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To inform students of their educational progress
To guide further coursework
To provide a basis for grouping students for instructional
purposes
To provide as basis for graduating students from different levels
within the educational system
To provide basis for college admission
To determine honor students
To serve as basis for granting of awards and scholarships
To provide criterion for the students participation in extracurricular activities
To motivate students to study hard
To identify students strengths and weaknesses
To provide basis for employment
refers to a grading system wherein a students grade is placed in
relation to the performance of a group
grading based on the normal curve
tests are graded based on the mean or average of the test
scores
the major assumption for the use of this method is that the
majority of students are typically of average ability
grades come in letters and numbers
This approach to grading is often used in colleges and universities
If a teacher follows this scheme, he is expected to give:
10% of his student- A
20%- D
20%- B
10% F
40%- C
Constructing Transmutation
1.) Get the highest and lowest score then subtract
2.) divide the difference by 10-15 to determine the class size
4.) Identify the <CF after tallying the scores
3.) get the locator of the total frequency (n) by dividing it to 2
4.) If you want to adjust the locator, which will serve as the passing
mark (75), you can adjust until 3 movement downward
5.) Then subtract 100-75 then divide the difference to the number of
movements upward from 75. The quotient will serve as your addend in
cumulatively way

6.) Subtract 75 from the desired lowest grade then divide the
difference to the number of movements upward from the desired
cumulatively way
7.) Round off the transmuted grades into whole number
The Perfect score is 95 of 50 students
84
80
68
87
86
70
79
90
67
67
80
82
52
85
76
86
61
86
87
87
91
78
72
95
89
84
78
88
78
48
48
82
76
50
86
85
88
70
79
75
89
89
73
86
72
68
82
89
81
59
77
81
81
77
83
Scores
Tally
f
<CF
95
1
50
100
100
93-94
0
49
97.4
97
90-92
2
49
94.6
95
87-89
7
47
91.8
92
84-86
9
40
89
89
81-83
6
31
86.2
86
78-80
7
25
83.4
83
75-77
5
18
80.6
81
72-74
3
13
77.8
78
69-71
2
10
75
75
66-68
3
8
73.4
73
63-65
0
5
72
72
60-62
1
5
70.6
71
57-59
1
4
69.2
69
54-56
0
3
67.8
68
51-53
1
3
66.4
66
48-59
2
2
65
65
95-48= 47
47/15= 3
100/75= 25
25/9= 2.8

75-65=10
10/7= 1.4

Scores are transmuted to percentage rating based on minimum
requirements for passing or predetermined standard, based on
the tenders judgment
A transmutation table is prepared for converting scores into

## This type is premised on the independent of the performance of

the other students in a class
Converting Scores to Percentage Rating Formula
Formula 1:
Formula 2:
K-12 Formula:
TS
40
TI

TS
50
TI

TS
100
TI

R 60

R 50

## This is premised on the

idea that a student has
of the test items

## This is employed when a

teacher sets the rating
at 40%, rather than 55%
or 50%.

Where:
R= Rating in Percentage
TS= Total Score TI=
Total number of items

Example:
Ana got 55 correct answer in a 75 item test.
Formula 1:

Formula 2:

K-12 Formula:

R 50

R 60

87

84

55
50
75

55
40
75

55
100
75
73

Transmutation Table:
50-percentage rating
Scores
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
100-50= 50

5 items
50
60
70
80
90
100

50/5= 10

60-percentage rating
100- 40= 60
Scores

60/5= 12
5 items

10 items
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
50/10= 5
60/10=6
10 items

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

40
52
64
76
88
100

40
46
52
58
64
70
76
82
88
94
100

## Three variables to consider in deciding on the lowest base grade to use

in converting raw scores to percentage rating:
- difficulty of the test
- the standard of the teacher
- the standard of the school
Letter grades- the most popular. Grades are presented as A,B,C,D or F.
Each letter represents level of performance based on the combined
ratings of test scores, projects and other requirements
Qualitative rating- grades are presented in the form of qualitative
description of students performance such as excellent, very good,
good, fair and needs improvement
1,2,3,4,5
Percentage Rating- grades of 70%, 75%, 85% and the like are given to
students test scores and performance based on criteria for grading set
by the teacher.
>Pass- Fail
>Checklists
>Standards-based
>Written Description
Determining Grades for a Marking Term
Guidelines that teachers should consider in arriving at a students
grade for a specific marking term
Be objective in giving marks to student
accomplishment/performance
accomplishment rather than failure
Consider the policies of the school in giving the highest and
Use a variety of sources for determining the students grades for
marking a term

## Decide beforehand on the policy you will implement for makeup

work in case of absence or sickness
The teacher needs to come up with criteria for grading to ensure
objectivity and considering in giving term marks for each student. Most
commonly used criteria for grading are the ff:
1.) Class standing (participation, exercises, etc.)
2.) Quizzes
3.) Summative tests
4.) Projects
2 ways
Averaging
Cumulative
In the averaging system, grades obtained by a student in each of the
marking terms are added. The sum is divided by the number of
marking terms

FG

## 1stgg 2ndgg3rdgg 4gg

4

Where:
In the cumulative system, final grade is obtained by getting 30% of the
grade obtained during the previous marking period and 70% of the last
FG= 30%GP+70%TG
Where:
GP= grade obtained during the previous marking period
TG= grade during the marking period
Averaging:

FG

90909295
4

92
Cumulative:

1st= 90
FG= 94
K-12 Standard-Based Assessment
Content
- what the student knows, can do and understands
Performance
-how the student transfer his/her understanding to life situation
Level of Assessment:
1.) Assess for Attainment of Learning comes:
Level 1: Knowledge
Level 3: Understanding
Level 2: Product/Skills
2.) Assess for Attainment of Performance Standard
Level 4: Products/Performances
Knowledge (15%)
The substantive content of the curriculum, the facts and information
that the student acquires
May be assessed by: Traditional Testing (e.g. Paper-and-pencil test)
Process (25%)
The skills or cognitive operations that the student performs on facts
and information or the purpose of constructing meaning and
understanding
May be assessed by: asking learner to outline, organize, analyze,
interpret, convert or express the information on another form: draw
analogies, construct graphs, models, draw or paint pictures or do role
playing
Understanding (30%)
Enduring big ideas, principles and generalizations inherent to the
discipline, which may be assessed using the indicators which may be
specific to the discipline
May be assessed by:
Letting students express their own understanding (e.g. explain,
interpret, apply, etc.)
Products/Performance (30%)
Real-life application of understanding as evidenced by the students
May be assessed by:
Frequency of Assessment:

## Knowledge, skills, understanding and transfer shall be assessed

formatively (daily, weekly scored, recorded but not graded) and
summatively (scored, recorded and graded) at the end of the unit,
quarter, or school year.
Assessment of Learning by level of Proficiency
Beginning (74 and below)
- The student at this level struggles with his/her understandings;
prerequisites and fundamental knowledge and/or skills have not been
acquired or developed adequately to aid understanding
Developing (75%-79%)
- The student as this level possesses the minimum knowledge and
skills and core understandings, but need help throughout the
Approaching Proficiency (80%-84%)
-The student at this level has developed the fundamental knowledge
and skills and core understandings and with little guidance from the
teacher and/or with score assistance from peers, can transfer these
Proficient (85%-89%)
-The student at this level has developed the fundamental knowledge
and skills and core understandings, and can transfer them
- The student at this level exceeds the core requirements in terms
of knowledge, skills an understandings, and can transfer them
automatically and flexibly through authentic performance tasks
Order No. 31, s 2012
Policy Guidelines on the Implementation of Grade 1 to 10 of the K-12
Basic Education Curriculum effective school year 2012-2013
At the end of the 4th quarters, The Final grade for each learning area
shall be reported as the average of the four quarterly ratings,
expressed in terms of the levels of proficiency
The general average shall be the average of the final grade of the
different learning areas, also expressed in terms of levels of proficiency
w/ the numerical equivalent in parenthesis.
Promotion and retention of students shall be by subject. Students
whose proficiency level is beginning (B) at the end of the quarter or
grading period shall be required to undergo remediation after class
hours so that they can immediately catch up as they more to the next
grading period. If by the end of the school year, the students are still,
be required to take summer classes. Honor students shall be drawn
from among those who performed as the Advanced Level. Subsequent
guidelines shall be issued as basis for ranking of honors

## Order No. 74, s2012

Guidelines on the Selection of Honor Pupils and students of Grade 1 to
10 of the K-12 BEC