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Week 13: Course Review and Revision Lecture

Dr Marissa Edwards

Week 13 Overview
Final examination
Final exam structure and content
Preparing for the final exam
Example MCQs
Short answer questions
Example short answer questions
Content summary
Teaching Evaluations

Final Examination
Scheduled for November 18 at 11:15AM
Please ensure that you check the Exam Timetable beforehand

in case there are changes to the locations! You are

responsible for ensuring that you go to the right place at
the right time.

Final Examination Structure

40 Multiple Choice Questions (0.5 marks each; 20%)
7 Short Answer Questions from a choice of 10 (five marks each;

Worth 55% of your overall grade in this course

10 minutes perusal and 2 hours of writing time

An unmarked bilingual dictionary is permitted in the exam

Final Exam Content

Covers all lecture material from Weeks 1-12 and required

MCQs test knowledge of lecture material only
Short answer questions draw on lecture material and required
readings, etc.
Summary of readings list and copy of readings available on BB

Preparing for the Final Exam

Review questions included in these revision notes will be useful

to you!
How do I use the required readings?
Your revision should include the required readings
Required readings supplement lecture material
Use the readings to make sure you understand the concepts

covered in the review questions at the end of each lecture

Focus on concepts covered in the lecture

Example MCQ
Which of the following is an antecedent of groupthink?
a) Overestimation of the groups worth
b) High cohesiveness
c) Closed mindedness
d) Uniformity pressure
e) None of the above

Example MCQ
Recently, the large management consulting organisation

Pacific Communication Partners suffered an

organisational crisis when its CEO was accused of
bullying junior staff, and the case was reported in the
media. According to Snyder et al.s (2006) typology, which
type of crisis has occurred here?
a) Internal-normal
b) Internal-abnormal
c) External-normal
d) External-abnormal
e) Internal-deviance

Example MCQ
According to your lecture notes, urban legends function

a) Establish, change or maintain group membership/power
b) Make sense of ambiguity
c) Manage threat or potential threat
d) Entertain others; establish, maintain or impart cultural
e) None of the above

Short Answer Questions

Must complete 7 questions from a choice of 10
Most questions are structured around 3 or 5 elements
Key terms: define, describe, explain, example, compare

and contrast
e.g., describe and give examples of the 4 .; identify and explain

the 3 steps of X
If the question is structured around only 3 elements, your answer
will require greater elaboration to receive the full 5 marks

Tips for success:

Use full sentences (dont use bullet-points or diagrams)
Be clear and specific (avoid waffle)
Write as much as you can! (as long as it is relevant to the question)
Recommendation: At least a page to a page in length

Example Short Answer Questions

1. Define groupthink. What are the symptoms,

antecedents and decision-making characteristics of

2. Provide a definition of power. Next, describe and

provide examples of each of French and Ravens bases

of power.
3. Define and describe retribution, reciprocity and reason

strategies, including an example of when it is most

appropriate to use each one.

Reminder: Lecture Topics

Week 1: Course Overview and Introduction
Week 2: Self-awareness, Non-Verbal Communication and Listening
Week 3: Core Communication Concepts (lecture ONLY but no tutorials)
Week 4: Meetings, Oral Presentations and Writing
Week 5: Culture and Mediated Communication
Week 6: Whistle-blowing and Crisis Communication
Week 7: Power, Influence and Persuasion
Week 8: Interviews and Group Decision-Making
Week 9: Stress and Supportive Communication (Nasreen Sultana)
No Lecture or Tutorials: Mid-Semester Break
Week 10: No lecture or tutorials (Labour Day Holiday)
Week 11: Intercultural Communication (Nasreen Sultana)
Week 12: Gossip and Rumours
Week 13: Course Review and Revision Lecture

Content Summary
The following is a general summary of the concepts and

theories that we have covered in this course, but it is NOT a

summary of everything that you need to know for the final
Use this as a guide for the content that you should be familiar
with only.
Review questions are not guaranteed to be on the final exam!

Week 1: Overview
Course Introduction
Group presentation
Written assignment
Final examination
Core concepts
Definitions of communication
Historical perspective
Communicative competence
Types of communication
Why do we communicate?
Models of communication
Ethics and purpose

Week 1: Review Questions




What is communication?
What is communicative competence?
Why do we communicate? Discuss the three reasons that
people engage in communication, providing examples to
illustrate your points.
Compare and contrast the key ideas of the transmission,
circular and transaction models of communication, providing
an example of each model to illustrate your points.
Define noise, and define and provide examples of the three
types of noise discussed in your lecture notes.
Define and provide organisationally-based examples of the
six types of unethical communication.

Week 2: Overview
Effective Interpersonal Communication
Hearing vs. listening
Causes of ineffective listening
Barriers to listening
HURIER model
Active vs. passive listening
Types of listening
Non-Verbal Communication (NVC)

Categories of NVC
Impression management

Week 2: Review Questions




What is self-awareness, and why is it important that managers are

self-aware? Also, name and discuss three barriers to selfawareness.
What is assertiveness? Explain how assertiveness is different from
passive, aggressive, and manipulative communication, providing
an example of each to illustrate your points.
What is the difference between hearing and listening?
Define active listening, and discuss each of the three active
listening skills, using examples to illustrate your points.
Name and discuss the five causes of ineffective listening.
Name and describe each of the components of the HURIER model
of effective listening.
What is non-verbal communication?
Name and describe each of the categories of non-verbal
communication and provide an example of each to illustrate your

Week 3: Overview
Organisational Communication Defined
2. Part I: Communication networks



Part II: Employee Voice and Silence

Part III: Approaches to Studying Communication in Organizations


Formal communication networks

Informal communication networks

Structural approach
Human relations approach
Cognitive approach
Social identity approach

Practical implications: NASA and the Challenger disaster

(cont. in Week 5)

Week 3: Review Questions





Provide a definition of organisational communication and

name and describe each of the types of formal
communication networks in organisations.
Name and describe each of the types of informal
communication networks in organisations, and also discuss
three functions of informal networks.
Define the grapevine and discuss two advantages and two
disadvantages of this network.
Define employee silence and discuss each of the types of
silence in organisational settings, providing an example of
each to illustrate your points.
Name and discuss in detail each of the four approaches to
studying communication in organisations.

Week 4: Overview
Effective Meetings
Types of meetings
Advantages and disadvantages
Reasons for holding or not holding a meeting
Conducting a meeting
Effective Presentations
Types of presentations

Common types of Oral Delivery

Attracting and Maintaining Audience Attention

Five Theses of the Power of Presentation

2. Presentation structure
3. Monroes Motivated Sequence
4. Rhetorical appeals

Communication apprehension
Academic Writing

Week 4: Review Questions



Using examples from an organisational context, discuss

three advantages and three disadvantages of meetings.
Describe three reasons for holding a meeting and also three
reasons for NOT holding a meeting.
Name and discuss the elements of an effective apology and
also explain how you would deliver an effective apology as a
Discuss each of the Five Theses of the Power of
Using an example, discuss how you would structure a
presentation using Monroes Motivated Sequence.
What is communication apprehension? Discuss three causes
and three ways to reduce this phenomenon.

Week 5: Overview
Organisational culture
Impact of culture on communication
Norms and culture
Mediated communication
Types of mediated communication
Media choice (discussion of various mediums)
Considerations in choosing a communication channel
Key theories and models
Dual Capacity Model of Communication Media Choice
Social Identity Model of De-individuation Effects (SIDE)
Hyperpersonal Model of CMC
Organisational culture and Challenger and Columbia


Week 5: Review Questions

1. What is organisational culture? How do norms and culture affect




organisational communication? Provide three examples from organisational

settings to illustrate your points.
What is mediated communication? Name and describe the four types of
mediated communication discussed in your textbook, providing examples of
What are the advantages and disadvantages of different media channels
(e.g., e-mail, face-to-face communication)?
Describe Media Richness Theory and explain why it important to have an
understanding of media richness when communicating, including examples
of different media (high vs. low) to illustrate your points.
Name and describe the central concepts of Sitkin, Sutcliffe and BarriosChoplins (1992) Dual Capacity Model of Communication Media Choice.
Describe the Hyperpersonal Model of CMC and discuss the four specific
advantages of mediated communication

Week 6: Overview
What constitutes wrongdoing?
Workplace Deviance
Types and consequences of deviance

Whistle-Blowing and Deaf Ear Syndrome

Predictors of whistle-blowing
How can organisations encourage employees to speak up?
Managerial responses to complaints

Deaf Ear Syndrome

Organisational crises
Causes of organisational crises
Consequences of organisational crises
Typology of crises (Snyder et al, 2006)
Crisis response strategies (Coombs, 2007)

Week 6: Review Questions

1. What is whistle-blowing? State and explain the organisational, contextual


and individual-level factors linked to whistle-blowing.

State and describe the four ways that organisations can encourage
employees to engage in whistle-blowing.
What is deaf ear syndrome? Discuss the three major findings that have
been linked to the emergence of deaf ear syndrome.
How can organisations reduce deaf ear syndrome? Provide at least four
detailed examples.
Provide a definition of an organisational crisis, and name and describe each
of Coombs (2007) crisis response strategies, also stating when each one
should be used.
Define an organisational crisis, and discuss two causes and consequences
of crises.
Describe each of the types of crises in Snyder et al.s typology of crises,
and provide a detailed example of each one.

Week 7: Overview
Key Definitions
Sources of position and personal power
French and Ravens bases of power

Reward, coercive, legitimate, informational, referent, expert

Determinants and consequences of power

Retribution, reciprocity, and reason
What makes a message persuasive?
Theories/models of persuasion
1. Social Judgment Theory (Sherif & Hovland, 1961)
2. Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975)
3. Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1985;1991)
4. Elaboration Likelihood Model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986)

Week 7: Review Questions



Provide a definition of power, then name and describe each of French

and Ravens bases of power, providing an example of each one to
illustrate your points.
Define each of the three influence strategies and provide an example
of how each could be used in an organisational setting.
Describe each of the components of Keltner, Gruenfield and
Andersons model of the determinants and consequences of power
What are the advantages and disadvantages of retribution, reciprocity
and reason respectively?
What is persuasion? Explain the major elements of the Elaboration
Likelihood Model, using an example to illustrate your points.
Describe each of the key components of Social Judgment Theory,
using an example to illustrate your points.
Name and describe the factors that you should consider when
developing a persuasive message.
Compare and contrast the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory
of Planned Behaviour, using an example to illustrate your points.

Week 8: Overview
Job interviews
Types of interviews
Phases of the interview
Interviewer and applicant roles
Job interviews: Impression Management

Group decision-making activity

Advantages of group decision-making
Disadvantages of group decision-making
1. (Unquestioning) obedience to authority
2. Conformity to group norms
3. Groupthink
4. Risky shift
5. Group polarization
6. Preference for discussing only shared information

Overcoming group decision-making biases

Week 8: Review Questions


Describe the role of the interviewer and the role of the

interviewee/applicant in a selection interview.
Define Impression Management (IM) and discuss the role of
applicant IM techniques (including examples) in job interviews.
What are the symptoms, antecedents and decision-making
characteristics of groupthink?
Using examples, define and describe the six disadvantages of
group decision-making.
Describe the four ways that you can overcome biases in group

Week 9: Overview
Definition of stress
Three stages of a reaction towards stress
Four main types of stressors
How to manage stress
Supportive communication
Benefits of supportive communication
Eight attributes of supportive communication

Week 9: Review Questions

What is stress?
Why is stress a managerial issue?
What are three stages of a reaction to stress?
Describe four types of stressors at work
Identify and provide examples of the five defence mechanisms for
coping with stress
6. Identify and provide examples of the five defence mechanisms for
coping with stress
7. Identify and provide examples of the two different types of time
induced stress.
8. Identify and provide examples of the three different types of
situational induced stress.
9. Identify and provide examples of the 3 different types of encounter
induced stress
10. Identify and provide examples of the 2 different types of
anticipatory stressors

Week 9: Review Questions cont.


What are the ways of managing time-based stress?

What are the ways of managing encounter stressors?
What are the ways of managing situational stressors?
What are the problems associated with coaching and
Compare and contrast coaching and counselling.
What is supportive communication?
What are the benefits of supportive communication?
Describe the 8 principles of supportive communication

Week 11: Overview

What is culture?
What is intercultural communication?
Benefits and challenges of intercultural communication
Barriers to intercultural communication
Overcoming intercultural communication barriers

Week 11: Review Questions


How and why should managers take culture into account

when communicating in the workplace?
What impact do interethnic norms have upon intercultural
Define intercultural communication
What is intercultural intelligence?
What is intercultural communication competence and how
would you achieve it?
What are the barriers to effective intercultural

Week 12: Overview

Key Definitions
Urban legends

The context, content, functions and consequences of rumours and

Why do people spread and believe rumours?
How to effectively manage harmful rumours at work
Preventing rumours
Neutralising rumours

Communication and trust

Trust repair after an organisation-level failure

Week 12: Review Questions


Compare and contrast gossip, rumours and urban legends,

including an example of each to illustrate your points.
Describe the four theories of rumour transmission in
Define rumours, and explain when people are most likely to
believe a rumour?
Define rumours, and discuss the four ways that managers
can neutralise rumours in an organisation.
If you were a manager, what steps would you take to prevent
rumours in your organisation?
What is trust? Explain each of the stages of trust repair
following an organisation-level failure, using an example to
illustrate your points.

Your turn
Any questions about the final exam and/or course


Course staff (Dr. Marissa Edwards and Nasreen Sultana)

will be available for consult during SWOTVAC and the

week of the final exam (see Blackboard for consultation
If you have questions pertaining to course content:
Review your lecture notes
Do the required readings and recommended readings for that topic
Check the discussion board on Blackboard
Do not leave your question to the 48hrs prior to the exam!