is drunk with a
meal, it takes longer to get into your blood.

3)

Heavy drinking over a long period of time can cause significant health
problems. The abuse of alcohol can destroy cells in the brain and liver,
and it can also lead to addiction and emotional dependence.

4)

Damage to the brain can cause mental disturbances such as


hallucinations and loss of consciousness.

5)

The liver, which breaks down alcohol for elimination from the body, can
be damaged and not function properly.

6)

Ethanol is a depressant drug. It slows down brain activity which


eventually leads to misjudgment, a total loss of self-control and delayed
reaction times. High ethanol level in the blood can cause
unconsciousness, brain damage and rapid aging.

7)

Long term alcohol abuse can increase the risk of getting certain kinds of
cancer and death.

8)

Hepatitis (liver inflammation) and cirrhosis (in which the liver becomes
hard and yellowed) are common in heavy drinkers. Heavy drinkers
drinking without food in their stomachs are likely to develop stomach
ulcers and problems in the digestive system.

9)

A person addicted to drinking alcohol is an alcoholic.

10) Alcoholism not only affects the drinker but it creates problems for his
family members when he is drunk. This may lead to the breakdown of the
family which may cause the drinker to drink more.

Review Questions
1)

List some harmful effects of excessive drinking of alcohol on the body?

2)

Suggest reasons why some people abuse alcohol.

THEME:

4.1

LeArning
Area

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE


Heredity and V
ariation Cells, genes, DNA and
Variation
Choromosomes

25

Notes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

13.

A cell is a building block of living organisms.


Every cell has a nucleus placed in the cytoplasm.
The nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear membrane or nuclear envelope
while the cytoplasm is surrounded by the cell membrane or cell surface
membrane
In a plant cell, the cell wall made of cellulose surrounds the cytoplasm
which contains the chloroplasts and vacuoles.
The nucleus controls activities in the cytoplasm, is responsible for cell
reproduction and is needed for the continuation of the life of a cell.
The nucleus of each cell contains the genetic material which determines
the characteristics of an organism.
The genetic material is situated within the chromosomes in the nucleus.
Chromosomes are rod-like structures which are structurally and
functionally organised together with certain proteins and other
constituents. Chromosomes exist as double threads.
During cell division, the elongated and twisted chromatin shortens and
thickens before it divides.
Every species of animals and plants possess cells which contain a fixed
number of specific chromosomes.
Different species of living things possess different number of
chromosomes.
Genetic substances in chromosomes are called genes which are made up
of deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) which transmit structural and metabolic
characteristics from one cell generation to another. eg. colour of eyes,
skin colour, hair colour and appearance.
Genes are arranged in a single linear order along the chromosomes, like
beads in a chain.

Review Questions
1.

What genetic material is found in a cell?


___________________________________________________________

2.

Why are genes very important?


___________________________________________________________

3.

What part of the nucleus determines the activities and inheritance of the
cell?
___________________________________________________________

4.

What content of the nucleus serves as the ultimate master-control centre?


___________________________________________________________

THEME:

4.2

LeArning
Area

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE

26

Heredity and V
ariation Process of Mitosis
Variation

Notes:
1.

Mitosis is a process of cell division producing two daughter cells which


have exactly the same number of chromosomes.
2 n (parent cell diploid) - 2n (daughter cell diploid)
- 2n (daughter cell diploid)
2. The daughter cells have chromosomes that are exact copies of those in
the parent cell. In scientific terms, they are said to be genetically identical
to the parent cell.
3. During the initial stage of separation in mitosis, the nuclear threads
containing the chromatin material thicken and shorten to form
recognisable chromosomes and move to the middle of the cell. Each
chromosome divides to become two identical and separate strands called
chromatids.
4. The nucleus wall slowly decreases and finally disappears.
5. The cell separates into two and moves to opposite sides of the cell, at the
polar caps. The number of chromatids of each cell at the polar caps are
the same and are identical.
6. The chromatids become the chromosomes and the cell divides to become
two daughter cells.
7. All cell division occurs through mitosis except for reproductive cells, the
sperm and ovum.
8. Somatic or body cells experience the mitosis process.
9. In plant cells, mitosis occurs at the tips of shoots and roots.
10. Mitosis produces cells needed to make an adult organism from a fertilised
egg, cells to heal cuts, wounds and broken bones and cells to replace
dead skin cells and worn-out red blood cells.

Review Questions
1.

Describe two functions of chromosomes.


________________________________________________________

2.

Describe what happens to the double chromosomes during mitosis.


________________________________________________________

3.

How many cells and chromosomes are there in a human cell at the final
stage of mitosis?
________________________________________________________

THEME:

4.3

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE

LeArning
Area

27

Heredity and V
ariation Process of Meiosis
Variation

Notes:
1.

Meiosis is a process of cell division in the reproductive organs (ovary and


testes) to produce gametes (reproductive cells).

2.

For a female, meiosis occurs in the ovary to produce ova whereas in a


male, meiosis occurs in the testes to produce sperm.

3.

The meiosis process produces four gamete cells, each of which


possesses half the number of chromosomes of body cells because they
have only a single set of chromosomes. In humans, this is 23, which is
known as the haploid number of chromosomes.

4.

When gametes produced by meiosis join at fertilisation they bring


together a set of chromosomes from two different parents. Their young
have a mixture of characteristics (genetic formation) from both parents.
The child will have some of its mothers features and some of its fathers.

5.

Stages of cell division in the meiosis process :-

6.

a)

Chromosome thickens and becomes significant

b)

Chromosomes double in number.

c)

Chromosomes gather around the middle or the equator of the cell.

d)

The members of each pair then separate and move in opposite


directions, followed by each chromosome splitting into two (second
division)

e)

The cell divides into four new cells with only half the number of
chromosomes of the parent cell.

Second stage of division : 2 n (diploid)

- n (haploid) - n (haploid)
- n (haploid)
- n (haploid) - n (haploid)
- n (haploid)

Review Questions
1.

Why is the meiosis process important for causing variations in human


beings?
_________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

2.

A horse has 66 chromosomes in its somatic cells. How many


chromosomes are found in
a)

its skin cells :___________________________

b)

sperm cell

: __________________________

THEME:

4.4

LeArning
Area

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE


Heredity and V
ariation To compare and
Variation
contrast mitosis and meiosis.

Notes:

Review Questions
1.

Fill in the blanks with suitable answers :


a)

In the mitosis process, every part of the body cells are involved
except ____________________.

b)

The number of chromosomes in a childs cell after meiosis is


____________________.

c)

The division of a cell in the process of meiosis is for the purpose of


____________________.

d)

For the process of mitosis in human beings, the parent cell has
____________________ chromosomes and the childs cell has
____________________ chromosomes.

e)

In meiosis, the parent cell has ____________________ chromosomes


and the childs cell has ____________________ chromosomes.

f)

In the process of meiosis, the parent cell divides to produce


____________________.

28

THEME:

4.5

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE

LeArning
Area

Heredity and V
ariation Dominant traits and
Variation
recessive traits in human beings

29

Notes:
Inherited features

Dominant gene

Recessive gene

Hair variation

Curly hair

Straight hair

Ability to roll tongue

Roller

Non-roller

Ear variations

With ear lobe

No ear lobe

Eye lashes

Long

Short

Left or right-handed

Right-handed

Left-handed

Iris colour

Black or brown

Blue

Skin colour

Pigmented skin

Non-pigmented
skin (albino)

Height

Tall

Short

Presence of dimples

Has dimples

No dimples

Eye sight

Normal

Colour blind

Review Questions
1)

State the features of a child produced by a tall male (TT) married to a


short female (tt)?
______________________________________________________________________

2)

A person with two identical genes for a characteristic is _______________


or _______________ for that characteristic.

3)

A person with two different genes, one dominant and one recessive, for a
characteristic is _______________ or _______________ for that
characteristic.

4)

In the gene pair Hh (for black and blond hair), which gene is dominant?
______________________________________________________________________

THEME:

4.6

LeArning
Area

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE


Heredity and V
ariation Gregor Mendels
Variation
mechanism of trait inheritance

30

Notes:
1)

The idea of genes was first discovered by an Austrian monk, Mendel, also
a biologist and mathematician in 1865. He came up with his theory by
looking at pea plants. Between 1856 and 1863, he grew nearly 30000 pea
plants in the monastery garden.

2)

Mendel studied the different characteristics of the pea plants, one of


which was their height. Some pea plants were naturally tall and some
were naturally short.

3)

He crossed these plants together, planted their seeds and studied the
characteristics of the new plants.

4)

Mendel only obtained tall plants but he expected to get medium height
pea plants when he crossed a tall plant with a short one.

5)

He wondered where the shortness characteristic had gone and whether


he could get it back, so he crossed the new tall plants. He got some tall
plants and some short plants.

6)

He decided that a certain characteristic was passed from parents to


offspring and these factors could not be changed. The pea plants were
either tall or short depending on the factor they inherited from their
parents. Pea plants could not be of medium height.

Review Questions
1)

What plant did Mendel use in his investigations?


______________________________________________________________

2)

What percentage of Mendels pea plants were short?


______________________________________________________________

3)

What was Mendels conclusion about factors of the pea plants he


planted?
______________________________________________________________

4)

Why could Mendel not obtain pea plants of medium height?


______________________________________________________________

THEME:

4.7

LeArning
Area

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE


Heredity and V
ariation Present day theor
y to
Variation
theory

31

explain Mendels e
xperiment
experiment

Notes:
1)

If a red-flowered parent plant is of a pure breed, its cell has two dominant
genes for red flowers.

2)

If a white-flowered parent plant is of a pure breed, its cell has two


recessive genes for white flowers

3)

During meiosis, gametes are produced. Genes from each pair separate
and move into other gametes. Each gamete has a gene from each pair of
genes.

4)

During fertilisation, the male gamete (sperm) fuses with the female
gamete (ovum) to form a zygote. Genes form new pairs.

5)

For the first generation of offspring, all the flowers are red. This is
because red is the dominant gene.

6)

If the parent cells are the offspring from the first generation, each cell has
one dominant gene for the colour red and one recessive gene for the
colour white, the gametes produced during meiosis will have a dominant
gene for red or a recessive gene for white.

7)

The second generation has a combination of different genes, that is one


pure breed of red flowers, one pure breed of white flowers and two
hybrids of red which are not pure breeds.

Review Questions
1)

Explain the term hybrid.


_______________________________________________________________

2)

A red flowered hybrid is crossed together with another red flowered


hybrid (dominant red and recessive white), what kind of flower is obtained
for the first generation?
_______________________________________________________________

3)

If a tall male (pure breed-TT) marries a short female (pure breed-tt), what
type of children would they get?
_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

4.8

LeArning
Area

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE


Heredity and V
ariation Mono
-hybrid crosses
Variation
Mono-hybrid

32

(Phenotype or Genotype)

Notes:
1)

People may have brown eyes, green eyes or blue eyes. The gene that
controls the development of eye colour exists in several different forms.
All the different forms of a gene are called alleles. So brown, green and
blue are alleles of the gene for eye colour.

2)

A phenotype is a characteristic you can see, such as black hair, an


upturned nose or the colour of a flower. A genotype is the set of genes
which produces a phenotype.

3)

The phenotype depends on the alleles of a gene present in the cells of an


organism. Every cell contains two alleles of each gene-one from each
parent. The phenotype they produce depends on whether the alleles are
dominant or recessive.

4)

In mice, B and b are alleles of the gene for coat colour. B produces a dark
coat and b a light coat. A male whose genotype is BB is crossed or mated
with a female whose genotype is bb. This involves a pair of dominant
crossed with a pair of recessive alleles, forming a monohybrid cross. The
young are called the first filial generation or F1.

5)

F1 mice have the genotype Bb and phenotype of dark coat because dark
coat is dominant over light coat.

6)

When F1, mice are mated to produce F2 generation, young with dark
coats are three times more likely than young with light coats. (3:1)

Review Questions
1)

In fruit flies, R gives red eyes and r gives white eyes. What is the
phenotype of these genotypes : a) RR ? b) Rr ? c) rr ?
______________________________________________________________

2)

In mice, B gives dark hair and b gives light hair. What are genotypes for
dark-haired mice?
______________________________________________________________

THEME:

4.9

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE

LeArning
Area

Heredity and V
ariation Determination of se
x
Variation
sex
chromosomes in humans

Notes:
1)

Every human cell has 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs of chromosomes.

2)

Among the chromosomes, there is a pair of chromosomes called the sex


chromosomes.

3)

This pair of sex chromosomes will determine the sex of the person.

4)

A female body cell has

5)

a)

22 pairs of chromosomes (44 chromosomes ), and

b)

a pairs of sex chromosomes X (XX)

A male body cell has


a)

22 pairs of chromosomes (44 chromosomes) and

b)

1 sex chromosome X and 1 sex chromosome Y (XY)

6)

Both the X chromosome and the Y chromosome are sex chromosomes.

7)

The X chromosome is long whereas the Y chromosome is short.

8)

The other 22 pairs chromosomes are called autosomes.

Review Questions
1)

Name the sex chromosome for males.


______________________________________________________________

2)

What is meant by autosome?


______________________________________________________________

3)

In man, the diploid number of chromosomes is _______________,


consisting of 22 pairs of _________________ plus a pair of
________________ (XX in the _____________ and XY in the
____________).

33

THEME:

4.10

LeArning
Area

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE


Heredity and V
ariation Se
x determination in
Variation
Sex

34

human beings

Notes:
1)

The sex of a child is determined during fertilisation.

2)

For human beings, fertilisation is the fusion of the sperm with the ovum or
egg to form a zygote which will develop into a child.

3)

During the process of fertilisation, the ovum is fertilised by the sperm


containing the X and Y chromosomes.

4)

If the ovum (with only X chromosomes) is fertilised by a sperm with the X


chromosome, the zygote formed will have XX chromosome and the baby
will be a girl.

5)

If the ovum is fertilized by a sperm with the Y chromosome, the zygote


formed will have the XY chromosome and the baby will be a boy.

6)

The sex of the baby is actually determined by the father as the sex is
determined by the type of sperm which fertilizes the ovum.

7)

If you are male, your cells have an X chromosome and a smaller Y


chromosome. If you are female, your cells have two X chromosomes.

8)

Since there are equal numbers of X and Y sperms, a child has an equal
chance of being a boy or a girl.

Review Questions
1)

What do XY zygotes develop into?


______________________________________________________________

2)

What do XX zygotes develop into?


______________________________________________________________

3)

Which chromosome determines a baby boy?


______________________________________________________________

4)

Why are there roughly equal numbers of boys and girls?


______________________________________________________________

THEME:

4.11

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE

LeArning
Area

Heredity and V
ariation Occurrence of identical and
Variation

35

non-identical twins

Notes:
1)

Twins are formed from one ovum or two different ova which are fertilised.

2)

There are two types of twins, identical and non-identical twins.

3)

Identical twins :
a.

One fertilised ovum splits into two to form two zygotes.

b.

Both foetus share the same placenta.

c.

They are alike in appearance and gender because they both have the
same genes.

d.

They are also alike physically and mentally, but they can be different
in their behaviour if they are brought up in different environments.

4)

If the zygotes are not totally split, Siamese twins are produced. Both the
babies are joined at some part of their body.

5)

Non-identical twins :a.

Two ova are released at the same time and fertilised by two different
sperms to form two separate zygotes.

b.

Both the foetus have individual placentas.

c.

They may be of the same sex (both boys or both girls) or of different
sex (a boy and a girl)

d.

Both are not similar in appearance because they have different genes.

Review Questions
1)

Why do identical twins have the same genes?


_______________________________________________________________

2)

Identical twins may not be of the same sex. Why?


_______________________________________________________________

3)

How are Siamese twins formed?


_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

4.12

LeArning
Area

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE


Heredity and V
ariation Comparison between
Variation

36

identical and non-identical twins

Notes:
1)

Identical twins are formed when one ovum is fertilised by one sperm. The
zygote splits into two. They share the same placenta and possess the
same genetic content or material. Both babies are either boys or girls.
They are difficult to be differentiated.

2)

Non-identical twins are produced when two ova are individually fertilised
by two sperms respectively. Both foetus have individual placentas. They
do not have the same genetic content. The offspring are either the same
or can be different. Can be easily distinguished.

3)

Development of a zygote in stages:


Zygote

Embrio
(0-2 months)

Foetus
(2-9 months)

Baby
(after
birth)

Children
(2-18 years)

Adults

Review Questions
1)

What are the differences between identical and non-identical twins?


_______________________________________________________________

2)

Draw a labelled diagram to show how identical twins are formed.

THEME:

4.13

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE

LeArning
Area

Heredity and V
ariation Chromosome mutation,
Variation

37

gene mutation ad their consequences

Notes:
Illness

Type of mutation

Specific features

Downs syndrome

Chromosome

One extra chromosome in a cell.


Low immunity and retarded.

Klinefelters syndrome

Chromosome

One extra chromosome in cell.


Small penis and testes.

Turners syndrome

Chromosome

One chromosome less in cell.


Women have no menses.

Albino

Genes

White skin and hair because


cannot produce the pigment,
melanin.

Sickle-cell anaemia

Genes

Low immunity and mental


retardation

Haemophilia

Genes

Blood from wounds or cuts


cannot clot.

Colour blindness

Genes

Cannot differentiate green and


red colour.

Review Questions
1)

What is mutation?
_______________________________________________________________

2)

3)

State one genetic sickness caused by gene mutation and one caused by
chromosome mutation.
a)

___________________________________________________________

b)

___________________________________________________________

Draw a labelled diagram to show the cause of Downs syndrome.

THEME:

4.14

LeArning
Area

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE


Heredity and V
ariation Continuous variation and
Variation

38

discontinuous variation

Notes:
1)

If a group of people are arranged in a line from the shortest to the tallest,
their heights show continuous variation. It varies from short to tall with
many small differences in between.

2)

Intelligence also shows continuous variation from the not so intelligent


students to the intelligent students.

3)

People can either roll their tongues or they cannot. This is an example of
discontinuous variation. You can either do it or you cannot. There is no in
between state.

4)

Blood groups show discontinuous variation. You belong to only one


group : A,B, AB, or O.

5)

Some people have cleft chins or pointed chins. You cannot have both.
You can either have a cleft chin or a pointed chin.

Review Questions
1)

Colour blindness shows discontinuous variation. What does this mean?


_______________________________________________________________

2)

What causes colour blindness?


_______________________________________________________________

3)

What is the difference between continuous variation and discontinuous


variation?
_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

5.1

NUCLEAR ENERGY

LeArning
Area

39

Radio active substances

Notes:
1)
2)

3)
4)

The nucleus of an atom that contains protons and neutrons held together
tightly in a stable condition.
Some materials contain atoms with unstable nuclei. In time, each nucleus
breaks up or rearranges itself. As it does so, it shoots out a tiny particle, a
burst of wave energy or both. The particles and waves radiate from the
nucleus so they are called nuclear radiation. The materials they come
from are radioactive substances.
In the Periodic Table, elements 83-105 are radioactive elements.
Some examples of radioactive elements :Element

5)
6)
7)

Atomic
Number

Number of
protons

Number
of neutrons

Mass
number

Carbon - 14

14

Cobalt - 60

27

27

33

60

Radium - 226

88

88

138

226

Iodine - 131

53

53

78

131

Uranium 238

92

92

146

238

Radioisotopes are isotopes which are radioactive eg. radio isotopes of


carbon, cobalt, iodine and uranium.
Isotopes are atoms which contain the same number of protons but a
different number of neutrons. eg. Uranium element has two isotopes ie.
Uranium 235 and Uranium 238.
Elements are a mixture of isotopes. In a radioactive material, it is
particular isotopes that are radioactive.

Review Questions
1)

Define the term radioactive substance.


_______________________________________________________________

2)

Why are radioactive substances dangerous?


_______________________________________________________________

3)

Why does the nucleus of an atom of a radioactive substance break up?


_______________________________________________________________

4)

What is nuclear radiation?


_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

5.2

LeArning
Area

NUCLEAR ENERGY

40

The Process of radioactive decay

Notes:
1)

Radioactive substances have very heavy atoms. This is because the


nucleus of their atoms have may protons and neutrons that are unstable.

2)

The break-up of unstable nucleus is called radioactive decay. The nucleus


releases radioactive rays to become more stable.

3)

Radioactive decay happens at random and is not affected by pressure,


temperature or chemical change.

4)

You cannot tell which nucleus is going to break up next or when.


However, some types of nuclei are more unstable than others and so
decay at a faster rate.

5)

The activity of a radioactive sample is the average number of nuclei


breaking up per second. For examples, Iodine 128 decays by shooting
out beta-particles. In a sample, 40 nuclei break up every second, then 40
beta particles are shot out every second, and the activity is 40 Bq
(becquerels-named after Henri Becquerel)

6)

Example of nuclear reaction :-

Review Questions
1)

What is the difference between carbon 12 and carbon 14?


Which element is radioactive?
______________________________________________________________

2)

Why does the nucleus of the radioactive atom decay?


_______________________________________________________________

3)

What is released during radioactive decay?


_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

5.3

LeArning
Area

NUCLEAR ENERGY
To compare and contrast the characteristics of
alpha, beta and gamma radiation.

41

Notes:
1)

There are three types of radioactive radiations, i.e.


a) alpha radiation consisting of particles which are positively charged
(+)
b) Beta radiation consisting of particles which are negatively charged ()
c) Gamma radiation, an electromagnetic radiation which is neutral or
has no charges.

2)

Radioactive radiation occurs during the decaying of the nuclei of the


radioactive substances.

3)

A radioactive substance can radiate one or more types of radioactive


radiation.

4)

Alpha rays cannot penetrate paper, beta rays can penetrate paper but not
aluminum, while gamma rays can penetrate paper and aluminum but not a
piece of lead, 1 metre thick.

5)

In the Geiger-Muller tube (GM tube), a rate meter gives a reading in counts
per second eg. if 50 alpha particles are detected by a GM tube every
second, the rate meter reads 50 counts per second. An electronic counter
counts the total number of particles or bursts of gamma radiation
detected by the tube. An amplifier and loud speaker makes a click when
each particle or burst of gamma radiation is detected.

Review Questions
1)

Name the radioactive radiation that has the greatest penetrating power.
_______________________________________________________________

2)

Why is the alpha ray deflected the least by a magnetic field compared to
the beta ray?
_______________________________________________________________

3)

State the characteristics of the three radioactive rays with regards to:a.

Radiation charge :
___________________________________________________________

b.

Penetrating power :
___________________________________________________________

THEME:

5.4

LeArning
Area

NUCLEAR ENERGY

42

Nuclear fission and nuclear power station

Notes:
1.

2.

a)

The nucleus in the atom of a radioactive substance will split


spontaneously to become stable.

b)

This splitting process can be hastened by hitting the nucleus with a


particle possessing great energy eg. Alpha particle, proton and
neutron.

c)

This splitting is called fission of the nucleus.

d)

Two new nuclei and two or three neutrons together with radioactive
radiation and abundant nuclear energy are produced.

a)

Nuclear energy is alternative energy and can be produced in a


reactor.

b)

Fission of the nucleus is carried out in a reactor and production of


nuclear energy is controlled.

c)

Nuclear energy is used to run submarines, satellites and to generate


electricity.

d) Most of the nuclear energy is used to generate electricity.


e) In the nuclear reactor, heat energy from the chain reaction is used to
heat water to produce steam. The steam produced turns turbines and
dynamos to generate electrical energy.

Review Questions
1)

What is the role of the neutron in the fission of uranium?


_______________________________________________________________

2)

Why is a nuclear reactor room surrounded by a thick concrete wall?


_______________________________________________________________

3)

4)

State two uses of nuclear energy


a)

___________________________________________________________

b)

___________________________________________________________

Name three important components in a nuclear power station.


_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

5.5

LeArning
Area

NUCLEAR ENERGY

43

Production of nuclear energy through fusion

Notes:
1)

Fusion is joining very light nuclei together to form heavier ones and
energy is released.

2)

Scientists and engineers are trying to design fusion reactors but the
problems are immense. Hydrogen must be heated to at least 40 million
degrees Celsius and kept hot and compressed, otherwise fusion stops.
No ordinary container can hold a super hot gas like this, so scientists are
developing reactors that trap the reacting nuclei in a magnetic field.

3)

The magnetic containment vessel is called a tokamak, used to investigate


fusion.

4)

Fusion reactors have built-in safety. If the system fails, fusion stops. Their
hydrogen fuel can be extracted from sea water. Their main waste product,
helium, is not radioactive.

5)

Deep down in the core of the sun, the heat output and huge gravitational
pull keep the hydrogen hot enough and compressed enough to maintain
fusion. The sun has enough hydrogen left to keep it shining for another 6
billion years.

Review Questions
1)

How does the sun get its energy? What fuel does it use?
_______________________________________________________________

2)

Why is fusion difficult to achieve?


_______________________________________________________________

3)

What is the use of a tokamak?


_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

5.6

LeArning
Area

NUCLEAR ENERGY

44

Uses of radio active substances

Notes:
1.

a)

b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

Using traces :- To check whether a patients thyroid gland is taking in


iodine properly. The patient drinks a liquid containing Iodine-123, a
gamma emitter, and a detector measures the activity to find out how
quickly iodine becomes concentrated in the gland.
- To detect leaks in underground pipes by adding a tracer to the fluid
in the pipe.
Radiotherapy Gamma rays can penetrate deep into the body and kill
living cells, so a highly concentrated beam from a cobalt-60 source
can be used to kill cancer cells.
Monitoring thickness In some production processes, it is important
to keep a steady thickness of material. eg. the production of tyre cord.
Beta radiation is used to detect the thickness.
Testing for cracks Gamma rays are like x-rays. They can be used to
photograph metals to show cracks. A cobalt-60 gamma source does
not need an electrical power source.
Dating rocks When rocks are formed, some radioisotopes become
trapped in them, but as time goes by, the radioactivity slowly dies
away. This can be used to estimate the age of the rock.
Carbon dating- All living things absorb and give out carbon as they
feed and breathe. When they die, no more carbon is taken in and the
proportion of carbon-14 reduces because of radioactive decay. By
measuring the activity of a sample, the age of remains can be
estimated.

Review Questions
1.

Give two medical uses of radioactive substances.


_______________________________________________________________

2.

Name two uses of gamma radiation.


_______________________________________________________________

3.

How is phosphorus 32 used in the agricultural and medical fields?


_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

5.7

LeArning
Area

NUCLEAR ENERGY

45

Effects of the usage of radio active substances

Notes:
1.

Because of its ionizing effect, nuclear radiation can damage and destroy
living cells.

2.

It can stop vital organs in the body from working property and can cause
cancer.

3.

The stronger the radiation, and the longer the exposure time, the greater
the risk.

4.

Dangers from inside the body :- Radio active gas and dust are especially
dangerous because they can be taken into the body with air, food and
drink. Once absorbed, they are difficult to remove and their radiation can
cause damage in cells deep in the body. Alpha radiation is the most
harmful as it is the most highly ionizing.

5.

Dangers from outside the body :- There is less risk from radioactive
sources outside the body. Sources in nuclear power stations and
laboratories are well-shielded, and their radiation weakens as you move
further away. Beta and gamma rays are the most dangerous as they can
penetrate to internal organs while alpha particles are stopped by the skin.

6.

Background radiation:- We are exposed to a small amount of radiation all


the time because of radioactive materials in our surroundings. This is
called background radiation. It mainly comes from natural sources such
as soil, rocks, air, building materials, food, drink and even space.

7.

Radiation is one cause of mutations (changes) in DNA. Most mutations


are harmful but some are useful. Without mutations, ancient fish with
scales would never have evolved into animals with fur or feathers, and we
would not be here too!

Review Questions
1.

State the effect of radioactive rays to a person who has been exposed for
a long period of time.
_______________________________________________________________

2.

Which is the most dangerous type of radiation from radioactive materials


absorbed by the body?
Why?
_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

5.8

LeArning
Area

NUCLEAR ENERGY

46

Nuclear Disaster

Notes:
1.

The disaster at Chernobyl nuclear power station caused more than 25000
people to be evacuated from their homes. Days later, the radioactive
cloud has spread as far as Scotland. Its radiation was weak but, all over
Europe radioactive rain was falling. In some areas, people were advised
not to eat fresh vegetables or drink fresh milk, and the sale of meat was
banned. The Chernobyl accident was the worlds worst nuclear accident.

2.

In Britain, people were convinced that all nuclear power stations should
be shut down, but the company running the power station does not agree
claiming that the kind of accident in Chernobyl cannot happen in Britain
as their reactors are of a much safer design. Fever deaths are caused by
the use of nuclear fuel than by mining for coal or drilling for oil and gas.
Nuclear accidents in Britain were rare compared with other types of
accidents such as air crashes, fires or dam collapses. More nuclear power
stations are essential because the worlds supplies of oil, coal and natural
gas are running out. Britain nuclear waste is piling up and it is going to be
radioactive for hundreds of years, so the search for sites to dump nuclear
waste is still going on.

Review Questions
1.

After the Chernobyl nuclear disaster, scientists are still concerned about
the health risks. Can you explain why?
_______________________________________________________________

2.

Radiation can help keep fruit fresh as the day they were picked. How is
this done?
_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

6.1

ENERGY IN LIFE

LeArning
Area

47

Energy and Chemical Changes Physical Changes

Notes:
1)
2)
3)

4)
5)

A physical change is not accompanied by any marked external effect.


The chemical properties of the substance remain unchanged and no new
substances are formed.
A physical change may involve a change in
a) colour
b) appearance
c) rate of dissolving
d) boiling point
e) melting and freezing points
f) density
The physical change is not permanent and is easily reversible.
Examples of physical changes:
heated
a) melting
: ice
water
b) boiling
: water heated
steam
heated

c)

sublimation

: ammonium chloride
chloride fumes

d)

Freezing

: water

e)

Solubility

: Sugar + water
substance formed)

f)

Crystallisation : Saturated copper sulphate solution


sulphate crystals

cooled

ammonium

ice
Sugar solution (no new
copper

Review Questions
1)

Sea water is evaporated to obtain common salt. Was a chemical change


or a physical change involved? Explain.
_______________________________________________________________

2)

3)

Name two chemical substances that undergo the process of sublimation


when they are heated
a)

___________________________________________________________

b)

___________________________________________________________

9) the statements that describe a physical change


Tick (9
a) Burning of coal
b) Melting of candle wax
c) Rusting of iron
d) Melting of ice
e) Boiling of water
f) Mixing of iron filings and sulphur.

(
(
(
(
(
(

)
)
)
)
)
)

THEME:

6.2

LeArning
Area

ENERGY IN LIFE

48

Energy and Chemical Changes Chemical


Changes

Notes:
1)

A chemical change occurs when two or more substances react to form a


new substance.

2)

The new substance does not have the same properties or characteristics
as the original components.

3)

During a chemical change, heat and light energy are sometimes released.

4)

The chemical change is permanent and cannot easily be recovered. It can


only be recovered by chemical means eg. electrolysis.

5)

The chemical reaction can be fast or slow.

6)

Burning of a piece of paper in the air forms carbon or ash and is


considered a fast reaction.

7)

Rusting of an iron nail in moist air is an example of a slow chemical


reaction.

Review Questions
1)

Why are the following reactions considered chemical changes?


a)

A little dilute hydrochloric acid is added to a few pieces of lime stone.


___________________________________________________________

b)

The burning of a candle in air.


___________________________________________________________

c)

A glass of milk is left on a table for a week.


___________________________________________________________

2)

Copper carbonate is strongly heated until there is no more reaction. State


two characteristics of the substance left behind after the chemical
reaction.
a)

___________________________________________________________

b)

___________________________________________________________

THEME:

6.3

LeArning
Area

ENERGY IN LIFE

49

Energy and Chemical Changes Compare and


contrast physical and chemical changes and e
xamples
examples
of physical and chemical changes in our daily lives

Notes:
1)

Examples of physical change:


a) heating of a metal wire by electricity
b) making a cup of tea using tea leaves
c) Making syrup solution
d) Mixing oil with water
e) A mixture of concrete
f) Soil is a mixture of air, sand, stones, clay, mud and humus
g) Coffee powder and hot water to make a cup of coffee.
h) Curry powder a mixture of salt, chilli powder and spices
i) Evaporation of sweat
j) Sublimation of moth-balls

2)

Examples of chemical change:


a) Burning of any substance in air.
b) Slaking of lime
c) Explosion of coal-gas
d) Heating of sulphur and iron filings
e) Neutralisation of an acid and an alkali
f) Burning of a mosquito coil
g) Digestion of food
h) Lightning

Review Questions
1)

From a burnt matchstick, can the original matchstick be recovered?


Explain.
_______________________________________________________________

2)

Pure salt can be obtained from sea water. Is the process a chemical or
physical change? Explain.
_______________________________________________________________

3)

Fine sand and pebbles form a _____________ which can be separated into
their original components by ____________.

THEME:

6.4

LeArning
Area

ENERGY IN LIFE
Energy and Chemical Changes Ex
othermic and
Exothermic
endothermic reaction

50

Notes:
1)

In most chemical reactions, there is an energy change. Energy is taken in


or given out, often in the form of heat. So, reactions are divided into two
groups, exothermic and endothermic. (therm is the Greek word for heat).

2)

Exothermic reactions:
a) These reactions give out heat to the surroundings. Exo means
out. This can be summarised as:
Reactants
products + heat energy
b) If overall, a reaction gives out energy, it means the products have less
energy than the reactants.
c) Examples of exothermic reactions:
(i) neutralisation of an acid by an alkali
(ii) combustion of fuels
(iii) respiration in your body cells

3)

Endothermic reactions:
a) these reactions take in heat energy Endo means in. The heat
energy is transferred from the surroundings
reactants + heat energy
products
b) The products have more energy than the reactants. The reactants
must climb the energy gap for the reactions to go ahead, so they steal
energy from the surroundings.
c) Examples: (i) Takes place within food during cooking.
(ii) Photosynthesis takes in energy from sun light
(iii) Electrolysis energy provided is in the form of
electricity.

4)

Unit for energy is the joule.

Review Questions
1)

2)

Are the following exothermic or endothermic?


a)

the burning of a candle: _______________________________________

b)

the reaction between sodium and water: _________________________

c)

the change from raw egg to scrambled eggs: _____________________

d)

respiration in our body: _______________________________________

What unit is used to measure energy?


_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

6.5

LeArning
Area

ENERGY IN LIFE
Energy and Chemical Changes Ex
othermic and
Exothermic
endothermic reactions

51

Notes:
1)

2)

3)

Haber process for making ammonia


a) Ammonia is one of the worlds top chemicals because it is needed to
make fertilisers. Nitrogen is not very reactive and its reaction with
hydrogen is reversible. Fritz Haber, a German chemist, developed a
process using nitrogen in the air to make ammonia.
b) The raw materials required are nitrogen, hydrogen usually made from
natural gas or methane and water (as steam). Water and air are easily
obtained. Ammonia plants are usually near natural gas terminals or
oil refineries for easy access to methane or natural gas.
exothermic
Nitrogen + hydrogen
ammonia + heat energy
endothermic
Ostwald process for manufacturing nitric acid
a) Ammonia gas and hot air are passed over a catalyst, platinum, for
ammonia to react with oxygen to produce nitrogen oxide.
b) The great heat from this reaction supplies very high temperatures for
nitrogen oxide to combine with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide.
c) Nitrogen dioxide reacts with water to form nitric acid
d) Uses of nitric acid: to make fertilisers
to make explosives
to make medicine
Manufacturing sulphuric acid
a) Sulfur + oxygen Sulphur dioxide
exothermic
Sulphur dioxide + oxygen
Sulphur trioxide + heat energy
endothermic
b)

Factors that influence manufacturing of sulphuric acid:


(i) Catalyst Vanadium pentoxide to convert sulphur dioxide into
sulphur trioxide
(ii) Temperature production of sulphur trioxide results in high heat
energy which causes the sulphur trioxide to split into sulphur
dioxide and oxygen.
(iii) Pressure 1-2 atmosphere is required.

Review Questions
1)

Define exothermic reaction.


_______________________________________________________________

2)

3)

What is the purpose of iron granules in the Haber process for


manufacturing ammonia?
_______________________________________________________________
Ammonia + (
Fill in the equation: Nitrogen + (
)
).

THEME:

6.6

LeArning
Area

ENERGY IN LIFE
Energy and Chemical Changes Reactivity series
of metals with water and acids

52

Notes:
1

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

a)
b)

c)
d)

e)

Some active metals react with water to form hydrogen and an alkali (a
hydroxide). This is an exothermic reaction (heat is released)
Active metal + water
hydrogen + alkali
Some metals react even quicker with cold water. When potassium reacts
with cold water, the reaction is very fast and the gas it gives off burns.
When a hydroxide dissolves in water, an alkali is formed.
A word equation for the reaction of a metal with water.
Metal + water
metal hydroxide + hydrogen
Magnesium is a metal but it does not react with cold water. It reacts
slowly in hot water.
When a metal reacts with an acid, hydrogen gas and a salt are always
formed.
The reaction is exothermic as heat is given out.
This reaction is also known as displacement because the metal displaces
the hydrogen from the acid.
The salt produced is obtained if the water in the salt solution is
evaporated.
Active metals react very actively with dilute acids compared to less
reactive metals.
Word equation: metal + dilute acid
hydrogen + salt.
eg.
(i) magnesium + dilute hydrochloric acid
hydrogen +
magnesium chloride (salt)
(ii) iron + dilute hydrochloric acid
hydrogen + iron
chloride (salt)
(iii) zinc + dilute sulphuric acid
hydrogen + zinc sulphate
(salt)
(iv) calcium + dilute sulphuric acid
hydrogen + calcium
sulphate (salt)
Potassium and sodium will react with dilute acid to produce an
explosion.

Review Questions
1)

Name two metals that are less dense than water?


_______________________________________________________________

2)

Why is sodium kept below the surface of paraffin?


_______________________________________________________________

3)

Name two metals which are a) very reactive b) not reactive


_______________________________________________________________

4)

Arrange the following metals according to a descending order of reactivity:


copper, magnesium, sodium, zinc and lead.
_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

6.7

LeArning
Area

ENERGY IN LIFE
Energy and Chemical Changes Reactivity series
of metals with o
xygen and arrangement of metals
oxygen
in order of reactivity

53

Notes:
1.

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)

2.

a)
b)

3.

a)
b)
c)

Metals react with oxygen to form oxides of metals or metallic oxides.


Metal + oxygen
metallic oxide
Many metallic oxides are whte in colour eg. potassium oxide, sodium
oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide and aluminium oxide.
Zinc oxide is white when it is cold but changes to yellow when it is
heated.
Iron oxide (rust) is brown, lead (ll) oxide is yellow and copper oxide is
black.
When the oxide of a metal reacts with water, an alkali is formed.
The degree of reactivity of a metal can be defined on its reaction with
oxygen. The very reactive metal burns with a very bright flame to form
an oxide eg. sodium and potassium.
Some not reactive metals such as platinum and gold do not react with
oxygen even though they are strongly heated.
In the reactivity series, the higher a metal is placed, the more active it is
and it reacts very easily with oxygen.
The reactivity series is obtained based also on the metals reactivity
with water as well as dilute acids.
Although carbon is not a metal, it reacts readily with oxygen to form
carbon dixide gas.
Carbon + oxygen
carbon dioxide
That is the reason why carbon is included in the reactivity series, placed
between aluminuim and zinc.
This means that carbon cannot displace aluminium from aluminium
oxide but can displace zinc from zinc oxide.
carbon + zinc oxide
zinc + carbon dioxide

Review Questions
1.

Roslan finds a piece of shiny metal but he is not sure whether the metal is
silver or aluminum. How can he test the metal to help him identify what
metal it is?
_______________________________________________________________

2.

The Earths crust has many types of metallic oxides. Explain.


_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

6.8

LeArning
Area

ENERGY IN LIFE
Energy and Chemical Changes Process and
products of electrolysis of an electrolyte using
carbon electrodes

54

Notes:
1)

Electrolysis is a process of splitting a chemical compund by an electric


current into its elements or it can be defined as the chemical decomposition
of an electrolyte by an electric current.
2) Many liquids such as sea-water, vinegar, and copper sulphate solution allow
electricity to pass through them and these liquids are called electrolytes.
3) The two wires or plates through which current enters or leaves the electrolyte
are called electrodes, usually carbon or platinum rods.
4) When an electric current passes acidified water (the electrolyte), the water
is broken down into hydrogen and oxygen. This shows that the flow of
electricity produces a chemical reaction which decomposes water.
5) The positive electrode is called the anode while the negative electrode is
called the cathode.
6) The anode is connected to the positive terminal of the battery while the
cathode is connected to the negative terminal of the battery.
7) An electrolysis cell is made up of the electrodes, the electrolyte, the cathode,
anode and the battery.
8) During electrolysis, positive ions (cation) will move towards the cathode
while negative ions (anion) will move to the anode.
Atom electron
cation
Atom + electron
anion
9) The flow of cation and anion causes an electric current
10) In the eletrolysis process, electrons flow into the electrolyte through the
cathode and flows out through the anode.

Review Questions
1)

State the difference between


a) electrolysis and electrolyte,
b) anode and cathode, and
c) cation and anion?
_______________________________________________________________

2)

Why is oil not considered an electrolyte?


_______________________________________________________________

3)

For the electrolysis of molten lead bromide,


a) what happens at the positive electrode?
___________________________________________________________
b)

what happens at the negative electrode?


___________________________________________________________

THEME:

6.9

LeArning
Area

ENERGY IN LIFE
Energy and Chemical Changes Uses of
electrolysis e
xtraction of a metal, purification of
extraction
a metal and electroplating

55

Notes:
1.

a)
b)
c)

d)

Reactive metals such as potassium, sodium, calcium and aluminium


can be extracted from their ores respectively by electrolysis.
Aluminium can be extracted from its ore aluminium oxide by electrolysis.
Aluminium oxide exists in its natural state as bauxite.
In electrolysis to extract aluminium, solid bauxite is melted down to
form aluminium ions and oxide ions.
(Bauuxite is mixed with cryolite to lower its melting point to reduce the
cost of the extraction of aluminium)
Positive aluminium ions (cation) will coat the cathode.
Negative oxide ions (anion) are attracted to the anode.
The oxide becomes oxygen and is released at the anode.
Oxide ions
oxide atoms + electrons
(at anode)
Oxygen atoms + Oxygen atoms
Oxygen molecules (gas)
Aluminium oxide

2.

a)
b)
c)
d)

e)
3.

a)
b)
c)
d)

electrolysis

Aluminium+oxygen

Electrolysis can purify some metals from their ores.


Pure copper is set up as the negative cathode and impure copper as the
positive anode.
Copper (ll) sulphate is used as the electrolyte.
At the cathode: Copper ions + electron
Copper atom
At the anode : Copper atom electron
coppper ions
The copper ions dissolve in the copper (ll) sulphate solution to replace
the copper ions that coat the cathode.
The solution remains unchanged as the quantity of copper ions in the
solution is always constant.
Electroplating can coat a layer of metal with another metal. This is done
to prevent the metal being coated from rusting or erosion.
To coat a nickel jug with silver, you can set up an electrolysis with the
jug as the negative electrode and silver foil as the positive electrode in
a solution of silver nitrate.
Car bumpers can be electroplated with chromium to make them look
good and to protect them from rust.
Steel is plated with tin to make tins for food.

Review Questions
1.

For each of the following metal, state its ore and the method of its extraction:
a) Aluminium
b) Iron
c) Copper
d) gold
_______________________________________________________________

2.

Why it is necessary to obtain very pure copper?


_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

6.10

ENERGY IN LIFE

LeArning
Area

Energy and Chemical Changes Production of


electrical energy from chemical reactions

56

Notes:
Comparison
Alkaline battery

Silver oxide mercury


battery

Nickel Cadmium battery

1.

Cannot be charged

Cannot be charged

Can be charged

2.

Long-lasting and supply


strong electric current

Long-lasting, small as a
button

Long-lasting, expensive

3.

Used in torch-lights and


radios

Used in cameras and


hearing aids

Used in handphones and


emergency lights

4.

Carbon positive terminal

Positive terminal- silver


oxide or mercury oxide

Positive terminal- nickel


oxide

5.

Negative terminal-zinc

Negative terminal-zinc

Negative terminal
cadmium

6.

Electrolyte- sodium
hydroxide or potassium
hydroxide

Electrolyte- potassium
hydroxide

Electrolyte potassium
hydroxide

Disadvantanges, advantanges and uses


Other batteries

Advantanges / Disadvantages

Uses

Lithium ion battery

Light
Can be recharged
Strong electric current
Expensive

Handphone,
Hearing aids

Nickel-metylhydrate

Light
Can be recharged
Does not pollute the environment
Expensive

Camera

Fuel cell (hydrogen-oxygen)

No sound or thermal pollution

Satellites

Air cell

Can be recharged

Camera

Review Questions
1)

Name three chemicals that can be used as electrolytes in a simple cell.


_______________________________________________________________

2)

Define the terms: a)

dry cell:____________________________________

b)

simple cell:_________________________________

THEME:

6.11

LeArning
Area

ENERGY IN LIFE
Energy and Chemical Changes Chemical
reactions that occur in the present of light

57

Notes:
1.

a)
a)
c)

d)
2.

a)

a)
b)

Photosynthesis is a process when plants with green leaves use


carbon dioxide and water to produce glucose and oxygen in sunlight.
Photosynthesis is the only natural process that increases oxygen and
gets rid of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Photosynthesis regulates the percentage of oxygen and carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere.
Photosynthesis is the process that enables green plants to
synthesise its own food.
Photosynthesis is the only process that can convert light energy into
chemical energy.
Films and photographic paper have a coating of silver chloride,
bromide or iodine in gelatine. Where the light strikes it, the silver
compound decomposes, giving a dark image. The rest is washed
away during processing. This is an example of photochemical
reaction.
light
Silver chloride
silver (purplish grey) + chlorine
(white)
Light decomposes liquid chlorine into oxygen and hydrochloric acid.
Sodium hypochlorite also decomposes in the presence of sunlight
into sodium chloride and oxygen.
Sodium hypochlorite

light

sodium chloride + oxygen

Sodium hypochlorite is a disinfectant and a bleaching agent.

Review Questions
1)

State the conditions necessary for photosynthesis.


_______________________________________________________________

2)

What happens if photographic paper is exposed to light?


_______________________________________________________________

3)

Compare the effect of sodium hypochlorite solution on litmus paper


before and after the solution is exposed to strong sunlight.
_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

7.1

LeArning
Area

ENERGY IN LIFE
Light, Colour and Sight Images formed
by a plane mirror

Notes:
1)

Incident ray is the ray that strikes the surface of the plane mirror.

2)

Reflected ray is the ray that is reflected by the plane mirror.

3)

The normal is the line which is perpendicular to the surface of the plane
mirror.

4)

The angle of incidence is the angle between the incident ray and the
perpendicular normal.

5)

The angle of reflection is the angle between the perpendicular normal and
the reflected ray.

6)

Characteristics of the image in a plane mirror:a)

virtual image of an object cannot be formed on a screen.

b)

Upright.

c)

Laterally inverted your right hand will appear as your left hand, the
image is reversed.

d)

Image is of the same size as the object.

e)

The image in a plane mirror is of the same distance behind the mirror
as the object is infront of it.

Review Questions
1)

Define the following:

2)

A girl stands 10 metres in front of a flat, large mirror.


a)

a)
a)

virtual
laterally inverted:

How far away is she from her image?


___________________________________________________________

b)

How far must she walk to be 5 m away from her image?


___________________________________________________________

58

THEME:

7.2

ENERGY IN LIFE

LeArning
Area

Light, Colour and Sight F


ormation and
Formation
Characteristics of image by light rays passing
through a conve
x and a concave lens
convex

59

Notes:
1)

If three parallel rays pass through a convex or converging lens, the light
ray passing the centre of the lens and perpendicular to the curved surface
is the principle axis.

2)

The other two rays pass through the convex lens and after touching the
middle portion of the lens, AB, will bend and converge at a single point,
the focal point.

3)

The optical centre is the centre of a lens.

4)

The principle axis will intersect with the centre of the curved surfaces of
the convex lens at a point called the optical centre or the principle axis is
the line that joins the two centres of its curved surfaces.

5)

The distance from the optical centre to the focal point is the focal length.

6)

The image formed by light rays passing a convex lens is real, inverted but
smaller than the object.

7)

For a concave lens, the light rays passing through it will diverge or spread
out to meet at a focal point in front of the lens. The image formed is
virtual, upright and smaller than the object.

Review Questions
1)

Images formed by a converging lens are ________, _______ than the


object itself and _____________.

2)

Diverging rays of a _________ lens produce images that are


_____________, ______________ and ____________ than the object itself.

3)

Define the following terms:


a) principle axis

: ___________________________________________

b) focal point

: ___________________________________________

c) optical centre : ___________________________________________


d) focal length

: ___________________________________________

THEME:

7.3

LeArning
Area

ENERGY IN LIFE
Light, Colour and Sight A lens camera and a
pin-hole camera

60

Notes:
1)

2)

The lens camera:


a) light proof casing to store the film and prevents light from being
reflected within the camera.
b) Shutter speed the shorter the time, the lesser the light that enters
the camera.
c) Aperture allows light to enter the camera, its size is controlled by
the aperture diaphragm.
d) Diaphragm controls the size of the aperture, therefore controls the
amount of light that enters the camera.
e) Focusing device moves the lens forward and backward to focus the
image on the film.
f) Lens forms an image of the object on the film, it is moved backward
to focus on far objects and it is moved forward to focus on near
objects. The convex lens focuses light from everywhere onto the
photographic film. To get a sharp image of distant objects, the image
distance is decreased by moving the converging lens closer to the
film until the image distance is equal to the focal length of the lens.
The pin-hole camera:
a) The pin-hole camera functions on the principle that light travels in a
straight line.
b) Image becomes smaller if the object is placed further from the pinhole camera.
c) The image is inverted showing that light travels in a straight line.
d) The image formed at the back of a pin-hole camera is dim. To use
such a camera for taking pictures you would need an exposure time
of 5 10 minutes in bright out door conditions.
e) To obtain a sharp image, a convex or converging lens is placed in the
pin-hole. The lens will focus light rays falling on it to form a sharp
image.

Review Questions
1)
2)

3)

Which part of a lens camera controls the amount of light that enters it?
______________________________________________________________
a) For the given pin-hole camera, draw the
light rays to show the image formed?
b) What happens to the image if
i) the pin-hole is enlarged?
ii) the camera is moved closer to the
object?
For the 3 pin-holes in a pin-hole camera, draw
the image obtained of object Y in the pin-hole
camera.

THEME:

7.4

ENERGY IN LIFE

LeArning
Area

Formation of images in a periscope


and a telescope

61

Notes:
1)
2)
3)

4)
5)
6)
7)

8)

A periscope is used to see over the tops of things.


A periscope functions according to the principle that light is reflected by a
plane mirror or a glass prism.
Plane mirror periscope
Prism periscope

A plane mirror in a periscope can be replaced with a glass prism.


Periscopes can be used in submarines to look out for enemy ships, to see
over a crowd, to see over a wall or for soldiers in their fort to look for their
enemies.
Telescopes are used to make distant objects like planets and stars to look
much bigger.
Most astronomical telescopes are called reflecting telescopes because
they use a large mirror to collect and concentrate the light rays to make
an image. The second mirror reflects the light onto the eyepiece lens. The
image can be seen through the eye piece lens and recorded with a camera
or measured with electronic equipment. The largest mirrors are more than
5 metres across.
In a refracting telescope, two lenses refract or bend the light rays. A large
lens at the front collects and focuses the faint light. A smaller eyepiece
lens makes the image larger so it can be seen more clearly.

Review Questions
1)

The image formed in a telescope is ___________, ___________ and


___________.

2)

The objective lens in a telescope is a __________ lens with a ___________


focal length, while the eyepiece lens is a ___________ lens with a
___________ focal length.

3)

The image that is formed by the objective lens of the telescope is


___________, ___________ and laterally inverted.

4)

A periscope ___________ light from the object to the ___________.

THEME:

7.5

LeArning
Area

ENERGY OF LIFE
Similarities and differences between a camera
and a human eye

62

Notes:
1)

Similarities
a) Both sclera and camera case are light-tight boxes with a protective
function.
b) The choroids and black paint serve to absorb light and prevent
reflection.
c) The pupil and aperture are both holes for allowing light to enter.
d) The iris and the iris diaphragm are both used to control the amount of
light that enters.
e) The lens are used to focus light that enters.
f) Both the retina and the photographic film are sensitive to light.
g) The yellowish colour of the lens and the yellow filter serve as filters
for cutting off too much light from the blue end of the spectrum.

2)

Differences
a) The human eye is filled with liquid and jelly vitreous humour. The
camera is filled with air.
b) The lens of the human eye is elastic and transparent with variable
focal length. The glass lens of the camera is transparent with a fixed
focal length.
c) Focusing in a human eye is achieved by changing the shape of the
lens becoming thinner and longer or thicker and shorter. This alters
the focal length from the lens. The focusing in a camera is achieved
by moving the lens towards or away from the film. (or moving the lens
forward or backward).
d) The amount of light that enters the eye is controlled by the iris that
controls the size of the pupil. The amount of light that enters the
camera is controlled by the shutter and diaphragm which control the
size of the aperture.

Review Questions
1)

A person looks at a faraway hill. Then, he reads the newspapers. What


happen to his pupils?
_______________________________________________________________

2)

The thicker the convex lens, the _____________ is its focal length.
_______________________________________________________________

3)

How do you focus a lens camera on distant objects?


_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

7.6

LeArning
Area

ENERGY OF LIFE

63

Dispersion of light

Notes:
1)

When light passes from one transparent substance, such as air, to


another, such as glass, it appears to bend where the two substances
meet. This bending is called refraction.

2)

Refraction happens because light travels at different speeds in different


mediums.

3)

In air, light travels at about 300 000 kilometres per second. Water is a
denser medium than air. When light travels through water, its speed is
slowed down to about 223 000 kilometres per second. Glass is even
denser than water so the speed of light through glass is even slower,
about 200 000 kilometres per second.

4)

A prism is a triangular flat sided block of clear glass or plastic. As a


beam of light enters a prism, it slows down because light travels more
slowly through glass or plastic, but not all the colours in white light slow
down by the same amount.

5)

Those colours with shorter waves slow down more than the colours with
longer waves. This causes the colours to separate into a spectrum. This
splitting of white light is called dispersal of light.

6)

Red light, with longer waves, slows down the least, so it bends or refracts
the least. Violet light, with the shortest waves, slows down the most, so it
refracts the most.

7)

During a light rainstorm, millions of raindrops act as tiny prisms to break


up sunlight into its spectrum of seven colours red, orange, yellow,
green, blue, indigo and violet.

Review Questions
1)

Define the meaning of light dispersal.


_______________________________________________________________

2)

Why does white light disperse into a spectrum when it passes through a
glass prism?
_______________________________________________________________

3)

State two processes that involve raindrops in the formation of a rainbow.


_______________________________________________________________

4)

State two conditions necessary for the formation of a rainbow.


_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

7.7

ENERGY OF LIFE

LeArning
Area

64

Primar
y and secondar
y colours and coloured filters
Primary
secondary

Notes:
1)

The three primary colours are red, blue and green. White light and other coloured lights
can be obtained by mixing the primary colours of light.

2)

Cyan, yellow and magenta are the secondary colours of light. They are produced by
mixing two of the three primary colours. Mixing all the three primary colours of light
produces white light.

3)

Light filters are materials that allow only certain colours to pass through them.

4)

The colour of the filter depends on the colour of the light that it allows to pass through.

5)

Subtraction of coloured light occurs when coloured lights are absorbed or reflected by
the filters.

6)

Addition of coloured lights such as red, green and blue produces other colours
(secondary colours) when mixed in the correct strength.
Green + red = yellow
Red + blue = magenta
Blue + green = Cyan

7)

Yellow + blue = white


Magenta + green = white
Cyan + red = white

Primary filters and secondary filters and white light.

First
filter

Second
filter

Colour that
passes through

Blue
Green
Red
Cyan
Magenta
Yellow
Blue

Green
Red
Yellow
Magenta
Cyan

Blue
Green
Red
Cyan
Magenta
Yellow
None
None
None
Blue
Blue

First
filter

Second
filter

Colour that
passes through

Green

Blue
Red
Magenta
Yellow
Cyan

None
None
None
Green
Green

Red

Blue
Green
Cyan
Yellow
Magenta

None
None
None
Red
Red

Review Questions
1)

Fill in the blanks:


a)

When you send white light through a red filter, it will come out ___________.

b)

Filters let some colours of light pass through but ________ other colours.

c)

Milk __________ all the colours, so it appears __________.

d)

Magenta is considered a secondary colour because


_______________________________________________________________

2)

What is the function of a colour filter?


_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

7.8

LeArning
Area

ENERGY OF LIFE
Appearance of coloured objects under white
and coloured lights

65

Notes:
1)
2)

3)
4)

5)
6)

We live in a colourful world because our eyes can detect the colours of
light emitted (given out) or reflected from the objects around us.
The retina that lines the inside of the human eye contains receptors that
are sensitive to three different colours and give us our colour vision. The
three colours that can be detected by the colour vision receptors in our
eyes are green, blue and red.
Primary colours red, green and blue reflect the colour themselves and
absorb all the other colours of white light.
An opaque and non-luminous object appears a certain colour because it
reflects that colour of light into our eyes. A red letterbox appears red in
white light because it reflects red light and absorbs all the other colours
of white light.
The black words in a book appear black because they absorb all the
colours in white light and do not reflect any light.
Our eye are best at receiving green light, the most common colour in
nature. Green plants reflect green light and absorb all the other colours in
white light. If a green leaf is placed under yellow light, it will appear green
because yellow light is a mixture of red and green light. The green leaf
reflects the green light which makes up the yellow light, but absorbs the
red light. The leaf under cyan light will appear green but under magenta
light, the green leaf will appear black.

Review Questions
1)

The diagram shows two torchlights using red and cyan filters.
a) State the colour seen at
X: ________________________________
Y: ________________________________
Z: ________________________________
b)
c)
d)
e)

f)

Which of the colours in X, Y can Z are secondary colours?


__________________________________________________________
Explain your answer for (b)
___________________________________________________________
If a blue filter is placed in front of the cyan filter, what colours would
appear in the following areas? Y: ___________ Z:_____________
A red flower and a blue flower is viewed through a yellow filter. What
will the colour of the flowers appear to be?
(i) Red flower: ________________ (ii) Blue flower: _________
Name one use of filters in our daily life.
__________________________________________________________

THEME:

7.9

LeArning
Area

ENERGY OF LIFE
Light, colour and sight Impor
tance
Importance
of colour in daily life

66

Notes:
1)

2)
3)
4)

5)

6)
7)
8)

A three-pin plug consists of three different types of wires insulated by


different coloured plastic-brown, blue, green and yellow.
a) The brown insulated live wire carries electricity from the power
station to the electrical appliance.
b) The green and yellow insulated earth wire is for safety to carry
electricity from a faulty electrical appliance into the ground to prevent
electric shocks.
c) The blue insulated neutral wire carries electricity from the appliance
to the power station.
The three colours of traffic lights is to control the flow of traffic. Red is to
stop, yellow is to get ready to stop and green is to drive on.
A yellow line along the sides of a road shows that no vehicles should be
parked there.
The thousands of coloured dots or phosphors in a television set are the
three primary colours of light red, blue and green. If only the red dots
and green dots glow, it looks yellow. If all the three dots glow brightly, the
area appears white. The television picture is made up of thousands of
these different coloured areas.
Coloured codes are used in chemistry (to show the pH of chemicals eg.
litmus becomes red in acid and blue in alkalis. In electronics, resistors are
painted with four coloured bands to identify their resistance and tolerance
values.
In photography, to produce coloured photography, every print is exposed
four times to light through different filters. Then, the prints are soaked in
chemicals to produce the coloured photographs.
Colour plays a very important role for animals for camouflage, during
mating to attract the females and to warn other animals of their poison or
sting.
Plants need green chlorophyll for the food-making process, for dispersal
of seeds by animals and for attracting insects to help in transferring of
pollen from the male anthers to the female stigmas.

Review Questions
1)

How does the colour of the tiger help in its existence?


_______________________________________________________________

2)

Why are colourful flowers important to plants?


_______________________________________________________________

3)

State three uses of colour to:


a)

plants:

___________________________________________________

b)

animals: ___________________________________________________

THEME:

8.1

LeArning
Area

CHEMICALS IN INDUSTRY
Turning a pure metal into an alloy
changes its proper
ties
properties

67

Notes:
1.

Aims of forming alloys.


to increase the hardness of pure metals
to prevent corrosion
to improve the appearance of metals.
2. Increase of hardness of metals
a) Most pure metals are soft
b) Forming alloys results in harder and stronger metals suitable for
making metallic products.
c) Examples:
(i) Copper + zinc
brass (a substance harder than copper
and zinc)
(ii) Copper + tin
bronze (stronger than copper and tin)
(iii) Copper + a little carbon
an alloy of steel and carbon
very hard and strong.
3. To prevent corrosion.
a) Most alloys do not corrode
b) Pure iron is soft and rusts easily
c) Iron + chromium + nickel
Stainless steel very
(70%)
(20%)
(10%)
strong and does not rust
d) Stainless steel is very suitable for making surgical equipment and
kitchen utensils.
4. Improve the appearance of metals
a) Attractive appearance
b) Pewter and brass are suitable for making decorative objects due to
their shiny surfaces and attractive colours.

Review Questions
1.

Why is iron useful when it is mixed with a little carbon?


_______________________________________________________________

2.

How are alloys made?


_______________________________________________________________

3.

Explain why tin is used to coat food cans.


_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

8.2

CHEMICALS IN INDUSTRY

LeArning
Area

Alloys, their composition, proper


ties
properties
and uses

68

Notes:
1.

An alloy is a very strong and hard metal. That is why alloys are used on a
large scale in industries.

2.

Alloys form the basic substances for making objects or for construction.

3.

Many alloys are produced in large quantities.

4.

Various alloys
a.

To produce steel, iron is melted down and poured into a blast


furnace. Coke is added to remove foreign objects or impurities.
Oxygen is blown through the molten iron at very great pressure and
temperature. The impurities burn and the carbon left behind will
combine with the iron to form steel. Other metals or non-metals are
added to produce various types of steel.

b.

Most commonly, the other metal in a gold alloy is copper, although


alloys of gold can also contain silver, zinc or other metals. A gold
alloy keeps most of the properties of gold but is harder and resists
denting and scratching. The other metals affect the colour of gold.
More copper produces red gold while white gold may contain gold
and copper along with nickel, palladium or silver.

Review Questions
1.

2.

Which metals are used to make:


a)

Stainless steel : _____________________________________________

b)

Brass : ____________________________________________________

c)

Bronze : __________________________________________________

Why is copper mixed with tin to form the bronze alloy?


_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

8.3

LeArning
Area

CHEMICALS IN INDUSTRY
Proper
ties and uses of ammonia
Properties
in daily life

69

Notes:
1.

Ammonia is a very important chemical in the agricultural field, especially


for the manufacture of fertilisers.

2.

One molecule of ammonia consists of three hydrogen atoms and one


nitrogen atom.

3.

When hydrogen reacts with nitrogen, ammonia is produced and heat is


released.
Hydrogen + nitrogen

ammonia + heat

4.

The reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen only occurs at very high
temperatures and pressure.

5.

Uses of ammonia
a. making fertilisers ammonium suphate and ammonium nitrate.
b. By the process of oxidation, ammonia can be converted into nitric
acid in two processes.
heated
i) Ammonia + oxygen
nitrogen dioxide + water
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

ii) Nitrogen dioxide + oxygen + water


nitric acid
Ammonia can also be used to produce orange and red colouring.
As a cleaning agent and bleach.
To remove stains from calcium hydrogen carbonate and acid from
sweat.
Explosive substance ammonia mixed with nitric acid produces
ammonium nitrate. When heated, ammonium nitrate explodes.
In conclusion, ammonia is used to make fertilisers, colouring, nitric
acid, cleaning agent, explosives, cooling agent, dry cells and to stop
coagulation of latex.

Review Questions
1.

State the use of ammonia solution in a rubber estate.


_______________________________________________________________

2.

How is ammonia prepared in a typical ammonia plant or factory?


_______________________________________________________________

3.

What is used to revive a person who has fainted?


_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

8.4

LeArning
Area

CHEMICALS IN INDUSTRY

70

Haber process for making ammonia

Notes:
1.

The raw materials for the Haber process are hydrogen and nitrogen. The
gases are mixed and scrubbed (cleaned) to remove impurities.

2.

The gas mixture is compressed or pumped into a smaller space until it


reaches a pressure of 200 atmospheres.

3.

Then, it goes to the converter a round tank containing beds of hot iron
at around 450C.
The iron catalyses the reaction :
N2 (gas) + 3 H2 (gas)

2 N H 3 (gas)

Only about 15% of the mixture leaving the converter is ammonia.


4.

The mixture is cooled. The ammonia condenses to a liquid. The nitrogen


and hydrogen are recycled to the converter for another chance to react.

5.

The ammonia is run into tanks and stored as a liquid under pressure.

6.

The raw materials, air (from which 5 is nitrogen) and water (hydrogen is
usually made from natural gas or methane and water as steam) are easy
to obtain.

7.

Many oil and gas companies manufacture ammonia as a way to increase


their profits.

Review Questions
1.

What catalyst is used in the process for making ammonia? What does it
do?
_______________________________________________________________

2.

What is the temperature and pressure used in the Haber process for
making ammonia?
_______________________________________________________________

3.

Write an equation for the reaction for making ammonia.


_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

8.5

CHEMICALS IN INDUSTRY

LeArning
Area

Use of ammonia to produce ammonium


salts, fer
tilisers and urea
fertilisers

71

Notes:
1)

Urea
a)

Urea is produced in large quantities in Bintulu, Sarawak.

b)

Urea is used as a fertiliser and it dissolves easily in water.

c)

It is prepared using ammonia and carbon dioxide.


Ammonia + Carbon dioxide

Urea + water

d) Process of preparing urea :


i)

Ammonia gas and carbon dioxide are pumped into a compressor


and compressed under high temperature and pressure

ii)

Ammonia reacts with carbon dioxide to produce ammonium


carbamate salt.

iii) In the separation tank, ammonium carbamate salts is separated


from the raw residue.
iv) The ammonia and carbon dioxide which did not react is recycled.
v)
2)

The ammonium carbonate salt decomposes into urea and water,


then cooled to produce urea salt.

Ammonium salts
a)

Ammonia is used to make fertilisers which contain high nitrogen


nutrients.
b) Nitrogen is needed by plants to make protein.

c)

Ammonia fertilisers cause fruits and vegetable to contain very little


nutrients which cannot be stored permanently. Therefore, they have
to be washed carefully to remove the fertilisers on their surfaces.

Review Questions
1.

What are fertilisers and why are they needed?


_______________________________________________________________

2.

Animal manure is a natural fertiliser. Explain why?


_______________________________________________________________

3.

How is urea produced in the factories?


_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

8.6

LeArning
Area

CHEMICALS IN INDUSTRY
Manufacturing activities that
cause pollution

72

Notes:
1.

Green house effect


a) Vehicles (cars, trains, planes), industries, power stations and homes
burn fossil fuels such as natural gas, crude oil and coal for energy.
The exhaust and waste products from these fossil fuels cause air
pollution when they are released into the atmosphere.
b) Some harmful air pollutiants are carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide,
lead compounds and hydro carbons.
c) In busy cities, large amounts of these air pollutiants accumulate in
the atmosphere, absorb infrared rays from the sun and trap a large
amount of heat within the atmosphere.
d) This effects turns the Earth into a greenhouse that prevents heat from
escaping. This is the greenhouse effect which causes the Earths
temperature to rise (global warming).

2.

Acid rain
a) Burning of fossil fuels produces harmful gases like sulphur dioxide
and nitrogen dioxide (oxides of nitrogen).
b) These are choking, irritating gases that can affect the respiratory
system of people and animals and cause asthma and bronchitis.
c) In addition, these gases dissolve in rain water to produce acid rain.
d) Acid rain can kill fish and other aquatic organisms, harm plants
which do not grow well in acidic soil and cause serious damage to
statues and buildings.

3.

Food chains and food webs are poisoned by toxic wastes. Mercury
causes brain retardation. Cadmium damages kidneys and lungs. Nickel
causes lung cancer. Lead affects the nervous system and causes
hypertension or high blood pressure.

Review
Questions
Review
Questions
1.

State the effects of acid rain on human beings.


_______________________________________________________________

2.

What causes the greenhouse effect?


_______________________________________________________________

3.

State a few harmful substances produced by the burning of fossil fuels.


_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

8.7

LeArning
Area

CHEMICALS IN INDUSTRY
Effects of improper disposal of
industrial waste

73

Notes:
1.
2.
3.

4.

5.
6.

Anything that affects the environment or the ecological balance of nature


will also affect mankind. That is why we must learn to conserve the
physical environment to help preserve the ecosystem.
Many of our activities affect the physical environment and upset the
ecological balance.
The waste from factories dumped into streams, rivers and seas may
contain poisonous chemicals that can kill living organisms in these
places. Sometimes, the chemicals may not kill the organisms but the
effect of the poison may be felt further along the food chain.
The preservation and conservation of the ozone layer in the Earths
atmosphere is essential as it shields us from harmful radiation from the
sun. Petrochemicals such as CFCS (chlorofluorocarbons) used in
refrigerators, aerosol sprays and foam packaging are damaging to the
ozone layer when they are manufactured and used. At the same time, the
discharge or leakage of these petrochemicals from these disposed items
is harmful as they enter the soils and eventually into rivers and oceans.
These pollutants can cause health problems when they get into our
seafood and water supply.
The burning of oil palm waste pollutes the air.
Decaying organic waste (from processing rubber in the factory) releases
ammonia and hydrogen sulphide gases which have an unpleasant odour
and they too pollute the air.

Review Questions
1.

State one ill-effect of industrial toxic waste towards the health of mankind.
_______________________________________________________________

2.

How does acid rain affect cash crops?


_______________________________________________________________

3.

State the importance of preserving and conserving our environment.


_______________________________________________________________

4.

State the danger the environment faces if it is polluted by industrial toxic


waste.
_______________________________________________________________

THEME:

8.8

LeArning
Area

CHEMICALS IN INDUSTRY
Preparation of ammonium sulphate
(an ammonium fer
tiliser)
fertiliser)

74

Notes:
1)
2)
3)

Ammonium sulphate, a compound, is very widely used as a nitrogenous


fertiliser.
It may be made in the laboratory by neutralisation of dilute sulphuric acid
with ammonia.
In industry, it is produced by the action of ammonia and carbon dioxide on
the mineral an hydrite, calcium sulphate, in the presence of hot water.
The equation for the reaction:
Calcium sulphate + ammonia + carbon dioxide + water calcium
carbonate + + ammonium sulphate
CaSO4 + 2 NH3 + CO2 + H2O CaCO3 (NH4)2 = SO4

4)

5)

The chalk is filtered off and the ammonium sulphate crystallised.


Ammonium nitrate, another ammonium fertiliser, is colourless and very
soluble in water. When it dissolves, heat is absorbed. This compound is
prepared in the laboratory by neutralisation eg. ammonium nitrate by
nitric acid.
Equation for the reaction:
Ammonium hydroxide + nitric acid Ammonium nitrate + water
NH4OH + HNO3 NH4 NO3 + H2O

Review Questions
1)

Write the equation which shows how ammonium nitrate is obtained by


neutralisation.
_______________________________________________________________

2)

Write the equation for the preparation of ammonium sulphate by


neutralisation.
_______________________________________________________________

ANSWERS
1.1: Introducing science Scientific
Investigation
1) Science the systematic study of things
around us
Technology the application of scientific
knowledge to make our lives more
comfortable.
2 a) Communication becomes easier and
faster.
b) Household appliances make work
easier and life more comfortable.
c) Transportation- public transport helps to
minimise expenses and reduce
congestion.
d) Medicine cures diseases and illness.
3) It enables us to get a more accurate and
true picture of the world we live in and
minimises the influence of being unsure,
suspicious and bias.

through the container at great speed.


4) Movement (or motion), arrangement.
2.2: Changes in the state of matter
1) Boiling: Occurs at boiling point, occurs
through out the liquid, a rapid process.
Evaporation: Occurs at any temperature
(no fixed temperature), occurs only on the
surface of the liquid,
2) a) Melting, boiling, sublimation
boiling
melting
3) Ice
water
steam
evaporation
2.3: Structure of an atom
1) Proton: Positively charged, stationary in the
nucleus
Electron: negatively charged, orbits the
nucleus
2) Neutron and proton
3) The atom becomes positively charged

1.2: Steps in a Scientific


1) A variable is a condition which is to be
changed, not to be changed or observed
and measured when planning to test your
hypothesis.
2) Writing notes, drawing diagrams, using
tables, using photographs, using a flow
chart (choose 4)
3) Making a smart guess or a hypothesis.

2.4: Proton number and nucleon number


1) Proton: 92, Electron: 92, Neutron
= Nucleon
Number proton number
=238-92
=146
2) a) A: Lithium, B: Thorium, C: Lithium, D:
Boron
3) a) P = electron, Q= Proton
b) Nucleon number = Number of protons +
Number of neutrons
= 2+2
=4
c) The number of negative electrons = The
number of positive protons

1.3: A Scientific Investigation Method


1 a) Determine the problems
b) Making a hypothesis
c) Planning the investigation
d) Collecting data
e) Making a report
2) A process of making a general statement to
explain an observation made. This
statement has to be tested to prove
whether it is right or wrong.

2.5: Isotopes
1) Isotope chlorine-37 is heavier then isotope
chlorine 35
2) 235 shows the nucleon number, which is
the total number of protons and neutrons.
3) Number of electrons = 6
Number of neutrons = nucleon number
proton number
= 14-6
=8

1.4: Examples of investigation


1) a) The longer the length of the simple
pendulum, the slower it will swing
b) i) Weight of the bob of the pendulum
ii) Length of the pendulum
iii) Time of oscillation of the pendulum.
2.1: Kinetic Theory
1) Particles of the matter move freely in
random directions, which cause them to
collide violently with one another.
2) They are no spaces for the particles in a
liquid to move into.
3) In a gas, there are large spaces in between
the particles, which are racing about all

2.6: Periodic Table


1) a) Elements in the Periodic Table are
arranged according to an ascending
proton number.
b) Magnesium element
c) (i) S and T (ii) P and R
d) R and U

e)

R and U are inactive noble gases

e) The excess glucose is converted into


glycogen and stored in the liver.

2.7: Atoms, Molecules and Ion


1) Non metals
2) Gains or loses electrons
3) Molecules of an element consist of a fixed
number of one kind of atom chemically
combined together but molecules of a
compound consist of a fixed number of two
or more different kinds of atoms chemically
combined together.
4) a) Nitrogen atoms-2
b) Hydrogen atoms-2 oxygen atom-1
c) Carbon atoms-1 oxygen atom-2
d) Nitrogen atoms-1 Hydrogen atom-4
Chlorine atom-1

3.2: Component part of the human nervous


system
1) Somatic nerve is made up of cranial nerves
and spiral nerves while autonomic nerve is
made up of nerves from internal organs
and glands.
2) The human nervous system consists of the
central nervous system and the peripheral
nervous system.
3) The central nervous system consists of the
brain and the spiral cord while the
peripheral nervous system consists of the
somatic nerves and the autonomic nervous
system.
4) A neuron is a nerve cell.
5) A synapse is a tiny gap between two
neurons and it ensures a one-way
transmission of nerve impulses.

2.8: Physical properties of substances


made of atoms, molecules and ions
1) Substances made of atoms conduct
electricity when they are in the solid and
liquid states.
Substances made of ions conduct
electricity when they are in a liquid state or
are aqueous solutions.
2) The attractive force that binds the
molecules together is very weak.
3) Electrostatic force.
4) Magnesium oxide does not form ions when
dissolved in water.

3.3: Types of neurones, receptors and


effectors.
1 a) Relay neurone
b) P: cytoplasm, Q: nucleus, R: dendrite
c) In the brain and spinal cord only
d) The neurone carries the impulse from
the sensory neurone to the motor
neurone.
2 a) Motor neurone
b) It carries nerve impulses from the
central nervous system to the effector
(muscles or glands)
c) K: Dendrite, M: axon
L: body cell, N: muscle fibres (effector)
d) A dendrite (K) carries a nerve impulse
to the body cell.
A axon carries a nerve impulse from the
body to the effector (muscle or gland)
e) Gray matter in the spinal cord.

2.9: Properties of metals and non-metals


1) A metal possesses many free-moving
electrons.
2) Carbon
3) Noble gases are highly unreactive.
4) Particles in the metal copper are arranged
with little space between them, are very
tightly packed together held by strong
attractive forces called metallic bonding.
2.10: Purification- Distillation and
crystallization
1) a) By distillation
b) Liquid A
c) Liquid A has a lower boiling point of 660C.
2) Sugar and common salt
3) By determining its boiling point, ie. 780C

3.4: Reflex action


1) A reaction activated by external stimuli that
occurs automatically and cannot be
controlled.
2) Receptors in the skin
3) Receptor
sensory neurone
spinal cord
motor neurone
effector (muscle)
4) a) P: sensory neurone, R: Relay neurone,
X: gray matter
Q: body cell, S: motor neurone,
Y: synapse
b) When the impulse produced by the heat
from the bulb reaches the brain, the brain
interprets the impulse as pain on the
fingers.

3.1: Body coordination


1) Nervous system and endocrine system
2) Without a nervous system, a person cannot
see, cannot feel and cannot control his
body movements.
3 a) P: Pituitary gland, S Adrenal gland
Q: Thyroid gland, T: Testis
R: Pancreas
b) By secreting hormones into the bloodstream
c) Pituitary gland
d) Pancreas

3.5: The brain


1) Cerebrum
2) The action is controlled by a persons will or
needs.
3) A damaged medulla oblongata will result in
the shut down of all involuntary actions like
heartbeat
4) i) Cerebrum
ii) Medulla oblongata
iii) Cerebellum iv) Pituitary gland

2 a) Social drinking at parties lead to a


compulsive habit
b) To relieve the stress from work
c) Come from families with alcoholics.
d) Use alcohol to escape from the
problems in life.
e) Teenage boy may think it is macho and
girls may think it is sophisticated to take
alcohol. They eventually lose control of
their drinking habits.
f) Bored with life.

3.6: Part of the cerebrum


1) A: touch and pressure
B: sight
C: memory, thinking, learning
D: Movement of mucles
E: speech
F: smell
G: auditory (hearing)
2) The touch center

4.1: Cells, genes, DNA and chromosomes


1) Genes
2) Genes carry genetic material from one
generation to another
3) The chromatic material
4) The DNA (deoxyribonucleic acids)
4.2:Process of mitosis
1) Chromosomes contain chemicals which
control what a cell does:
Chromosomes contain all the instructions
needed to build a whole new organism from
a fertilised egg cell
2) The double chromosomes become shorter
and thicker and move to the middle of the
cell.
3) Two cells, every cell having 46
chromosomes.

3.7: Main Endocrine glands


1) The endocrine system contains glands
without tubes to carry hormones secreted.
The hormones are released directly into the
blood-stream.
2) Hypothalamus
3) Insulin controls the level of glucose in the
blood
3.8: Hormonal imbalance
1) Hormones regulate growth, development of
secondary sexual characteristics and
prevent certain diseases.
2) Thyroid gland

4.3: Process of meiosis


1) In the meiosis process, the sperm has half
of the chromosomes while the other half is
contained in the ovum. After fertilisation,
the zygote formed has a combination of the
fathers chromosomes and the mothers
chromosomes. Organism of this type of
reproduction results in great variation in
their offsprings.
2) a) 66 chromosomes b) 33 chromosomes

3.9: Drug abuse


1) Taking drugs in excess and not for medical
purposes.
2) Poor reflexes, thoughts and actions not
connected to reality and decreased
alertness.
3) Anti-drugs campaign, talks on drugs to
educate the public of its danger and
organise recreational activities for the
youth.
4) Heroin. It causes addiction.

4.4: To compare and contrast mitosis and


meiosis
1 a) The reproductive organs
b) Half of the number of chromosomes of
the parent cell.
c) Reproduction
d) 46,46
e) 46,23
f) Four new cells

3.10: Effects of excess consumption of


alcohol
1) Harmful effects of alcohol are:
- harm to the drinkers health
- addiction to alcohol
- accidents caused by drunk driving
- family and social problems caused by
neglect, violence and abuse due to
alcoholism.

4.5: Dominant traits and recessive traits in


human beings
1) All their children will be tall and possess the
gene (Tt).
2) Pure-bred, homozygous
3) Hybrid, heterozygous
4) H

4.6: Gregar Mendels mechanism of trait


inheritance
1) Pea plant
2) 3 x 100% = 25%
12
3) The factors carried information for a
certain characteristic, which was passed
from parents to offspring.
4) The factors each are carrying a certain
characteristic, which was passed from
parents to offspring, were either short or
tall.

2)

4.7: Present day theory to explain Mendels


experiment.
1) The pair of genes has one dominant gene
and one recessive gene eg. Hh for black
hair.
2) 3 red flowers and 1 white flower
3) All tall children-TT and Tt

4.13: Chromosome mutation, gene


mutation and their consequences.
1) Mutation is a change in a gene or
chromosomes that alters the way an
organism develops.
2) Chromosomes mutation-Downs syndrome

4.8: Monohybrid crosses (Phenotype or


Genotype)
1) a) red eyes b) red eyes c) white eyes
2) BB, Bb
4.9:Determination of sex chromosomes in
humans
1) XY chromosomes
2) Autosomes are not sex chromosomes
3) 46, autosomes, sex chromosomes, female,
male

4.14: Continuous variation and


discontinuous variation
1) You are either colour blind or you are not
colour blind. You can only belong to one
group. There is no in between state.
2) Recessive gene for colour blindness in the
X chromosome.
3) Continuous variation shows the differences
in a certain characteristic in stages from
one level to the extreme level eg. Body
mass
Discontinuous variation shows a fixed
characteristic, which is clear and precise
eg. blood groups of human beings.

4.10: Sex determination in human beings


1) Boys or male babies.
2) Girls or female babies.
3) Y chromosomes
4) There are equal numbers of X and Y
sperms in a male (the father)
4.11: Occurrence of identical and nonidentical twins
1) There are formed from the same sperm
and the same ovum
2) Non-identical twins are formed from two
sperms and two different ova.
3) If a zygote does not split and develop fully
or develops abnormally, they are maybe
joined at certain parts of their bodies.

5.1: Radioactive substances


1) A radioactive substance is an element that
contains atoms with nuclei that radiate
particles and waves in order to become
stable.
2) They can destroy our body cells and cause
cancer.
3) To become more stable.
4) Nuclear radiation is particles and wave
energy radiating from the unstable nuclei of
atoms of radioactive substances.

4.12: Comparison between identical and


non-identical twins
1) Identical twins are formed from one zygote
which splits into two while non-identical
twins are produced by the fertilisation of
two ova by two individual sperms.

5.2: Process of radioactive decay


1) Carbon 12 has 6 neutrons and carbon-14
has 8 neutrons in the nuclei of their atoms.
Carbon-14 is radioactive.
2) To become more stable.
3) Heat energy.

5.3: To compare and contrast the


characteristic of alpha, beta and gamma
radiation.
1) Gamma radiation
2) Particles of alpha radiation is heavier than
the particles of beta radiation.
3) a) Alpha radiation- positively charged,
cannot penetrate paper.
b) Beta radiation- negatively charged,
cannot penetrate aluminium
c) Gamma radiation- neutral, can only be
blocked by a thick piece of lead or
concrete.

6.1: Physical changes


1) A physical change was involved. No new
substance was formed.
2) a) Iodine
b) ammonium chloride
3) b, d, e, f

5.4: Nuclear fission and nuclear power


station
1) The neutron hits and splits the nucleus of
the uranium atom
2) To block out radioactive radiation.
3 a) To generate electricity
b) To run submarines.
3) Reactor, turbine, dynamo, condenser (pick
3)

6.3: Compare and contrast physical and


chemical changes, examples in daily
lives.
1) No. When a matchstick burns, it changes
into a new substance as a chemical change
has taken place.
2) A physical change. No new substance is
formed.
3) Mixture, sieving

5.5: Production of nuclear energy through


fusion
1) It gets its energy from the fusion of
hydrogen into helium.
The fuel is hydrogen
2) The nuclei are charged and repel each
other. To overcome this repulsion,
hydrogen needs to be heated to at least 40
million degrees Celsius.
3) It is a magnetic containment vessel used to
investigate fusion.

6.4: Exothermic and endothermic reactions


1 a) endothermic
b) exothermic
c) endothermic
d) exothermic
2) The joule

6.2: Chemical changes


1 a) Carbon dioxide is produced.
b) Carbon dioxide and heat are produced.
c) The milk turns sour.
2 a) Substance left behind (copper oxide)
b) Copper oxide consists of copper and
oxygen only.

6.5: Heat changes in industrial chemical


reactions
1) A chemical reaction that gives out heat
energy
2) A catalyst for the reaction between nitrogen
and hydrogen to make ammonia.
3) Hydrogen, heat energy.

5.6: Uses of radioactive substances


1 a) Radiotherapy- to kill cancer cells.
b) To check a patients thyroid gland
2 a) To photograph metals to reveal cracks
b) In the treatment of cancer.
4) Agriculture - phosphorus-3-2 is used in the
study of the absorption of phosphate by
plants.
Medicine Phosphorus 3-2 is used to
detect the cancer growth in the brain

6.6: Reactivity series of metals


1) Potassium and sodium.
2) Sodium reacts very quickly with oxygen
and water vapour in the atmosphere.
3) a) Sodium and potassium
b) gold and argentum
4) Sodium
magnesium
zinc
lead
copper

5.7: Effect of the usage of radioactive


substances
1) Causes cancer, leukaemia and death.
2) Beta and gamma rays because they can
penetrate internal organs.

6.7: Reactivity series of metals with oxygen


and arrangement of metals in order of
reactivity.
1) Place a silver metal and an aluminium
metal into some dilute hydrochloric acid.
Aluminium will react with the acid but silver
will not react with the acid.
2) Many metals react with the oxygen in the
atmosphere to form oxides of metals.

5.8: Nuclear Disaster


1) Radioactivity can last for hundreds of
years.
2) The fruits are put straight into a beam of
gamma radiation. The radiation stopped the
rotting process, their taste does not change
and they have not become radioactive.

6.8: Electrolysis of lead bromide using


carbon electrodes.

2) a) 20m

1) a) Electrolysis is the splitting of a chemical


compound by an electric current into its
elements. Electrolyte is a solution that can
conduct electricity.
b) Anode is a positive electrode. Cathode
is a negative electrode.
c) Cation is a positive ion (a metallic
element that loses electrons)
Anion is a negative ion. ( a metallic
element that receives or gains
electrons.
2) Oil does not conduct electricity.
3) a) Bromide ions each give up an electrons
and become bromine atoms. The bromine
bubbles off as a gas.
b) The lead ions each receive two electrons
and lead atoms and lead collect on the
negative electrode and eventually drop off
it.

b)

7.5m

7.2: Images of convex and concave lens.


1) Real, smaller, inverted.
2) Concave, virtual, upright, smaller.
3) a) The line that joins the centre of its two
curved surfaces.
b) The point where light rays of a convex
lens converges.
c) The centre of a lens.
d) The distance from the optical centre to
the focal point.
7.3: A lens camera and a pin-hole camera
1) The diaphragm.
2) a) image object
b) (i) The image becomes blurred but
brighter.
(ii) The image becomes smaller than
the object.

6.9: Uses of electrolysis purifying a metal,


extraction of a metal and electroplating.
1) a) Aluminium oxide (bauxite), electrolysis.
b) Iron oxide, heated with coke
c) Copper pyrite, heated in air
d) A natural metal.
2) The purer the copper, the better it is at
conducting electricity so the better it is for
electrical wires and connections.

7.4: Periscope and telescope


1)
2)
3)
4)

6.10: Production of electrical energy from


chemical reactions.

Virtual, laterally inverted, enlarged.


Convex, long, convex, shorter.
Real, smaller.
Reflects, eye of the observer.

7.5: Similarities and differences between a


human eye and a camera

1) dilute acid, alkalis and salt solution.


2) a) Dry cell:- good source of electricity,
does not use an aqueous medium to
produce electrical energy.
b) Simple cell:- Source of electrical energy.

1) The size of his pupils becomes larger.


2) Shorter
3) By moving the lens towards the film.

6.11: Chemical reactions that occur in the


presence of light.

1) The splitting of white light into a spectrum


of seven colours.
2) The colours in white light travel through a
glass prism at different speeds.
3) Refraction and dispersal of light.
4) The sun is shining behind the observer and
the air must be moist.

7.6: Dispersal of light

1) Light, carbon dioxide, water and


chlorophyll.
2) Silver bromide on the photographic paper
decomposes into silver and bromine.
3) Before contact with sunlight: Sodium
hypochlorite solution does not affect the
litmus paper, as sodium chloride, a salt, is
formed.

7.7: Primary and secondary colours and


filters
1 a)
b)
c)
d)

red
absorb
reflects, white
it is a mixture of red and blue (primary)
colours.
3) To prevent certain colours from passing
through it.

7.1: Images formed by a plane mirror


1) a) An image that cannot be formed on a
screen.
b) The image is reversed.

7.8: Appearance of coloured objects under


white and coloured lights

8.5: Use of ammonia to produce fertilisers,


ammonium salts and urea

1) a) X: Red, Y: White, Z: Cyan.


b) Cyan
c) Cyan is a mixture of two primary
colours, green and blue.
d) Y: Magenta, Z: Blue.
e) (i) red (ii) Black
f) Used in photography to subtract specific
colours of light.

1) Fertilisers are substances added to soil to


make it more fertile. Plants need several
elements, mainly nitrogen, potassium and
phosphorus, to produce strong stems and
healthy leaves, to resist diseases and to
help roots develop and crops to ripen.
2) Animal manure contains some nitrates and
proteins that break down in the soil to
ammonium compounds. It also returns
potassium and phosphorus to the soil.
3) By the reaction of ammonia with carbon
dioxide.

7.9: Importance of colour in daily life


1) The black and yellow stripes on its body
make it difficult to be seen by its prey. This
enables it to catch its prey easily.
2) To attract insects to help in pollination- the
carrying of pollen from the male anthers to
the sticky stigma of the female flower.
3) a) For pollination, dispersal of seeds and
for the process of photosynthesis.
b) To attract males to mate, for
camouflage and to warn predators of
their poison.

8.6: Manufacturing activities that cause


pollution
1) Affect the respiratory system.
2) Usually carbon dioxide gas in the
atmosphere which traps the heat in the
Earths atmosphere, causing the
temperature on the Earths surface to rise.
3) Sulphur oxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon
monoxide, lead oxide, dust and smoke.

8.1: Turning a pure metal into an alloy


8.7: Effects of improper disposal of
industrial waste

1) Iron and carbon form an alloy which is very


hard and strong.
2) The main pure metal is melted and then
other substances are dissolved in it.
3) Tin is unreactive and non-toxic. Protects
the steel from rusting.

1) lung cancer (or deformed foetus, mutation


and infertility)
2) The roots of plants cannot absorb water
and therefore die.
3) To make sure the ecosystem is not
disrupted or eradicated.
4) Toxic waste endangers the balance of the
ecosystem which will result in
a) ill-health of mankind.
b) Destruction of habitat and extinction of
living organisms.
c) Loss of sources of economic value.

8.2: Alloys, their composition, properties


and uses
1) a) Stain less steel
iron + chromium
+ nickel
b) brass
copper + zinc
c) bronze
copper + tin
2) To make the copper harder and stronger.

8.8: Preparation of ammonia sulphate (an


ammonium fertiliser)

8.3: Properties and uses of ammonia


1) To prevent latex from coagulating.
2) By mixing hydrogen with nitrogen in the
ratio 3:1 at very high temperature and
pressure.
4) Ammonium carbonate.

1) Ammonium hydroxide + nitric acid


Ammonium nitrate + water.
2) Dilute sulphuric acid + Ammonia
ammonium sulphate + Water.

8.4: Haber process for making ammonia.


1) The catalyst is iron. It hastens the reaction
between the nitrogen and hydrogen gases.
2) In the Haber process, a temperature of
450-500C and a pressure of 200-500
atmospheres are used.
3) N2 +3H2
2NH3