Sie sind auf Seite 1von 10

HASIB-31.01.

2003
datacolor
THE CIE SYSTEM

Based on the premise that a color sensation is a combination of an


illuminant, an object, and an observer.

In 1931 the CIE standardized illuminants and observers, and


published methods to compute numbers that describe colors.

The CIE system is used with color measuring instruments that


measure object data.

CIELAB COLOUR SPACE

L* = LIGHTNESS
(WHITE - BLACK
STRENGTH)
a* = RED - GREEN AXIS
b* = YELLOW - BLUE AXIS
C* = CHROMA (BRIGHTNESS)
H* = HUE
(SHADE)

CIE L*a*b* EQUATIONS


L*

L* = Lightness

L* = near 0 for black,

L* = 100 for white.

CIE L*a*b* EQUATIONS


L*

L* = 116 (Y/Yn)1/3 - 16

CIE L*a*b* EQUATIONS


a*

a* = red - green axis


+ a* = red (no green)
- a* = green (no red)

CIE L*a*b* EQUATIONS


a*

a* = 500 (X/Xn)1/3 - 500 (Y/Yn)1/3

CIE L*a*b* EQUATIONS


b*

b* = yellow - blue axis


+b* = yellow (no blue)
-b* = blue (no yellow)

CIE L*a*b* EQUATIONS


b*

b* = 200 (Y/Yn)1/3 - 200 (Z/Zn)1/3

CHROMA

The quality that describes the extent to which a color


differs from a gray, of the same value (lightness).

Sometimes referred to as: saturation, purity, vividness, or


colorfullness.

CIELAB
METRIC CHROMA

C* = the metric chroma of a color.

C* = (a*2 + b*2)1/2.
C* = the distance from the center of the a*b*
chart to the color location.
Low chroma colors (grays); C* slightly > 0.
High chroma colors; C* about 70-90.

HUE

The sensation that a color appears to be similar to: red,


yellow, green, blue, or purple, or proportions of any two of
them.

Without hue is achromatic: black, gray, or white.

CIELAB
METRIC HUE ANGLE

h = the metric hue angle of a color.


h = the angle (of the color in the a*b* chart),
relative to the +a* axis.
h = tan-1 (b*/a*).
h = an angle, from 0 to 360o, with 0 on the +a*
axis, 90o on the +b* axis, etc.

HUE, LIGHTNESS, CHROMA


INDUSTRIAL TERMS

HUE - Hue differences might be described as being: redder,


yellower, bluer, or greener.

LIGHTNESS - Lightness differences might be described as


lighter, or darker.

CHROMA - Chroma differences might be described as


brighter, or duller.

COLOUR DIFFERENCE

The color difference between two colors is the primary measure


for most industrial color applications.

Visual assessment can determine the direction of a difference, but


usually not its magnitude.

Colorimetry is used to quantify color differences.

Color differences are used for: quality control, formulation, and


correction applications.

COLOUR DIFFERENCE

COLOUR DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS :

CALCULATE A SINGLE NUMBER (DE or E)

DE IS PROPORTIONAL TO THE VISUAL


DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO SAMPLES

DE IS THE DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO SAMPLES


IN COLOUR SPACE

COLOUR DIFFERENCE
Equations Available in DCI software

CIEL*a*b*
CMC(l:c)
DATACOLOR
FMC2
JPC79
MS89
HUNTERLab
DIN6175
e.t.c.

CIE L*a*b* COLOR DIFFERENCE


EQUATION

Batches are compared to standards.

dL* = L*BAT - L*STD ( + is lighter)


da* = a*BAT - a*STD ( + is redder, less green)
db* = b*BAT - b*STD ( + is yellower,less blue)
dE* = (dL2 + da2 + db2)1/2 (no direction)

CIE L*C*h* COLOR DIFFERENCE


EQUATION

Batches are compared to standards.


dL* = L*BAT - L*STD ( + is lighter)
dC* = C*BAT - C*STD ( + is more chroma)
dh* = h*BAT - h*STD ( hue angle difference)
dH* = Metric hue difference
dE* = (dL2 + dC2 + dH2)1/2 (no direction)
dH* = (dE2 - dL2 - dC2)1/2 (+ is CCW)

COLOUR DIFFERENCE
CIE L*a*b* COLOR EQUATION

The usefulness of the CIE equation has proven to be


limited by its:
- Failure to follow the visually accepted
hue, lightness, and chroma concepts.
- Failure to have equal visual spaces
between nearby colors.

The system developed to meet these needs, is the CMC


Equation

CMC Equations

History of Development
Philosophy of Development
Mathematics
Adjustable Parameters
Successes and Failures
Application and Interpretation
Future Development

History of Development

First published in September 1983

Based on JPC79 scaled to Davidson-Friede


8454 p/f judgements of thread by one shader

Promoted by British Textile Society

Colour Measurement Committee


Society of Dyers and Colourists

BS 6923 (1988),
DIS ISO/TC38/SC1/N 762

Philosophy of Development

Instrument Shade Passing

Single number p/f tolerance

Color Difference Metrics are Perceptual

JND judgements - MacAdam ellipses


Color Order judgements - Munsell, OSA

Ellipsoid volume increases with chroma


Color Acceptance judgements are biased

Hue:Chroma:Lightness (3:2:1)

Mathematical Relations
COLOUR DIFFERENCE
Adjustable Parameters

l:c were found experimentally

Improved the error level of JPC79


Did not know why

CIE TC 1-28 Parametric Effects

Identified the source of lightness term as due to texture


Smooth surfaces find lightness term not as significant

Adjustable Parameters

CMC tolerance is based on Coates thread


Other applications may have tighter specs.

Tennessee Eastman textured plastic found


ECMC = 1.0 too large.

Commercial factor (cf) reduces the volume of the ellipsoid.

Automotive plastics use cf = 0.4


and l:c = 2:1

Successes and Failures

Used by Ford to specify all interior components

Textured materials seem to like 2:1 ratio

TE found excellent agreement between CMC and 3-D visual


ellipsoids

No reliable data on smooth materials


Some data indicating not all ellipsoids point toward the white

point

Application and Interpretation

Defacto standard color tolerance formula


Is being promoted as a general color difference formula
x = (L*/lSL), y = (C*/cSC), z = (H*/SH)

Not a true color difference formula


Tolerance volumes are not true ellipsoids
BS 6923 & draft ISO standard

Future Developments

CIE TC 1-29 Recommended color difference formula

No complex hue terms


Still not a real ellipsoid

DCI color tolerance formula and auto tolerance

Related to neurophysiology of perception


Adjustable to true ellipsoid

COLOUR DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS ARE


BETTER THAN THE COLORIST AT
MAKING PASS / FAIL DECISIONS !
COLOUR DIFFERENCE

BENEFITS OF GETTING IT RIGHT

MORE RELIABLE THAN THE colorist


OBJECTIVE RESULTS (ISO 9000)
MAY BE USED BY UNSKILLED STAFF
REDUCE ARGUMENTS

PENALTIES OF GETTING IT WRONG

MORE TIME SPENT LAB MATCHING


POOR RECIPES FOR PRODUCTION

CORRECTING BATCHES UNNECESSARILY


COMPLAINTS

DE TOLERANCE vs VISUAL
Customer vs Supplier?

Talk
Relate
Understand
Set limits
Track

Customer & Supplier


MUST Agree

Light Source or Sources

D65, A, CWF

should match the store light, daylight and/or home lighting

Observer

2 or 10

Equation
Measurement Geometry

0/8 45 /0 etc

Customer & Supplier


MUST Agree

Acceptable Tolerances

E only or E plus L, a, b, C, h

Shade Sorting System

If Applicable

Reports
Production tolerances must be lower than Agreed Tolerances (see
section on measurement accuracy)

Customer & Supplier


Example Tolerances

Lingerie - E 0.6-0.8 CMC

Coordinates - E 0.8-1.0 CMC


Outerwear - E 1.0-1.2 CMC
Manchester - E 1.0-1.2 CMC
Colorbond - E 0.2-0.4 CMC
Automotive - E 0.4 - 0.8 CMC

SHADE SORTING

Sort Materials that are within acceptable production tolerances into


lots that can be cut together without exhibiting an unacceptable color
difference between adjoining panels.

SOURCES OF ERROR IN MEASUREMENT

ERRORS FROM THE SAMPLE


OPERATOR ERRORS
ERRORS FROM THE INSTRUMENT

COLOUR DIFFERENCE

ERRORS FROM THE SAMPLE


LEVELNESS
EVENESS OF APPLICATION
SOILING / FADING
OPACITY
FINISH
e.t.c..............

COLOUR DIFFERENCE

OPERATOR ERRORS - SPECTRO

APERTURE
SPECULAR
U.V.

(LAV)
(SPECULAR INC)
(U.V. INCLUDED)

COLOUR DIFFERENCE

OPERATOR ERRORS - CONTINUED..

No OF THICKNESSES
- OPACITY

ORIENTATION

MEASURE WITH VARIATION - MOVE SAMPLE

MIS MEASURING
- INSPECT SAMPLE

SYSTEM SET UP
- EQUATION,
- ILLUMINANTS,
- OBSERVER

Errors from the Spectrophotometer Minimised by

GOOD HOUSE KEEPING


GOOD OFFICE ENVIRONMENT
CLEAN POWER SUPPLY
CHECK & CLEAN SPHERE
GOOD CALIBRATION PROCEDURE
EVERY EIGHT HOURS min
CHECK TILES ARE CLEAN
KEEP TILES IN CLOSED BOX
POSITION TILES & BLACK TRAPS WITH CARE

MONITORING SPECTROPHOTOMETER

LAMP REPEATABILITY TEST

COLOUR STABILITY TEST

PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE

SIX MONTHLY INTERVAL

CALIBRATION CERT ISO 9000

LAMP STABILITY, BCRA TILE CHECK, SPHERE DIAGNOSTIC TEST,


INSTRUMENT GAIN, RAW DATA, FULL OPTICS, MECHANICS &
ELECTRONICS SERVICE

COLOUR DIFFERENCE

CONCLUSION. TO MINIMISE
ERRORS IN Q.C.
CALIBRATION
MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE
GOOD USE OF SOFTWARE
INSTRUMENT MAINTENANCE
ARE OF PRIME IMPORTANCE