36 views

Uploaded by Jinsoo Kim

Determination of Transient Interfacial Heat Transfer Coefficients in Chill Mold Castings

- Le Ngoc Lieu_lecture 1_chapter 1
- EPE-2008
- lec1
- 06 Heat Transfer
- Forces Acting on the Mould
- Heat Transfer- Principles And Applications_B. K. Dutta.pdf
- me2005-06
- 34 Steady State Conduction Heat Transfer
- GATE 2014 Mechanical Engineering Keys & Solution on 16th (Morning Session)
- 04.Conduction Part2
- 8iheatingcoolingboardworks-140204042553-phpapp02
- Evaluation of heat transfer coefficients during upward and downward transient directional
- 1645201482555060
- AA19703
- Mechanical Engg FINAL
- EXCELLENT Heat Transfer Manual
- 01 Transmission of Heat 3
- ASSESSMENT OF CASTING DEFECTS BY RADIOGRAPH INTERPRETATION- A REVIEW
- Casting
- HMT_NOTES

You are on page 1of 13

mold castings

C.A. Santos, J.M.V. Quaresma, A. Garcia*

Department of Materials Engineering, State University of Campinas -UNICAMP, PO Box 6122, 13083 -970 Campinas, SP, Brazil

Received 29 February 2000; accepted 22 December 2000

Abstract

The present work focuses on the determination of transient moldenvironment and metalmold heat transfer coefficients during

solidification. The method uses the expedient of comparing theoretical and experimental thermal profiles and can be applied both to pure

metals and metallic alloys. A solidification model based on the finite difference technique has been used to provide the theoretical results.

The experiments were carried out by positioning the thermocouples in both metal and mold. The comparison between experimental and

theoretical results is made by an automatic search of the best fitting among theoretical and experimental cooling curves simultaneously in

metal and in mold. This has permitted the evaluation of the variation of heat transfer coefficients along the solidification process in

unsteady state unidirectional heat flow of AlCu and SnPb alloys, as well as the analysis of the effects of the material and the thickness

of the mold and melt superheat. 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Interfacial heat transfer coefficients; Mathematical modeling; Chill mold casting; AlCu; SnPb

1. Introduction

The structural integrity of shaped castings is closely

related to their temperaturetime evolution during solidification. A number of analytical and numerical models were

developed in the last 2 decades to treat heat transfer during

solidification, and the consequent simulation of freezing

patterns in castings has provided many improvements in

foundry processes. The use of casting solidification simulation could do much to increase knowledge of the process,

however, some uncertainties must be eliminated before

such simulations can be widely accepted as realistic

descriptions of the process. The heat transfer at the metal

mold interface is one of these uncertainties, and reliable

experimental values of heat transfer coefficients are required for various metalmold combinations and superheats, as existing data is sparse. The way the heat flows

across the metal and mold surfaces directly affects the

evolution of solidification, and plays a notable role in

determining the freezing conditions within the metal,

mainly in foundry systems of high thermal diffusivity like

chill castings. Gravity or pressure die casting, continuous

casting, and squeeze casting are some of the processes

*Corresponding author.

E-mail address: amaurig@fem.unicamp.br (A. Garcia).

interfacial heat transfer conditions. Once information in

this area is accurate, foundrymen can effectively optimize

the design of their chilling systems to produce sound

castings.

When metal and mold surfaces are brought into contact

an imperfect junction is formed. While uniform temperatures gradients can exist in both metal and mold, the

junction between the two surfaces creates a temperature

drop, which is dependent upon the thermophysical properties of the contacting materials, the casting and mold

geometry, the roughness of mold contacting surface, the

presence of gaseous and non-gaseous interstitial media, the

melt superheat, contact pressure and initial temperature of

the mold.

Fig. 1a shows a schematic representation of the two

contacting surfaces. Because the two surfaces in contact

are not perfectly flat, when the interfacial contact pressure

is reasonably high, most of the energy passes through a

limited number of actual contact spots [1,2]. The heat flow

across the castingmold interface can be characterized by

a macroscopic average metalmold interfacial heat transfer

coefficient (h i ), given by

q

h i 5 ]]]]

A(T IC 2 T IM )

0925-8388 / 01 / $ see front matter 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

PII: S0925-8388( 01 )00904-5

(1)

C. A. Santos et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 319 (2001) 174 186

and T IC and T IM are, respectively casting and mold surface

temperatures (K).

The quantification of heat flux in terms of a heat transfer

coefficient, as indicated in Fig. 1b for the idealized

temperature profile, requires that the heat capacity is zero

so that the thermal diffusivity is infinite, and consequently

heat fluxes entering and leaving the interface are equal.

The heat transfer coefficient shows a high value in the

initial stage of solidification, the result of the good surface

conformity between the liquid core and the solidified shell.

As solidification progresses the mold expands due to the

absorption of heat and the solid metal shrinks during

cooling and as a result a gap develops because pressure

becomes insufficient to maintain a conforming contact at

the interface. Once the air gaps forms, the heat transfer

across the interface decreases rapidly and a relatively

constant value of h i is attained. The mode of heat transfer

across the metalmold interface has been suggested to be

due to both conduction through isolated metalmold

contacts and through gases present in the gap and radiation

between the surfaces. During the subsequent stage of

solidification a slight drop in the interfacial heat transfer

coefficient with time can be observed. It is postulated that

this is caused by the growth of oxide films on chill and

mold surfaces [3], and by a reduction in the thermal

175

By using measured temperatures in both casting and

mold, together with numerical [410] or analytical [11,12]

solutions of the solidification problem, many research

workers have attempted to quantify metalmold interfacial

heat transfer in terms either of a heat transfer coefficient or

heat flux. In most cases, the numerical techniques generally known as the method of solving the inverse heat

conduction problem were used to quantify the time dependent heat transfer coefficient at the interface. Growth data

obtained from the dendritic microstructure together with a

numerical solution have also been used to determine

metalmold transient heat transfer coefficients [13].

In the present study, the heat flow between the casting

and the chill is characterized by the interfacial heat transfer

coefficient, h i . The variation of h i during solidification of

AlCu and SnPb alloys, as well as pure aluminum and

pure tin, against a vertical mold wall is investigated

experimentally. The effects of mold material (low carbon

steel and copper) and its thickness and melt superheat are

also investigated. Experimental temperatures in the mold

and the metal during solidification are compared with

simulations furnished by a numerical model, and an

automatic search selects the best theoreticalexperimental

fitting from a range of values of h i . In any case examined,

expressions are derived representing variation of metal

mold and moldenvironment heat transfer coefficients with

time.

coefficients

The heat flow across the castingmold interface can be

characterized by Eq. (1) and h i can be determined provided that all the other terms of the equation, namely q,

T IC and T IM , are known. However, these temperatures are

difficult to measure because the accurate location of

thermocouples of finite mass at the interface is not an easy

task, and they can distort the temperature field at the

interface. To overcome this experimental impediment, the

methods of calculation of h i existing in the literature are

based on a knowledge of other conditions, such as

temperature histories at interior points of the casting or

mold, together with mathematical models of heat flow

during solidification. Among these methods, those based

on the solution of the inverse heat conduction problem

have been widely used in the quantification of the transient

interfacial heat transfer. Since solidification of a casting

involves both a change of phase and temperature variable

thermal properties, the inverse heat conduction becomes

nonlinear. The nonlinear estimation technique was used by

Beck for the numerical solution of this class of problem

C. A. Santos et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 319 (2001) 174 186

176

in that Beck studied the problem from the standpoint of

effective treatment of experimental data, taking into account inaccuracies concerning the locations of thermocouples, statistical errors in temperature measurement and

uncertainty in material properties.

In the present work, a similar procedure determines the

value of h i which minimizes an objective function defined

by the equation

O (T

n

F(h) 5

2

est 2 T exp )

(2)

i 51

where T est and T exp are, respectively, the estimated and the

experimentally measured temperatures at various thermocouples locations and times, and n is the iteration stage.

A suitable initial value of h i is assumed and with this

value, the temperature of each reference location in casting

and mold at the end of each time interval Dt is simulated

by using an explicit finite difference technique. The

correction in h i at each iteration step is made by a value

Dh i , and new temperatures are estimated [T est (h i 1 Dh i ) or

T est (h i 2 Dh i )]. With these values, sensitivity coefficients

(f ) are calculated for each iteration, given by

T est (h i 1 Dh i ) 2 T est (h i )

f 5 ]]]]]]]

Dh i

(3)

the sensitivity coefficients for measured temperatures. The

assumed value of h i is corrected using the relation

h i (new) 5 h i (old)6Dh i

(4)

value of h i , and is continued until

Dh

]i , 0.01

hi

(5)

until the end of the desired period. The flow chart shown in

Fig. 2 gives an overview of the solution procedure.

With adequate insulation of the chill and casting

chamber, heat flow through the casting can be reasonably

approximated as a one-dimensional heat transfer problem,

which can be analyzed by

T

2T

r c ] 5 k ]2 1 q~

t

x

(6)

heat (J / kg K) and thermal conductivity (W/ m K), T is

temperature, t is time (s) and x is distance along the x axis

(m). The term q~ on the right hand side of Eq. (6) is a heat

source term which is incorporated to account for the latent

heat of solidification, and is given by

fS

q~ 5 r L ]

t

(7)

solid fraction. When treating the chill heat flow, the

governing equation is similar to Eq. (6) expect that the q~

term is not included.

Eq. (7) can be related to temperature as follows

f

f T

]S 5 ]S ? ]

t

T t

(8)

S D

fS T

2T

r c 2 L ? ] ] 5 k ]2

T t

x

(9)

fS

The term (L ? ] ) in Eq. (9) can be considered as a pseudo

T

specific heat and an apparent specific heat (c9) can be

defined, and this equation can be written as

Fig. 2. Flow chart for the determination of metalmold heat transfer

coefficients.

S D

T

2T

r c9] 5 k ]2

t

x

(10)

C. A. Santos et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 319 (2001) 174 186

gives

D S

n

T ni 11 2 T ni

T i21

2 2T ni 1 T ni11

r c9 ]]] 5 k ]]]]]]

Dt

Dx 2

(11)

spatial network and the superscripts represent time. Multiplying Eq. (11) by (Dx Dy Dz) yields

n

n

T in11 2 T in

T i11

1 T i21

2 2T in

A T Dxr c9 ]]] 5 A T k ]]]]]]

Dt

Dx

respectively, along y axis and z axis. By applying an

analogy between electrical and thermal circuits, the energy

accumulated in a volume element i, is given by

(13)

thermal capacitance (J / kg).

The thermal resistance at the heat flux line x can be

calculated for each element, and given by

Dx i11

R i11 5 ]]]

2k i11 A T

(14)

Dx i21

R i21 5 ]]]

2k i21 A T

(15)

Dx i

R i 5 ]]

2k i A T

(16)

CTi

DS

DS

(17)

or

S D

Dt

Dt

T n11

5 ] ? T ni11 1 1 2 ]]

i

tQi

tQDi

can be calculated as a function of measured mold wall

temperatures (T EM ) and free-stream air temperature (T 0 )

[17]. The thermal resistance at this interface is given by

1

R M /A 5 ]]]]

(h R 1 h C )A T

h R 5 se (T EM 1 T 0 ) ? (T 2EM 1 T 20 )

(22)

S D

Dt

n

? T in 1 ] ? T i21

tDi

(23)

W/ m 2 K 4 ) and e is the mold emissivity.

The convection heat transfer coefficient is given by

k gas

Nu

h C 5 ]]

x

28

(24)

and for free convection can be calculated as a function of

Grashof (GR ) and Prandtl (PR ) numbers, as follows [15]

Nu 5 C (GR PR )n

(25)

length of the solid surface (m), in our particular case the

chill vertical length. GR and PR , are given, respectively, by

ggx 3 (T EM 2 T 0 ) 2

GR 5 ]]]]]

? rs

h2

(26)

h

PR 5 ] ? c

k

(27)

n

T n11

2 T ni

T i11

2 T ni

T ni21 2 T ni

i

]]]

5 ]]] 1 ]]]

Dt

R i11 1 R i

R i21 1 R i

convection heat transfer coefficients, calculated as follows

(12)

CTi 5 A T Dx i ri c 9i 5Vri c 9i

177

volume coefficient of expansion [for ideal gases g 5 1 /T 0

(K 21 )], h is fluid viscosity, r is fluid density, k is fluid

thermal conductivity and c is the fluid specific heat.

3. Experimental

(18)

where

(19)

(20)

tQitDi

tQDi 5 ]]]

tQi 1 tDi

(21)

the finite difference method, and will be stable for Dt #

tQDi . A three dimensional version of this solution has been

recently applied for cases of complex shaped bodies

[15,16].

and AlCu alloys, including short and long freezing range

alloys, as well as eutectic compositions. The casting and

chill materials selected for experimentation, and the employed thermophysical properties are summarized in Table

1.

The casting assembly used in solidification experiments

is shown in Fig. 3. The main design criteria were to ensure

a dominant unidirectional heat flow during solidification.

This objective was achieved by adequate insulation of the

chill and casting chamber.

Copper and a low carbon steel chills were used, with the

heat-extracting surfaces being polished. In order to investigate the influence of chill thickness on heat flow, four

C. A. Santos et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 319 (2001) 174 186

178

Table 1

Casting and chill materials used for experimentation and the corresponding thermophysical properties [1822] a

k S (W/ m K)

k L (W/ m K)

c S (J / kg K)

c L (J / kg K)

rS (kg / m 3 )

rL (kg / m 3 )

aS (m 2 / s)

aL (m 2 / s)

L (J / kg)

T F (8C)

T E (8C)

T L (8C)

e

K0

a

Al

Al

4.5%Cu

Al

15%Cu

Al

33%Cu

Steel

SAE

1010

Pb

Sn

39%Pb

Sn

20%Pb

Sn

10%Pb

Sn

5%Pb

Sn

Copper

222

92

1123

1086

2550

2380

7.75(310 25 )

3.36(310 25 )

385 000

660

193

85

1092

1059

2650

2480

6.67

3.24

381 900

660

548

645

179

80

1080

999

2910

2760

5.67

2.90

274 270

660

548

618

155

71

1070

895

3410

3240

4.25

2.45

350 000

660

548

46

34.7

29.7

129.8

138.2

11 340

10 678

2.37

2.04

26 205

327

54.7

31.7

186.2

212.9

8840

8400

3.35

1.79

47 560

232

183

59

32

200

231

8250

7860

3.58

1.76

52 580

232

183

202

63

33

209

243

7840

7480

3.84

1.81

56 140

232

183

216

64

33

221

259

7720

7380

3.91

1.82

57 120

232

183

220

67

33

221

259

7300

7000

4.15

1.82

60 710

232

372

0.17

0.17

0.0656

0.0656

0.0656

527

7860

0.8

419

8960

0.023

and 60 mm).

Two chromelalumel thermocouples were introduced in

the chill; one near the chillcasting interface and the other

at the outer surface, and a third one was placed in the

in Fig. 3. All of the thermocouples were connected by

coaxial cables to a data logger interfaced with a computer,

and the temperature data were acquired automatically. The

temperature files were used in a finite-difference heat flow

program to estimate the transient heat transfer coefficients.

A schematic representation of the experimental setup

connected to the data acquisition and analysis system is

shown in Fig. 4.

Each alloy was melted in an electric resistance-type

furnace until the molten metal reached a predetermined

temperature. It was then stirred until the temperature was

brought to a specified value and poured into the casting

chamber. The aluminum alloys were degassed with hexachloroethane tablets before pouring.

The effect of liquid metal superheat on heat transfer

coefficient was also investigated, by using a Sn 10%Pb

alloy, a 60-mm thick carbon steel chill and different

degrees of superheat: 20, 40, 70 and 1008C above liquidus

temperature. The thermocouples were calibrated at the

melting points of aluminum (for AlCu alloys) and tin (for

SnPb alloys), exhibiting fluctuations of about 1.0 and

0.48C, respectively. The experimental profiles plotted are

the averages of three thermocouple readings at each

location in chill and casting. Results from repeated experiments have shown differences not greater than 48C, as can

be seen in Fig. 5 for the case of pure Sn.

collected in chill during the course of solidification experiments with a Sn 10 wt.% Pb alloy. In both cases of carbon

C. A. Santos et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 319 (2001) 174 186

179

Fig. 4. Schematic representation of the experimental setup connected to the data acquisition and analysis system.

For the smaller chill thicknesses, the external surface

temperature rises rapidly from the beginning of solidification until a peak value, and declines thereafter. On the

other hand, a progressive rise is observed when the thicker

chills are used. It is obvious that the moldenvironment

heat transfer coefficients are expected to follow the same

trend.

The resulting transient values of h a were calculated by

Eqs. (2227) and the thermophysical properties of Table 1.

For the 6-mm thick chills (carbon steel and copper) a

progressive decrease in h a were observed for t . 800 s, but

the differences in h a were so small during the course of

solidification that it was assumed constant and equal to the

peak value for t . 800 s.

The effect of thickness of mold was experimentally

investigated, and the typical results are shown in Fig. 8. No

significant differences in h a can be observed, when the

steel mold is replaced by a massive copper chill. Similar

results were obtained during experimental investigation of

AlCu alloys, so that for purposes of numerical simulations performed in next section for the determination of

metalmold heat transfer coefficients, the same experimental equation has been adopted for each metallic system

SnPb h a 5 5.7 t 0.15

(28)

(29)

2

Solidification simulation of each test casting was performed by adopting two different approaches for the

liberation of the latent heat of fusion. For eutectic alloys

and pure metals, the latent heat (L) was transformed into

the equivalent number of degrees by considering a temperature accumulation factor ( l) related to L by the

specific heat ( l 5 L /c). For short or long freezing range

alloys, the latent heat evolution was taken into account by

using Scheils equation until the remaining liquid reached

180

C. A. Santos et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 319 (2001) 174 186

Fig. 6. Typical experimental temperature responses in steel molds at two locations: external wall temperature and at 3 mm from metalchill interface: (A)

6 mm mold thick and (B) 60 mm mold thick.

measured in two locations: in the chill at 3 mm from the

metalmold interface and in the casting at 20 mm from

this interface. In Figs. 9 and 10 typical experimental

simulated by using the transient h i profile which provides

the best curve fitting.

Figs. 11 and 12 show the metalmold heat transfer

Fig. 7. Typical experimental temperature responses in cooper molds at two locations: external wall temperature and at 3 mm from metalchill interface:

(A) 6 mm mold thick and (B) 60 mm mold thick.

C. A. Santos et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 319 (2001) 174 186

181

Fig. 8. Calculated moldenvironment heat transfer coefficients h a : (A) steel molds with different thicknesses, (B) copper molds with different

thicknesses.

the cases of SnPb and AlCu alloys solidifying against a

60 mm thick carbon steel chill. The observed differences in

the h i profiles between the pure metals and the other alloys

examined, can be explained by the total shrinkage accompanying solidification, the extent of the solidification range

and the wetting of the mold by the melt. For both metallic

systems, the h i profile increases with increasing mushy

liquid can feed better the solidification contraction causing

a continued presence of liquid at the interface, leading to

higher values of h i . This can be taken as a general trend,

but care should be exercised when applying this conclusion

to the beginning of solidification.

As can be seen in Fig. 12, the Al 15 wt.% Cu alloy

exhibits initial h i values higher than those corresponding to

182

C. A. Santos et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 319 (2001) 174 186

Fig. 9. Typical experimental temperature responses at two locations in casting and chill: in casting at 20 mm from the metalmold interface and in chill at

3 mm from this interface: (A) Sn 10 wt.% Pb, (B) pure Sn both solidified in a 60 mm thick steel chill and a superheat DT 5 0.1 T L (10% of liquidus or

melting temperatures).

At the initial stage of solidification the wetting of the mold

by the melt seems to be the dominant factor controlling

heat transfer coefficient. Anyway, a more complex experimental set-up and a numerical technique dealing with

convection heat transfer would be necessary for an accur-

Fig. 10. Typical experimental temperature responses at two locations in casting and chill: in casting at 20 mm from the metalmold interface and in chill at

3 mm from this interface: (A) Al 4.5 wt.% Cu, (B) pure Al both solidified in a 60 mm thick steel chill and a superheat DT 5 0.1 T L (A) and DT 5 0.2 T L (B).

C. A. Santos et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 319 (2001) 174 186

183

Fig. 11. Evolution the metalmold interfacial heat transfer coefficients as a function of alloy composition: SnPb system, 60 mm thick steel chill and a

superheat DT 5 0.1 T L .

Fig. 12. Evolution the metalmold interfacial heat transfer coefficients as a function of alloy composition: AlCu system, 60 mm thick steel chill and a

superheat DT 5 0.1 T L (10% of liquidus or melting temperatures).

184

C. A. Santos et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 319 (2001) 174 186

Fig. 13. Evolution of the metalmold heat transfer coefficients as a function of chill thickness: Sn 10 wt.% Pb alloy, steel chill and a superheat DT 5 0.1

TL.

fluid flow in the cast alloys, with its associated heat

transfer, would be at its strongest.

The effects of chill material and chill thickness on heat

transfer coefficient are shown in Figs. 13 and 14, for the

cases of a Sn 10 wt.% Pb alloy solidifying, respectively

DT 5 0.1 T L . As can be seen by comparing Figs. 12 and

13, the heat transfer coefficient profiles increase with

increasing thermal diffusivity of the chill material. These

results are in agreement with other studies in the literature

[4,10]. The h i profiles increase with decreasing chill

thickness. The chill temperature rises more rapidly from

the beginning of solidification with decreasing chill thick-

Fig. 14. Evolution of the metalmold heat transfer coefficients as a function of chill thickness: Sn 10 wt.% Pb alloy, cooper chill and a superheat DT 5 0.1

TL.

C. A. Santos et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 319 (2001) 174 186

185

Fig. 15. Evolution of the metalmold heat transfer coefficients as a function of superheat: Sn 10 wt.% Pb alloy, 60 mm thick steel chill.

contact between metal and chill surface and as the

solidified shell is not so thick as for thicker chills, this

translates to lower contraction away from the chill. Both

factors will contribute to an increase in h i values.

The heat transfer coefficient increases with increasing

values of superheat, as can be seen in Figs. 15 and 16,

respectively, for a Sn 10 wt.% Pb alloy and pure Al

solidifying against a 60 mm thick carbon steel chill. The

Fig. 16. Evolution of the metalmold heat transfer coefficients as a function of superheat: Al, 60 mm thick steel chill.

C. A. Santos et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 319 (2001) 174 186

186

fluidity of molten alloys increase with increasing superheat, favoring the wetting of the chill by the melt [23,24].

Some results reported in the literature indicate that the

surface of solidified shell becomes smoother as the superheat increases for the same chill microgeometry, thus

increasing the interfacial contact [3]. The influence of

superheat is not so significant for the Sn 10 wt.% Pb alloy.

In fact some differences can be observed only for values

higher than 408C (Fig. 15). This is not the case for Al,

where fluidity plays a more significant role. The initial

value of h i rises from about 1500 to 6000 W/ m 2 K if the

superheat is increased from 10% of the melting point (T f )

to 20% of T f (Fig. 16).

The h i profiles increased with increasing thermal diffusivity of the chill material and with decreasing

thickness of the chill.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge financial support

provided by FAPESP (The Scientific Research Foundation

Paulo, Brazil) and CNPq (The Brazilian

of the State of Sao

Research Council).

References

5. Conclusions

Experiments were conducted to analyze the evolution of

moldenvironment (h a ) and metalmold (h i ) heat transfer

coefficients during solidification of SnPb and AlCu

alloys in vertical steel and copper chills. The following

conclusions can be drawn

The transient interfacial heat transfer coefficients (h i

and h a ) have been successfully characterized by using

an approach based on measured temperatures along

casting and chill, and analytical calculations (h a ) and

numerical simulations provided by a heat flow model

(h i ).

The moldenvironment heat transfer coefficient have

been expressed as a power function of time, given by

the general form

h a 5 Cm (t)0.15

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

2

depends on thickness of chill. No significant differences

were found when the steel chill was replaced by a

copper chill, considering the physical configuration and

processing parameters adopted in the study.

The metalmold heat transfer coefficients have also

been expressed as a power function of time, given by

the general form

[14]

[15]

[16]

[17]

[18]

[19]

h i 5 Ci (t)2n

[20]

which depend on alloy composition, chill material and

superheat.

[21]

[22]

[23]

[24]

K. Ho, R.D. Pehlke, Afs Trans 92 (1984) 587.

K. Ho, R.D. Pehlke, Metall. Trans. 16B (1985) 585.

C.A. Muojekwu, I.V. Samarasekera, J.K. Brimacombe, Metall.

Trans. 26B (1995) 361.

M. Krishnan, D.G.R. Sharma, Int. Comm. Heat Mass Transfer 23

(1996) 203.

A.V. Reddy, C. Beckermann, Exp. Heat Transfer 6 (1993) 111.

M.A. Taha, N.A. El-Mahallawy, A.W.M. Assar, R.M. Hammouda, J.

Mater. Sci. 27 (1992) 3467.

T.S. Prasanna, K. Narayan Prabhu, Metall. Trans. 22B (1991) 717.

J.F. Evans, D.H. Kirkwood, J. Beech, in: Modeling of Casting,

Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes, Vol. V, The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, 1991, p. 531.

C.H. Huang, M.N. Ozisik, B. Sawaf, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 35

(1992) 1779.

A. Garcia, T.W. Clyne, M. Prates, Metall. Trans. 10B (1979) 773.

A. Garcia, T.W. Clyne, in: Proceedings International Conference

Solidification Technology in the Foundry and Casthouse, The

Metals Society, 1980, p. 33.

R. Caram, A. Garcia, in: Imeche Conf. Trans, Vol. 2, Mechanical

Engineers Publications, London, 1995, p. 555.

J.V. Beck, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 13 (1970) 703.

J.A. Spim Jr., A. Garcia, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 277 (2000) 198.

J.A. Spim Jr., A. Garcia, Numerical Heat Transfer B: Fundamentals

38 (2000) 75.

D.R. Poirier, E.J. Poirier, Heat Transfer Fundamentals For Metals

Casting, The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, 1994.

L.F. Mondolfo, Mater. Sci. Technol. 5 (1976) 118.

R.D. Pehlke et al., Summary of Thermal Properties For Casting

Alloys and Mold Materials, University of Michigan, 1982.

Y.S. Toloukian et al., in: Thermophysical Properties of Matter, Vol.

1, IFI / Plenum, New York, 1970.

A. Bejan, Heat Transfer, Wiley, New York, 1993.

D. Bouchard, J.S. Kirkaldy, Metall. Mat. Trans. 28B (1997) 651.

M. Prates, H. Biloni, Metall. Trans. 3A (1972) 1501.

M.C. Flemings, Solidification Processing, McGraw Hill, 1974.

- Le Ngoc Lieu_lecture 1_chapter 1Uploaded bylieu_hyacinth
- EPE-2008Uploaded byAneta Hazi
- lec1Uploaded byAmmineni Syam Prasad
- 06 Heat TransferUploaded bySrijan Verma
- Forces Acting on the MouldUploaded byEr Widodo
- Heat Transfer- Principles And Applications_B. K. Dutta.pdfUploaded bydebdeep
- me2005-06Uploaded bybrunorafo
- 34 Steady State Conduction Heat TransferUploaded byPablo Pillajo
- GATE 2014 Mechanical Engineering Keys & Solution on 16th (Morning Session)Uploaded byLokesh Kumar
- 04.Conduction Part2Uploaded byAlif Aizat Azman
- 8iheatingcoolingboardworks-140204042553-phpapp02Uploaded byPichakorn P
- Evaluation of heat transfer coefficients during upward and downward transient directionalUploaded byKapil Panwar
- 1645201482555060Uploaded byPrakharesh Awasthi
- AA19703Uploaded bySujay Iti
- Mechanical Engg FINALUploaded byalagar krishna kumar
- EXCELLENT Heat Transfer ManualUploaded byharis Khan
- 01 Transmission of Heat 3Uploaded byAshok Pradhan
- ASSESSMENT OF CASTING DEFECTS BY RADIOGRAPH INTERPRETATION- A REVIEWUploaded byIJIERT-International Journal of Innovations in Engineering Research and Technology
- CastingUploaded byRajib Nag
- HMT_NOTESUploaded byBalakrishna G
- 001 INTRODUCTION.pptUploaded byMadhu Vamaravilli
- is.2708.1993Uploaded byghosh_ranjoy
- ME DetailedUploaded bymeromikha
- A352.1615228-1.pdfUploaded byRajan Steeve
- Analysis of Different Sand Casting Defects in a Medium Scale Foundry Industry - A ReviewUploaded byGopinath
- B. Tech. Revised Scheme Syllabus CSE BUploaded bymtech
- Heat Transfer - Lecture 1Uploaded bynitk11
- Plane Layer.pdfUploaded byLounela Ana Lorenzo Sunico
- Casting Defects LDUploaded bySrinivas Ohatker
- Casting Procedure DefectsUploaded byNur

- The Carbon Footprint of Al & Mg Diecast Components compared to Plastic Injection Molded Parts.pdfUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- The Carbon Footprint of Al & Mg Diecast Components compared to Plastic Injection Molded Parts.pdfUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- Effect of Microstructure and Alloy Contents on the Luders Line Formation in Al-Mg AlloysUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- Generation, Validation and Application of Knowledge – Links in the Chain Called Innovative ProcessingUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- Magnesium casting technology for structural applications.pdfUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- Magnesium casting technology for structural applications.pdfUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- Magnesium casting technology for structural applications.pdfUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- A Study of the Effects of Ni Release in Alloy ProductsUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- Magnesium Casting TechnologyUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- Relationship Between the RPT and H Content of the MeltUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Micro-Arc Oxidation Film on Mg AlloyUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- Measuring hydrogen in aluminum alloys.pdfUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- Anisotropy of Ni Release and Corrosion in Austenitic SSUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- Ferrous is Ferrous, Non-Ferrous is Non-Ferrous, and Never the Twain Shall Meet?Uploaded byJinsoo Kim
- Managing Carbon in the Process Metallurgy of the FutureUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- cnowillUploaded byDiwanshu Agarwal
- Experimental and Analytical Technique for Estimating Interfacial Thermal Conductance in Composite Structural Elements Under Simulated Fire ConditionsUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- Melt Characteristics and Solidification Growth Direction With Respect to Gravity Affecting the Interfacial Heat Trasnsfer Coefficient of Chill CastingsUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- Heat Transfer and Microstructure During the Early Stages of Solidification of MetalsUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- M.S.thesis Kumar_Analytical Solution for IHCPUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- Inverse Algorithm for Optical Processing of Composite MaterialsUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- Optimal Operation of Alloy Material in Solidification Processes With Inverse Heat TransferUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- M.S.thesis Zajc_Experimental Study of a Quench ProcessUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- Heat Flux Sensor With Minimal Impact on Boundary ConditionsUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- Estimation of Heat Flux in 1D IHCPUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- Inverse Problem of Solidification for Determining Air Gap Resistance to Heat Flow During Metal Casting in Metal MoldsUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- Heat Transfer and Solidification Behavior of Modified A357 AlloyUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- M.S.thesis Zhong_Inverse Algorithm for Determination of Heat FluxUploaded byJinsoo Kim
- Inverse Estimation of Boundary Heat Flux for Heat Conduction ModelUploaded byJinsoo Kim

- Fellipa Report on Triangle With Drilling DOFUploaded byHarish Shridharamurthy
- Rock Engineering-2Uploaded bytanujaayer
- Chapter 5. Kenslabs Computer ProgramUploaded bybernardo
- Reinforced and Prestressed ConcreteUploaded byDamo23
- Zn kompoziti.pdfUploaded bysea66
- Presen.pptUploaded byAlejandro Yugcha
- 06_13814_ramnathUploaded byM Rofiq Afandi
- 6 Design for deep excavation civil engineeringUploaded bySathya Putra Wijaya
- Chapter 2_Fundamental of ThermodynamicsUploaded byvivekfegade81
- creo simulate 2.0 seminar 29-11-2012.pdfUploaded byPritam Polekar
- Properties Srainless Steel 309LSUploaded byGabriel Bozza
- AspirinUploaded byShyamala Saravanan
- 1-s2.0-S095006181730884X-mainUploaded bynkumar_488121
- text-chap2Uploaded byMANAS KUMAR RATH
- MMB 312 - 2016_Lecture 1 - IntroductionUploaded byDavid Olorato Ngwako
- Design of Monorail BeamUploaded byMahata Priyabrata
- Improvements of Mechanical PropertiesUploaded byRoger Lara
- ULTRA HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETEUploaded byramanan6
- Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis to Evaluate Lateral Torsional Buckling Moment of Elliptical Cellular Steel BeamsUploaded byMarius Hirtopanu
- m. Youssef & a. GhobarahUploaded byJhuma Debnath
- Dokumen.tips Advance Design of Rc Structure Lecture 4 University of Palestine Shear WallUploaded byaihr78
- An Introduction to Zeta PotentialUploaded byNickEmans
- 蔡哥大抄.docxUploaded by林溫雅
- III-V-silicon Photonics for on-chip and Intra-chip Optical InterconnectsUploaded byVinay Nagnath Jokare
- Fabrication, Nanostructures and Electronic Properties of Nanodiamond-based Solar CellsUploaded byozoemena29
- BS EN 10139-1998--[2016-06-12--11-10-29 AM].pdfUploaded byXiangShi
- Cyprus National Annex en 1993-1-1Uploaded byruov
- materials-06-04226Uploaded byajmalhasan28
- thesis_popovici.pdfUploaded byjose flavio ferreira
- 10.16.2003.Dean.pdms DeflectionUploaded byRaveena Jain