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0007

Beds are coming and turning on the slope of the ridge


It means that some type of fault has gone from here which has put compressional
force over it
And due to compression the bed has bended
Synthetic vein
Calcite vein also shown
If slickenside are found and fault breccia also shown then it is confirmed that fault
came here
Hard bend also shown that provide a base for the clay that is deposited over it
More on front these type of material are not seen because alluvium is there
The heavy amount of crushing that is seen on the slope is not found in ordinary
circumstances
Angular crushing is fault breccia
Iron is concentrated within the sandstone that could become economical reserve for
iron extracting
Due to fault and folding the iron material condensed within the rocks and iron is the
deposited one but condensed one and all calcareous material that was present has
converted into calcite due to faulting and folding
And this iron is secondary depositional iron and not that forms in sedimentary
deposition\
And therefore it could happen that these are only found here and not anywhere else
so it is not an economical reserve

002
The drain that will fall in the main stream that is the drainage of highest order
After the fall no more order is found
1st and 2nd order meets and becomes 2nd so ultimately 2nd order drainage is falling in
the main channel
When sedimentary rock deposits two important things are grain and its cementing
material and cementing material makes weak chemical bond
Cementing material chemically adhere but is weak

Iron is hydroxide
Limonite glauconite goethite are some cementing material that is found over the
grains
When pressure comes in form of fault and fold then it directly attacks the cementing
material then if it could not bear the pressure then one way is that it becomes
dissolved and escapes out through fractures and if could not escape then develop
the nucleus of grains and crystallizes
So when 2nd step is taken then the becomes anhydrous from hydrous and becomes
crystalline from non-crystalline
So it could be possible that the become hematite and then magnetite
0005
Jhil and talawa limestone will have the kai in high order because limestone
composition is calcium carbonate
0006
Plunging means fold axis changes and therefore amount of dip and strike also
changes
Lithology of outcrop will be same on both flank if is symmetrical fold
Halkani section at front and tobo section at back toward the left side flank
And only one fourth of this outcrop will be observed on the opposite side (right side)
Big gap toward left side between halkani and orange sand because of high number
of outcrop between them and high number of outcrop will increase lateral spread
and amount of dip will decrease
On the left side jhil is found and talawa very very far away but on the right side
outcrop is decreasing and beds found at short interval so therefore talawa is found
right after jhil limestone
If on one side outcrop is more and on other side outcrop is less then it means that
structure is asymmetrical
This Anticline plunges into the sea
At the backward of both right and left hand side there is sea so this anticline
plunges into the sea
The name of area is cape mounze
Sea ward projection is cape (e.g. cape mounze) and land ward projection is bay (e.g.
hawks bay)
Check in map if beds are found in same order and if beds are not found in same
order then it means that there is structural disturbance or unconformity

The core of cape mounze anticline is soneri ridge that is found right at the backward
side of us and shown with brown color on the map
Either in left or right side of soneri ridge we find younger bed of green colour
All units are compressed and are closer to each other
Tobo then pir mangho then halkani then ghora lakhi then orange then jhil and
talawa
Thickness is less due to compaction
But in the other limb of fold the outcrop width of beds have extended
It means our fold is asymmetrical
In soneri ridge there are two faults coming parallel
Evidence is the rock units standing vertically
If you take out dip of these rocks then it will be about 80 to 90 degrees
We will found maximum bending in the core of fold
On left and right of soneri ridge we find pir mangho lime stone
First where we stood as we reached at the field was pir mangho limestone
And of pir mangho limestone the sandstone unit is seen in which exfoliation are
seen
And some say that this sandstone is part of halkani sand stone but its features also
does not match the halkani sandstone so here starts the research
Then we went to western limb of fold axis
In stratigraphy we find the oldest member of tobo formation
We will have to find evidence for those parallel faults and for fault there must be dis
location or slickenside or fault breccia is seen then is fault
After soneri ridge there is paatha ridge
And where paatha ridge ends at the back side of that there are two uplifts which will
be seen from Mubarak village
And along with paatha ridge there is pataal ridge
008
In picture
009
Fault came but we will find out whether normal or thrust
Calcite veins that are found are of dog tooth spar habit

And projection of this habit is toward center from both left and right side
And dog tooth spar forms where there is extensive tectonic involved
When extensive forces occur then gap forms at the middle then if water enters in
the gap and do precipitation then growth occurs toward center and is dog tooth spar
And if nail head spar found (rounded and flatted are nail head spar) it means thrust
force is involved then calcite that will found will be of coin like shape
It means this is normal fault and upper block must have went at the lower side
some where
Calcite precipitates in the fractured zones because when fault comes then it want to
escape and looses its energy while travelling and wants to escape through the
fractures and finally precipitates there
Clay is also standing in the faulted region therefore it is abnormal because clay
never stands vertical
Whether clay will erode or will be find horizontal
0010 and 0011
In picturs
0012
Near Mubarak village we find uplift of syncline fold
0013
Picture
0014
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