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MODULE 3

Air Compressor,
Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

Classification and working principle


of reciprocating air compressor
Work of compression with clearance
Work of compression without
clearance
Volumetric efficiency, Isothermal
efficiency and isentropic efficiency of
reciprocating air compressors.
Multistage air compressor
Inter cooling
Work of multistage air compressor,
Various types of rotary compressors

9. Vapour compression Refrigeration


cycle
10. Super heat
11. Sub cooling
12. Performance calculations.
13.Working principle of vapour
absorption system.
14.Ammonia - water system system
15.Lithium bromide - water system
16.Performance calculation of VARS
17. Cooling load calculations.
18.Concept of RSHF, GSHF, ESHF
19.Air conditioning systems

1. CLASSIFICATION AND WORKING


PRINCIPLE OF RECIPROCATING AIR
COMPRESSOR

AIR COMPRESSOR

An air compressor is a machine to compress the


air to raise its pressure.

The air compressor sucks air from the


atmosphere, compresses it and then deliver the
same under a high pressure to a storage vessel; it
may be conveyed by the pipe line to the place
where the supply of air compressed air is required.

A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

RECIPROCATING AIR COMPRESSOR

A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

APPLICATIONS
Pneumatic drills
Riveters
Road drills
Paint spraying
Internal combustion engines
Gas turbine plants
Jet engines and air motor
Bessemer converter
A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

CLASSIFICATION OF AIR COMPRESSORS


According to working
Reciprocating compressors
Rotary compressors

According to the action


Single acting compressors
Double acting compressors

According to number of stages


Single stage compressors
Multi stage compressors
A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

COMPRESSOR CLASSIFICATION

A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

TECHNICAL TERMS
Inlet pressure : It is the absolute pressure of air at
the inlet of a compressor.
Discharge Pressure : It is the absolute pressure of
air at the outlet of a compressor.
Pressure Ratio : It is the ratio of discharge pressure
to the inlet pressure .
Compressor Capacity : It is the volume of air
delivered by the compressor and it expressed in
m3/min or m3/sec.
A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

Free air delivery : It is the actual volume delivered by


the compressor when reduced to the normal
temperature and pressure condition.
Swept Volume: It is the volume of air sucked by the
compressor during its suction stroke.

Mean effective pressure : Air pressure on the


compressor piston keeps on changing with the
movement of the piston in the cylinder. The mean
effective pressure of the compressor is equal to the
ratio of working done per cycle to the stroke volume.
A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

2.WORK OF COMPRESSION WITH


CLEARANCE

WORK OF COMPRESSION WITH CLEARANCE

A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

3. WORK OF COMPRESSION
WITHOUT CLEARANCE

WORK OF COMPRESSION WITHOUT


CLEARANCE

A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

WORK OF COMPRESSION WITHOUT


CLEARANCE

A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

4. VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY ,
ISOTHERMAL
EFFICIENCY
AND
ISENTROPIC
EFFICIENCY
OF
RECIPROCATING AIR COMPRESSORS

A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

COMPRESSION WORK COMPARISON

A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY
It is the ratio of the actual volume of free air
delivered to the displacement volume.

A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

ISOTHERMAL EFFICIENCY

A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

ISENTROPIC EFFICIENCY

A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

DRAWBACKS OF SINGLE STAGE AIR


COMPRESSOR
The size of the cylinder will be too large .
Due to compression , there is a rise in temperature of the
air .It is difficult to reject heat from the air in the small
time available during compression.
The temperature of air, at the end of compression ,is too
high.
It may heat up the cylinder head or burn the lubricating
oil.
A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

MULTI STAGE COMPRESSORS

In order to over come the above mentioned


difficulties, two or more cylinders are provided in
series with intercooling arrangement between
them. Such an arrangement is known as multistage
compression.

A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

ADVANTAGES OF MULTI STAGE


COMPRESSION
The work done per Kg of air is reduced in Multistage compression with
intercooling as compared to single stage compression for the same delivery
pressure.
It improves the volumetric efficiency for the given pressure ratio.

The size of the cylinders may be adjusted to suit the volume and pressure of
the air.
It reduces the leakage loss considerably.
It provides effective lubrication because of lower temperature range.
It reduces the cost of compressor.
A.ABUBAKKAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ,KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE