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# HASIB-31.01.

2003
datacolor
THE CIE SYSTEM

## Based on the premise that a color sensation is a combination of an

illuminant, an object, and an observer.

## In 1931 the CIE standardized illuminants and observers, and

published methods to compute numbers that describe colors.

## The CIE system is used with color measuring instruments that

measure object data.

## CIELAB COLOUR SPACE

L* = LIGHTNESS
(WHITE - BLACK
STRENGTH)
a* = RED - GREEN AXIS
b* = YELLOW - BLUE AXIS
C* = CHROMA (BRIGHTNESS)
H* = HUE

L*

L* = Lightness

## CIE L*a*b* EQUATIONS

L*

L* = 116 (Y/Yn)1/3 - 16

a*

## a* = red - green axis

+ a* = red (no green)
- a* = green (no red)

a*

b*

## b* = yellow - blue axis

+b* = yellow (no blue)
-b* = blue (no yellow)

b*

CHROMA

## The quality that describes the extent to which a color

differs from a gray, of the same value (lightness).

colorfullness.

CIELAB
METRIC CHROMA

## C* = the metric chroma of a color.

C* = (a*2 + b*2)1/2.
C* = the distance from the center of the a*b*
chart to the color location.
Low chroma colors (grays); C* slightly > 0.
High chroma colors; C* about 70-90.

HUE

## The sensation that a color appears to be similar to: red,

yellow, green, blue, or purple, or proportions of any two of
them.

CIELAB
METRIC HUE ANGLE

## h = the metric hue angle of a color.

h = the angle (of the color in the a*b* chart),
relative to the +a* axis.
h = tan-1 (b*/a*).
h = an angle, from 0 to 360o, with 0 on the +a*
axis, 90o on the +b* axis, etc.

INDUSTRIAL TERMS

## HUE - Hue differences might be described as being: redder,

yellower, bluer, or greener.

## LIGHTNESS - Lightness differences might be described as

lighter, or darker.

## CHROMA - Chroma differences might be described as

brighter, or duller.

COLOUR DIFFERENCE

## The color difference between two colors is the primary measure

for most industrial color applications.

## Visual assessment can determine the direction of a difference, but

usually not its magnitude.

## Color differences are used for: quality control, formulation, and

correction applications.

COLOUR DIFFERENCE

## DE IS PROPORTIONAL TO THE VISUAL

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO SAMPLES

## DE IS THE DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO SAMPLES

IN COLOUR SPACE

COLOUR DIFFERENCE
Equations Available in DCI software

CIEL*a*b*
CMC(l:c)
DATACOLOR
FMC2
JPC79
MS89
HUNTERLab
DIN6175
e.t.c.

EQUATION

## dL* = L*BAT - L*STD ( + is lighter)

da* = a*BAT - a*STD ( + is redder, less green)
db* = b*BAT - b*STD ( + is yellower,less blue)
dE* = (dL2 + da2 + db2)1/2 (no direction)

EQUATION

## Batches are compared to standards.

dL* = L*BAT - L*STD ( + is lighter)
dC* = C*BAT - C*STD ( + is more chroma)
dh* = h*BAT - h*STD ( hue angle difference)
dH* = Metric hue difference
dE* = (dL2 + dC2 + dH2)1/2 (no direction)
dH* = (dE2 - dL2 - dC2)1/2 (+ is CCW)

COLOUR DIFFERENCE
CIE L*a*b* COLOR EQUATION

## The usefulness of the CIE equation has proven to be

limited by its:
- Failure to follow the visually accepted
hue, lightness, and chroma concepts.
- Failure to have equal visual spaces
between nearby colors.

## The system developed to meet these needs, is the CMC

Equation

CMC Equations

History of Development
Philosophy of Development
Mathematics
Successes and Failures
Application and Interpretation
Future Development

History of Development

## Colour Measurement Committee

Society of Dyers and Colourists

BS 6923 (1988),
DIS ISO/TC38/SC1/N 762

Philosophy of Development

## JND judgements - MacAdam ellipses

Color Order judgements - Munsell, OSA

## Ellipsoid volume increases with chroma

Color Acceptance judgements are biased

Hue:Chroma:Lightness (3:2:1)

Mathematical Relations
COLOUR DIFFERENCE

Did not know why

## Identified the source of lightness term as due to texture

Smooth surfaces find lightness term not as significant

## CMC tolerance is based on Coates thread

Other applications may have tighter specs.

## Tennessee Eastman textured plastic found

ECMC = 1.0 too large.

and l:c = 2:1

ellipsoids

## No reliable data on smooth materials

Some data indicating not all ellipsoids point toward the white

point

## Defacto standard color tolerance formula

Is being promoted as a general color difference formula
x = (L*/lSL), y = (C*/cSC), z = (H*/SH)

## Not a true color difference formula

Tolerance volumes are not true ellipsoids
BS 6923 & draft ISO standard

Future Developments

## No complex hue terms

Still not a real ellipsoid

## COLOUR DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS ARE

BETTER THAN THE COLORIST AT
MAKING PASS / FAIL DECISIONS !
COLOUR DIFFERENCE

## MORE RELIABLE THAN THE colorist

OBJECTIVE RESULTS (ISO 9000)
MAY BE USED BY UNSKILLED STAFF
REDUCE ARGUMENTS

## MORE TIME SPENT LAB MATCHING

POOR RECIPES FOR PRODUCTION

## CORRECTING BATCHES UNNECESSARILY

COMPLAINTS

DE TOLERANCE vs VISUAL
Customer vs Supplier?

Talk
Relate
Understand
Set limits
Track

MUST Agree

D65, A, CWF

## should match the store light, daylight and/or home lighting

Observer

2 or 10

Equation
Measurement Geometry

0/8 45 /0 etc

## Customer & Supplier

MUST Agree

Acceptable Tolerances

E only or E plus L, a, b, C, h

If Applicable

Reports
Production tolerances must be lower than Agreed Tolerances (see
section on measurement accuracy)

## Customer & Supplier

Example Tolerances

## Coordinates - E 0.8-1.0 CMC

Outerwear - E 1.0-1.2 CMC
Manchester - E 1.0-1.2 CMC
Colorbond - E 0.2-0.4 CMC
Automotive - E 0.4 - 0.8 CMC

## Sort Materials that are within acceptable production tolerances into

lots that can be cut together without exhibiting an unacceptable color

## ERRORS FROM THE SAMPLE

OPERATOR ERRORS
ERRORS FROM THE INSTRUMENT

COLOUR DIFFERENCE

## ERRORS FROM THE SAMPLE

LEVELNESS
EVENESS OF APPLICATION
OPACITY
FINISH
e.t.c..............

COLOUR DIFFERENCE

## OPERATOR ERRORS - SPECTRO

APERTURE
SPECULAR
U.V.

(LAV)
(SPECULAR INC)
(U.V. INCLUDED)

COLOUR DIFFERENCE

## OPERATOR ERRORS - CONTINUED..

No OF THICKNESSES
- OPACITY

ORIENTATION

MIS MEASURING
- INSPECT SAMPLE

SYSTEM SET UP
- EQUATION,
- ILLUMINANTS,
- OBSERVER

## GOOD HOUSE KEEPING

GOOD OFFICE ENVIRONMENT
CLEAN POWER SUPPLY
CHECK & CLEAN SPHERE
GOOD CALIBRATION PROCEDURE
EVERY EIGHT HOURS min
CHECK TILES ARE CLEAN
KEEP TILES IN CLOSED BOX
POSITION TILES & BLACK TRAPS WITH CARE

MONITORING SPECTROPHOTOMETER

## COLOUR STABILITY TEST

PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE

## LAMP STABILITY, BCRA TILE CHECK, SPHERE DIAGNOSTIC TEST,

INSTRUMENT GAIN, RAW DATA, FULL OPTICS, MECHANICS &
ELECTRONICS SERVICE

COLOUR DIFFERENCE

CONCLUSION. TO MINIMISE
ERRORS IN Q.C.
CALIBRATION
MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE
GOOD USE OF SOFTWARE
INSTRUMENT MAINTENANCE
ARE OF PRIME IMPORTANCE