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# DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, NIT ROURKELA.

## Course Teacher : Dr. Suman Ghosh

Problem Sheet 1
Spring Semester; Session: 201415; Programme: B.Tech / M.Tech D.D. (EE, 4th Sem);
Course: Thermal Engineering (ME255); Make suitable assumptions if required.
1.

A tank containing a fluid is stirred by a paddle wheel. The work input to the paddle wheel is 5090
kJ. The heat transfer from the tank is 1500 kJ. Consider the tank and the fluid inside a control
surface and determine the change in internal energy of this control mass.

2.

Consider a stone having a mass of 10 kg and a bucket containing 100 kg of liquid water. Initially
the stone is 10.2 m above the water, and the stone and the water are at the same temperature, state
1. The stone then falls into the water. Determine U, KE, PE, Q, and W for the following
changes of state, assuming standard gravitational acceleration of 9.80665 rn/s2. (a) The stone is
about to enter the water, state 2. (b) The stone has just come to rest in the bucket, state 3. (c) Heat
has been transferred to the surroundings in such an amount that the stone and water are at the
same temperature, T1, state 4.

3.

A cylinder fitted with a piston has a volume of 0.l m3 and contains 0.5 kg of steam at 0.4 MPa.
Heat is transferred to the steam until the temperature is 300C, while the pressure remains
constant. Determine the heat transfer and the work for this process.

4.

## Consider a water-cooled condenser in a large refrigeration system in which R-134a is the

refrigerant fluid. The refrigerant enters the condenser at 1.0 MPa and 60C, at the rate of 0.2 kg/s,
and exits as a liquid at 0.95 MPa and 35C. Cooling water enters the condenser at 10C and exits
at 20C. Determine the rate at which cooling water flows through the condenser. (Ex Sontag 6.3)

5.

A pistoncylinder device initially contains 0.5 m3 of nitrogen gas at 400 kPa and 27C. An
electric heater within the device is turned on and is allowed to pass a current of 2 A for 5 min
from a 120-V source. Nitrogen expands at constant pressure, and a heat loss of 2800 J occurs
during the process. Determine the final temperature of nitrogen. [Data given at room temperature
(300K): Cp = 1.039 kJ/kg-K, Cv = 0.743 kJ/kg-K for N2 Table, R = 0.297 kPa.m3/kg-K = 0.297
kJ/kg-K, Cp and Cv can be taken as constant throughout the process]

6.

A mass of 8 kg gas expands within a flexible container so that the P-V relationship is of the form
PV1.2 = constant. The initial pressure is 1000 kPa and the initial volume is 1 m3. The final pressure
is 5 kPa. If specific internal energy of the gas decreases by 40 kJ/kg, find the heat transfer in
magnitude and direction.

7.

A gas undergoes a thermodynamic cycle consisting of the following process: (1) Process 1-2:
Constant pressure P = 1.4 bar, V1 = 0.028 m3, W12 = 10.5 kJ, (2) Process 2-3: Compression with
PV = constant, U3 = U2, (3) Process 3-1: Constant Volume, U1-U3 = -26.4 kJ. There are no
significant changes in KE and PE (a) Sketch the cycle in the P-V diagram (b) Calculate network
in the cycle in kJ. (c) Calculate the heat transfer for process 1-2 and (d) Show that Q = W in
the above cycle.

8.

## Refrigerant-134a is to be cooled by water in a condenser. The refrigerant enters the condenser

with a mass flow rate of 6 kg/min at 1 MPa and 70C and leaves at 35C. The cooling water
enters at 300 kPa and 15C and leaves at 25C. Neglecting any pressure drops, determine (a) the
mass flow rate of the cooling water required and (b) the heat transfer rate from the refrigerant to
water. [Given that: (hi)w = 62.982 kJ/kg, (he)w = 104.83 kJ/kg, (hi)r = 303.85 kJ/kg, (he)r = 100.87
kJ/kg]

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## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, NIT ROURKELA.

Course Teacher : Dr. Suman Ghosh

9.

A 1-m3, 40-kg rigid steel tank contains air at 500 kPa, and both tank and air are at 20C. The tank
is connected to a line flowing air at 2 MPa and 20C. The valve is opened, allowing air to flow
into the tank until the pressure reaches 1.5 MPa, and is then closed. Assume the air and tank are
always at the same temperature and the final temperature is 35C. Find the final air mass and the
heat transfer.

## 10. Consider the simple steam power plant, as shown in Figure.

The following data are given: h1 = 3023.5 kJ/kg, h2 = 3002.5 kJ/kg, h3 = 2361.8 kJ/kg, h4 = 188.5
kJ/kg, Pump work = 4 kJ/kg. Determine the following quantities per kilogram flowing through
the unit: (a) Heat transfer in line between boiler and turbine, (b) Turbine work, (c) Heat transfer
in condenser and (d) Heat transfer in boiler.
11. Steam at a pressure of 1.4 MPa and temperature of 300C is flowing in a pipe. Connected to this
pipe through a valve is an evacuated tank. The valve is opened and the tank fills with steam until
the pressure is 1.4 MPa, and then the valve is closed. The process takes place adiabatically and
kinetic energies and potential energies are negligible. Determine the specific internal energy at
the final state within the tank. Given: At P = 1.4 Mpa and T = 3000C, h = 3040 kJ/kg.
12. In a co-flowing (same direction) heat exchanger, 1 kg/s of air at 500 K flows into one channel
and 2 kg/s of air flows into the neighboring channel at 300 K. If the heat exchanger is infinitely
long, what is the exit temperature? Sketch the variation of T in the two flows.
13. Two steady flows of air enter a control volume, shown in Figure. One is 0.025 kg/s of flow at
350 kPa, 1500C (state 1), and the other enters at 450 kPa, 150C (state 2). A single flow exits at
100 kPa, -40C (state 3). The control volume rejects 1 kW of heat to the surroundings and
produces 4 kW of power output. Neglect kinetic energies and determine the mass flow rate at
state 2.

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## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, NIT ROURKELA.

Course Teacher : Dr. Suman Ghosh

14. A cooler in an air conditioner brings 0.5 kg/s of air at 35C to 5C, both at 101 kPa. It then mixes
the output with a flow of 0.25 kg/s air at 20C and 101 kPa, sending the combined flow into a
duct. Find the total heat transfer in the cooler and the temperature in the duct flow.
15. A gas turbine set-up to produce power during peak demand is shown in Figure. The turbine
provides power to the air compressor and the electric generator. If the electric generator should
provide 5 MW what is the needed air flow at state 1 and the combustion heat transfer between
states 2 and 3? The states are: (1) 90 kPa, 290 K (2) 900 kPa, 560 K (3) 900 kPa, 1400 K (4) 100
kPa, 850 K.

16. An engine consists of a 100 kg cast iron block with a 20-kg aluminium head, 20 kg of steel parts,
5 kg of engine oil, and 6 kg of glycerine (antifreeze). Everything begins at 5C, and as the engine
starts we want to know how hot it becomes if it absorbs a net of 7000 kJ before it reaches a steady
uniform temperature.
17. An insulated cylinder is divided into two parts of 1 m3 each by an initially locked piston,as shown
in figure. Side A has air at 200 kPa, 300 K, and side B has air at 1.0 MPa, 1000 K. The piston is
now unlocked so that it is free to move, and it conducts heat so that the air comes to a uniform
temperature TA = TB. Find the mass in both A and B and the final T and P.

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