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SPSU, UDAIPUR

Lab Manual
Fluid Mechanics

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Experiment No. 13
TITLE
VERIFICATION OF BERNOULLIS THEOREM
OBJECTIVE
To verify Bernoullis equation experimentally
AIM
To calculate the total energy at different points
To plot the graph between the total energy vs distance

INTRODUCTION
Bernoullis theorem states that when there is a continuous connection between particles of
flowing mass of liquid, the total energy at any section of flow will remain the same provided
there is no reduction or addition of energy at any point.
THEORY
This is the energy equation and is based on the law of conservation of energy. This equation
states that at two sections of flow field the total energy remains the same, provided there is no
loss or gain of energy between the two sections. This equation is valid only for steady flow. This
equation is expressed as:

DESCRIPTION
The present experimental set up for Bernoullis theorem is self contained recirculating unit. The
set up accompanies the sump tank, constant head tank, centrifugal pump for water recirculation, measuring tank etc. Control valve and by-pass valves are provided to regulate the
flow of water in constant head tank. A conduit, made of Perspex, of varying cross section is
provided, which is having converging and diverging section. Piezometer tubes are fitted on this
test section at specified points. The inlet of the conduit is connected to constant head tank.
Discharge through test section can be measured with the help of measuring tank and stop watch.

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SPSU, UDAIPUR

Lab Manual
Fluid Mechanics

Department of Mechanical Engineering

UTILITES REQUIRED
1. Electricity supply: Single phase, 220 V AC, 50 Hz, 5-15 amp socket with earth
connection.
2. Water supply( initial fill)
3. Drain required
4. Floor area required: 1.5m 0.75m.
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
Starting procedure:
1. Ensure that ON/OFF Switch given on the panel is at OFF position.
2. Close all the valves.
3. Fill sump tank with water.
4. Open by-pass valve given on the water supply line.
5. Switch ON the main power supply and switch ON the pump.
6. Partially close the by-pass valve to allow water to fill in overhead tank.
7. Wait until overflow occurs from overhead tank.
8. Regulate flow of water through test section with the help of valve provided at the end of
test section.
9. Ensure that overflow still occurs; if not partially close the by-pass valve to do so.
10. Measure pressure head by piezometer tubes.
11. Measure the flow of water, discharged through desired test section, using stop watch and
measuring tank.
12. Repeat same procedure (8) to (11) for different flow rates of water, operating control
valve.
Closing procedure:
1. When experiment is over switch off the pump.
2. Switch OFF power supply to panel.
3. Drain the apparatus completely with the help of drain valves provided.
OBSERVATION & CALCULATIONS
DATA:
g= 9.81m/s2
A=0.077m2
Sl. No. of test points
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

d, mm
28.0
23.5
18.5
14.0
18.5
23.5
28.0

a, m2

S, m
0.04(S1)
0.0785(S2)
0.092(S3)
0.1105(S4)
0.13585(Ss)
0.1562(S6)
0.19155(S7)
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SPSU, UDAIPUR

Lab Manual
Fluid Mechanics

Department of Mechanical Engineering

OBSERVATION TABLE:
Sl.
No.
1
2
3

R1 ,
cm

R2 ,
cm

T, sec Piezometric tube reading, cm


h1

h2

h3

h4

h5

h6

h7

CALCULATIONS:

R1 R2
-----------, m = -------------- m
100

A R
---------- , m3/sec = ----------------- m3/sec
t

59

SPSU, UDAIPUR
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Lab Manual
Fluid Mechanics

Plot the graph E (E1 to E7) vs S(S1 to S7)


NOMENCLATURE:
=
=
=
=
=
=

Area of measuring tank, m2


Cross-sectional area at test point (a1 to a7), m2
Diameter at test point (d1 to d7), m
Total energy at particular point (E1 to E7), m
Acceleration due to gravity, m/s2
Piezometric tube reading at particular point (h1 to h7), m

Pressure head at a particular point, m

Discharge, m3/sec

Rise of water level in measuring tank, m

R1

Final level of water in measuring tank, cm

R2
S
t

=
=
=

Initial level of water in measuring tank, cm


Distance of a particular point from reference (S1 to S7), m
Time taken for R, sec

Kinetic head at a particular point, m

Density of fluid, kg/m3

A
a
d
E
g
h

60

SPSU, UDAIPUR
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Lab Manual
Fluid Mechanics

PRECAUTION AND MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS:


1. Never run the apparatus if power supply is less than 180 volts and above 230 volts.
2. To prevent clogging of moving parts, Run Pump at least once in a fortnight.

TROUBLESHOOTING:
1. If pump gets jam, open the back cover of pump and rotate the shaft manually.
2. If pump gets heat up, switch OFF the main power for 15 minutes
3. Always use clean water.
4. Always keep apparatus free from dust.
5. Drain the apparatus completely after experimentation.

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