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Ecological Engineering 61P (2013) 658–668

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Ecological Engineering

jo urnal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ecoleng

Modeling the contribution of trees to shallow landslide development in a steep, forested watershed

Dongyeob Kim ^{a} , Sangjun Im ^{a}^{,}^{b}^{,}^{∗} , Changwoo Lee ^{c} , Choongshik Woo ^{c}

^{a} Department of Forest Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921, Republic of Korea

^{b} Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921, Republic of Korea

^{c} Division of Forest Disaster Management, Department of Forest Conservation, Korea Forest Research Institute, 57 Hoigi-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-172, Republic of Korea

a r t i c

l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 14 September 2012 Received in revised form 7 April 2013 Accepted 6 May 2013 Available online 24 June 2013

Keywords:

Shallow landslide

TRIGRS

Rainfall interception

Root reinforcement

a b s t r a c t

The objective of this study was to identify the contribution of trees to shallow landslide development in a steep forested watershed using a deterministic modeling approach. Rainfall interception, tree root reinforcement, and tree surcharge were considered the main factors. A revised version of the Tran- sient Rainfall Inﬁltration and Grid-based Regional Slope-stability (TRIGRS) model was employed in the approach. Hydrological modiﬁcations included adding the processes of rainfall interception using an application of the Rutter model. The revised inﬁnite slope stability model was also used to consider tree root reinforcement and tree surcharge. A comparative analysis was conducted with the results simu- lated by TRIGRS and the revised model to quantify the contribution of trees to landslide development. The Bonghwa site in South Korea, which was damaged by an extreme storm with 228 mm of rainfall on July 24–25, 2008, was selected as the study site. Data related to the local topography, soil, and forest properties were measured in the ﬁeld for use in the model simulations, although some data were taken from the literature or assumed by the authors on the basis of the site characteristics. The results showed the rainfall interception did not signiﬁcantly affect the amount of rainfall reaching the soil surface, but it changed the temporal distribution of the rainfall intensity. Additionally, the rainfall interception was found to have little inﬂuence on inﬁltration from the simulation results of pore water pressure. The results of the simulated factor of safety indicated that root reinforcement and tree surcharge made signiﬁcant contributions to the enhancement of slope stability. The simulation results were compared to the results from locations in which landslides occurred, indicating that the revised model estimated the landslide susceptibility over the entire study site well, while TRIGRS appeared to overestimate the risk of shal- low landslides. In conclusion, trees appeared to make a signiﬁcant mechanical contribution to shallow landslide development during a severe storm event in steep, forested watersheds. Efforts to revise the existing model improved its performance to assess the shallow landslide susceptibility of mountainous watersheds despite some limitations of the current study.

© 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Landslides are caused by compositive interactions among natu- ral internal factors and external factors (Carrara et al., 1999), except for anthropogenic factors, e.g., forest road construction, clearcut harvesting, and land use changes. Internal factors are intrinsic envi- ronmental properties of a speciﬁc region such as topographical,

^{∗} Corresponding author at: Department of Forest Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151- 921, Republic of Korea. Tel.: +82 2 880 4759; fax: +82 2 873 3560. E-mail addresses: junie@snu.ac.kr, sangjunim@gmail.com (S. Im).

0925-8574/$ – see front matter © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2013.05.003

geological, pedological, hydrological, and vegetational features, while external factors are direct (or indirect) triggers that initi- ates landslides, such as earthquakes, rainfall, snowfall, and volcanic activity. Most landslides are typically initiated by external factors, but internal factors also signiﬁcantly contribute to landslide initi- ation and development. Forest properties are one of the inﬂuential internal factors that cause landslides, especially rainfall-induced shallow land- slides. These properties are easier to monitor and manage than other internal factors. Some researchers have reported relation- ships between forest conditions and landslide occurrence. It was reported that the landslide occurrence rate in harvested areas was 3.5 times greater than that in unharvested areas over

D. Kim et al. / Ecological Engineering 61P (2013) 658–668

659

approximately twenty years in Southeast Alaska (Swanston and Marion, 1991). In addition, the frequency of landslides in logged areas was found to be 9 times higher than that of unlogged forest areas around Vancouver Island, BC, Canada (Jakob, 2000). On an individual-tree-scale, the inﬂuences of a single tree on slope stability, especially hydromechanical inﬂuences, were widely reviewed by Greenway (1987), Gray and Sotir (1996), and Stokes et al. (2008). Hydrologically, a tree intercepts rainfall with its canopy and stem, and the tree reduces the amount of water in soil via transpiration. However, the tree can enhance water inﬁltration by developing pores in the soil to increase the water content of the soil. Mechanically, a tree strengthens soil stability by its root while its surcharge boosts soil shear stress to create an adverse inﬂu- ence on slope stability. A signiﬁcant amount of research quantifying the inﬂuence of a tree on slope stability with a focus of soil rein- forcement by tree roots using various methods has been conducted (e.g., Burroughs and Thomas, 1977; Wu et al., 1979; Buchanan and Savigny, 1990; Norris and Greenwood, 2003; Pollen and Simon, 2005; Cazzufﬁ et al., 2006; Mickovski et al., 2007; Docker and Hubble, 2008). In South Korea, many shallow landslides occurred recently, and many of them contributed to the initiation or transformation to debris ﬂows resulting in vast damage in downstream areas. Char- acteristically, most landslide-damaged areas in South Korea were on steep, forested mountainous regions with shallow soil depth (internal factors) and were thought to be caused by heavy rainfall events (external factors). Therefore, assessing of the contributions of trees to landslides is important to evaluate the regional-scaled landslide susceptibility in South Korea. However, limited research (e.g., Wu and Sidle, 1995; Bathurst et al., 2010) has been performed to quantitatively evaluate the regional landslide susceptibility in terms of the contribution of trees. The main objective of the current study was to identify the con- tribution of trees to landslide development using a deterministic modeling approach. For a more detailed analysis, we concentrated on speciﬁc conditions, i.e., landslide type, landslide location, and timing of landslide. The current study focused on only rainfall- triggered shallow landslides on a steep, forested area during a storm event. Speciﬁc tree properties that affect shallow landslide development during a storm event were selected, and a physi- cally based model that considers tree effects on a shallow landslide was constructed. Finally, the constructed model was applied to landslide-damaged areas. Modeling processes were sufﬁciently described in the following sections.

2. Materials and methods

2.1. Overview of modeling framework

The overall goal of the modeling was the comparative analy- sis of the simulation results using an existing original model and a revised model that considered tree effects. Existing models for shallow landslide susceptibility were considered for revisions. The selection criteria of existing models were (1) a physically based model, (2) a temporally dynamic hydrological model, and (3) a model that did not consider tree effects. A physically based model was required to quantify the process-based contributions of trees to landslide development. Some existing physically based models for rainfall-induced shallow landslide, e.g., SHASLSTAB (Montgomery and Dietrich, 1994), dSLAM (Wu and Sidle, 1995), SINMAP (Pack et al., 1998), SHETRAN-landslide (Burton and Bathurst, 1998), and TRIGRS (Baum et al., 2002), were evaluated with the criteria. TRIGRS was ultimately selected as a base model for the revisions.

As tree effects for the revised model, the rainfall interception, root reinforcement, and tree surcharge were determined in con- sideration of their signiﬁcance and modeling capability. In terms of the hydrological inﬂuence of trees on landslides, the annual inter- ception loss is estimated to be one quarter or more of the annual total rainfall, which is a signiﬁcant amount (Dingman, 2002). In addition, rainfall interception is still thought to work during a rain- fall event. Thus, a model for rainfall interception was constructed by revising the selected existing model, TRIGRS. In contrast, root uptake was excluded for the revision work because its inﬂuence was not signiﬁcant during a rainfall event compared to the com- plexity of modeling its process. Meanwhile, root reinforcement and tree surcharge were thought to be the most signiﬁcant mechanical factors, which were modeled as terms of slope stability model that calculates the factor of safety (FS).

2.1.1. TRIGRS TRIGRS (Transient Rainfall Inﬁltration and Grid-Based Regional Slope-Stability Model), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), is designed to model the timing and distribution of shal- low rainfall-induced landslides (Baum et al., 2002). This physically based model calculates the changing pore water pressures during rainfall. TRIGRS consists of an inﬁltration model that has a gov- erning equation based on the linearized solution of the Richards’ equation (Iverson, 2000; Baum et al., 2002) and an inﬁnite equi- librium slope stability model. It is widely used to assess shallow landslide susceptibility in various regions (e.g., Baum et al., 2005; Salciarini et al., 2006; Sorbino et al., 2010; Vieira et al., 2010). TRI- GRS is thought to be suitable for assessing landslide susceptibility in South Korea because the major type of landslide in this region is a shallow slip-type landslide that most often occurs during the summer season due to heavy rainfall. However, this model cannot consider the tree effects with which the current study is concerned. Thus, TRIGRS was selected as a base model in the current study.

2.1.1.1. Hydrological model of TRIGRS. The hydrological model of TRIGRS simulates two hydrologic processes: inﬁltration, and runoff. Conceptually, water can either inﬁltrate into the soil or run down to adjacent downslope cells in the TRIGRS simulation. For each time step of one simulation, these processes occur instan- taneously from cell to cell, and rainfall eventually inﬁltrates into the soil or exﬁltrates from the spatial domain of the simulation at boundary cells during any given time step. On a cell simulated by TRIGRS, inﬁltration is determined by the relationship of precipitation, runoff from upslope, and saturated hydraulic conductivity using the following Eq. (1):

I = ^{} P + R _{u}

K

s

P

P

+ R _{u} ≤ K _{s}

+ R _{u} >K _{s}

(1)

where I is inﬁltration at each cell, P is precipitation, R _{u} is runoff from upslope cells, and K _{s} is saturated hydraulic conductivity. Runoff to adjacent downslope cell is calculated as the excess of inﬁltration immediately after determination of inﬁltration as follows,

R d = ^{} P + R _{u} − I

0

P

P

+ R _{u} >I

+ R _{u} = I

^{(}^{2}^{)}

where R _{d} is runoff to downslope cells. In the process of runoff, the direction of the runoff depends on the elevation difference among adjacent cells. The inﬁltration model of TRIGRS has two forms depending on different basal boundary conditions: one for an inﬁnitely deep basal boundary condition, and the other for an impermeable basal boundary condition at a ﬁnite depth. Considering the geological

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D. Kim et al. / Ecological Engineering 61P (2013) 658–668

condition of South Korea, the impermeable basal condition model was applied in the current study. Eq. (3) represents the governing equation of the inﬁltration model with the impermeable boundary condition where the ﬁrst term represents the steady part, while the remaining terms represents the transient part. The pressure head as a function of depth is temporally calculated based on the ini- tial soil water conditions, and the additional inﬁltrated water. This inﬁltration model can be applied to tension-saturated soil.

which is stored is then divided to throughfall, stemﬂow, and evap- oration. The canopy or stem is assumed to not generate any output until it has become fully saturated with input rainfall. In this study, the original Rutter model was revised to consider simpliﬁed calcu- lations and weather conditions during heavy storms that can cause landslides. No stemﬂow was assumed, meaning that the stem effect was not considered in the revised model, due to the stemﬂow’s

1 ⎪

2 ^{}

⎨

⎪

⎧

⎢

⎣

ierfc ⎡

_{⎦} + ierfc ⎡

⎤

⎥

⎤

⎥

⎦

⎫

⎪

⎬

⎪

⎭

(Z, t) = (Z − d)ˇ + 2 ^{} ^{N}

n=1

−2 ^{} ^{N}

n=1

I

nZ

nZ

K

s

I

(2m − 1)d _{L}_{Z} − (d _{L}_{Z} − Z)

1

2[D _{1} (t − t _{n} )]

2

_{⎦} + ierfc ⎡

⎤

⎥

H(t − t _{n} )[D _{1} (t − t _{n} )]

1 ⎪

⎨

⎪

2 ^{}

⎧

∞

m=1

⎩

∞

m=1

⎩

⎢

⎣

(2m − 1)d _{L}_{Z} + (d _{L}_{Z} − Z)

1

2[D _{1} (t − t _{n} )]

⎤

⎥

⎦

⎫

⎪

⎬

⎪

⎭

2 (3)

⎢

⎣

ierfc ⎡

(2m − 1)d _{L}_{Z} − (d _{L}_{Z} − Z)

2[D _{1} (t − t _{n}_{+}_{1} )]

1

2

⎢

⎣

(2m − 1)d _{L}_{Z} + (d _{L}_{Z} − Z)

2[D _{1} (t − t _{n}_{+}_{1} )]

1

2

K

s

H(t − t _{n}_{+}_{1} )[D _{1} (t − t _{n}_{+}_{1} )]

where is the pore water pressure as a head of water (m), Z is soil depth (m), t is time (s), d is the steady-state depth of the water table measured in the vertical direction, ˇ = cos ^{2} − (I _{Z}_{L}_{T} /K _{s} ), is the slope angle ( ^{◦} ), I _{Z}_{L}_{T} is the steady (initial) surface ﬂux, K _{s} is the verti- cal saturated hydraulic conductivity, N is the total number of time intervals, I _{n}_{Z} is the surface ﬂux of a given intensity for the nth time interval, H(t − t _{n} ) is the Heaviside step function, t _{n} is the time at the nth time interval in the rainfall inﬁltration sequence, D _{1} =D _{0} /cos ^{2} , D _{0} is the saturated hydraulic diffusivity, d _{L}_{Z} is the depth of the impermeable basal boundary measured in the Z-direction, and the function ‘ierfc’ is of the form

ierfc( ) =

^{1} exp(− ^{2} ) − erfc( )

√

(4)

where erfc( ) is the complementary error function. This inﬁltration model of TRIGRS is a one-dimensional inﬁltra- tion model with the assumption of no lateral groundwater ﬂow in the soil. Therefore, TRIGRS is suitable for assessing the environ- ments where vertical gravitational ﬂow is dominant, such as in the early stage of a storm and/or on a steep hillslope. However, it is not suitable for assessing the environments where lateral groundwater ﬂow is signiﬁcant. Detailed descriptions of the hydrological model of TRIGRS are provided in the TRIGRS manual (Baum et al., 2002).

2.1.1.2. Slope stability model of TRIGRS. TRIGRS calculates FS as index of slope stability on independent cells using a simple inﬁ- nite slope stability model. In the analysis, FS is calculated as the ratio of resisting stress to gravitational driving stress. A slope is predicted to be stable when FS ≥ 1, while a slope is predicted to be unstable (failed) when FS < 1. The equation of the slope stability model follows:

FS(Z, t) = c ^{} + ^{} _{s} Z cos ^{2} −

(Z, t) _{w} ^{} tan ^{}

_{s} Z sin cos

(5)

where FS is the factor of safety, c ^{} is the soil effective cohesion (kPa), _{s} is the soil unit weight (kN m ^{−}^{3} ), is the slope angle ( ^{◦} ), is the pore water pressure expressed as a head of water (m), _{w} is the water unit weight (kN m ^{−}^{3} ), and ^{} is the soil effective internal friction angle ( ^{◦} ).

2.1.2. Rainfall interception model

The Rutter model (Rutter et al., 1971, 1975) was selected as a rainfall interception model to estimate the amount of intercep- tion loss and effective rainfall. The Rutter model is a conceptual model that considers the tree canopy and stem as tanks with spe- ciﬁc water storage capacities. In the Rutter model, the rainfall input is distributed to the canopy, trunk, and to free throughfall, and that

minor inﬂuence on the total interception loss during heavy rainfall events. In addition, the canopy’s evaporation rate was assumed to have a maximum potential evaporation rate because this rate is determined by the canopy saturation in the Rutter model, and the canopy would become fully saturated very rapidly during a heavy storm. The storage equation in the Rutter model, which is expressed in an exponential form, was also revised to focus on the dripping process during storms (Calder, 1977; Kim, 1993):

_{−} dC

(6)

dt

= bC − Q

where C is the canopy water storage (mm), t is time (min), b is the drip coefﬁcient (min ^{−}^{1} ), and Q is the rainfall entering into the canopy (mm min ^{−}^{1} ).

2.1.3. Revised inﬁnite slope stability model

The original slope stability model of TRIGRS is a simple inﬁnite slope stability model that does not include any term to account the effects of trees on slope stability. Thus, we introduced the inﬁnite slope model including terms for tree root reinforcement and tree surcharge from Hammond et al. (1992). The equation is expressed such as Eq. (7),

_{F}_{S} _{=} c _{r} + c ^{} + {m _{t} + (Z − Z _{w} ) + ( _{s}_{a}_{t} − _{w} )Z _{w} } cos ^{2} tan ^{}

{m _{t} + (Z − Z _{w} ) + _{s}_{a}_{t} Z _{w} } sin cos

(7)

where c _{r} is the root reinforcement (kPa), m _{t} is the tree surcharge (kPa), is the moist soil unit weight (kN m ^{−}^{3} ), Z _{w} is the saturated soil depth (m), and _{s}_{a}_{t} is the saturated soil unit weight (kN m ^{−}^{3} ). This equation assumes the steady groundwater ﬂows by the term Z _{w} , so Eq. (7) was modiﬁed such as Eq. (8) to integrate it with the transient inﬁltration model of TRIGRS.

_{F}_{S}_{(}_{Z}_{,} _{t}_{)} _{=} c _{r} + c ^{} + {m _{t} cos ^{2} + _{s} Z cos ^{2} − (Z, t) _{w} } tan ^{}

(8)

(m _{t} + _{s} Z) sin cos

2.1.4. The revised model-integration of TRIGRS and tree effect

models Fig. 1 shows the composition and data process ﬂow of the revised model. In the revised model, the inﬁltration model of TRI- GRS was integrated with the rainfall interception model, and the slope stability model of TRIGRS was replaced with the revised slope stability model that considers root reinforcement and tree sur- charge. The process of evaluating landslide susceptibility with the revised model consists of three steps: effective rainfall estimation, pore water pressure calculation, and FS calculation. First, the rain- fall interception model estimates interception loss and effective

D. Kim et al. / Ecological Engineering 61P (2013) 658–668

661

Rainfall

Soil

Topographical

Data

Properties

Properties

Infiltration

Model

Pore Water

Pressure

Slope Stability

Model

Factor of Safety

(FS)

The original TRIGRS

(a) The original TRIGRS

Forest

Rainfall

Soil

Topographical

Properties

Data

Properties

Properties

Interception

Model

Effective

Rainfall

Infiltration

Model

Pore Water

Pressure

Root

Reinforcement

Slope Stability

Model

Tree

Surcharge

< Legend>

: Original Model

Factor of Safety

(FS)

: Revised Model

(Tree Effect)

The revised TRIGRS

(b) The revised TRIGRS

Fig. 1. Conceptual diagram of TRIGRS and the revised model.

rainfall, which is the net amount of rainfall that reaches soil sur- face, using data of hourly rainfall and forest properties as input. This model calculates the hourly effective rainfall and then inputs the effective rainfall data into the inﬁltration model. This inﬁltra- tion model calculates the corresponding changes in pore water

pressure and water table depth in the series using the estimated effective rainfall. Finally, the revised slope stability model calcu- lates FS based on these calculated pore water pressure values, along with root reinforcement and tree surcharge, over every simulated hour.

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D. Kim et al. / Ecological Engineering 61P (2013) 658–668

Fig. 2. Location, elevation, and soil depth of the Bonghwa site.

2.2. Study site

A small watershed of approximately 14,000 m ^{2} in Bonghwa, South Korea, was selected as a study site. Referred to as the “Bonghwa site,” this area was damaged by shallow landslides that were triggered by an extreme storm on July 24–25, 2008. The storm caused six shallow landslides covering an average area of 233 m ^{2} and had an average depth of less than 1 m. The Bonghwa site is located in the central-eastern part of the Korean peninsula (Fig. 2).

It has a temperate monsoonal climate with an annual mean tem- perature of 9.9 ^{◦} C and an annual mean precipitation of 1217.9 mm measured over past 30 years (1981–2010). However, rainfall dur- ing summer (June, July, and August) is approximately 60% of the total precipitation. The Bonghwa site is situated on a steep val- ley with a maximum slope angle of 45 ^{◦} and an elevation ranging from 593 to 722 m.a.s.l. The forest type on this land is an artiﬁ- cially replanted forest, and the predominant species is 20-year-old Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis). The forest is well developed and fully stocked and has a high density of canopy. The soil type is sandy loam, meaning that it has a very good drainage rate. The bedrock in the Bonghwa site is composed of metamorphosed sedimentary rock and schist.

2.3. Storm event July 24–25, 2008

The storm event that caused landslides on the Bonghwa site produced a total of 228 mm of rainfall over 18 h between 20:00 on July 24 and 13:00 on July 25, 2008. Antecedent rainfall of approxi- mately 100 mm fell on the Bonghwa site on July 19, 2008, ﬁve days before the main storm. The hourly average intensity of this rainfall was 12.7 mm h ^{−}^{1} , and the highest intensity was 38 mm h ^{−}^{1} . Fig. 3 shows a hyetograph of the storm event in July 2008 at the Bonghwa site, which was produced from hourly rainfall data collected at an adjacent Korea Meteorological Administration weather station.

2.4. Data acquisition and model parameterization

The topographical data for the TRIGRS and the revised mod- els were generated from 1:5000-scaled digital terrain maps. A 5 m × 5 m-sized Digital Elevation Model (DEM), ﬂow direction map, and slope angle map for the Bonghwa site were constructed using ArcGIS 9.3 (ESRI, Inc.). In addition, a soil depth map was prepared using spline interpolation with 109 point samples of the soil depth over the entire study site. These soil depths were measured using in situ manual soil penetration tests, and measured values of soil depth ranged up to 2.7 m over the watershed area, with an average depth of 0.9 m. The mechanical properties of the soil were estimated based on the soil type, topography, and vegetational characteristics of the Bonghwa site to consider the uncertainty of the measured soil property data. Thus, the total unit weight, cohesion, and inter- nal friction angle of the soil were set to 14.71 kN m ^{−}^{3} , 5.2 kPa, and 34 ^{◦} , respectively. Soil hydraulic conductivity was measured to 4.52 × 10 ^{−}^{5} ms ^{−}^{1} using Guelph permeameter (Eijkelkamp, Inc.). The parameters for the rainfall interception model were based on digital forest stock maps and empirical data from the 26-year- old pine (Pinus rigitaeda) forest (Kim, 1993). In particular, canopy storage (S), the fraction of free throughfall (p), and the drip coefﬁ- cient (b) were set to 1.49 mm, 0.268, and 0.04 min ^{−}^{1} , respectively. The potential evaporation rate (E _{p} ) was assumed to be 0.3 mm h ^{−}^{1} over the entire simulated period. Lacking the baseline information on the distribution of trees and tree roots to measure root reinforcement prior to landslides initiation, estimate was therefore adopted from previous studies. In general, root reinforcement of pine trees ranges from −0.4 kPa to 21.8 kPa depending on species, root density, soil properties and assessment methods (Gray and Megahan, 1981; Waldron and Dakessian, 1981; Ziemer, 1981; Waldron et al., 1983; Gray, 1995; Campbell and Hawkins, 2003; Van Beek et al., 2005). Ziemer (1981) also reported 3.0–21.0 kPa for lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) using in situ direct shear test which could reﬂect spatial variability of root reinforcement well. In this study, 3.0 kPa was adopted as the root reinforcement to represent the typical tendency that root reinforcement decreases with depth. It was supported by the

D. Kim et al. / Ecological Engineering 61P (2013) 658–668

663

Fig. 3. Hyetograph of the landslide-occurring rainfall storm on July 24, 2008, in Bonghwa site.

observation of the shallow rooting pattern of trees around the landslide scars of the Bonghwa site. Tree surcharge was assumed to be 2.94 kPa due to the domi- nant tree species, forest age, and forest density. The trees on the Bonghwa site were very densely planted, which is why the tree surcharge was set to such a high value. In terms of the initial setting of the TRIGRS simulations, the soil–water condition when the landslides began cannot be esti- mated exactly because no monitoring system was employed on the site when the landslide occurred. In the current study, the soil in the Bonghwa site was assumed to be tension-saturated for appli- cation of the inﬁltration model of TRIGRS. Therefore, no detailed unsaturated soil–water characteristics, e.g., soil–water character- istic curve, were required for the simulation. This assumption appears to have little impact when assessing the contributions of trees on landslide. In addition, the groundwater table was assumed to lie on the boundary between soil and bedrock because ground- water commonly lies in very deep soil around the mountain tops of South Korea, and soil depth is shallow over the Bonghwa site. Using

previous research showing a comparison with the measured value of saturated hydraulic conductivity (e.g., Godt et al., 2008; Liu and Wu, 2008), the initial inﬁltration rate was set to 4.52 × 10 ^{−}^{9} ms ^{−}^{1} .

3. Results

3.1. Effective rainfall results

Fig. 4 shows hyetographs of the total observed rainfall and the simulated effective rainfall. The temporal distribution of the sim- ulated effective rainfall was different from that of the observed rainfall. The effective rainfall was smaller than the observed rain- fall at each time step when the observed rainfall intensity was relatively high, while the effective rainfall was greater than the observed rainfall when the latter was relatively low. However, the total amount of intercepted rainfall was simulated to be only 4.5 mm over the entire period (Fig. 5). These results indicated that the interception loss made up only a small portion of the total observed rainfall during an extreme rainfall event that caused

45

Observed Rainfall

40

Simulated Effective Rainfall

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

20

21

22

23

24

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

July 24, 2008

July 25

Rainfall Intensity (mm/hr.)

Time (h)

Fig. 4. Temporal distribution of observed rainfall and simulated effective rainfall by the rainfall interception model.

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D. Kim et al. / Ecological Engineering 61P (2013) 658–668

250

Obs.

Sim.

200

Obs. - Sim.

150

100

50

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

Cumulative Rainfall Amount (mm)

Elapsed Time (h)

Fig. 5. Accumulated amount of observed rainfall and simulated effective rainfall by the canopy intercept model.

landslides. However, rainfall interception could inﬂuence when landslides are initiated through changes in the temporal distribu- tion of the rainfall.

3.2. TRIGRS and the revised model simulation results

In Fig. 6, a series of pore water pressure simulated by TRIGRS and the revised model at the depth of the lowest FS is shown over time. The results of both models show the same trend of negative pore water pressures (suction) increasing up to positive pressures over time. However, there are no signiﬁcant differences between the two results. At the end of the simulation (elapsed time = 18 h), the average value of the pore water pressure of the study site was calculated to be 0.6293 m using TRIGRS and 0.6267 m using the revised model. These results indicate that the tree rainfall intercep- tion had little inﬂuence on inﬁltration because other parameters that could affect the pore water pressure were consistent for the both simulations. Fig. 7 shows a series of FS simulated by the TRIGRS and revised models over time. For both models, the results show that FS con- tinuously decreased over the entire area during the simulated time period. However, FS seemed to approach its minimum value only 9 h after the rainfall started. It was thought that the high rainfall intensity around that time period was enough to maximize the failure potentials in each cell, as shown in Fig. 3. In addition, Fig. 7 graphically indicates that the revised model generated higher FS values than did the TRIGRS model. Meanwhile, the revised model captured locations in which landslides occurred relatively well, while TRIGRS evaluated too low slope stabilities, i.e., FSs over wide areas. It is known that TRIGRS tends to overestimate landslide sus- ceptibility in a region (Tsai and Chiang, 2012). Fig. 8 shows the cumulative distributions of FS simulated by TRIGRS and the revised model at t = 0 and t = 18. In particular, from a total of 552 simulated cells the revised model simulated 66 cells (12.0%) which had FS val- ues of less than 1.0 while TRIGRS simulated 146 cells (26.4%). The average simulated FS value was 2.061, and the minimum value was 0.7490 in the revised model. On the other hand, the average value was 1.987, and the minimum value was 0.6176 in TRIGRS.

4. Discussion and conclusions

In terms of hydrological circulation, rainfall interception is thought to be a component of evaporation because rainfall that is temporarily captured by the canopy eventually evaporates or drips from the canopy in the form of throughfall or stemﬂow, and the

difference between the total and effective rainfall is the quantity of the total rainfall that has evaporated in the end. Over a long- term time span, evaporation can be a critical factor for reducing the risk of shallow landslide incidents. However, the inﬂuence of evap- oration on landslide development is thought to be minor during extreme storms with short durations because the weather condi- tions during such extreme storms are very humid. Therefore, the evaporation rate is low, and there is not enough time for inter- ception loss to reach a critical level that would affect landslide development. In fact, more than half of the annual total inter- ception loss occurs after rainfall events ﬁnishes (Reid and Lewis, 2007). Therefore, the rainfall interception of 4.5 mm simulated by the model in this study was a low but appropriate value, although a very high evaporation of 0.3 mm h ^{−}^{1} was assumed for the rainfall interception model. Meanwhile, the rainfall interception can affect the temporal distribution of effective rainfall through delays during canopy saturation, as shown in Fig. 4. Although the Rutter model is a conceptual model that cannot perfectly simulate the natural process of rainfall interception, the results it produces are reason- able to a certain extent when considering the high water storage capacity of a tree canopy or stem. In light of the mechanical effects of trees on landslide develop- ment, uniform values for the root reinforcement the tree surcharge were applied to the simulations assuming the study site had homo- geneous forest properties. These values were spatially averaged values, but, in reality, tree surcharge acts as a point load that is not uniformly distributed, and root reinforcement decreases with depth. Because the mechanical effects can spatially vary depend- ing on the position of a single tree, their relevant values should be selected carefully. In the current study, the simulation results showed that the mechanical factors substantially affected slope stability, and the results simulated by the revised model captured landslide-damaged areas well compared to the results given by TRI- GRS despite the application of estimates, but not measurements. In general, parametric analysis is a good option to identify the mechanical effects of trees in a regional scale lacking detailed infor- mation of distribution and growth of trees. In terms of the magnitude of the effects that controlling fac- tors have on FS, the magnitude of pore water pressure is deﬁnitely greater than that of tree effects, as shown Fig. 8. However, Fig. 8 also shows trees contribute to slope stability positively until FS = 2.0. This implies that aside from pore water pressure, trees also have considerable inﬂuence on shallow landslide initiation, although the critical point that positive tree contribution is converted into the negative one depends on the relationship between a ratio of tree

D. Kim et al. / Ecological Engineering 61P (2013) 658–668

665

Fig. 6. Results of pore water pressure at the depth of the lowest FS simulated by TRIGRS and the revised model with time.

root reinforcement and surcharge, and other geographical proper- ties, especially slope angle. Overall, the results of pore water pressure and FS in the Bonghwa site indicates that the effects of trees to shallow landslide

development during a severe storm can be largely attributed to their mechanical functions, but not their hydrological function. The amount of the rainfall interception was not substantial due to the short duration time, and the effect of redistributed effective rainfall

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D. Kim et al. / Ecological Engineering 61P (2013) 658–668

Fig. 7. Results of FS simulated by TRIGRS and the revised model with time.

was also not substantial due to the high rainfall intensity. How- ever, the hydrological effects of trees, e.g., evaporation by rainfall interception and transpiration by root uptake, can be more signif- icant than the mechanical effects in places where its hydrological

characteristics often ﬂuctuate, during a long-term time span. For instance, Simon and Collison (2002) found that the hydrological effects of trees seasonally enhanced slope stability two-fold more than did the mechanical effects in a streambank. However, it was

D. Kim et al. / Ecological Engineering 61P (2013) 658–668

100

80

60

40

TRIGRS, t=0

The revised, t=0

20

TRIGRS, t=18

The revised, t=18

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Cumulative Area (%)

Factor of Safety (FS)

Fig. 8. Cumulative distribution of FS simulated by TRIGRS and the revised model.

also found that the magnitude of the hydrological effects ﬂuctu- ated temporally during the season, while that of the mechanical effects remained essentially constant. Therefore, it is very impor- tant to understand that the contribution of trees to slope stability can be estimated in different ways, depending on the time scale of analysis. Moreover, the mechanical effects of trees on landslides appear to vary depending on the method of evaluation. In the current study, the revised slope stability model could have two potential drawbacks if it will be used to assess landslide susceptibility in regional scale. First, the inﬁnite slope stability model can apply to only shallow planar landslides, but not for deep-seated landslides, or circularly failed landslides. Second, the inﬁnite slope stabil- ity model cannot consider lateral root reinforcement although it apparently affects shallow landslide initiation. These limitations can be attributed to the rigid characteristics of TRIGRS being a one- dimensional and cell-based approach. Therefore, it is needed to specify conditions of ‘target’ landslides to analyze. In conclusion, trees have signiﬁcant mechanical effects on shal- low landslide development in steep, forested watersheds during a severe storm event. The revised model offers better assessment for shallow landslide susceptibility of mountainous watersheds. Although measured data for some simulation parameters were lacking and a quantitative analysis of tree effects was not com- pletely performed, we tried to model and analyze the tree effects using a physically based approach, in terms of the case of the landslide-occurred site. Further study to quantify the impacts of trees on shallow landslides under various rainfall and topographi- cal conditions was also regarded important to improve the model.

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the Korea Forest Research Insti- tute. The authors would like to thank the graduate students, Eun Jai Lee, Byungkyu Ahn, and Dixon T. Gevana˜ in Forest Engineering Laboratory, Seoul National University, Republic of Korea for their efforts in data collection.

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