Fatigue an failure on axial compressor blades

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Fatigue an failure on axial compressor blades

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/matdes

Qubo Li a,, Janusz Piechna b, Norbert Meller a

a

b

Turbomachinery Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1226, USA

Institute of Aeronautics and Applied Mechanics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 3 August 2010

Accepted 23 November 2010

Available online 2 December 2010

Keywords:

Composite axial impeller

Fatigue

Finite element method

Damage accumulation

a b s t r a c t

Centrifugal forces are generated by a spinning impeller, of magnitudes that create large stresses. Aerodynamic forces are also imparted on an impeller blade, which varies with time and position. These two

forces play different roles during compressor events. Damage accumulated from these events results in

the fatigue failure of impeller material and structure. Therefore, it is important to design an impeller

against dynamic and fatigue failure. The nite element method has been used in the study of impeller

fracture mechanics and is regarded as an important tool in the design and analysis of material and structures.

Novel axial composite impellers, manufactured through lament winding technology, were invented

and studied at Michigan State University. These impellers will be used to compress water vapor so as

to use it as a refrigerant. In this study dynamic and fatigue behavior of two types of composite impellers

8B and 8C, were analyzed using commercial code ANSYS. Firstly, load cases were identied calculated and

evaluated. Static analysis was then performed with a full 3-D nite element model. The critical zone

where fatigue failure begins was extracted and used to determine life assessment positions. Secondly,

aerodynamic forces imparted on the blade were obtained from FLUENT, so that damage from dynamic

stresses could be calculated. Finally, based on the FEM and FLUENT simulation results, a linear damage

accumulation model was employed as a damage estimation rule to predict life of the two composite

impellers. A conservative life of 6498 h for 8B was calculated by this method, as was a life of 5435 h of

8C. Based on the method, safe fatigue life reduces for about 32% in case of 8B and 40% in case of 8C compared with conventional approaches where aerodynamic forces are omitted.

2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Of all the statistical data regarding fracture failure, the study of

these events in rotating parts and structures account for more than

80% of the cases [1]. This relates to the high degree of interest in

the failure of complicated rotating and moving systems. The root

causes behind these failures vary a lot based on different operating

conditions, such as high rotational speed and elevated temperature. In general, compressor blade failures can be grouped into

two categories: (a) fatigue, including both high-cycle fatigue

(HCF) and low-cycle fatigue (LCF) [26] and (b) creep rupture [7].

Blade fatigue failures are often related to anomalies in mechanical

behaviors and manufacturing defects. Because the mechanical performance requirements of compressor blades have high theoretical

signicance and application value, a precise life prediction is very

important. Fig. 1 shows a comparison between different industrial

components and their expected life cycles.

Considering centrifugal stresses for the life prediction of impeller blade components, we examine the non-steady-state usage.

Corresponding author.

E-mail address: liqubo@egr.msu.edu (Q. Li).

0261-3069/$ - see front matter 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2010.11.051

where low-cycle fatigue problems exist. The same problem happens at every shut-down period where the deceleration effects

cause large LCF problems. In this case, because of large loading

changes from centrifugal forces within a short time, low-cycle fatigue approaches are suitable to calculate damage in these two

periods.

From an aerodynamic viewpoint, when rotor blades rotate, the

pressure difference from the suction side and pressure side

changes periodically due to the aerodynamic impact from stator.

These pressure differences change periodically which produce cyclic loads on rotor blades. Since this aerodynamic force is typically

small compared with centrifugal force, it is usually neglected by

investigators [8]. A relative small pressure stress coming from

blades suction side and pressure side would generate dynamic

pressure force changes along the blades rotating angle. This force

is far less than many materials elastic force limit, and investigation

of damage accumulation in this period can be done via high-cycle

fatigue approaches. Under high temperature and high rpm conditions, this relatively small oscillating force coupled with a high

centrifugal force would impact the impeller blades fatigue life,

and possibly shorten the service life signicantly. In published

2059

periods. During the rst and last period, which are startup and

shut-down period respectively, large angular acceleration and

deceleration caused the centrifugal force to dominate in the structure loadings. Crack initiation or growth is mainly from this stress

and it is calculated from ANSYS static analysis. During the standby

period, centrifugal force does not signicantly vary with time,

however oscillating aerodynamic stresses at the critical zone act

as the main damage source. These oscillating stresses act to increase damage propagation and crack size; this force is calculated

from FLUENT analysis. During these periods, the SN curve approach is used to calculate fatigue resistance and the accumulation

of them is then used to evaluate fatigue life of composite impeller

blades.

Fig. 1. Schematic SN curve for different industrial components.

2. Modeling

research, aerodynamic force has been obtained from calculation

[9], yet its discussion is typically just limited to the case of steady-state. Dynamic forces from the oscillating pressure forces were

not included to evaluate fatigue behavior of impeller blades. To the

authors knowledge, there are few studies that have been conducted considering inuence of both oscillating aerodynamic

forces and centrifugal forces on a compressor blades fatigue life

study.

At Michigan State University, a novel method has been developed to manufacture a composite impeller using lament winding

technology for water chillers [10]. A schematic structure for the

chiller is shown in Fig. 2. Here impeller wheels can be actuated

from an external shaft, or from a magnetic force between poles

in the outer shroud and coil poles on a stationary device surrounding the impeller and housing. Through this approach to wheel production, several threads such as Kevlar and carbon bers can be

used to weave a composite impeller impregnated with epoxy

through an automated process. A myriad of patterns have also

been developed by Eyler [11]. Of these patterns, two patterns with

the greatest potential of structure stability and aerodynamic performance have been selected for compressing water vapor as

refrigerant [12].

In order to evaluate fatigue life to these two novel axial composite impellers, an investigation was conducted to calculate dam-

Rotor wrapped

with stator

Cooling

Water Loop

Condenser

Counter-rotating

Compressor

Recycled

Water

Cooled Air

performance of both compressing capacity and structural stability.

Fig. 3 presents two impeller patterns with the same shroud and

hub diameters: 8B and 8C. These two impeller patterns can be

manufactured in the same mandrel; thus they share the same

blade angles at the shroud. Angle at the leading edge is set at

25, and 90 at trailing edge (relative to the radial direction). Since

the wheel is weaved by crossing slots, different patterns mean different weaving routes for manufacturing. Therefore, blade angles

at shroud tip for different patterns are the same, though the distribution of angles on the blade in radial direction is different for different patterns. Considering that there are eight points on the outer

shroud, and from manufacturing view, when the second point of

weaving is going to surpass two points, it is named B; and if it is

going to surpass three points, it is named C. Interested readers

can refer to detailed manufacturing process and naming method

in related publications [1012].

To make these 3D impeller geometries, IGES data was modeled

in Unigraphics NX and the data was then imported into ANSYS to

create the nite element model required in the analyses. In the

meshing process, a higher order three dimensional solid element

SOLID187 was employed to increase accuracy of the modeling.

The element is dened by 10 nodes having 3 of freedom at each

node: translations in the nodal x, y and z directions [13]. In order

to accurately evaluate the results, convergence analysis was performed. A suitable number of elements were obtained after stepby-step improving mesh density. The stabilization of deection

at a location from the applied loads will be the criteria of

convergence.

In Fig. 4, the results of convergence analysis are shown and from

this gure it is evident that at least 140,000 elements are required

for the convergence. Similar trends are also found for case of 8C

where at least 240,000 elements are needed considering convergence issue.

3. Material characterization

The required properties for analyzing the structure are materials mechanical properties used for stress analysis, and strength

properties used for failure analysis [14]. Through work done by

Michigan State University [10] it has been veried that 30% of ber

volume fraction have been obtained through lament winding

similar approach and materials mechanical properties barely

match with ones calculated through classic laminate theory within

tolerated difference. In this work, carbon ber AS-4 from Hexcel

Inc. (tensile modulus 231 GPa, transverse modulus 15 GPa, Poisson

ratio 0.2) and epoxy SC-15 made by Applied Poleramic Inc. (tensile

modulus 26.2 GPa, shear modulus 9.17 GPa, Poisson ratio 0.35)

2060

2

Shroud deflection

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

20,000

40,000

60,000

Number of elements

Max Vons Misses Stress

2.2E+08

2.0E+08

1.8E+08

1.6E+08

1.4E+08

1.2E+08

1.0E+08

8.0E+07

0

20,000

40,000

60,000

Number of elements

Fig. 4. Convergence graphs of FE model.

were used as composite constituents; a similar ber volume fraction of 30% can be obtained using this novel manufacturing method. According to mechanics of composite materials [15],

unidirectional (U-D) composites mechanical properties can be

determined from micromechanics model from:

E1 Ef 1 V f Em V m

1

Vf Vm

E2

Ef

Em

v 12 v f V f v m V m

G12

1

Vf Vm

Gf Gm

Table 1

Material mechanical properties (GPa).

Material

E11

E22 = E33

G12 = G13

G23

Carbon ber

Epoxy

U-D composite

231

26.2

87.64

15

26.2

22.84

15

9.17

14.52

7

9.17

8.52

0.2

0.35

0.31

orthotropic material properties will be used as input for a further

ANSYS simulation. With a ber volume fraction 30% obtained

through the lament winding method, composite density can

reach about 1.31 g/cm3 with tensile strength of 1.40 GPa.

4. Loading

shroud

Fracture blade root 1

Centrifugal force

Aerodynamic force

blade

Fracture blade root 2

hub

Table 2

Static analysis of blade under different events 8B.

Start-up

Compression

Shut down

Shroud

deection

(mm)

Maximum

longitudinal

stress (MPa)

(safety factor)

Maximum

transverse

stress (MPa)

(safety factor)

stress (MPa)

(safety factor)

1.95

1.84

2.10

240 (5.85)

208 (6.75)

253 (5.55)

51.3 (1.17)

48.1 (1.25)

53.2 (1.13)

22 (3.64)

20.3 (3.94)

24.5 (3.27)

Table 3

Static analysis of blade under different events 8C.

Events

Start-up

Compression

Shut down

The loading cases were determined by inspection of the different operating conditions. There are four main operating conditions

according to different impeller working periods: (1) start-up, (2)

steady-state, (3) standby compression, and (4) shut down. These

loading cases were used for fatigue analysis and were treated inter-connectedly since damage accumulated from a previous working period is able to initiate or enlarge crack growth rate for the

next one. All of the load cases that occur during the aforementioned events can be categorized as follows:

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

Events

2061

Shroud

deection

(mm)

Maximum

longitudinal

stress (MPa)

(safety factor)

Maximum

transverse

stress (MPa)

(safety factor)

stress (MPa)

(safety factor)

1.23

0.87

1.35

320 (4.38)

281 (4.99)

341 (4.11)

52.3 1.19)

51.2 (1.33)

54.8 (1.16)

28.7 (4.75)

25 (4.85)

30.3 (4.04)

Weight of the blade.

Centrifugal forces.

Forces that arise from start/stop angular acceleration.

Thermal effects.

which supposedly inuence the impeller blades fatigue life. However, because temperature changes along the ow channel would

vary within 10 C, force coming from thermal effect can be neglected. Gravitys effect can also be neglected considering that

the blade is made from composite material and the whole structure is light, and axis of rotation is positioned vertically during

operation. Thus loading considered in the study can be illustrated

in Fig. 5.

The purpose of this section is to discover the weak position of

the structure under centrifugal force loading only. Therefore, the

temperature eld is not considered here and the computations

2062

9000. When the tip clearance is 4 mm, for the maximum shroud

deection case the impeller shroud will not hit the cylinder wall.

Fig. 6 shows that the Von Mises stress distribution on the impeller blade 8B and it is shown that maximum Von Mises stress exists

at the fracture blade root 1 between blade body and shroud which

is supposed to be the critical zone. In addition, considering vibrations of blades, the connection root between blade body and

shroud is also a dangerous area where an interaction of low cycle

and high-cycle fatigue exists. This critical surface results in most

fracture failure in service mainly due to the inuence of stress con-

rigs average testing temperature.

With the start of the compressor, surfaces connecting the

shroud and blade body come into steady contact state very quickly.

Therefore the FE problem is a nonlinear problem and surface to

surface contact elements are used for this purpose. The results of

these analyses are summarized in Table 2 for 8B and Table 3 for

8C; here the rated loads correspond to the speed of 9000 rpm

(steady-state operation speed). The safety factor results show that

in all cases both structures are in a safe condition under rpm of

113

111

116

117

114

119

115

118

120

122

121

123

124

Fig. 7. Keypoint location in the critical section.

112

2063

centration factors. As it is illustrated in Fig. 7, positions at keypoints 114 and 121 have equal, and the largest, stress concentra-

where during start-up and shut-down periods centrifugal force is

only considered. Changes of aerodynamic force are negligible compared with changes of centrifugal forces change during these two

periods. Similar phenomenon can also be observed for 8C pattern

in Fig. 8. It can be seen that the critical zone locates at the corner

where blades meet together, and it will be the area where maximum damage accumulation occurs when centrifugal force is only

considered as the main oscillating stress source.

6. Strength analysis under peak aerodynamic ow

The uid analysis was carried out to estimate the aerodynamic

force exerted on the blade. Simulation was made using the commercial uid dynamic software FLUENT. One stationery wheel

which is similar to the 8C pattern and one rotating wheel (8B or

8C pattern) were considered in the model. In the uid calculation,

a moving mesh was used so that the rotor impellers movement

was relative to the rotating uids reference frame. The central

part, which is mainly connected with a shaft to convert torque,

has been ignored for aerodynamic performance calculation. The

blade velocity was set to be rx, where x is the rotating speed

(9000 rpm) and r is the tip distance of the blade from wheel center.

The uid was assumed to be an ideal gas and viscous. The ke

equation was used to model the turbulence where enhanced wall

treatment was set up to make sure the y+ value near the wall

was between 20 and 500 [16].

The static pressure distributions around the rotor blade for 8B

were calculated and are shown in Fig. 9. The maximum static pressure locations are found at the corner between trailing edge of the

blade and shroud. This is where the blade imparts kinetic energy

the most into pressure energy thus the highest static pressure. A

similar phenomenon for 8C pattern can be shown in Fig. 10. When

the impeller wheel rotates, transient static pressure at both pressure and suction sides, were also traced and it was found that

mean aerodynamic static pressure was about 4000 Pascal; as seen

in Fig. 11. A linear distribution of aerodynamic force can be assumed on the blade based on the observation in Fig. 9, and this

mean stress loading is also the pressure difference between suction

and pressure sides. Mean aerodynamic stress from the bending effect at keypoint 114 is 27 MPa which is nearly 10 times less than

centrifugal stress (200 MPa). The critical zone of the structure from

aerodynamic stress only is located at the fracture blade root 2 between blade body and hub.

Fig. 10. FLUENT static pressure distribution on the blade for 8C.

6500

6000

5500

5000

4500

4000

3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

0

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

300

Fig. 11. Transient static pressure trend at weak point under 9000 rpm for 8B.

330

360

390

Table 4

Linear elastic FEM analysis results for 8B.

Key positions

fracture blade root

1

Key point at fracture

blade root 2

A. Centrifugal

stress (MPa)

B. Aerodynamic mean

bending stress (MPa)

A+B

200

9.3

209.3

S=Stress/Strength

2064

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0

158

27

185

12

15

18

21

24

27

Fig. 12. SN for unidirectional carbon/epoxy composite material under longitudinal

loading [19].

Table 5

Linear elastic FEM analysis results for 8C.

Key positions

fracture blade root

1

Key point at fracture

blade root 2

A. Centrifugal

stress (MPa)

B. Aerodynamic mean

bending stress (MPa)

A+B

278

1.1

279.1

162

5.3

167.3

listed in Table 4 for several critical zones. Where keypoint 114 is

the critical zone during the start-up period and the keypoint at

fracture blade root 2 is the other critical zone when aerodynamic

stress is the only load during compression stage.

By summing aerodynamic stress and centrifugal stress together,

combined stress during compressor standby period which will be

important for fatigue life investigation next can be expressed such

as:

r rcentrifugal raerodynamic

carbon/epoxy composite material under longitudinal fatigue loading has been obtained in Fig. 12. The gure is also validated

through available experimental data related with fatigue damage

modeling of composite materials [2022]. In order to model accumulated damage during different stages in this study, this gure is

used to calculate fatigue cycles at specic stress condition.

114 would be the critical zone during standby stage since it has

the biggest stress than other locations. Similar procedures were

also taken for 8C pattern where FEM results are listed in Table 5.

During standby periods, centrifugal force acts as constant mean

stress while aerodynamic bending stress acts in an oscillating manner. Since both weak points in these two patterns locate at the

place around keypoint 114, and difference between maximum

and minimum oscillating stress from bending effect is small comparing with the mean centrifugal stress, it is thus reasonable to

have an R ratio in these two patterns equal to one. The value of this

R ratio is considered an important inuence factor for crack growth

rates [17]. Interestingly in the pattern 8C where centrifugal stress

as mean stress is higher than 8B, the magnitude of oscillating stress

from aerodynamic mean bending effect is smaller; still distance

between this patterns maximum stress intensity factor and its

materials critical stress state is smaller than 8B, and it is found

that crack growth rate in 8C during this period will be higher than

8B. By comparing these two patterns, it is obvious that weak positions locate at the same place, where blades intercross with

shroud, and the 8C pattern has higher stress intensity factor than

8B, even though a better aerodynamic performance has been found

in this pattern [12].

7. Accumulated fatigue damage

To model damage accumulated for fatigue mechanics of composite material, Ye [18] proposed stiffness degradation technique

as a single criteria and based Yes model, Shookrieh improved it

with several practical parameters which make the model more

closed with experimental data [19].

As it is mentioned at the beginning of this work, the main purpose of this research is to evaluate fatigue life of two patterns of

composite impellers. This is done by calculating damage accumulated during different impeller working stages. Since centrifugal

and aerodynamic stresses are the main loadings considered, load

procedures can be simplied as in Fig. 11. From stress analysis in

previous sections, we have known that there exist stress concentration factors on the fracture blade roots and the critical zone in

facture blade root 1 has the biggest dynamic stress changes. It is

necessary to consider points such as keypoint 114 as the weak

points for structural life prediction. Similar conclusions have been

reached by authors to investigate impeller blades fatigue life

[9,19].

During compressor start-up period, Dtstart, keypoint 114 in fracture blade root 1 is subjected to the heaviest tensile stress. Here

this point also has the largest stress concentration factor compared

to all other keypoints. Local damaging occurs as micro-crack nucleation occurs. Damage caused by the centrifugal stress is reciprocal

to the fatigue resistance of the material at the same load range, Nf,i

according to Miners linear rule [23]:

di

1

N f ;i

The damage due to ni load cycles of the load rang i during different

working range, is given by

di;n ni di

ni

N f ;i

And the total damage caused to the detail by the load cycles of different load levels is thus:

Dtot

X

i

di;n

X ni

Nf ;i

In this case, the total fatigue life the impeller blade can be calculated through:

X ni

1

nstart

ncomp

nshut-down

Dtot

Nf

Nf ;i Nf ;start N f ;comp N f ;shut-down

rotate 3.2 105 cycles with a converted 9455 h before its catastrophic failure (for 8B) and 7390 h for 8C. Since Miners law is

based on linear assumption, the law itself is overly conservative

tshut

tc

tstart

t

Fig. 13. Loadings for blade life determination.

Table 6

Life prediction results of patterns.

Patterns

Life

cycles

Life

in

hour

(centrifugal + aero

loads)

(only centrifugal

load)

8B

8C

3.2 105

2.5 105

9455

7390

6498

5077

9500

8500

2065

for nite element analysis and composite micromechanical modeling theory was used to predict composites physical and mechanical properties. Convergence issues were discussed and addressed

before various loading to the blade, and all load cases, were identied calculated and evaluated and negligible cases were ignored.

By performing nite element modeling, the critical zone of the

blade can be obtained at the tip of blade. The impeller rotates at

the designed rpm of 7000 and safety factors for fatigue life have

been calculated based on FE analysis results. In order to better

evaluate impellers fatigue life, this work considered aerodynamic

forces effect to the blade beam. From FLUENT calculation, a transient static pressure trend was obtained which provided information for a further calculation of aerodynamic stress bending effect

in ANSYS. Methodology of combining centrifugal stress and aerodynamic stress from bending effect would improve fatigue lifes

investigation accuracy. Based on this methodology and by using

Miners linear law, fatigue life evaluation was conducted based

on the detailed simulation results. Considering vibration and load

variation effects, the fatigue life was modied. 8B pattern has a fatigue life of 6498 h and 8C pattern has shorter one 5077 h. Compared with conventional approaches where aerodynamic loads

are omitted, safe fatigue life has been reduced for 32% in case of

8B and 40% in case of 8C. It is thus concluded that aerodynamic

loads is important especially when fatigue life is predicted in

sophisticated impeller geometry.

References

where stress change is low and variable amplitude loading in this

study is considered. To improve the reliability of the predicted life,

effects of vibrations and load variations should be considered.

Here, we adopt a modied coefcient of 1.455 for the fracture

blade root 1. The number of is based on a scatter factor of loads.

From this consideration, we can draw a conclusion that fatigue life

time of 6498 h for 8B and 5077 for 8C is a safe and conservative

value.

Following the same procedure, except omitting aerodynamic

stress in conventional approaches where only start and stop procedures exist in Fig. 13, calculated results in Table 6 show that safe

fatigue life time for 8B is about 9500 h, for 8C is 8500 h. It therefore

indicates that by taking into account of the high frequency aerodynamic load with small amplitude, a prediction of safe fatigue life

reduces about 32% for 8B and 40% for 8C. Presented results show

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9. Conclusion

The aim of this study was to numerically simulate two types of

axial composite impellers fatigue life using both nite element

analysis (FEA) and computational uid dynamic (CFD) method.

This paper presents rst time the consideration of simultaneous

inuence on the predicted safe life of specic impeller, of two types

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frequency aerodynamic load of small amplitude.

In this work, carbon ber/epoxy composites with ber volume

fraction of 30% were used for blade structure. To simplify the modeling process, linear elastic stress strain relationship was assumed

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