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UNIT 9 APPLICATIONS OF

POLAROGRAPHY,
AMPEROMETRIC TITRATIONS
AND VOLTAMMETRY

Applications of
Polarography,
Amperometric
Titrations and
Voltammetry

Structure
9.1

Introduction
Objectives

9.2
9.3
9.4

Applications of Polarography
Applications of Amperometric titrations
Polarography Experiments
Determination of ascorbic acid in citrus fruits
Determination of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) in the citrus juice by the standard addition
and calibration curve methods
Other industrial important determinations for traces or minor constituents
Determination of lead and copper in carbon steels
Determination of the amount of Cd2+ present in the unknown solution
Determination of the nature of the ion (E1/2)

9.5

Applications of voltammetry
Voltammetry Instrument
Practical methods: steps involved in voltammetry

9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9

9.1

Application of Cyclic Voltammetry


Summary
Terminal Questions
Answers

INTRODUCTION

While going through Unit 7 and Unit 8 of this course (Electroanalytical Methods), you
have learnt about the different electroanalytical methods like Polarography,
Voltammetry and Amperometric titrations. In this unit (Unit 9), we will discuss the
applications of the previously discussed electroanalytical methods.
In this unit we will start our discussion with the different applications of Polarography,
followed by those of Amperometric titrations. A number of polarography experiments
are then discussed. This is followed by the different applications of cyclic
voltammetry.

Objectives
After studying this unit you should be able to:

discuss the elements or compounds determined with the help of polarography in


different types of samples like food stuff, sea water, fuels etc.,

discuss the polarographic analysis of organic compounds,

give examples of the species determined with the help of amperometric titrations
for different titrations and electrodes,

explain different polarography experiments using both the calibration curve


method and standard addition method,

discuss other industrial important determinations for traces or minor


constituents,

understand the application of cyclic voltammetry.

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Electroanalytical
Methods-III

9.2

APPLICATIONS OF POLAROGRAPHY

Most metal ions are reducible at DME, and multicomponent mixtures can often be
analysed by selecting an appropriate supporting electrolyte so that the half-wave
potentials of two ions are differed by about -0.2 V vs SCE or by using complexing
agents by taking the advantage of complexing ability of the metal ions.
Based on this, polarography is used predominantly for trace metal analysis of alloys,
ultra-pure metals, minerals/metallurgy, environmental analysis (air, water, soil and sea
water contaminants), foodstuffs, beverages and body-fluids, toxicology and clinical
analysis. Reducible anions such as BrO 3 , IO3-, Cr2O72- and NO2- can also be
determined using well buffered solutions.

9.2.1 Some applications of Polarography


Table 9.1: Different samples and Element or Compound determined
Element or Compound determined
Cu, Pb, Sn, Zn
Ga, Zn, Cd, Ni
Cu, Pb, Ni, Co
Sn, Pb
Transition metals
Free sulphur
Antioxidants
Riboflavin
Vitamin C
Oxygen

Type of sample
Foodstuffs
high purity aluminium
Steels
Beer and soft drinks
High-purity salts
Petroleum fractions
Fuels
Milk, pharmaceuticals
Fruit and vegetables
Sea water, gases

It is also useful in the analysis of biological systems to determine vitamins, alkaloids,


hormones, terpenoid substances and natural colouring substance, analysis of drugs and
pharmaceutical preparations, determination of pesticide or herbicide residues in foods,
in the structure determination of many organic compounds etc.
Polarographic analysis of organic compounds
This technique is used in organic chemistry for qualitative and quantitative analysis
and structure determinations. Most of the organic compounds are insoluble in pure
aqueous medium and also in mercury to form amalgam. Therefore, the solvent in
which the organic compound and its electrode product is soluble is added to the
supporting electrolyte. These solvents include various alcohols or ketones, dimethyl
formamide, acetonitrile, ethylene diamine and others. The commonly used supporting
electrolytes which are easily mixed with organic solvents are various quaternary
ammonium salts such as tetrabutyl ammonium iodide.
Some of the organic functional groups that are reducible at DME are given in Table
9.2.
Table 9.2: Reducible Organic Functional Groups
> C=O

Ketone

-C=N

Nitrile

-NO2

Nitro

-CHO

Aldehyde

-N=N-

Azo

-NO

Nitroso

>C=C<

Alkene

-NO=N-

Azoxy

-NHOH

Hydroxylamine

-C

Aryl alkyne

-O-O-

Peroxy

-ONO-

Nitrite

Azomethine

-S-S-

Disulfide

-ONO2

Nitrate

C-

>C = C-

68

In addition dibromides, aryl halides, alpha-halogenated ketone or aryl methane, and


ketones, polynuclear aromatic ring systems, and heterocyclic double bond reduce at
DME.
-S-S-, -SH (mercaptones get oxidized at DME and give anodic currents).

Applications of
Polarography,
Amperometric
Titrations and
Voltammetry

It is also possible to convert the non-polarographic active groups into active


polarographic groups and determine them.
Table 9.3: Organic Functional Group Analysis of Non-polarographic active
groups
Functional
Group
Carbonyl

Girard T and D
Semicarbazide
Hydroxylamine

Active Polarographic
Group
Azomethine
Carbazide
Hydroxylamine

Primary amine

Peperonal
CS2
Cu3(PO4)2 suspension

Azomethine
Dithiocarbonate (anodic)
Copper(II) amine

Secondary amine

HNO2

Nitrosoamine

Alcohols

Chromic acid

Aldehyde

1,2-Diols

Periodic acid

Aldehyde`

Carboxyl

(Transform to thiouranium salts)

- SH (anodic)

Phenyl

Nitration

- NO2

Reagent

SAQ 1
a)

Which compounds are used as supporting electrolytes in organic polarography?

...
...
...
...
b)

How can the non-polarographic active groups be determined polarographically?


Give two examples.

...
...
...
...

9.3

APPLICATIONS OF AMPEROMETRIC TITRATIONS

Amperometric titrations have even wider range of applications than polarography


because even electro-inactive substances can be determined using electro-active
titrant.
According to Ilkovic equation id is proportional to concentration keeping all other
factors of the equation constant. So, if some of the electroactive material in the
solution is removed by interaction with some other reagent (e.g.: EDTA reagent for

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Electroanalytical
Methods-III

Zn2+ determination) the diffusion current will decrease. This is the fundamental
principle of amperometric titrations or polarographic titrations.
The diffusion current at an appropriate applied voltage is measured as a function of the
volume of the titrating solution. The end point is the intersection of two lines giving
the change of current before and after the equivalence point.
Table 9.4: Examples of amperometric titrations
Titrant

Electrode

Species determined

DME

many metallic ions

Dimethylglyoxime

DME

Ni2+

Lead nitrate

DME

SO42-, MoO42-, F

Mercury (II) nitrate

DME

I-

Silver nitrate

Rotating Pt

Cl-, Br-, I-, CN-, Thiols

Thorium(IV) nitrate

DME

F-

Potassium dichromate

DME

Pb2+, Ba2+

Iodine

Rotating Pt

As(III), Na2 S2O3

Potassium bromate/KBr

Rotating Pt

As(III), Sb(III), N2H4

Additions

Rotating Pt

Alkenes

Substitutions

Rotating Pt

Some phenols, aromatic


amines

Complexation reactions
EDTA
Precipitation reactions

Oxidation reactions

SAQ 2
What is the fundamental principle of amperometric or polarographic titration?
...
...
...
...

9.4

POLAROGRAPHY EXPERIMENTS

Different practical experiments have been given below:

9.4.1 Determination of the nature of the ion (E1/2)


The half-wave potential of Tl+ solution.
Procedure: Take 10 ml of 0.5 mM solution of TlNO3 in 0.1 M KNO3 supporting
electrolyte and draw the polarogram. Determine E1/2 from the reduction wave of Tl+
i
and compare with literature value. Also use E vs log
plot for accurate E1/2.
id i

70

9.4.2

Determination of the amount of Cd2+ present in the unknown


solution

For the analytical determination use both the calibration curve method and standard
addition method.
i)

Applications of
Polarography,
Amperometric
Titrations and
Voltammetry

Wave height concentration plots (calibration):


Prepare stock solutions of Cd2+ ion by dissolving 1.0 g of Cd2+ per dm3. From
this take 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 cm3 into 100 cm3 volumetric flask, add 50 cm3 of
2M KCl solution and 2.5 cm3 of 0.2% gelatin solution to each flask and then
dilute to the mark with distilled water.
Take 10 cm3 of unknown solution (of about 0.04 g of Cd2+ per dm3) in a
volumetric flask, add 50 cm3 2M KCl and 2.5 cm3 of 0.2% gelatin solution and
dilute to the mark with distilled water. Record the polarograms of four standard
solutions and unknown after deaeration.
Draw calibration curve taking wave heights of all four standard solutions as
ordinates and concentrations as abscissa. From this the concentration
corresponding to wave height of unknown is noted.

ii)

Method of standard addition


Polarograms of unknown solution is first recorded as under (i) and a second
polarogram is recorded by adding a known amount of the same ion.

iii)

Second polarogram
Place 10 cm3 of unknown solution, 5 cm3 of known stock solution [of method
(i)], 50 cm3 of 2M KCl and 2.5 cm3 of 0.2% gelatin solution in a volumetric
flask and dilute to the mark with distilled water and record the polarogram of
this solution in a polarographic cell after removing dissolved oxygen with
nitrogen. Determine its wave height and calculate the concentration of unknown
solution as described under Unit 8 (polarography).

9.4.3

Determination of lead and copper in carbon steels

In the application of the polarographic method of analysis to steel, ferric ion interferes
due to its reduction near zero potential in sodium tartrate supporting electrolyte.
Fe(III) has to be reduced to Fe(II) with hydrazinium chloride in a hydrochloric acid
medium so that Fe(II) is reduced at much negative potential of -1.4 V vs SCE which is
more negative than lead and copper.
Procedure: Dissolve accurately weighed 5.0 g of the steel in a mixture of 25 cm3 of
water and 25 cm3 of concentrated hydrochloric acid and heat gently. Add few drops of
standard potassium chlorate solution to dissolve carbides and boil the mixture until the
solution is clear. Cool and dilute to 50 ml with water in a volumetric flask. Pipette 2
ml of this solution into a polarographic cell and add 1.0 cm3 of 20% hydrazine
hydrochloric solution to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) ion, 1.0 cm3 of 0.2% methyl cellulose
to act as maximum suppressor and 5.5 cm3 of 2.0 M sodium formate solution. Keep
the cell in a nearly boiling water bath for 10 minutes in order to complete the
reduction. Cool and take the polarogram using SCE. The polarogram will have two
steps. The first one at E1/2 of - 0.25 V vs SCE is due to the reduction of cuprous to
copper metal. The second step at E1/2 of - 0.45 V vs SCE is due to lead. Use standard
addition method for determination. For this carry out a calibration by adding known
amounts of copper and lead ions to a solution of steel of low copper and lead content
and determine the increase in wave heights due to addition. Calculate the percentage
of copper and lead in the sample.

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Electroanalytical
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9.4.4 Other industrial important determinations for traces or minor


constituents
i)

Analysis of steel and ferro-alloys for minor constituents (Cu, Ni, Co, Mn, Cr,
Mo, W, V, Ti, Sn, Pb, and Al).

ii)

Analysis of Copper base alloys (Pb, Sn, Ni, Zn).

iii)

Analysis of high purity zinc and of zinc alloys (Cu, Pb, Cd, Sn, Mn, Al).

iv)

Analysis of ferrous sulphate (Zn, Pb, Cu).

v)

Analysis of aluminium alloys (Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn).

vi)

Analysis of pure aluminium (Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Fe, Pb).

vii)

Analysis of magnesium alloys (Al, Zn, Pb, Mn).

viii) Analysis of refined metallic tin and of tin base alloys (Cu, Bi, Pb, Cd, Zn, Fe).
ix)

Analysis of metallic cobalt and cobalt salts (Cu, Pb, Ni).

x)

Analysis of refined metallic lead and of lead base alloys (Bi, Fe, Cu, Cd, Zn,
Sb).

xi)

Analysis of nickel alloys and nickel compounds (Cu, Pb, Fe).

xii)

Analysis of metallic cadmium (Cu, Pb, Zn).

xiii) Analysis of high purity zinc and zinc base alloys (Cu, Pb, Cd, Sn, Bi, Mn).
xiv) Analysis of pure strontium salts (Ba).

9.4.5 Determination of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) in the citrus juice by


the standard addition and calibration curve methods
Principle: Ascorbic acid gives a well defined polarographic oxidation wave.
HO

HO

HO
HO

OH

HO
-

-2e

Ascorbic acid

+ 2 H+
Dihydro ascorbic acid
O

Use freshly prepared diluted juice


Calibration curve method

Prepare a fresh stock solution of 50 cm3 of 0.2% ascorbic acid. Prepare 5 standard
solutions of ascorbic acid in volumetric flasks of 25 cm3. To each one add 0.5 cm3 of
0.5 M acetate buffer and different volumes of 0.2% ascorbic acid, 0, 200, 400, 600 and
800 dm3 . Dilute to the mark with distilled water. For each solution record
polarograms over the potential range -150 to + 200 mV vs Ag/AgCl/1M KCl reference
electrode.
Plot id vs c of ascorbic acid (calibration curve).
Standard addition methods

Squeeze an orange, grape fruit or lemon until about 10 cm3 of juice is obtained. Filter
the juice through a porous funnel (pore size about 1 mm).
Prepare four 25 cm3 volumetric flasks. Add to each 0.5 cm3 of 0.5M acetate buffer, 2.0
cm3 of the juice and standard addition of 0, 200, 400, and 600 dm3 of 0.2% ascorbic

72

acid. Dilute to mark with distilled water. Record polarograms under the same
conditions as in the calibration step. Draw the standard additions plot and determine
the concentration of ascorbic acid. Report the concentration of ascorbic acid (Vitamin
C) in the original sample (juice) in mol/l and also ppm.

Applications of
Polarography,
Amperometric
Titrations and
Voltammetry

SAQ 3
Complete the sentence by selecting the correct alternatives:
a)

Polarography is used for organic/inorganic/both organic and inorganic analysis.

...
...
...
...
b)

How can the ferric ion interfere in the polarographic analysis of steel and how is
its interference prevented?

...
...
...
...

9.5

APPLICATIONS OF VOLTAMMETRY

All these techniques can be applied quantitatively for the analysis of large variety of
samples (environmental samples, steels, clinical samples etc). The choice of a
particular technique will depend on the analyte's characteristics, expected
concentration, other constituents present and location of the sample.
Pulse polarography is better for analyzing a wide range of inorganic/organic analytes.
While in the case of stripping methods the analyte is to be preconcentrated at the
electrode surface. Further the concentration of the analyte in the sample, the accuracy
and precision required will decide the technique to be selected.
The analysis of a sample component is quite simple and any of the methods can be
used and from the linear relationship between the current and concentration, the
unknown concentration in the sample can be obtained. In case of samples containing
more than one analyte; if the components behave independently, the analysis will be a
simple addition of the respective individual separation voltammograms. However if
the id or ip is sufficient they can be determined independently as if they were only a
single component.
The amount of separation between these potentials will depend on the type of the
potential, technique used, concentration of the components. If the difference is less
than minimum separation and there is overlap between the voltammograms of the two
components, independent analysis is not possible and a simultaneous analysis method
is to be followed by taking the sample and simultaneous equations for the current at
two potential be formed and by solving these equations, the concentrations of both the
analytes can be obtained.
The analysis has been explained in detail in the numericals given in the terminal
questions.

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Electroanalytical
Methods-III

9.5.1 Voltammetry Instrument


The basic instrument consist of two important components:

Fig.9.1: Basic instrument for voltammetry

1.

Normal three electrode polarograph.

2.

Linear scan voltage generator to give different type of signals.


The polarographic cell is made up of a three electrodes dipped in a solution
containing the electroactive species and excess of inert electrolyte usually called
supporting electrolyte.
i)

Working electrode, usually a microelectrode whose potential is varied


linearly with time.

ii)

Reference electrode: Normally a standard electrode is used whose


potential is constant throughout the experiment (saturated calomel
electrode or Ag/AgCl electrode).

iii)

Counter electrode, which is a coil of platinum wire or a pool of mercury


that simply serves to conduct electricity from the signal source through the
solution to the micro electrode.

The potentiostat allow to impose the potential scanning between the working
and reference electrodes while the current flowing through the circuit is
recorded between the working and auxiliary electrodes.
The computer CVA Trace analyzer from Metrohm Ltd. can be used as an
intergrated instrument with keyboard or a commercially available personal
computer interface to measuring system (with software):
i)

to send the scanning parameters to the potentiostatic analyzer and check


its correctness and accuracy.

ii)

handle the current potential output data.

9.5.2 Practical methods: steps involved in voltammetry

74

1.

Sample treatment: For this analysis the sample must be in a solution form. If
solid, it has to be brought into solution by dissolving in a suitable solvent.
Liquids or solids with low solubility are to be digested or extracted.

2.

Addition of supporting electrolyte: Every analysis has to be performed using a


suitable supporting electrolyte, of appropriate concentration normally at least 10
times the concentration of the analyte.

3.

Bubbling of the solution with N2.

4.

Electrode cleaning.

5.

Addition of the standard analyte.

6.

Scanning/registration of voltammograms.

7.

Measurement of peak height.

8.

Drawing of the graphs.

9.

Calculation of the unknown concentration.

Applications of
Polarography,
Amperometric
Titrations and
Voltammetry

SAQ 4
Give the schematic diagram of the basic instrument for voltammetry.
...
...
...

9.6

APPLICATION OF CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY

Coupled chemical Reactions

There are inorganic ions, metal complexes and a few organic compounds which
undergo electron transfer reactions without the making or breaking of covalent bonds.
The vast majority of electrochemical reactions involve an electron transfer step which
leads to a species which rapidly reacts with components of the medium via so called
coupled chemical reactions. One of the most useful aspects of CV is its applications to
the qualitative diagnosis of these homogeneous chemical reactions that are coupled to
the electrode surface provides the capability for generating a species during the
forward scan and then probing its fate with the reverse scan and subsequent cycles, all
in a matter of seconds or less.
In addition, the time scale of the experiment is adjustable over several order of
magnitude by changing the potential scan rate, enabling some assessment of the rates
of various reactions. There are several examples of the coupled chemical reactions,
however two are given below.
A cyclic voltammogram for the popular antibiotic chlor-amphenicol is illustrated in
Fig. 9.2. The scan was started in a negative direction from 0.0 V. Three peaks are
observed, peak A for the initial reduction, peak B for oxidation of a product of this
reduction and peak C for oxidation of a product resulting from the events accounting
for peak B. All three peaks or waves involve more than a simple electron transfer
reaction.
peak A
peak B
peak C

RNO 2 + 4e + 4 H + RNHOH + H 2 O

RNHOH RNO + 2H + + 2e
RNO + 2e + 2H + RNHOH

To assist in proving the diagnosis, authentic samples of the hydroxylamine and


nitroso derivative can be used to confirm the assignment of peak B and C.

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Electroanalytical
Methods-III

Thyronine is an ether which may conveniently be thought of as representing the


combination of the amino of the amino acid tyrosine with hydroquinone.

Fig. 9.2: Cyclic voltammogram of 3.3 mg/25 cm3 chloramphenicol in 0.1 M acetate
buffer, pH 4.62. Carbon paste electrode. Scan rate = 350 mV/s

Its oxidative CV on a carbon paste electrode is illustrated in Fig. 9.3. In this case the
scan is initiated in a positive direction from 0.0 volts. The initial two-electron
oxidation (peak A) generates a proton and an organic cation which is readily
hydrolyzed to benzoquinone and tyrosine.
OH

OH

H2N

COOH

H2N

2e + H

COOH
OH2

OH

O
+
O
Peak A

H2N

COOH

The tyrosine thus produced is subsequently oxidized at peak B (no product from peak
B is detected on the reverse scan).

76

OH

Applications of
Polarography,
Amperometric
Titrations and
Voltammetry

O
H
+ 1e

H2N

H2N

COOH

COOH
Coupling Products

Peak B

The benzoquinone is reduced on the reverse scan at peak C to produce hydroquinone,

Fig. 9.3 Cyclic voltammogram of 5 mg/25 cm3 Lthyronine in 1 M H2 SO4. Carbon paste
electrode, scan rate = 200 mV/s

which is then oxidized back to benzoquinone at peak D on the second positive-going


half-cycle.
OH
O
+

+ 2e + 2 H
O
Peak C

OH

Standard solutions of benzoquinone, hydroquinone, and tyrosine can be used to verify


these assignments.

77

Electroanalytical
Methods-III

OH

+ 2H+ + 2e

OH
Peak D

Interpreting complex cyclic voltammograms is often a challenge best met by the


combination of chemical intuition with the study of model compounds, exactly in the
same manner used by many spectroscopists to interpret optical, magnetic resonance, or
mass spectra.

SAQ 5
What are Coupled chemical Reactions?
...
...

9.7

SUMMARY

In this unit we have discussed about the elements or compounds determined with the
help of polarography in different types of samples like food stuff, sea water, fuels etc.
We discussed the polarographic analysis of organic compounds. We studied the given
examples of the species determined with the help of amperometric titrations for
different titrations and electrodes. We discussed the different polarography
experiments using both the calibration curve method and standard addition method.
We discussed other industrial important determinations for traces or minor
constituents. Lastly we discussed about the application of cyclic voltammetry.

9.8

TERMINAL QUESTIONS

1.

What is the purpose of Polarographic analysis in the case of organic


chemistry?

2.

Why is solvent required to first dissolve the organic compounds in case of


Polarographic analysis?

3.

Give two examples of amperometric titrations involving precipitation


reactions.

4.

Give the details of the polarography experiment for determination of the


amount of Cd2+ present in the unknown solution by method of standard
addition.

5.

Give briefly the steps involved in voltammetry.

9.9

ANSWERS

Self Assessment Question


1.

78

a)

The commonly used supporting electrolytes which are easily mixed with
organic solvents are various quaternary ammonium salts such as tetrabutyl
ammonium iodide.

b)

It is also possible to convert the non-polarographic active groups into


active polarographic groups and determine them. Refer to Table 9.3.

2.

According to Ilkovic equation id is proportional to concentration keeping all


other factors of the equation constant. So, if some of the electroactive material
in the solution is removed by interaction with some other reagent (e.g.: EDTA
reagent for Zn2+ determination) the diffusion current will decrease. This is the
fundamental principle of amperometric titrations or polarographic titrations.

3.

a)

Polarography is used for both organic and inorganic analysis.

b)

In the application of the polarographic method of analysis to steel ferric


ion interferes due to its reduction near zero potential in sodium tartrate
supporting electrolyte. Fe (III) has to be reduced to Fe (II) with
hydrazinium chloride in a hydrochloric acid medium so that Fe (II) is
reduced at much negative potential of 1.4 V vs. SCE which is more
negative than lead and copper. This is how the interference of ferric ions
is prevented.

4.

Fig. 9.1

5.

There are inorganic ions, metal complexes and a few organic compounds which
undergo electron transfer reactions without the making or breaking of covalent
bonds. The vast majority of electrochemical reactions involve an electron
transfer step which leads to a species which rapidly reacts with components of
the medium via so called coupled chemical reactions.

Applications of
Polarography,
Amperometric
Titrations and
Voltammetry

Terminal Questions
1.

This technique is used in organic chemistry for qualitative and quantitative


analysis and structure determinations.

2.

Most of the organic compounds are insoluble in pure aqueous medium and also
in mercury to form amalgam. Therefore, the solvent in which the organic
compound and its electrode product is soluble is added to the supporting
electrolyte.

3.

Examples of amperometric titrations:


Titrant
Electrode
Precipitation reactions
Dimethylglyoxime DME
Lead nitrate
DME

4.

Refer to Section 9.4.2.

5.

Refer to Section 9.5.2.

Species determined

Ni2+
SO42-, MoO42-, F-

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Electroanalytical
Methods-III

Further Reading
Websites
S.No.

Topic
An article in Resonance
on Polarography by the
eminent scientist
V. Lakshminarayanan

http://dspace.rri.res.in/bitstream/2289/856/1/2004
%20RES%209%20p51-61.pdf

2.

Anodic Stripping
voltammetry

http://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/courses/cem837/
Anodic%20Stripping%20Voltammetry.pdf

3.

Anodic Stripping
voltammetry, a very
detailed presentation

http://ocw.kfupm.edu.sa/user/CHEM54201/Anodi
c%20stripping%20good.pdf

4.

Cyclic Voltammetry

http://www.chemistry.nmsu.edu/studntres/chem43
5/Lab13/

5.

Cyclic Voltammetry

http://www.biol.paisley.ac.uk/marco/Enzyme_Ele
ctrode/Chapter1/Cyclic_Voltammetry1.

6.

Details of
http://faculty.uml.edu/david_ryan/84.514/Electroc
hemLecture11.pdf
polarography, pulse
polarography and cyclic
voltammetry

7.

Linear sweep
voltammetry

http://www.chemistry.adelaide.edu.au/external/so
c-rel/content/linsweep.htm

8.

Polarography

http://electrochem.cwru.edu/ed/encycl/art-p03polarography.htm

9.

Polarography

http://www.drhuang.com/science/chemistry/electr
ochemistry/polar.doc.htm#_Toc172448509

10.

Polarography

http://www.drhuang.com/science/chemistry/electr
ochemistry/polar.doc.htm#_Toc172448509

11.

Voltammetry

http://www.amelchem.com/download/items/volta
mmetry/manuals/eng/manual_eng.pdf

12.

Voltammetry

http://new.ametek.com/contentmanager/files/PAR/App%20Note%20E-4%20%20Electrochemical%20Analysis%20Techniques
1.pdf

1.

80

Web Sites/Books

Books
1.

Polarography and other voltammetric methods by Tom Riley and Arthur


Watson, by ACOL, Wiley.

2.

Vogels Textbook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis by J. Menham, R.C.


Denney, J.D. Barnes and M.J.K. Thomas, 6th Edn, Low Price Edition, Pearson
Education Ltd, New Delhi (2000).

3.

Instrumental Analysis, Editors, H.H. Bauer, G.D. Christian and J.E.O Reilly,
2nd Edn, Allyn and Bacon, Inc., Boston (1991).

4.

Analytical Chemistry by G.D. Christian, 6th Edn, Wiley-India.

5.

Principles and Practice of Analytical Chemistry by F.W. Fifield and D. Kealey,


5th Edn, Blackwell Science Ltd, New Delhi (2004).

6.

Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis by G.W. Ewing, 5th Edn, Mc-Graw


Hill, Singapore (1985).

7.

Instrumental Methods of Analysis by Willard Merritt, Dean Sattle, 7e, Cbs


Publishers & Distributors.

8.

Polarographic techniques by Louis Meites, Interscience publishers.

9.

Principles of Instrumental Analysis 5th Edition, by Skoog, Holler, Nieman,


Thomson Brooks/Cole.

10.

Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry by Skoog, West, Holler and Crouch,


Thomson Brooks/Cole.

11.

Modern Analytical Chemistry by David Harvey, Mcgraw-Hill Education.

Applications of
Polarography,
Amperometric
Titrations and
Voltammetry

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