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4/9/2014

What is Superstructure?
DESIGN
OF
SUPERSTRUCTURE

The part of the bridge which directly bears and


transfers loads from vehicles and pedestrians to
the substructure.
Design of superstructure involves design of deck,
girders, cross girders, railing posts, kerbs, footpath,
drainage system and bearings.

Er. Saroj Bhattarai


2014

Types of superstructure

Design of superstructure

Design of superstructure

Design Loads:
Permanent

Dead Loads (Beams, Slabs)


Applied loads: wearing course, railings, footpath
surface works
Live Loads (pedestrians)
Wind Load
Moving loads and impact
Seismic load generally insignificant for short span
simply supported decks. Stoppers are provided to
prevent slippage and falling out.

Governing Standards and Codes:


DOR Bridge Standards (2067)
IRC:5 (General Features),
IRC:6 (Loads & stresses),
IRC:21 ((Cement Concrete p
plain and RCC),
),
IRC:22 (Composite decks)
IRC:24 (Steel Bridges)
IRC:18 (Post-tensioned concrete bridges)
IRC:112 (RCC and PC bridges on Limit State Method,
replaces IRC:18 and 21. To be used with IRC:6-2010)
Indian Standard IS:456-2000
AASHTO, British Standards (BS:5400 series)

Design of superstructure

Design Procedure

Determine carriageway width,


footpath and length of span.
Arrange the positions of main
and cross girders.
girders Determine
their dimensions (depths and
widths)
Determine the critical
arrangement of design
vehicles on the carriageway
and the eccentricity of its CG
with respect to the bridge axis

4/9/2014

Design of superstructure

Design of superstructure
Moving load
combination
prescribed
by IRC:62000

Design Procedure

Determine the lateral load distribution factors for the main girders

Design of superstructure

Courbons method (based pure lever theory)


Morrice Little method (Orthotropic plate theory)
Hendry Jaeger method (Lever theory with variable transverse
parameters)
Grillage analogy (Two dimensional mesh of beams and slabs)
Finite element method (Three dimensional analysis)

Workout the Influence Line diagrams for the girders.


Many FEM software do not require IL diagram for design. They
directly give the critical bending moments, shear force etc at any
section of the elements

Design of superstructure

Courbons method

Courbons method

Ri = Reaction factor of the beam under consideration


P = Total live load
Ii = Moment of Inertia of the beam under consideration
e = Eccentricity of the load with respect to the bridge axis
di = Distance of the beam under consideration from the axis of the bridge
n = Number of beams

P
d1

d3

When the Moment of Inertia of all the beams is equal and assuming the load as unit load then
the equation is reduced as:

d1, d2 Positive
d3, d4 Negative
The assumed deflection of the deck

Design of superstructure

Design of superstructure
Drawing
Influence
Lines
(Support
Reaction)

Variation of Reactions RA and RB as functions of load position

Drawing Influence Lines (Support Reaction)

RA occurs only at A; RB occurs only at B

1
x
B

A
C
10 ft
3 ft

x
A

1
MA =0
0
(RB)(10) (1)(x) = 0
RB = x/10
RA = 1-RB
= 1-(x/10)

RA=1-(x/10)

1 /10
1-x/10

10-x

B
RB = x/10

RA=1-x/10

Influence
line for RA

Influence line
for RB

1.0

x/10
x

10-x

C
RB = x/10

4/9/2014

Design of superstructure

Design of superstructure
3 < x < 10 ft (Unit load to the right of C)

Drawing
Influence
Lines (Shear
force)

3 < x < 10 ft (unit load to the right of C)

Drawing
Influence
Lines
(Bending
Moment)

x
B

A
3 ft

RB = x/10

RA = 1-(x/10)

x ft

A
3 ft

RA = x/10

RA = 1-(x/10)
10 ft

1-x/10

RA = 1-(x/10)

(1-(x/10))(3)

Shear force at C is +ve = 1-x/10

1
0.7
-ve

Influence line for shear at C

1-x/10

+ve

(1-(x/10))(3)

1-x/10

(1-(x/10))(3)

Moment at C is +ve

0.3
1

(1-7/10)(3)=2.1 kip-ft

Influence line for bending


Moment at C
+ve

Design of superstructure

Design of superstructure

Analysis by
Computer
Program
based on
Grillage
A l
Analogy
or
Finite
Element
Method

Assigning Loads: Applied loads, live loads, moving load lanes

Design of superstructure

Bending Moment Diagrams (sample)

Design of superstructure

Shear force Diagrams (sample)

4/9/2014

Design of superstructure

Design of supersructure (RCC girder bridge)

Design by working stress method


Find the critical moments and shear at different locations of
the girder (1/2, 3/8, 3/4, 1/4 span and at supports)
Follow any literature to design the T girder with working
stress method. Separate design for exterior and intermediate
girders
Effective depth is taken from the CG of the tensile
reinforcement. Check for stresses at the lowest layer of the
bars. Check for bond stress near supports.
Curtail the longitudinal reinforcement as per moment
diagram. Check for shear at different locations and provide
shear reinforcement

Support Reactions and Frame Deformation (sample)

Design of supersructure (RCC girder bridge)

Analyze the critical forces for cross girders and design


following the same procedure as for the main girders
Not necessary to curtail the bars since the cross girders are
comparatively short
The cross girders at both supports should be designed also
for lifting the deck for maintenance by jacking up.

Design of supersructure (RCC girder bridge)

Design of superstructure (RCC girder bridge)

Analysis and design of deck slab by Pigeauds method or any


other suitable theory for slab supported on all sides. (e.g.
yield line theory or as a shell element in finite element
analysis).
Minimum thickness of RCC slab 200 mm. Usually quite
sufficient
ffi i t ffor spacing
i off cross girders
id
<5
5 m.
Designed as both way reinforced slab. Normally light
reinforcement is sufficient. Arching Action Zero
reinforcement?

Deck slabs are generally safe on one way shear. But


sometimes punching shear maybe critical.

Design of superstructure (RCC girder bridge)

Pigeauds method
For slabs restrained on all sides and
patch load at the center.
The bending moments both ways
are determined by using the
Piegeauds curves.

Bogie
Curves for M1 (K=0.4)

Real and dummy load


positions for class 70R bogie
and Track

Curves for M2 (K=0.4)

The graphs are read for the values of K, u/B and v/L which are ratios of
dimensions of the load patch and the size of the slab within the girders.

Track

4/9/2014

Design of superstructure (RCC girder bridge)

Thank you!
Courtesey: R.R. Sharma, DOR

The Pigeauds curves are based on elastic analysis of


isotropic plates.