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# Most likely, any new laws of physics would contain

## all our old ones, which would still work under

normal circumstances.

## Any violation of the Law of Conservation of

Momentum would be as revolutionary (if not more
so) as Einsteins relativity.

## If the assumption is false, then the laws of physics

will be different for everybody, and there is no point
in doing physics.

## Every time I let you choose your coordinate system,

I have used that assumption of invariance.

## If you assume that the laws of physics are invariant

under coordinate transformations, then the Law of
Conservation of Momentum follows mathematically and
inevitably.

momentum.

## dynamics (Newtons laws, forces)

rotational dynamics is a subset of this

English!

## Before we continue with momentum and impulse, lets

step back and think about where we have come from.

Retrospective

## These conservation laws emerge from symmetry

concepts far deeper than Newtons laws.

## The conservation law corresponding to space

translational symmetry is the Law of Conservation of
Momentum.

## The conservation law corresponding to time translational

symmetry is the Law of Conservation of Energy (we have
seen a special case of this lawconservation of
mechanical energy).

## For every conservation law, there must exist a

continuous symmetry.

## In 1905, mathematician Emmy Noether proved the

following theorem:
For every continuous symmetry of the laws of physics,
there must exist a conservation law.

## But the Law of Conservation of Momentum is much

more fundamental than just an experimental
observation.

## which implies maybe we just havent done careful

enough experiments, and that maybe some day we
will find the law is not true after all.

is

## The above is a verbal expression of the Law of

Conservation of Momentum.

## It has been observed experimentally and verified over

and over that in the absence of a net external force, the
total momentum of a system remains constant.

before

after

on water by car

FWC,x=pWx/t

Step 7: solve.

## You can draw a fancy

sketch, but I suggest you
save time and draw point
masses. Make sure you
have SEPARATE before
and after parts.

## Impulse Example: Water leaves a hose at a rate of 1.5

kg/s with a speed of 20 m/s and is aimed at the side of a
car, which stops it without splashing it back (kind of a
fake problem, but thats OK). What is the force exerted
by the water on the car.
x

before

vi
m
after

vf=0

OSE:

Fx=px/t

## Conservation of Momentum Example: A moving

railroad car, mass=M, speed=Vi1, collides with an
identical car at rest. The cars lock together as a result of
the collision. What is their common speed afterward?

Step 4: OSE.

## Step 3: choose axes, lightly draw in components of any

vector not parallel to an axis.

## Hint: draw unknown velocity

(or momentum) vectors with
components that appear to be
positive, to avoid putting

M
after

M M

Vf

after

M M

Vf

after

Pf = Pi

because Fext=0

before

Vi2=0

after

M M

Vf

Vi1

## I will assume the friction in the wheels is negligible, so

the net force can be zeroed out here.

Vf = Vi1 / 2

Vf = mVi1 / 2m

## Caution: do not automatically assume the net external

force is zero. Verify before using!

OSE:

Step 4: OSE.

Pfx = Pix
0

Vf
M M

(2m)(+Vf) = m(+Vi1)

before

Vi2=0

## Step 3: choose axes, lightly draw in components of any

vector not parallel to an axis.

Vi1

## Step 6: write out initial and final sums of momenta (not

velocities). Zero out where appropriate.

## Step 5 will be applicable after we study section 7.3.

before

Vi2=0

Vi1

cars), at this point I would probably re-draw the sketch
using two point masses. For this example, I will stick
with the above sketches.