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ISOI Journal of Engineering and Computer science

Volume 1 Issue 1; Page No. 07-17

Prof. Jayasree Ramanujan1, Mrs. Bindu Sunil2, Dr. Laju Kottallil3, Prof. Mercy Joseph Poweth4

1

2

4

ARTICLE INFO

ABSTRACT

Accepted 20 Dec. 2014

motions resulting in structural damages as well as failures have repeatedly

demonstrated the seismic vulnerability of existing buildings, due to their

design based on gravity loads only or inadequate levels of lateral forces. This

necessitates the need for design based on seismic responses by suitable

methods to ensure strength and stability of structures. Shear wall systems

are one of the most commonly used lateral load resisting systems in high rise

buildings.. This study aims at comparing various parameters such as storey

drift, storey shear, deflection, reinforcement requirement in columns etc of

a building under lateral loads based on strategic positioning of shear walls.

Based on linear and nonlinear analysis procedures adopted, the effect of

shear wall location on various parameters are to be compared .Pushover

analysis is used to evaluate the expected performance of the structure by

estimating its strength and deformation demands in design earthquakes by

means of static inelastic analysis, and comparing these demands to available

capacities at the performance levels of interest. The capacity spectrum

method is used to obtain the overall performance level of a structure. The

software used is ETABS 9.5 and SAP 2000.V.14.1

Corresponding Author:

Prof. Jayasree Ramanujan

1 Department of Civil Engineering,

M.A. College of Engineering,

Kothamangalam, India.

.

by reducing lateral displacements under earthquake

loads. Therefore it is very necessary to determine

effective, efficient and ideal location of shear wall.

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

Structural behaviour under seismic loading requires an

understanding of the behaviour under large inelastic

deformations .Nonlinear Static Procedure/ Pushover

analysis can be used to evaluate building loaded

beyond the elastic range. The capacity spectrum

method is one of the most established and widely

accepted displacement based seismic design method

which is used for performance based seismic design.

II. LITERATURE REVIEW

Significance of Shear Wall in High rise Buildings

Static linear and nonlinear analysis procedures for

determining structure responses under seismic forces

Performance based analysis of structures.

Page

INTRODUCTION

There has been a considerable increase in the

construction of tall buildings both residential and

commercial and the modern trend is towards more tall

and slender structures. Thus the effects of lateral loads

like wind loads, earthquake loads and blast forces are

attaining increasing importance and almost every

designer is faced with the problems of providing

adequate strength and stability against lateral loads.

Shear wall system is one of the most commonly used

lateral load resisting system in high rise buildings. Shear

wall has high in plane stiffness and strength which can

be used to simultaneously resist large horizontal loads

and support gravity loads, which significantly reduces

lateral sway of the building and thereby reduces

damage to structure and its contents. Shear walls in

buildings must be symmetrically located in plan to

reduce ill-effects of twist in buildings. When shear walls

are situated in advantageous positions in the building,

is caused due to these inertia forces. Because

earthquake ground motion is three-dimensional, the

structure, in general, deforms in a three dimensional

manner. Generally inertia forces generated by the

horizontal components of ground motion require

greater consideration for seismic design since adequate

resistance to vertical seismic loads is usually provided

by the member capacities required for gravity load

design. The type of analysis to obtain seismic force, and

their distribution to different levels along height of the

building and to various lateral load resisting elements,

depends on the height of the building, severity of the

seismic zone in which the building is located and on the

classification of the building as regular or irregular.

METHODOLOGY

Methods for Seismic analysis of buildings may be

classified as follows:

1) Equivalent Static Analysis (Linear Static)

2) Response Spectrum Analysis (Linear Dynamic)

3) Pushover Analysis (Nonlinear Static)

4) Time History Analysis (Nonlinear Dynamic)

EQUIVALENT STATIC ANALYSIS

In Equivalent static analysis it is assumed that the

structure responds in its fundamental mode. The

response is read from a design response spectrum,

given the natural frequency of the structure. This

method work well for low to medium-rise buildings

without significant coupled lateraltorsional modes, in

which only the first mode in each direction is of

significance.

NONLINEAR STATIC PUSHOVER ANALYSIS

Pushover analysis is a simplified, static, nonlinear

analysis under a predefined pattern of permanent

vertical loads and gradually increasing lateral loads.

Typically the first pushover load case is used to apply

gravity load and then subsequent lateral pushover load

cases are specified to start from the final conditions of

the gravity pushover. Typically a gravity load pushover

is force controlled and lateral pushovers are

displacement controlled. Load is applied incrementally

to frameworks until a collapse mechanism is reached.

Thus it enables determination of collapse load and

ductility capacity on a building frame. Plastic rotation is

monitored, and a lateral inelastic force versus

displacement response for the complete structure is

analytically computed. This type of analysis enables

weakness in the structure to be identified. The decision

to retrofit can be taken in such studies. The ATC-40

document have developed modeling procedures,

acceptance criteria and analysis procedures for

pushover analysis. As shown in Figure 3, five points

labeled A, B, C, D, and E are used to define the force

deflection behavior of the hinge and three points

labeled IO, LS and CP are used to define the acceptance

criteria for the hinge. The range AB is elastic range ,IO,

Page

detail the modeling issues, nonlinear behavior and

analysis of the frame shear wall structural system. An

approximate method which is based on the continuum

approach and one dimensional finite element method

to be used for lateral static and dynamic analyses of

wall-frame buildings is presented. Shaik Kamal

Mohammed Azam.,2013 [2] presented a study on

seismic performance evaluation of multistoried rc

framed buildings with shear wall. A comparison of

structural behavior in terms of strength, stiffness and

damping characteristics is done.The provision of shear

wall has significant influence on lateral strength in taller

buildings while it has less influence on lateral stiffness

in taller buildings. The provision of shear wall has

significant influence on lateral stiffness in buildings of

shorter height while it has less influence on lateral

strength. The influence of shear walls is significant in

terms of the damping characteristics and period at the

performance point for tall buildings. Provision of shear

walls symmetrically in the outermost moment-resisting

frames and preferably interconnected in mutually

perpendicular direction forming the core will have

better seismic performance in terms of strength and

stiffness. Shahabodin ,Zaregarizi;2013 [4] presented a

study on Comparative investigation on using shear wall

and concrete infill to improve seismic performance of

existing buildings in areas with high seismic potential.

Results shows that concrete fills have considerable

strength than brick in fills. whereas the displacement

acceptance of brick infills is higher than concrete infills.

Masonry infills as lateral resisting elements have

considerable strength which can prevent even collapse

in moderate earthquakes. Performance of concrete

infills is dependent on adjacent elements especially

columns, so premature failure in columns due to strong

axial forces must be considered.Misam Abidi,

Mangulkar Madhuri. N;2012 [5] presented an

assessment to understand the behavior of Reinforced

Concrete framed structures by pushover analysis and

the Comparative study was done for different models in

terms of base shear, displacement, performance point.

The inelastic behaviour of the example structures are

examined by carrying out displacement controlled

pushover analysis.

III. SEISMIC RESISTANT DESIGN OF BUILDINGS

No building can remain entirely free of damage during

quake, still, all structures, big or small; can be made to

withstand earthquakes of a particular magnitude by

taking certain precaution.

STRUCTURAL RESPONSE

The behavior of a building during an earthquake is a

vibration problem. If the base of a structure is suddenly

moved the lower portion of a building tends to vibrate,

but the upper part of the structure will not respond

instantaneously, but will lag because of inertial

Prof. Jayasree Ramanujan, et al. ISOI Journal of Engineering and Computer science

Prof. Jayasree Ramanujan, et al. ISOI Journal of Engineering and Computer science

and Collapse Prevention respectively.

PERFORMANCE POINT

The intersection of capacity spectrum with appropriate

demand spectrum in capacity spectrum method. If the

performance point exists and damage state at that

push-over criterion. Depending on the position and

state of the performance point the analyst may decide

on how safe or vulnerable the structure is and where

possible strengthening should be performed.

Figure 2: (a)safe design (b)unsafe design

CAPACITY CURVE

analyses, the detailed structural model subjected to a

ground-motion record produces estimates of

component deformations for each degree of freedom in

the model and the modal responses are combined using

schemes such as the square-root-sum-of-squares.

IV. STRUCTURAL MODELING AND ANALYSIS

The Finite Element analysis software ETABS 9.5 is used

to create the 3-D model and run the linear static and

dynamic analyses and Pushover analysis is done in

SAP2000 .V.14.1 .Eight

different models were

considered.

DETAILS OF THE MODELS

The model adopted for the study is a symmetric sixteen

storey (G+15) residential building having ground storey

height of 3m and typical floor height of 3m founded

on medium soil .

Page

PERFORMANCE LEVEL

Performance Level is defined as the expected behavior

of the building in the design earthquake in terms of

limiting levels of damage to the structural and

nonstructural components .

METHODS OF DYNAMIC ANALYSIS

1) Linear Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis

Response spectra are curves plotted between

maximum response of SDOF system subjected to

specified earthquake ground motion and its time period

(or frequency). Plot with system time period on x - axis

and response quantity on y - axis is the response

spectra pertaining to specified damping ratio and input

ground motion

2) Nonlinear Dynamic Time History Analysis

Nonlinear dynamic analysis utilizes the combination of

ground motion records with a detailed structural

model, therefore is capable of producing results with

Prof. Jayasree Ramanujan, et al. ISOI Journal of Engineering and Computer science

on beams. Rest is automatically considered by program

itself.

Live loads have been assigned as uniform area loads on

slab elements as per IS 875(Part 2)

Live load on roof=2kN/ m2

4.5 LOAD COMBINATIONS

The load combinations considered for the analysis and

design is as per IS: 1893-2002.

ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE

1) Equivalent Static method

2) Response Spectrum Analysis

3) Pushover Analysis

EQUIVALENT STATIC METHOD

The natural period of the building is calculated by the

expressions T= 0.075 x h0.75 for bare frame and

IS 1893 (Part 1) -2002, wherein h is the height and d is

the base dimension of the building in the considered

direction of vibration. The lateral load calculation and

its distribution along the height are done as per IS: 1893

(part 1)-2002. The seismic weight is calculated using full

dead load plus 25% of live load.

Ta =

= 0.85sec in x- direction

(1)

Ta =

(2)

10

Response spectrum analysis of all the models are done

.The parameters provided are

Z=0.16 ,considering zone factor III

I=1 ,considering residential building.

R=5.0, considering special RC moment resisting

frame.(SMRF)

Page

modeled with only column elements and no shear walls

in layout.

MODEL II - (MCE) : Model consists of shear wall

provided in central core area and columns in all other

positions .

MODEL III - (MX) : Model consists of columns in all

positions along with shear walls placed parallel to the X

(Longitudinal)axis

MODEL IV - (MY) : Model consists of columns in all

positions along with shear walls placed parallel to the Y

(Transverse)axis

MODEL V - (MCO) : Shear wall is provided in all four

corners of the building .

MODEL VI - (MCC) : Model is assigned with shear walls

at central core area as well as corners .

MODEL VII - (MCX) : Model is assigned with shear walls

at central core area and as well as in direction parallel

to the X (Longitudinal)axis.

MODEL VIII - (MCY) : Model is assigned with shear walls

at central core area and also in direction parallel to the

Y (Transverse)axis

MATERIAL AND FRAME ELEMENT PROPERTIES

The mix of concrete used for beams and slabs is M20

and that for columns is M40.

Beams of size 200x600 and columns of size 300x1000

have been defined. Slab thickness is provided as

required for the spans as per code. Shear walls

provided are of thickness 200 mm and length 2500 mm

except for core area where the central portion consists

of a shear wall of length 2000 mm.

Fixed supports are provided at base.

LOADS ASSIGNED

Gravity loads on structure include the weight of beams,

slabs, columns and walls. The wall loads have been

Prof. Jayasree Ramanujan, et al. ISOI Journal of Engineering and Computer science

PUSHOVER ANALYSIS

PUSHOVER ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

CREATE 3D MODEL

GRAVITY PUSHOVER

(FORCE CONTROLLED)

LATERAL PUSHOVER

RUN

STATIC PUSHOVER

ANALYSIS

(DISPLACEMENT

CONTROLLED)

COLUMN - DEFAULT PM2M3

DEFINE STATIC PUSHOVER CASE

STRUT AXIAL P

COMPARISON BETWEN EQUIVALENT STATIC METHOD

AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM METHOD

From the analysis results obtained following

parameters are taken into consideration for the present

study.

STOREY DRIFT

Story drift can be defined as the lateral displacement of

one level relative to the level above or below it: As per

Clause no. 7.11.1 of IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002, the storey

drift in any storey due to specified design lateral force

with partial load factor of 1.0, shall not exceed 0.004

(Equivalent Static Method - X direction)

0.004 x 3000 = 12mm.By comparing the drift values

obtained for all models obtained using both methods ,it

could be seen that in models with shear wall provided

at core as well as in corners the inter story drift has

considerably been reduced when compared to the bare

frame model as well as those models in which shear

walls are provided only in longitudinal or transverse

directions.

Fig 6 & 7 illustrates the comparison of story drift in X

and Y directions in mm for all models using Equivalent

Static Method.

(Equivalent Static Method - Y direction

(Response Spectrum Method- X direction)

(Response Spectrum Method-Y direction)

Page

11

Fig 8 & 9 illustrates the comparison of story drift in X and Y directions in mm for all models using Response Spectrum

Method

Prof. Jayasree Ramanujan, et al. ISOI Journal of Engineering and Computer science

Table 1: Percentage variation in maximum Story drift values in X and Y directions using Equivalent static and Response spectrum methods

using Equivalent static and Response spectrum methods

(In comparison with bare frame model)

Equivalent

static Response

spectrum

method

method

MODEL

X direction

Y direction X direction

Y direction

M

19.4

13.9

33.9

20

CE

M

39.9

-9.5

49.5

-14.9

X

-5.4

16.9

0.7

24

31.4

25.1

41.5

25.6

M

M

40.03

52.3

32.6

8.2

46.3

46.3

29.5

12.1

15.9

25.5

30.6

31.8

Y

CO

CC

CX

CY

BASE SHEAR

Base shear is the maximum expected lateral force that will occur due to seismic ground motion at the base of

structure.

Fig 10 & 11 compares the Base shear values of the models in X and Y directions respectively using Equivalent Static

Method.

Fig 12 & 13 compares the Lateral displacement values in X and Y directions respectively using Equivalent Static

Method.

Fig 14 & 15 compares the Lateral Displacement values in X and Y directions respectively using Response Spectrum

Method.

12

(Equivalent static method)

Page

(Equivalent static method)

Prof. Jayasree Ramanujan, et al. ISOI Journal of Engineering and Computer science

(Response Spectrum Method)

(Response Spectrum Method)

Table 2: Percentage reduction in maximum Lateral displacement values in X and Y directions using Equivalent static and Response spectrum

methods

Percentage reduction in maximum Lateral displacement values in X

and Y directions using Equivalent static and Response spectrum

methods(In comparison with bare frame model)

Response spectrum

method

X direction Y direction

MODEL

X direction

Y direction

MCE

23.68

15.3

19.06

MX

34.3

-12.46

40.8

-9.2

MY

-6.1

16.6

28.8

21.1

MCO

31.5

19.2

28.8

21.1

MCC

42.6

22.6

52.08

28.8

MCX

54.7

7.3

36.7

6.2

MCY

19

24.7

14.6

21.9

12.4

From the above results it can be observed that the maximum reduction in displacement value is obtained for Model

M (Frame with Core and corner shear wall).

CC

In order to determine the effect of shear walls on columns, reinforcement requirement in columns C11, C18 and C24

are compared for all the models. The variation in steel quantity requirement is shown graphically for all the

models.

2

2

11(In comparison with bare frame model)

M

CE

CO

CC

CX

CY

FIRST

34.7

28.9

-40

44.6

34.7

34.7

34.7

SECOND

24.9

1.53

-69.8

4.7

7.4

7.6

27.6

THIRD

0.76

7.7

-95

0.08

16.5

9.1

FOURTH

-0.5

26.9

-81

-0.2

34.37

34.37

3.76

FIFTH

-4.2

21.2

-74

5.9

21.2

21.2

-4.9

SIXTH

-6.16

7.07

-66.5

-0.3

7.07

7.07

-9

SEVENTH

-9.4

10.75

-99

-0.4

10.75

10.75

4.24

13

Page

Story No:

Prof. Jayasree Ramanujan, et al. ISOI Journal of Engineering and Computer science

2

18(In comparison with bare frame model)

M

CE

FIRST

11.6

-2.2

SECOND

-1

THIRD

M

Y

CO

CC

CX

CY

-14.1

14.02

18.3

18.1

18.03

2.98

-23.4

0.83

6.7

4.95

1.23

-1.5

4.2

-33.9

1.17

1.74

FOURTH

-1.61

4.5

-55.7

1.29

7.54

-2.45

FIFTH

-13.6

12.6

-80

7.73

13.4

17.2

-19

SIXTH

-29.7

9.09

-110

9.09

9.09

-40.5

SEVENTH

-5

-89

-15.96

14

Page

Story No:

Prof. Jayasree Ramanujan, et al. ISOI Journal of Engineering and Computer science

2

2

(In comparison with bare frame model)

Story No:

CE

FIRST

21.7

-44

SECOND

-14.5

THIRD

CO

CC

CX

CY

-89.9

49.02

21.7

15.8

21.2

0.72

-60

6.1

11.8

14.3

-18.2

-20.8

0.23

-66

7.05

16.2

17.6

-19.06

FOURTH

-27

2.37

-64.8

4.12

26.3

18.4

-25.85

FIFTH

-34.9

8.8

-74

13.19

20.32

20.82

-37

SIXTH

-26.5

-82.3

-35.6

SEVENTH

-42.9

-0.16

though the reinforcement requirement in columns for

top storeys are converging to minimum values ,for

bottom storey's the reinforcement requirement in

column shows considerable variation when provided

with shear walls as compared to the bare frame model.

In Model M and M ie.models with core shear walls

CO

CC

percentage of steel required in columns in ground floor

has come down by 44%, 18% and 49% and up to 34.7%

CC

compared with bare frame model.

PUSHOVER ANALYSIS

Pushover analysis is carried out for all the models .The

results obtained are shown below.

Pushover curve is a plot of base shear versus roof

displacement which is also known as the capacity curve.

This curve gives an assessment of base shear induced at

performance point. The performance point is obtained

by superimposing demand spectrum and capacity curve

transformed into spectral coordinates. The capacity

spectrum obtained for model is shown below.

CC

Location of weak points and potential failure modes that structure would experience in case of a seismic event is

expected to be identified by pushover analysis. The possible hinge locations in model VI & I ie.

M and M predicted by pushover analysis is shown in Fig 5.16 and 5.17.

CC

AC

15

AC

Page

CC

Prof. Jayasree Ramanujan, et al. ISOI Journal of Engineering and Computer science

Fig 23 shows the plastic hinge formation in frame element 734.Hinge is formed within the immediate occupancy

range. So member is safe within applied load limit.

frame element 734

frame element 2040

requirement up to 44.6% when shear wall is provided at

the core and 34.7% when shear wall is located at core

and corner of the structure.

5) Push over analysis results provides an insight into the

performance of structures in post elastic range which

thereby helps in assessing the weakness and possible

failure mechanisms of structure which is not possible

when using equivalent static and response spectrum

method of analysis .This could be useful in rectifying

the detrimental effects in the design stage itself or for

adopting suitable retrofitting methods in case of post

earthquake seismic hazard estimation.

VI. SCOPE FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

The volume of work undertaken in this study is limited

to comparison of seismic response parameters in a

building with different shear wall locations using linear

and nonlinear analyses and Performance level

evaluation using Pushover analysis .The study could be

extended by including various other parameters such

as torsional effects and soft storey effects in a building

.Non linear dynamic analysis may be carried out for

further study for better and realistic evaluation of

structural response under seismic forces .

Page

V. CONCLUSIONS

From the present investigation and the results obtained

it can be concluded as following:

1) In medium high rise buildings (ie greater than 10

storeys) provision of shear walls is found to be effective

in enhancing the overall seismic capacity characteristics

of the structure.

2) From the comparison of story drift values it can be

observed that maximum reduction in drift values is

obtained when shear walls are provided at corners of

the building .

3) Lateral displacement values obtained from static

method of analysis indicate that shear wall provision

along longitudinal and transverse directions are

effective in reducing the displacement values in the

same directions.

Response spectrum analysis results provides a more

realistic behavior of structure response and hence it

can be seen that the displacement values in both X and

Y directions are least in model with shear wall in core

and corners when compared to all other models.

4) The reinforcement requirement in column is affected

by the location and orientation of adjacent shear walls

and columns ,ie alignment along weaker or stronger

axis for the structure under consideration. Though the

demand is varying ,it could be seen that the columns

16

Prof. Jayasree Ramanujan, et al. ISOI Journal of Engineering and Computer science

6.

7.

8.

9.

17

Analysis Of Multi storied Building With Effect Of

Shear Wall, Vol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.223232.

2. M.Y. Kaltakci, M.H. Arslan and G. Yavuz, Effect of

Internal and External Shear Wall Location on

Strengthening Weak RC Frames, Sharif University of

Technology, August 2010,Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 312323.

3. Shaik Kamal Mohammed Azam, Vinod Hosur,

Seismic Performance Evaluation of Multistoried RC

framed buildings with Shear wall, International

Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume

4, Issue 1, January-2013

4. P. B. Oni, Dr. S. B.Vanakudre, Performance Based

Evaluation of Shear Walled RCC Building by

Pushover Analysis, International Journal of Modern

Engineering Research (IJMER) , Vol. 3, Issue. 4, Jul Aug. 2013 pp-2522-2525.

5. D. B. Karwar, Dr. R. S. Londhe, Performance of RC

framed structure using Pushover analysis

Advanced Engineering, Volume 4, Issue 6, June

2014

Yousuf Dinar, Md. Imam Hossain, Rajib Kumar

Biswas, Md. Masud Rana, Descriptive study of

Pushover analysis in RC structures of Rigid joint,

IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering

(IOSR-JMCE), Volume 11, Issue 1 Ver. II (Jan. 2014),

PP 60-68

ATC-40. Seismic evaluation and retrofit of concrete

buildings. Volume 1 and 2. Applied Technology

Council, California, 1996. [5] FEMA-273. NEHRP

guidelines for the seismic rehabilitation of

buildings. Federal Emergency Management

Agency, Washington DC, 1997.

FEMA-356. Prestandard and commentary for the

seismic rehabilitation of buildings. Federal

Emergency Management Agency, Washington DC,

2000.

IS: 1893 (Part 1) 2002- Indian standard- Criteria for

earthquake resistant design of structures, Bureau

of Indian Standards, New Delhi

Page

REFERENCES:

- STAAD Steel Design Video Training (STAAD.pro Steel Design)Hochgeladen vonMAC e-Learning Revolution Pvt Ltd
- Seismic Building Codes In japanHochgeladen vonpushpak2312
- C Earthquake EngineeringHochgeladen vonMuhammad Shafiq
- JCE_66_2014_8_1_1073_ENHochgeladen vonDave Thompson
- Fema 454 - a Manual for ArchitectsHochgeladen vonJorge Cherres
- Seismic Performance of Tuned Mass Dampers Adam y FurtmullerHochgeladen vonMarcelo Guajardo
- Edificaciones altasHochgeladen vonJavier Sánchez
- Sixth LectureHochgeladen vonAmin Kotb
- seismic loadHochgeladen vonBradt Palma
- T. Anisha ( M.E) ProjectHochgeladen vonElakkiya Karthic
- Seismic Performance Study of R.C. Buildings having Vertical Geometric Irregularity using Pushover AnalysisHochgeladen vonInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- CALTRANS+Seismic+Design+Criteria V1.4(2006.06)Hochgeladen vonSoowhan Jung
- U THESISHochgeladen vonjaswant
- Tanks Lecture 3Hochgeladen vonFrank John
- seismed.pdfHochgeladen vonLobsang Matos
- viewcontent.pdfHochgeladen vonYusep Alejandro Cadena Lopez
- Performance of reinforced concrete frames using force and displacement based seismic assessment methodsHochgeladen vonyasser_goldstone
- Pushover and Seismic Response of Foundation on Stiff Clay - Analysis With P-Delta EffectsHochgeladen vonAna Miranda
- Final Draft PDFHochgeladen vondan4books
- article_4084_07d54c457ee9b05c303a31fe3e91c4b0Hochgeladen vonPercy Infante Chavez
- Substation LoadingHochgeladen vonSafi Zabihullah Safi
- Displacement based Seismic Design Chapter 01 (Points)Hochgeladen vonMuhammadNomanK
- earthquake engineeringHochgeladen vonAmmar A. Ali
- 6cd5fbea c6d5 4af6 Bbcf 0c449ebe1a02Hochgeladen vonRory Cristian Cordero Rojo
- 6t5r7y657Hochgeladen vonsaileshkumar888
- Seismic Design and Assessment of Natural Gas and Liquid Hydrocarbon PipelinesHochgeladen vonanup_sahani
- PEER Use of Base Isolation SystemsHochgeladen vonFelipe Cantillano
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