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An investigation of the environmental impact of urban road capacity reductions

POSTER

P13-5973

ABSTRACT

The road network is a vital medium for surface movements of goods and people, but also a conduit for the distribuRon of essenRal services such as gas and electricity below ground. CongesRon of the road network is caused by demand exceeding capacity. Various forms of traffic management, for example changes in speed limit, traffic calming measures or network design, can lead to a capacity reducRon on the network. Accidents, roadworks or vehicles infringing on parking restricRons can have a similar effect.

CongesRon has an impact on vehicle emissions and the environment, both of which are becoming increasingly important to decision makers and road users due to their influence on air quality and human health. These issues are especially significant in densely populated urban areas. While methods exist to represent the relaRonships between capacity reducRon and vehicle delay, these are less well developed for urban networks, and the influence of capacity reducRon on vehicle emissions and how the locaRon or intensity of pollutant emission hotspots may change has not previously been considered.

This poster proposes and demonstrates a methodology for assessing how localised capacity reducRons, focusing on roadworks, can affect vehicle dynamics and thus vehicle emissions and network performance indicators. Simple relaRonships between the characterisRcs of the roadworks and key traffic engineering parameters are proposed. The methodology is tested using a microsimulaRon model and a range of roadwork scenarios. Analysis focuses on an urban road network segment and suggests that a typical roadwork may increase emissions by 100%, 101% and 80% for CO 2 , NO X and PM 10 emissions respecRvely, with an associated 34% increase in delay. The importance of local vehicle acceleraRon paaerns in influencing the distribuRon of emissions is clearly seen. Further work to invesRgate the fidelity of acceleraRon simulaRon in traffic microsimulaRon is required to enable idenRficaRon of efficient traffic management intervenRons for management of temporary capacity reducRons.

INTRODUCTION

Road Network

INTRODUCTION Road Network Required for the movement of good and people Required for the distribuRon of

Required for the movement of good and people

Required for the distribuRon of essenRal services

The road network is primarily used for the movement of goods and people on both the carriageway and footway (sidewalk), which form the highway. However, the road network is also used for the distribuRon of essenRal services such as gas, electricity, water and communicaRon networks. The diagram on the right shows a typical cross secRon of a road.

INTRODUCTION Road Network Required for the movement of good and people Required for the distribuRon of

Image available from: hap://www.infovisual.info/05/025_en.html

CongesRon

INTRODUCTION Road Network Required for the movement of good and people Required for the distribuRon of

When demand > capacity

Impact on environment and network performance

The demand is the number of vehicles desiring to travel along a parRcular link per unit Rme, and the capacity is the maximum number of vehicles that can pass through a link using all available road space per unit Rme (TransportaRon Research Board, 2010). When demand exceeds capacity, we expect congesRon. The stop- start driving behaviour in a congested network will result in increased vehicle emissions compared to a smoother driving behaviour as would be expected in free flow condiRons. CongesRon will also have a negaRve impact on network performance by increasing travel Rme and reducing average speeds.

INTRODUCTION Road Network Required for the movement of good and people Required for the distribuRon of

Image available from: hap://society6.com/IkuannaStudios/CongesRon-Ahead-Expect-Delays-Highway-Sign_Print

Capacity reducRon

INTRODUCTION Road Network Required for the movement of good and people Required for the distribuRon of

Physical reducRon in available road space

Can be planned or unplanned

A capacity reducRon is an event, acRvity or process that results in the physical loss of road space. A capacity reducRon can be temporary, for example a broken down vehicle blocking a lane or permanent, for example a reduced speed limit. A capacity reducRon can also be termed planned or unplanned. A planned capacity reducRon could be the closing of a lane to carry out rouRne maintenance, where as an unplanned capacity reducRon could be emergency roadworks.

INTRODUCTION Road Network Required for the movement of good and people Required for the distribuRon of

Image available from: hap://news.bbcimg.co.uk/media/images/55503000/jpg/_55503555_55503554.jpg

OBJECTIVES

Significant economic costs

The Department for Transport (2011) esRmates that the 1.2 million roadworks in England each year result in a cost to the economy of over £4 billion due to the delay caused. This figure fails to consider the addiRonal costs of congested traffic as highlighted by the Greater London Authority (2012), for example frustraRon to road users and the environmental impact.

1.2M roadworks in England each year cost economy £4B

Health impacts

The World Health OrganisaRon (2011) states that 40 million people in the 115 largest ciRes in the European Union are exposed to air that exceeds WHO air quality guideline values for at least one pollutant. Roadworks, a typical capacity reducRon, can cause congesRon in a saturated network and this is expect to increase vehicle emissions.

40M people in 115 largest EU ciRes at risk due to poor air quality

Policy implicaRons

Roadworks, also commonly referred to as workzones, are becoming increasingly important, and are the focus of many pieces of legislaRon and guidance documentaRon. In London, UK, there is now a formal procedure that contractors have to follow to gain access to the highway, known as the London Permit Scheme (LoPS 2009). Other schemes such as the Lane Rental Scheme (TLRS 2012) force contractors to ‘rent’ secRons of the carriageway. Other key documents include the Design Manual for Roads and Bridges (DMRB 2012), New Roads and Street Works Act (NRSWA 1991), Traffic Management Act (TMA 2004) and the Mayor’s Code of Conduct (2009).

New legislaRon and guidance documentaRon in London

ROADWORKS

CongesRon

Roadworks are an example of a capacity reducRon and can have a significant impact on network performance in a saturated network. If there is insufficient pracRcal reserve capacity, the introducRon of a set of roadworks will result in congesRon. Roadworks, which can be planned or unplanned, are a form of non-recurrent congesRon. Non-recurrent congesRon is the build up of traffic due to an incident and is unexpected, the opposite of recurrent congesRon which is predictable, for example during the AM peak.

Many Unplanned vehicles Parked Planned others Roadworks others Many Pothole filling Accidents redevelopment resurfacing Traffic calming
Many
Unplanned
vehicles
Parked
Planned
others
Roadworks
others
Many
Pothole filling
Accidents
redevelopment
resurfacing
Traffic calming
Lack of
measures
capacity
Standard works
Major works
RouRne
Streetscape
Immediate
Immediate
urgent
works
emergency works
Repair burst
Repair
water main
gas leak
(incident based)
Recurrent congesRon
Non-recurrent congesRon
CongesRon
Minor works

Management

The management of roadworks varies greatly depending on whether the roadworks are planned or unplanned, but also based on the severity of the roadworks. With planned roadworks, the contractor needs to noRfy the relevant highway authority between 3 days and 3 months in advance of the works. The contractor and highway authority will then work together to put in the necessary traffic management and ensure the duraRon of the works and the space required is appropriate for the works to be conducted. With unplanned roadworks, the contractor informs the highway authority of the works up to 5 hours aper the works have commenced. The highway authority may then ask the contractor to stop and put in the necessary traffic management or conRnue. Unplanned roadworks have the potenRal to be more disrupRve as road users will not have been noRfied in advance and a traffic management plan will not be in effect.

Planned v unplanned roadworks

Are unplanned roadworks more disrupRve?

Stakeholders

There are numerous stakeholders involved with roadworks, including local residents, road users, roadwork promoters, local authoriRes and central government each of whom may have different agendas and prioriRes. There is a clear need to invesRgate all of the cost components associated with roadworks, including the environmental impact, in order to support decisions about future roadwork management.

ROADWORKS CongesRon Roadworks are an example of a capacity reducRon and can have a significant impact

Image available from: hap://27gen.files.wordpress.com/2011/09/sixthinkinghats1.jpg

MECHANISM OF IMPACT

A localised reducRon in lane capacity will affect the dynamics of individual vehicle operaRon and therefore emissions and network performance indicators such as delay. Accurate assessment of emissions depends on analysis at this level (Smit et al., 2010). Above a certain degree of saturaRon, this capacity reducRon and the characterisRcs of the associated traffic management may lead to measurable changes in link performance. In principle, a change in link performance characterisRcs will have an impact on the route choice and behaviour across the network (Sheu (2006)).

Furthermore, driver behaviour such as sensiRvity to informaRon and familiarity with the network will affect the level of rerouRng and thus the extent of the network that is affected by the capacity reducRon (e.g. Hu et al. (2007)). A key output, therefore, of a microscopic, link-based analysis is to determine the extent to which a localised capacity reducRon affects the generalised cost of using different links and nodes in the network.

reassignment of vehicles, re- distribuRon of emissions higher fuel usage, increased local polluRon If degree of
reassignment of
vehicles, re-
distribuRon of
emissions
higher fuel usage,
increased local
polluRon
If degree of saturaRon is
sufficiently high
If effects cause changes
in assignment
average speeds,
Network Effect
Link Effect
Capacity
Reduction
demand and mode,
E.g. – changes in
increased delay,
E.g. – lower

SCOPE

In this study we focus on the simple link component of a roadwork in an urban network

In the scenarios explored, the presence of traffic management in the form of temporary traffic signals is required

The condiRons under which link-level capacity reducRons influence adjacent links and nodes is idenRfied

A series of models built to simulate different roadwork scenarios

Underlying theoreRcal framework is based on basic traffic engineering concepts

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Key equaRons

The capacity is defined to be the maximum throughput of a parRcular

segment of the network. The capacity can be calculated as a funcRon of the

green raRo and saturaRon flow. The green raRo is the raRo of effecRve

green Rme g to the traffic signal cycle length c. The saturaRon flow, also

commonly referred to as the queue discharge rate, is denoted by s.

By manipulaRng the equaRon above, an expression for the criRcal green Rme g crit can be formed. q is the number of vehicles aaempRng to enter the capacity restrained link and the other variables are as defined above.

Blocking-back

Using the diagram below, it is possible to define an equaRon to esRmate the criRcal length of the platoon of the vehicles aaempRng to enter the capacity restrained link that will result in blocking-back into the adjacent nodes and juncRons. As shown in the diagram below, d is the distance between the juncRon and the stop line of the temporary traffic management. z is the length of the queue that forms due to the temporary traffic signals and x is the length of the platoon of vehicles aaempRng to enter the capacity restrained link.

! =

! !
!
!

!

 

!

! !"#$ = !

!

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Key equaRons The capacity is defined to be the maximum throughput of a parRcular
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Key equaRons The capacity is defined to be the maximum throughput of a parRcular

!" !! ! ! ! ! !"#$ ! !

!"#$%&'( !!"#$!!"#$!!!!!"#$%&'(!!"#$%&'#!!""#$%

Back of queue Stop line x 3 x 1 x 2 d z x = x
Back of
queue
Stop line
x 3
x 1
x 2
d
z
x = x 1 +x 2 +x 3 = Length of platoon of vehicles entering capacity reduced link during analysis
timeframe

Aravinth Thiyagarajah (a.thiyagarajah@imperial.ac.uk) Dr Robin North (robin.north@imperial.ac.uk)

An investigation of the environmental impact of urban road capacity reductions POSTER P13-5973 ABSTRACT The road

This poster describes doctoral work supported by the RJRF and supervised by Dr Robin North, Professor Michael Bell and Professor John Polak at the Centre for Transport Studies, Imperial College London

Centre for Transport Studies www.imperial.ac.uk/cts

An investigation of the environmental impact of urban road capacity reductions POSTER P13-5973 ABSTRACT The road

An investigation of the environmental impact of urban road capacity reductions

POSTER

P13-5973

MODELLING FRAMEWORK

In order to assess the impact of urban capacity reducRons, VISSIM (Verkehr In Stadten – SIMulaRonsmodell), a mulR-modal microscopic traffic simulaRon sopware was used (PTV AG, 2012). VISSIM has its limitaRons as highlighted by Treiber et al. (2006) and Jie et al. (2012), however it is the microsimulaRon tool recommended for use in several modelling guidelines, for example Transport for London (2010).

To esRmate the vehicle emissions, the individual vehicle records from VISSIM were exported into EnViVer, an instantaneous emissions modelling tool created by TNO (The Netherlands OrganisaRon for Applied ScienRfic Research) (TNO, 2012). The emissions are calculated by assigning each VISSIM vehicle type to an emissions class in EnViVer and applying a polynomial based on acceleraRon behaviour.

The modelling process, adapted from North et al. (2009) is shown to the right. Traffic, network and roadwork data support the building and configuraRon of the traffic model, and then the outputs of the traffic model are combined with the vehicle fleet data for emissions predicRon in the emission model.

data Vehicle Traffic fleet data Emission model data Roadwork Network data Traffic model VISSIM EnViVer
data
Vehicle
Traffic
fleet data
Emission model
data
Roadwork
Network
data
Traffic model
VISSIM
EnViVer

MODELLING

Model structure

A simple model has been created where a parRal closure of a link is required and the introducRon of a signalised contra-flow to maintain the flow of traffic. The model, denoted ‘A’ is composed of a 300m link, typical of an urban city centre, and 100m entry links to control the behaviour of the vehicles as they enter the network.

600 veh/hr 300m Link (50kph) 100m Entry link 100m Entry link 600 veh/hr A
600 veh/hr
300m Link (50kph)
100m Entry link
100m Entry link
600 veh/hr
A

The image denoted ‘B’ shows how the contraflow has been implemented with a 10m buffer zone on either side to allow for vehicles to manoeuvre around the works. The temporary traffic signals that are present on the entrances to the contraflow have been programmed with a cycle Rme of 90 seconds, typical of urban environments. The green Rme has been set to minimise the queuing of vehicles but ensure sufficient inter-green Rme to allow vehicles to safely leave the contraflow.

B

50m contraflow (30kph)

Temporary traffic signal Temporary traffic signal 100m Entry link 100m Entry link 115m (50kph) 115m (50kph)
Temporary traffic signal
Temporary traffic signal
100m Entry link
100m Entry link
115m (50kph)
115m (50kph)
600 veh/hr
600 veh/hr

10m buffer zone

(20kph)

Scenarios

In order to invesRgate a range of levels of degradaRon of network performance, the length of the roadwork was varied between 30m-120m, represenRng a 10-40% reducRon in eastbound lane area. As links do not appear in isolaRon, addiRonal models were created with the presence of juncRons adjacent to the capacity restrained link. The signalised crossroads were programmed with a two-stage signal plan that allows for the same vehicle flow of 600 veh/hr. As with the link models, the length of the roadwork was varied between 30m-120m.

115m (50kph) 115m (50kph) 600 veh/hr (as on all entry links) Traffic signals on each arm
115m (50kph)
115m (50kph)
600 veh/hr
(as on all entry links)
Traffic signals on each
arm of junction
50m contraflow (30kph)
Temporary traffic signal
Temporary traffic signal
100m Entry link
10m buffer zone
“Yellow box”
junction
50m link
(20kph)
C

SimulaRon

In total 5 link models and 5 juncRon models were built in VISSIM. Over 100 simulaRons were carried out, with mulRple runs for each scenario. Various parameters in VISSIM such as delay, average speed and journey Rme were output. Other vehicle specific characterisRcs such as speed, posiRon and Rme in network were output from VISSIM and used as an input into EnViVer to esRmate the vehicle emissions. The outputs from EnViVer and VISSIM were post-processed in MATLAB and Excel in order to average across mulRple seeds and to calculate the total mass of pollutant emiaed from the capacity restrained link only.

MODELLING Model structure A simple model has been created where a parRal closure of a link

RESULTS

Trends

149%, 180% and 112% increase in CO 2 , NO X and PM 10 emissions respecRvely between the no roadwork case and shortest (30m) roadwork case

Comparing the no roadwork case for the link model and juncRon model, we observe a 69%, 36% and 34% increase in CO 2 , NO X and PM 10 emissions aaributed to increased queuing

Comparing the juncRon model with no roadworks and a 30m roadwork, 100%, 101% and 80% increases in CO 2 , NO X and PM 10 emissions respecRvely are observed

A 25% reducRon in average speed was observed when a 30m roadwork was introduced into the link model and a 34% reducRon in average speed for the juncRon model. A similar effect on average vehicle delay was observed in each case

Link model results

Length of disruption (m)

0

30

50

70

120

CO 2 (kg)

57.70

143.50

151.10

157.70

171.00

NO X (g)

154.00

430.50

454.50

475.10

536.60

PM 10 (g)

13.99

29.70

31.21

32.53

34.41

Average vehicle delay (s)

0.29

26.01

31.92

36.18

78.56

Average speed (kph)

52.60

25.73

23.10

21.36

12.83

 

JuncRon model results

 

Length of disruption (m)

0

30

40

70

120

CO 2 (kg)

97.29

194.70

202.40

208.80

201.4

NO X (g)

299.00

602.70

661.80

674.40

641.90

PM 10 (g)

21.17

38.18

39.06

40.29

39.01

Average vehicle delay (s)

25.42

38.45

39.90

49.46

82.25

Average speed (kph)

21.78

16.46

15.90

13.71

9.28

Intensity maps

EnViVer is able to esRmate and output the mass of pollutant emiaed for CO 2 , NO X and PM 10 for each 5m grid square. Using a combinaRon of MATLAB and Excel, the outputs have been averaged across mulRple seeds and normalised between the different scenarios invesRgated. Emissions intensity maps have then been produced by plo{ng the

total emissions for each grid square using a linear grey scale, where black represents the maximum emissions.

Increasing emissions

RESULTS Trends •   149%, 180% and 112% increase in CO , NO and PM emissions
RESULTS Trends •   149%, 180% and 112% increase in CO , NO and PM emissions

Intensity maps for CO 2 (link model)

RESULTS Trends •   149%, 180% and 112% increase in CO , NO and PM emissions
No roadwork 30m roadwork 50m roadwork
No roadwork
30m roadwork
50m roadwork

The intensity map for the no roadwork case link model shows a conRnuous grey scale, unlike the maps for the 30m

and 50m roadwork case where there is a peak in emissions around the roadwork.

The emissions intensity maps for the juncRon model show a similar trend, however there are addiRonal zones of increased emissions on the exits from the capacity restrained link. Comparing the 30m and 50m roadwork cases, we see a more dispersed map for the 50m case, this is likely to be due to vehicles travelling in a constant queue

rather than acceleraRng between queues.

Intensity maps for CO 2 (juncRon model)

No roadwork
No roadwork
30m roadwork
30m roadwork
50m roadwork
50m roadwork

Blocking-back

Focusing on the juncRon model, we observe a reducRon in emissions across all three pollutants between the 70m and 120m roadwork cases. A possible explanaRon is that vehicles are blocking-back into the adjacent juncRons, resulRng in a flow reducRon through the network. This can be confirmed by calculaRng the criRcal green Rme, g crit for this network. For the 70m roadwork, the temporary traffic signals have a green Rme of 30s, which is higher than g crit , however for the 120m roadwork, the green Rme is 25s, less than the criRcal green Rme.

For the 120m roadwork, the queue that forms at the temporary traffic signals during the inter-green is not fully served and the queue becomes a funcRon of Rme. Eventually z=d and no new vehicles can enter the capacity restrained link.

! !"#$ = 25.96!

for$simulated$network$

!" !! < ! !"#$ !!"#$% !!"#$%&'() !!" !!"#$

CONCLUSION

From the research presented in this poster, the following conclusions can be drawn:

Link level capacity reducRons can have a significant impact on vehicle emissions and Rme-related network performance variables

The length of the capacity reducRon and its proximity to adjacent juncRons is criRcal for determining whether just the capacity

restrained link or the wider network needs to be taken into consideraRon when assessing the impact of a capacity reducRon

The posiRon of the stop line for temporary traffic management and the effecRve green Rme on the temporary traffic signals are

important, especially when the queue that forms during the inter-green Rme extends beyond the link

The highest emissions are observed with zones of high acceleraRon and this is something pracRRoners should avoid when

configuring roadworks and workzones

FURTHER WORK

The research presented in this poster forms part of a wider invesRgaRon that will feed into Mr. Thiyagarajah’s PhD thesis. Further work to address the following will be conducted in due course:

Assessment of the suitability of exisRng modelling tools

Improving the realism of the modelling procedure by increasing the complexity and including re-rouRng of traffic

CalibraRon and validaRon of the modelling procedure using real-world data

TranslaRng the impact of capacity reducRons on the environment and network performance into a generalised cost which can be used to support decision making and feed into future policy

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1929-1939.

Aravinth Thiyagarajah (a.thiyagarajah@imperial.ac.uk) Dr Robin North (robin.north@imperial.ac.uk)

An investigation of the environmental impact of urban road capacity reductions POSTER P13-5973 MODELLING FRAMEWORK In

This poster describes doctoral work supported by the RJRF and supervised by Dr Robin North, Professor Michael Bell and Professor John Polak at the Centre for Transport Studies, Imperial College London

Centre for Transport Studies www.imperial.ac.uk/cts

An investigation of the environmental impact of urban road capacity reductions POSTER P13-5973 MODELLING FRAMEWORK In