Sie sind auf Seite 1von 70

Universität Karlsruhe (TH) Forschungsuniversität · gegründet 1825

Universität Karlsruhe (TH)

Forschungsuniversität · gegründet 1825

Universität Karlsruhe (TH) Forschungsuniversität · gegründet 1825

≤ < ⇒

≤ < ⇒

<

≤ < ⇒

± ± ± ±

±

±

±

±

± ± ± ±

± ± ± ±

   

   

 

 

   

       

       

 

 

 

 

       

= + >

= + >

=

+ >

= + >

= + > + + + + ( − ) =

= + > + + + + ( − ) =

=

+ >

+ + +

+ ( ) =

= + > + + + + ( − ) =

+ + + = = = + ( − ) =

+ + + = = = + ( − ) =

+ + +

= = =

+ ( ) =

+ + + = = = + ( − ) =

+ + + + ( − ) = = = = + + + +

+ + + + ( − ) = = = = + + + +

+ + +

+ ( ) =

= = =

+ + +

+ ( ) = N

+ + + + ( − ) = = = = + + + + (

+ + + + ( − ) = = = = + + + +

+ + + + ( − ) = = = = + + + +

+ + +

+ ( ) =

= = =

+ + +

+ ( ) = N

+ + +

+ ( ( + ) )

= + ( + )

= + ( ) + ( + )

+ + +

+ + +

= + +

= ( + )

) = + ( + ) = + ( − ) + ( + ) +

  = · ( , ) = ( , )

  = · ( , ) = ( , )

 

= ·

( , ) = ( , )

  = · ( , ) = ( , )

  = = = · = · √ = · → + = · =

  = = = · = · √ = · → + = · =

 

= = = · = · = · +

= · = + + = + + = + = · + = ·
=
·
=
+
+
=
+
+
=
+ = · +
=
· ( + ) = · +

  + = ·

  + = ·

 

+ = ·

  + = ·

  = = = = ⇒ ( , ) = ( , ) = ·

  = = = = ⇒ ( , ) = ( , ) = ·

 

= =

= =

( , ) = ( , )

= · = · =

( , ) = ( , ) =

= = = = ⇒ ( , ) = ( , ) = · = ·

  = = = ·

 

  = = = ·

=

=

= ·

  = = = ·

⇒

⇒

⇒

⇒

         

         

 

 

 

 

 

         

       

       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

               

∗ : × → ∗ ∗( , ) ∗ : × → ( ∗ )

∗ : × → ∗ ∗( , ) ∗ : × → ( ∗ )
∗ : × → ∗ ∗( , ) ∗ : × → ( ∗ )
∗ : × →
∗ ∗( , )
∗ : × →
( ∗ ) ∗ = ∗ ( ∗ ) =: ∗ ∗

( N , +) ( N , ∗ ) Σ + Σ Σ Σ +

( N , +) ( N , ∗ ) Σ + Σ Σ Σ +

(N, +)

(N, )

Σ + Σ Σ Σ +

( N , +) ( N , ∗ ) Σ + Σ Σ Σ +

ε ε ∗ = ∗ ε = ∗ = ∗ = =

ε ε ∗ = ∗ ε = ∗ = ∗ = =

ε ε = ε =

= = =

ε ε ∗ = ∗ ε = ∗ = ∗ = =

Σ ∗ := Σ + ∪ { ε } ε | ε | = =

Σ ∗ := Σ + ∪ { ε } ε | ε | = =

Σ := Σ + ∪ {ε}

ε |ε| =

= ε

[ ] []

Σ ∗ := Σ + ∪ { ε } ε | ε | = = ε

∗ ε ∀ , ∈ : ∗ ∈ ∀ , , ∈ : ( ∗

∗ ε ∀ , ∈ : ∗ ∈ ∀ , , ∈ : ( ∗

ε

, :

, , : ( ) = ( )

: ε = ε =

∀ , , ∈ : ( ∗ ) ∗ = ∗ ( ∗ ) ∀ ∈

∗ ∀ , ∈ : ∗ ∈ ∀ , , ∈ : ( ∗ )

∗ ∀ , ∈ : ∗ ∈ ∀ , , ∈ : ( ∗ )

, :

, , : ( ) = ( )

ε : : ε = ε =

∈ : ( ∗ ) ∗ = ∗ ( ∗ ) ε ∈ : ∀ ∈

· = { ∈ R | > } R

· = { ∈ R | > } R

· = { R| > } R

· = { ∈ R | > } R

· = { ∈ R | > } R R ∀ , ∈ R :

· = { ∈ R | > } R R ∀ , ∈ R :

· = { R| > } R

R

, R : · R

=

, , R : ( · ) · = · ( · )

, : > · > ·

: ( · ) · = · ( · ) ∀ , ∈ : > ⇒

N

N

N

N

N ( % )% = % = = = % = %( % )

N ( % )% = % = = = % = %( % )

N

( % )% = % =

= = % = %( % )

N ( % )% = % = = = % = %( % )

# # := = ∅

# # := = ∅

# # :=

=

# # := = ∅

# # := = ∅ # ∀ , ∈ : # = ∈ ∀ ,

# # := = ∅ # ∀ , ∈ : # = ∈ ∀ ,

# # :=

=

#

, : # =

, ,

= : # =

= = #

, , : ( # )# = #

= = # = #( # )

= = = # ∀ , , ∈ : ( # )# = # = =