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Turtles

Created in 2009 by:

Central Organizer:
Rebecca Potchney

Unit IV VI Multiple Choice coordinator:


Punam Patel

Unit I III Multiple Choice coordinator:


Javier Bedolla

Short Answer Questions coordinator:


Kristine Andres

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS


Section I
Time 55 minutes
80 Questions
Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested
answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case and then place the letter of your choice
in corresponding box on the answer sheet.
1) According to the text, before making
judgments about institutions and interests,
we must first observe them
a. from a disinterested vantage point.
b. as manifestations of underlying
economic relationships.
c. firsthand.
d. on a variety of different issues.
e. through the lenses of bureaucrats.
2) Which of the following statements regarding
state constitutions is incorrect?
a. They tend to be far more detailed
than the federal Constitution.
b. They tend to embody a more
expansive view of government
responsibilities.
c. They tend to embody a more
expansive view of individual rights.
d. None of the above.
e. All of the above.
3) In the Marxist view, government is a
reflection of underlying ________ forces.
a. economic
b. political
c. ideological
d. social
e. teleological
4) The Federalist papers were written
a. at the suggestion of Benjamin
Franklin.
b. to explain democracy to European
governments.
c. to help win ratification of the
Constitution in New York.
d. principally by Madison and
Jefferson.
e. principally by John Jay.

5) Which of the following statements


concerning power is correct?
a. Its exercise can sometimes be
obvious.
b. It can be exercised in subtle ways.
c. It involves a person getting another
person to act in accordance with the
first persons wishes.
d. It is found in all human
relationships.
e. All of the above
6) The American version of representative
democracy was based on two major
principles:
a. self-interest and institutionalism.
b. separation of powers and
federalism.
c. commerce and competition.
d. liberty and equality.
e. unification and centralism.
7) Todays effort to scale back the size and
activities of the national government and
shift responsibilities back to the states has
become known as
a. devolution.
b. anti-federalism.
c. reverse-federalism.
d. statism.
e. repatriation.
8) A pluralist might agree with all of the
following statements except
a. political resources are not equally divided.
b. mass opinion and the interests of
citizens are irrelevant to
policymaking
c. political resources are divided
among different kinds of elites.
d. elites are not a united front.
e. policies are the outcome of
complex patterns of haggling,
compromises and shifting alliances.

9) The requirement that a state or locality


match federal money is most common with
a. categorical grants.
b. land grants.
c. share-pay loans.
d. block grants.
e. revenue sharing.
10) Block grants and revenue sharing were
efforts to
a. ensure that state spending was
sensitive to federal policies and
goals.
b. reverse trends by allowing states
and localities freedom to spend
money as they wished.
c. increase the dependency of state
governments on federal money.
d. accelerate states spending in areas
long ignored by Congress.
e. increase strings on money given
to state and local officials.
11) The text suggests representative democracy
is justified by all of the following concerns
except that
a. the people have limited information
and expertise.
b. direct democracy is impractical.
c. the people may decide large issues
on the basis of fleeting passions.
d. the people cannot choose among
competing leadership groups.
e. the people may respond to popular
demagogues.
12) A system is not federal unless local units of
government
a. are the official distributors of the
national governments resources.
b. exist independently and can make
decisions independent of the
national government
c. answer solely to the national
government.
d. make decisions in conjunction with
national goals and needs.
e. are mere administrative subunits of
the national government.
13) The Great Compromise
a. required Supreme Court justices to
be confirmed by the Senate.
b. based House representation on
population and Senate population
on equality.

c.
d.
e.

solved the conflict between those


who wanted a powerful House and
those who did not.
provided that the President be
selected by the Electoral College.
dealt without mentioning slavery.

14) When he wrote the Declaration of


Independence, Thomas Jefferson replaced
_________ with the pursuit of happiness.
a. life
b. property
c. justice
d. liberty
e. equality
15) The original purpose of the Constitutional
Convention was to
a. draw up a bill of rights.
b. discuss regulations on interstate
commerce.
c. levy taxes.
d. build an army.
e. revise the Articles of
Confederation.
16) The culture war is basically a conflict over
a. economic issues.
b. foreign affairs.
c. international norms.
d. differing religious ideologies.
e. private and public morality.
17) The rate at which governments adopt
policies supported by majorities in polls
a. has increased dramatically.
b. has increased somewhat.
c. has remained the same for some
time now.
d. has decreased.
e. suggests politicians often pander to
constituents.
18) Which of the following statements about
class-consciousness in America is accurate?
a. It has been relatively unimportant.
b. It has had powerful effect upon
attitudes.
c. It is particularly salient among the
unemployed.
d. It implies an ideology of class
struggle.
e. It steers the campaigns of most
presidential elections.

19) After the 1890s voter-registration


regulations became more burdensome
because
a. they had longer residency
requirements.
b. it became harder for African
Americans to vote.
c. educational qualifications were
added in some states.
d. voters were required to register far
in advance of an election.
e. all of the above.
20) Which amendment prohibited the
depravation of life, liberty and property
without due process of law?
a. Tenth.
b. Thirteenth.
c. Fourteenth.
d. Fifteenth.
e. Twenty-sixth.
21) Which of the following is not among the
important elements in the American view of
the political system?
a. Civic duty.
b. Individualism.
c. Equality of Opportunity.
d. Democracy.
e. Equality of Condition.
22) The First Amendment states that Congress
may not make any law prohibiting the free
exercise of religion. It also specifically
states that
a. church and state must be clearly
separate.
b. there will be no official church in
the United States.
c. citizens are exempt from laws
binding other citizens when the law
goes against their religious beliefs.
d. Congress may not make any law
respecting an establishment of
religion.
e. nonsectarian, voluntary, or limited
prayer is permissible in public
schools.
23) Which of the following was intended to
serve as a check on public opinion?
a. Representative Democracy.
b. Federalism.
c. Separation of Powers.
d. An independent judiciary.
e. All of the above.

24) The Framers saw no need for a Bill of


Rights because
a. in their view, civil liberties were a
matter for the states, not for the
federal government.
b. they were convinced that in a
democratic republic, public opinion
was a sufficient protection.
c. no one bothered to even bring up
the topic at the Convention.
d. they assumed that the federal
government could not do things
that it was not explicitly authorized
to do.
e. their chief concern was protecting
public order, not guaranteeing
rights.
25) Those who cast ballots in elections but
engage in no other form of political
participation are called
a. voting specialists.
b. campaigners.
c. issue belligerents.
d. communalists.
e. parochial participants.
26) Which statement about the so-called
sophomore surge is correct?
a. It has been around since the 1940s.
b. It usually means an 8 to 10 percent
increase in votes.
c. It benefits members of the Senate
more than members of the House.
d. It does not benefit members of the
Senate at all.
e. It is the result of an increase in trust
of the Federal government.
27) In the late 1960s, the Supreme Court
rejected a so-called freedom of choice
plan because
a. Brown had explicitly ruled against
such plans.
b. too many children chose different
schools under the plan.
c. most students chose to stay in the
same schools under the plan.
d. school administrators were not
actually allowing students to make
a choice.
e. few people could make up their
minds easily about such decisions.

28) The landmark 1964 civil rights legislation


was passed, in large part, because
a. President Kennedy supported a
discharge petition.
b. the Senate was dominated by
Republicans.
c. the House was dominated by
Republicans.
d. members of the Supreme Court
expressed their supports.
e. consideration by committees was
bypassed.
29) Roe v. Wade held that the state may regulate
abortions to protect the health of the mother
a. in the first trimester
b. in the second trimester.
c. in the third trimester.
d. at any point in the pregnancy.
e. in cases involving rape or incest.
30) All of the following were true of the socalled progressives except
a. they wanted more strict voter
registration requirements.
b. they pressed for civil service
reform.
c. they called for non-partisan
elections at the city level.
d. they called for non-partisan
elections at the state level.
e. they opposed the use of mass media
in the conduct of political debate.
31) Up until the Jacksonian period of political
parties, presidential candidates were
nominated by
a. the Supreme Court.
b. state legislatures.
c. primary voters.
d. members of Congress.
e. party leaders.
32) Decentralization of political authority in the
United States is chiefly promoted by
a. the legal community.
b. federalism.
c. nationalism.
d. the church.
e. the mass media.

33) A major difference between presidential and


congressional campaigns is that
a. more people vote in congressional
elections.
b. presidential races are generally less
competitive.
c. presidential candidates can more
credibly take credit for
improvements in a district.
d. presidential incumbents can better
provide services for their
constituents.
e. congressional incumbents can more
easily duck responsibility.
34) The two-party system has persisted in the
United States for all of the following reasons
except
a. it is very difficult to form the broad
coalitions necessary to win.
b. the plurality system.
c. the Fourteenth Amendment limits
access to the ballot.
d. party voting is still quite common
among American voters.
e. the laws of many states made it
difficult for third parties to exist or
win.
35) Unlike funding for presidential campaigns,
the money for congressional campaigns
comes from
a. both private and public sources.
b. public sources only.
c. private sources only.
d. federal matching grants only.
e. state income taxes.
36) If you wished to study the real leadership
office in the Senate, you would most likely
focus on the
a. president pro tempore.
b. majority leader.
c. party whip
d. chairperson of the Policy
Committee.
e. chairperson of the Judiciary
Committee.
37) The Congressional Black Caucus is one of
the best known
a. national constituency caucuses.
b. interest groups.
c. state delegations.
d. specialized caucuses.
e. auxiliary caucuses.

38) Since the 1970s, the chairpeople for the


House committees have been chosen by
a. teller vote.
b. voice vote.
c. years of seniority.
d. the Committee on Committees.
e. secret ballot.

a.

39) Under the original U.S. Constitution,


members of the Senate, unlike members of
the House, were selected by
a. direct elections.
b. the president.
c. state legislatures.
d. primary runoffs.
e. regional coalitions.

e.

40) As a member of Congress, you vote for a


dairy- support bill favored by the dairy
industry in your district. Political scientists
would describe your vote as
a. attitudinal.
b. organizational.
c. representational.
d. deliberative.
e. relational.
41) Because they are usually the only ones that
can report out bills, the most important
committees are the
a. joint committees.
b. conference committees.
c. standing committees.
d. select committees.
e. rejoinder committees.
42) Why was governments provision of
financial aid to women and orphans in the
early twentieth century not controversial?
a. Because it was considered
legitimate for those groups to
benefit.
b. Because it was considered
politically advantageous to support
between these two groups.
c. Because so few citizens were aware
of economic costs of this aid.
d. Because no special-interest group
stepped forward to support this aid.
e. Because the aid was not solicited
and involved relatively little
money.
43) One reason the NAACPs strategy of using
the courts to further black civil rights
worked was that it

b.
c.
d.

avoided focusing on the clearest


abuses.
presented broad economic demands
to whites.
avoided direct confrontation with a
conservative Supreme Court.
did not require a broad legislative
alliance.
avoided the complications that
often surround appellate processes.

44) A name used to describe the laws that


officially sanctioned racial discrimination is
a. Jim Crow.
b. Uncle Remus.
c. Amos n Andy.
d. Uncle Tom.
e. General White.
45) The _______ Amendment to the U.S.
Constitution appeared to guarantee equal
rights for blacks.
a. First
b. Fourteenth
c. Twenty-first
d. Twenty-fifth
e. Twenty-sixth
46) An example of a welfare policy in which
most or all people benefit is
a. Aid to Families with Dependent
Children (AFDC).
b. food stamps.
c. free school meals.
d. Medicare.
e. A and B.
47) Welfare policies in which nearly everyone
benefits and everyone pays are characterized
by
a. neo-institutional politics.
b. minoritarian politics.
c. client politics.
d. concurrency politics.
e. majoritarian politcs.
48) According to the text, one reason that
restrictions on black Americans continued
for so long was that
a. blacks themselves were ambivalent
about their civil rights.
b. interest groups could easily
mobilize to block their efforts.
c. such restrictions were consistently
upheld by federal courts.

d.
e.

the civil-rights movement was


targeted at the wrong groups.
civil rights activists were frequently
the target of negative publicity in
the national news media.

49) The Supreme Court decision that held


constitutional the doctrine of separate-butequal was
a. Sipuel v. Board of Regents.
b. Sweatt v. Painter.
c. Brown v. Board of Education.
d. Millikin v. Bradley.
e. Plessy v. Ferguson.
50) The method of staff organization that poses
the risk of isolating or misinforming the
president is called
a. intuitive.
b. pyramid.
c. circular.
d. ad hoc.
e. linear.
51) The Great Watershed in the expansion of
government bureaucracy in the United
States occurred during the
a. Jacksonian period.
b. Kennedy administration.
c. Spanish-American War.
d. Franklin Roosevelt administration.
e. Civil War.
52) When are laws that narrow the limits of
permissible speech and activity most likely
to be passed?
a. when entrepreneurial politics is
weakest.
b. when the presidency is weak.
c. when cultures are in conflict.
d. during times of peace and
prosperity.
e. during times of war or civil unrest.
53) Requiring all couples applying for a
marriage license to pay to be tested for
AIDS would be an example of
a. concentrated benefits.
b. widespread costs.
c. widespread costs and benefits.
d. concentrated costs.
e. none of these.
54) An example of pork-barrel politics is when
Congress

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

chooses committee chairmanships


on the basis of seniority.
enacts election laws that favor
incumbents.
passes laws that distribute benefits
and costs to the great majority of
the people.
enacts a program that benefits a
single members district.
enacts a program that benefits a
group of Senators but not the entire
Senate.

55) An example of client-based welfare policies


that recently lost political legitimacy is
a. Social Security.
b. Medicare.
c. Aid to Families with Dependent
Children (AFDC).
d. Medicaid.
e. All of these.
56) Each of the following was one of the fears
expressed by he Founders about aspects of
the presidency except
a. the fear of a presidents using
bribery or force to ensure his
reelection.
b. the fear of a presidents using the
militia to overpower state
governments.
c. the fear of a presidents using his
position to shape public opinion.
d. the fear of a presidents being
corrupted by, or corrupting, the Senate.
e. the fear that the president would be
directed by minions and
favorites.
57) When President Reagan was governor of
California, he could veto portions of a bill
that were irrelevant to the subject of the bill.
He was exercising what is called
a. constitutional discretion.
b. a pocket veto.
c. states rights.
d. gubernatorial averaging.
e. a line-item veto.
58) The text argues that the power of a
bureaucracy is best measured by its
a. interest group connections.
b. size.
c. budgets.
d. organized opposition.
e. discretionary authority.

59) Todays bureaucracy is largely a product of


which two events?
a. the Korean War and the war in
Vietnam.
b. the Depression of the 1930s and
the war in Vietnam.
c. World War I and World War II.
d. the Depression of the 1930s and
World War II.
e. World War I and the Korean war.
60) An agency that Ronald Reagan was unable
to abolish because of its persistent support in
Congress was the
a. Social Security Administration.
b. Department of Health and Human
Services (DHHS).
c. Small Business Administration
(SBA).
d. Fisheries and Wildlife Commission.
e. Internal Revenue Service.
61) In foreign policy issues that are majoritarian
in nature, decision-making tends to be
dominated by
a. the president.
b. Congress.
c. the bureaucracy.
d. public opinion.
e. influential members of the Senate.
62) In 1973, Congress adopted the _________,
which required the president to consult with
Congress before sending U.S. troops into
action.
a. War Powers Act.
b. Twenty-sixth Amendment.
c. Declaration and Intention
Amendment.
d. Foreign Relations Limited Security
Clause.
e. Boland-Fry Amendment.
63) The chief judicial weapon in he
governments system of checks and balances
is known as
a. judicial activism.
b. judicial interpretivism.
c. judicial review.
d. judicial standing.
e. judicial bypass.

64) The Court of Military Appeals is an example


of a
a. constitutional court.
b. district court.
c. court of appeal.
d. legislative court.
e. supreme court.
65) Senate conservatives, for example, might
make their approval of a Supreme Court
nominee contingent on that individuals
personal views about the death penalty. Such
concern for a nominees ideology is known
as
a. judicial standing.
b. a political litmus test.
c. senatorial courtesy.
d. an amicus curiae standard.
e. an exculpatory remand standard.
66) The First Amendment states that Congress
shall make no law prohibiting the free
exercise of religion. This means that
a. law may not impose a special
burden on religion.
b. religions are exempt from laws that
bind all others.
c. church and state must remain
separate.
d. Congress shall also make no law
respecting the establishment of a
religion.
e. religious leaders may normally
operate outside the legal system.
67) Which act made it a crime to write, utter, or
publish any false, scandalous, and
malicious material aimed at the
government with the intent to defame it?
a. The Sedition Act of 1798.
b. The Espionage Act of 1917.
c. The Smith Act of 1940.
d. The Internal Control Act of 1960.
e. The F.O.L.E. Act of 1975.
68) Interest group politics must involve
a. benefits to small groups, costs to large groups.
b. costs to small groups, benefits to large groups.
c. legal conflicts without specific benefits.
d. widespread costs and benefits.
e. two or more small, identifiable groups.
69) What distinguishes client politics from
interest group politics?
a. the fact that ideology plays a larger
role in client politics

b.
c.
d.
e.

the fact that client politics does not


involve interest groups
the fact that only one group
benefits in client politics
the fact that costs are widely
distributed in client politics
the fact that client politics are
rarely partisan

70) The two kinds of programs included in the


Social Security Act of 1935 were
a. loans and insurance.
b. assistance and loans.
c. loans and tax breaks.
d. tax breaks and insurance.
e. insurance and assistance.
71) The key problem in reforming Social
Security will be
a. not enough people to pay taxes to
provide benefits for every retired person.
b. too few people to receive benefits.
c. not enough deserving people to
receive benefits.
d. convincing older persons to support
its continuance.
e. convincing politicians there is a
real problem.
72) Presidents have been limited to two terms by
the
a. Fourteenth Amendment.
b. Sixteenth Amendment.
c. Nineteenth Amendment.
d. Twenty-first Amendment.
e. Twenty-second Amendment.
73) A president suffers a stroke but nevertheless
wants to remain in office. The vice president
and cabinet disagree. The president may be
removed by
a. impeachment.
b. a two-thirds vote of Congress.
c. a Supreme Court ruling.
d. the combined opinions of the vice
president and cabinet.
e. a writ of mandamus.
74) A person appointed to a government position
after passing an examination is probably
joining the
a. excepted service.
b. competitive service.
c. patronage system.
d. Department of State.

e.

Department of Justice.

75) All of the following are examples of


majoritarian politics in foreign policy except
a. nuclear test ban treaty.
b. a quota system on Japanese steel imports.
c. military alliances in Western Europe.
d. a strategic arms limitation treaty (SALT)
agreement.
e. A, B, and C.
76) The constitutional power to declare war and
to regulate commerce with other nations is
vested in the
a. State Department.
b. Senate.
c. President.
d. the House of Representatives.
e. Congress.
77) Since the 1920s, the text argues, U.S. elite
opinion has moved through all of the
following world views except
a. isolationism.
b. antiappeasement.
c. disengagement.
d. anti-imperialism.
e. A and C.
78) Which of the following is most likely to be
true of an activist judge?
a. He or she is conservative politically.
b. He or she is bound by the wording
of the U.S. Constitution.
c. He or she is liberal politically.
d. He or she is an interpretivist.
e. He or she feels contrained by precedent.
79) Brown v. Board of Education is an example
of a
a. taxpayer suit.
b. class-action suit
c. Section 1983 suit.
d. reapportionment suit.
e. client participatory suit.
80) The right of free expression, although not absolute,
enjoys a higher status than the other rights granted
by the U.S. Constitution. This is known as the
doctrine of
a. prior restraint.
b. existential priority.
c. neutrality and clarity.
d. least means.
e. preferred position.

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS


Section II
Time 1 hour and 40 minutes

Directions: You have 100 minutes to answer all four of the following questions. Unless the directions
indicate otherwise, respond to all parts of all four questions. It is suggested that you take a few minutes to plan
and outline each answer. Spend approximately one-fourth of your time (25 minutes) on each question. In your
response, use substantive examples where appropriate. Make certain to number each of your answers as the
question is numbered below.
Question 1:
In the political system, citizens can feel civic duty and/or civic competence.

Explain the difference between civic duty and civic competence.


How do these affect American politics?
How does religion affect civic duty and civic competence?

Question 2:
In 1993, the motor-voter law was passed by Congress.

Explain the purpose of this law.


What was the result of the passage of the motor-voter law?
Did the law do anything purposeful?

Question 3:
In the original bicameral legislature, there is the House of Representatives, and there is also the Senate.
Together, they are known as Congress.

Describe the differences between the House and the Senate.


What is the negative side of the House and the Senate?
Why is Congress considered effective?

Question 4:

The American political agenda can be affected by several factors.

What types of events and experiences change how the government runs?
Discuss the medias role in the changes of Americas political agenda.

Explain how something such as the picture above changes the political agenda.