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FM Global

Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

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July 2011
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FIRE PROTECTION WATER DEMAND FOR NONSTORAGE SPRINKLERED PROPERTIES

Table of Contents
Page
1.0 SCOPE .................................................................................................................................................... 2
1.1 Changes ............................................................................................................................................ 2
2.0 LOSS PREVENTION RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................................................ 2
2.1 Protection ......................................................................................................................................... 2
2.1.1 Automatic Sprinkler Systems ................................................................................................. 2
3.0 SUPPORT FOR RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................................................ 8
4.0 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................................ 8
4.1 FM Global ......................................................................................................................................... 8
APPENDIX A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ........................................................................................................ 9
APPENDIX B DOCUMENT REVISION HISTORY ...................................................................................... 10

List of Figures
Fig. 1. Dry pendent sprinkler extended down at a 45 angle ....................................................................... 7

List of Tables
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table

1. Hazard Categories Based on Occupancy ........................................................................................ 3


2. Sprinkler Design Demands for Hazard Categories ......................................................................... 4
2a. Sprinkler Design Demands for Hazard Categories with Ceilings from 60 ft (18 m) -100 ft (30 m) . 4
3. Hose Demand and Duration ............................................................................................................ 4
4. Minimum Sprinkler K-Factors for Hazard Categories ...................................................................... 5
5. Minimum Design Pressures for EC Sidewall Sprinklers ................................................................. 6

1992-2011 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in whole or in part, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission of Factory Mutual Insurance Company.

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Fire Protection Water Demand

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FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

1.0 SCOPE
This data sheet provides water demand recommendations for automatic sprinklers and hoses in nonstorage
occupancies.
Refer to the applicable occupancy-specific data sheet for detailed sprinkler protection design guidelines.
See the definition of occupancy-specific data sheet in Appendix A for a list of data sheets organized by
subject matter.
Refer to Data Sheet 2-0, Installation Guidelines for Automatic Sprinklers, for detailed sprinkler installation
guidelines such as obstructions, Nonstorage sprinkler spacing tables, etc.
1.1 Changes
July 2011. Minor editorail changes and clarifications to Recommendations 2.1.1.1 and 2.1.1.10.1 were made
for this revision.
2.0 LOSS PREVENTION RECOMMENDATIONS
2.1 Protection
Automatic sprinkler protection is the best defense against a fire. Sprinklers have proven to be the most
practical and reliable means of controlling a fire in business and industry. Sprinkler protection minimizes not
only fire damage, but also nonthermal damage, and allows for quick resumption of normal operations.
Sprinklers are needed wherever the building construction or occupancy is combustible. Refer to the applicable
occupancy-specific data sheet for detailed sprinkler protection guidelines. See the definition of occupancyspecific data sheet in Appendix A for a list of data sheets organized by subject matter.
2.1.1 Automatic Sprinkler Systems
2.1.1.1 For new installations of wet-pipe sprinkler systems in Hazard Categories 1, 2, or 3 (HC-1, HC-2, or
HC-3) occupancies with ceiling heights up to 60 ft (18 m), use FM Approved upright or pendent, standard
or quick-response, standard-coverage or extended-coverage, nonstorage automatic sprinklers with a
temperature rating of 160F (70C), where applicable. See Table 2 for sprinkler design demands for hazard
categories. Sprinklers with a temperature rating of 212F (100C) may be used in locations where the ambient
temperature is in excess of 110F (43C). For locations prone to extremely cold and freezing conditions, use
dry-pipe sprinkler systems with upright, standard response, standard-coverage sprinklers with a temperature
rating of 280F (140C).
2.1.1.2 To determine the complete sprinkler system design, do the following:
A. Use Table 1 to identify the hazard category based on occupancy.
B. Use Table 2 to find the sprinkler design demand required for that hazard category.
C. Use Table 3 to determine the hose demand and duration needed for the sprinkler system design.
D. Use Table 4 to determine the minimum sprinkler K-Factor for that hazard category.
E. Use the ceiling-level sprinkler spacing guidelines for nonstorage occupancies in Data Sheet 2-0,
Installation Guidelines for Automatic Sprinklers, to determine maximum area spacing for sprinkler.
2.1.1.3 Protection recommendations in the tables of this data sheet are intended for new installations and
are based on complete sprinkler protection where needed, with no serious occupancy or protection
deficiencies. Correct major deficiencies in occupancy or protection that could increase sprinkler demand.
Such deficiencies include poor housekeeping, accumulations of lint or other combustible dust, obstructed
sprinklers, and dry-pipe systems in certain hazardous areas. A strong water supply is no substitute for
correcting these deficiencies.

1992-2011 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved.

Fire Protection Water Demand

3-26

FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

Page 3

Table 1. Hazard Categories Based on Occupancy


Occupancy
Apartments
Atriums
Churches
Concealed spaces
Gymnasiums
Hospitals and hospital laboratories
Hotel rooms
Institutions
Kitchens
Libraries
Meeting rooms in convention
centers and hotels
Metalworking shops with nonhydraulic cutting operations
Mineral processing such as: glass,
cement, ore treating, gypsum
processing, etc.
Museums
Nursing or convalescent homes
Offices
Restaurant seating areas
Schools and universities classrooms
Unused attics
Auto parking garages
Back stage of theaters and
auditoriums
Boat mfg. and assembly
Boiler buildings
Casinos
Clubs
Convention centers
Display halls
Electronic-electrical mfg. and
assembly
Food processing
Leather tanning and working
Mercantile areas
Metalworking shops with hydraulic
operations
Movie and TV Studios
Paper processing
Retail areas
Rubber processing
Sports Arenas
Theater & auditoriums*
Utility and equipment rooms
Cable manufacturing
Car-sized vehicle repair garages and
assembly operations where vehicles
are repaired, tested, or assembled
with relatively small amounts of fuel in
tanks
Interior loading docks
Modular building subassembly
Plastics processing and molding
Highway trailers, trucks, boxcars,
some mobile homes or similar metal
vehicles with combustible interiors
with the potential for shielded fire

Description of Occupancy
Lightly loaded nonstorage and
nonmanufacturing areas with ordinary
combustibles.
Expect fires with relatively low rates of
heat release in these occupancies.

Exceptions
Libraries with stack rooms larger in
size than defined in Appendix A;
Facilities with storage of electronic
and plastic media (see DS 8-9 ).

Hazard
Category
HC-1

Hospital laboratories where exposed


storage and processing of flammable
liquids is considered excessive (see
the applicable flammable liquids data
sheet).
Facilities with operations involving
hydraulic fluid or flammable liquid,
see DS7-32, DS 7-29, and DS 7-98;
and for storage, see DS 7-32, DS
7-29, and DS 7-98.

Lightly and moderately loaded


nonstorage, nonmanufacturing, and
manufacturing areas with ordinary
combustibles.

Operations involving hydraulic fluid or


flammable liquid (see DS 7-32, DS
7-29, and DS 7-98); aluminum rolling
mills (see DS 7-64/13-28); paper
machine areas that involve inks with
Occupancies with fire hazards equivalent flashpoints below 110F (42C) (see
to in-process Class 2 commodities no
DS 7-4 and DS 7-96); aircraft
more than 6 ft (1.8 m) high, or lesser
hangars (see DS 7-93N).
hazard (e.g., mostly wood, cardboard
products and small amounts of plastic,
Oil cookers and distilling operations
including foam plastic found in the seat
(see the applicable flammable liquid
cushion of a chair or plastic trim in an
data sheet).
exhibit display booth).
Bulk retailers where merchandise is
Manufacturing occupancies with
displayed on racks typically found in
movable picking racks not higher than 6 warehouses (see DS 8-9 and DS
ft (1.8 m) containing rigid plastic open
8-3).
top containers. Do not allow expanded
plastic inside the containers. Additionally, Telephone switchgear rooms and
if the racks/carts are not separated by at generator rooms (see DS 5-12, DS
least a distance equal to the least
5-14, or DS 5-23).
dimension of the rack/cart, treat as
storage per DS 8-9.
Heavily loaded areas with or without
Facilities that use hydraulic and
plastics.
flammable liquids (see DS 7-98).
Manufacturing and nonmanufacturing
facilities with higher concentrations of
combustibles or shielding of
combustibles where the fire hazard
could approach the equivalent of
nominal 5 ft (1.5 m) high in-process
storage of cartoned unexpanded plastic
commodities.

For electronic media storage see DS


8-9.
For haul-truck repair shops or
manufacturing facilities housing
vehicles that may contain several
hundred gallons of flammable liquid,
see DS 7-12 or DS7-32, as
applicable.

1992-2011 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved.

HC-2

HC-3