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Anna James

Senior Division
Primary Sources
Between Berlin and Rome. Digital image. GDHI. Bildarchiv Preuischer Kulturbesitz, n.d. Web.
2 Feb. 2015. <http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_image.cfm?image_id=1341>.
This cartoon is showing both sides of the Kulturkampf, the Pope and Bismarck, and how
they were plotting against each other. I used this image to show how complicated the
Kulturkampf was, and how Bismarck was very involved in getting rid of the Catholics in
Germany.
Bismarck, Otto von. Edited Ems Telegram, July 13, 1870. Telegram.
http://www2.uncp.edu/home/rwb/Ems%20Telegram.htm (accessed January 11, 2015).
This document is the telegram initially written by the King of Prussia, and later edited an
released by Otto von Bismarck to the public. It was written in hopes of spurring a war in between
France and Prussia. I am using this telegram to look at both versions, and also to examine one of
the reasons for the Franco-Prussian War, giving an insight into Bismarcks motives.
Bismarck, Otto von. Letter to Minister von Manteuffel, 1856. Letter. From: James Harvey
Robinson, ed., Readings in European History, 2 Vols., (Boston: Ginn and Co.,
1904-1905), II:571-575; Otto von Bismarck, The Man and Statesman,
(New York,
1899), II:48-51.
http://legacy.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/germanunification.asp
(accessed
January 11, 2015).
Bismarcks letter to Minister von Manteuffel was written when there was a large conflict
between Austria and Prussia, and the two were trying to figure out which would be the leader of
the new Germany. This letter will be helpful in determining reasons for Prussias leadership in
the unification of Germany, and also Bismarcks role in the process.
Bismarck, Otto von. Untitled Document, 1866. Speech. From: James Harvey
Robinson, ed., Readings in European History, 2 Vols., (Boston: Ginn and Co.,
1904-1905), II:571-575; Otto von Bismarck, The Man and Statesman,
(New York, 1899),
II:48-51.
http://legacy.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/germanunification.asp (accessed January
11,
2015).
This source is a speech written by Otto von Bismarck concerning his actions taken
towards Austria, and in some cases, his lack of actions. Bismarcks speech will be useful in that it
provides information directly from the leader of German unification, and also provides insight
into some decisions made during that time period.

Bismarck, Otto von. Memoirs, Memoir. From: J. H. Robinson, ed.Readings in European History
(Boston: Ginn, 1906), 2: 583-586, 588-590. https:// history.hanover.edu/texts/bis.html
(accessed January 11, 2015).
This source is memoirs written by Bismarck periodically throughout his time as a leader
in German unification. I will be able to use this source to gain insight into Bismarcks personal
accounts of the events that occurred, and also have more information on Bismarck as a person.
Bismarck, Otto von. Edited Ems Telegram. Digital image. GDHI. Bildarchiv Preuischer
Kulturbesitz, n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2015. <http://www.germanhistorydocs.ghidc.org/
sub_image.cfm?image_id=1392>.
This is a copy of the edited version of the Ems Telegram, edited by Otto von Bismarck.
The image shows how Bismarck changed the meaning of the telegram just to instigate a war. I
am using this image to show the physical document alongside the translated document.
Drawing of the First Reichstag. Digital image. GDHI. Bildarchiv Preuischer Kulturbesitz, n.d.
Web. 2 Feb. 2015.<http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_image.cfm?
image_id=1412>.
This is a sketch of the First Reichstag meeting in the chamber for the first time. I used
this image to show what the first government of the new Germany looked like, and also how it
was arranged. I used it to enhance the image people will see when they think of the Reichstag.
Depiction of the Battle of Kniggrtz. Digital image. Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2015.
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1866_prinz-friedrich-karl-beikoeniggraetz_1b-640x428.jpg>.
This is an image of the Battle of Kniggrtz, and it is showing the Austrians fighting the
Prussians on the front line. I am using this picture to show the Austro-Prussian war, and the
difference between the two armies fighting the war.
Droysen, Johann Gustav. Speech to Frankfurt Assembly, 1848. Speech. From: James Harvey
Robinson, ed., Readings in European History, 2 Vols., (Boston: Ginn and Co.,
1904-1905), II:571-575; Otto von Bismarck, The Man and Statesman,
(New York,
1899), II:48-51.
http://legacy.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/germanunification.asp (accessed
January 11,
2015).
Droysens speech to the Frankfurt Assembly was early on in the process of German
unification, and was involved in the decision as to which power would be better to rule Germany
once it was unified. This source provides information on the Frankfurt Assembly before
Bismarck was involved, and will help me to understand the predicament that German was in.

Germany and Netherlands Map. Digital image. Mapsof. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2015. <http://
mapsof.net/map/germany-and-netherlands-map>.
This is a map of Germany post unification, and possibly even modern day Germany. I
am using this map to demonstrate how the borders of Germany were changed after unification,
and how Germany became one solid power.
Moltke, Helmuth von. Untitled Document, 1866. Unknown. From: James Harvey
Robinson, ed., Readings in European History, 2 Vols., (Boston: Ginn and Co.,
1904-1905), II:571-575; Otto von Bismarck, The Man and Statesman,
(New York, 1899),
II:48-51.
http://legacy.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/germanunification.asp (accessed January
11,
2015).
Helmuth Moltkes document concerning the war between Austria and Prussia further
amplifies the conflict between the two countries over Germany. This document will be helpful in
determining how the war ended, and also why certain decisions were made. I will use this
document to further my understanding of the conflict over which country would rule Germany.
Moltke, Helmuth. On the Nature of War, December 11, 1880. Letter. From: Arden Bucholz,
Moltke, Schlieffen and Prussian War Planning (New York, 1991).
http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/On_the_Nature_of_War_by_Helmut_Moltke_(the_Elder)
(accessed January 11, 2015).
Moltkes letter was written later in the 19th century, providing an insight to the aftermath
of the unification of Germany. His thoughts on war will be useful in determining why certain
decisions were made concerning unification, and also the effects of war will be examined. I will
be using this source to look at the later years of German unification.
Otto Von Bismarck. Digital image. Otto Von Bismarck. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2015. <http://
www.thelatinlibrary.com/imperialism/notes/bismarck.html>.
This is an image of Otto von Bismarck dressed in his military uniform. I am using this
image to show what Bismarck looked like when wearing his typical uniform, and also do
demonstrate how much the army and military meant to Bismarck.
Photograph of Bismarck. Digital image. Otto Von Bismarck. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2015. <http://
www.politikergedenkstiftungen.de/otto-von-bismarck/>. This is an image of Otto von
Bismarck himself, in his older age. I am using this image to show who Bismarck really
was, and what he looked like in real life. This image will help the viewers to see what the real
Bismarck was like.
Polish Children in Germany. Digital image. Polen Voor Nederlanders. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Feb.
2015. <http://www.polenvoornederlanders.nl/?page_id=4297&lang=en>.

This is an image of Polish children in 1902 who were punished because of Bismarck's
social reforms concerning minorities. I used this image to show how the minorities were treated,
and also demonstrate the effects of Bismarck's policies.
Schneckenburger, Max. The Watch on The Rhine. 1870. From: Eva March Tappan, ed., The
World's Story: A History of the World in Story, Song and Art, 14 Vols., (Boston:
Houghton
Mifflin, 1914), Vol. VII: Germany, The Netherlands, and Switzerland, pp. 249250.
http://legacy.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1870wachtrhein.asp
The song written by Max Schneckenburger provides details on the German nationalism
and patriotism that were around after the unification was complete. This source will help me see
the more cultural effects of Bismarcks actions towards unification, and also how the German
society reacted to the unification.
Schneckenburger, Max, Adolph Methfessel, and J. Mendel. "Die Wacht Am Rhein. 3 Feb.
2015. Accessed through
<https://ia700503.us.archive.org/35/items/DieWachtAmRhein/
DieWachtAmRhein.mp3>.
This is a patriotic German song from before the 1848 revolutions. It was written by Max
Schneckenburger originally as a poem, but later added to music by J. Mendel. It was later
performed for the Prussian ambassador von Bunsen by Adolph Methfessel. I am using this song
along with the translated lyrics to show how there was nationalism before the unification, which
continued to rise after unification occurred.
Unknown. The German Empire, 1871. 1871. Map. From: http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/
~wggerman/map/germanempire.htm. (accessed January 11, 2015)
This map shows what the unified Germany looked like after the end of the FrancoPrussian war. I will use this map to show the geographical changes of German unification, and
how much the borders were altered through the process.
Unknown. A War Correspondent in the Franco-Prussian War. 1870. From: Eva March Tappan,
ed., The World's Story: A History of the World in Story, Song and Art, 14 Vols.,
(Boston:
Houghton Mifflin, 1914), Vol. VII: Germany, The Netherlands, and
Switzerland, pp.
249250.http://legacy.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1870wachtrhein.asp
This document written by a war correspondent during the Franco-Prussian war provides
an insight into what was happening as the war progressed. It is a first hand account, and will be
useful in seeing another perspective on the war itself. I will use this to further my knowledge of
the Franco-Prussian war from yet another point of view.
Werner, Anton Von. Proclamation of the German Empire. Digital image. Wernerprokla. N.p., n.d.
Web. 2 Feb. 2015. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unification_of_Germany#mediaviewer/
File:Wernerprokla.jpg>.

This is a painting of the Proclamation of the German Empire on January 18, 1871. The
painting depicts the final moment of German unification, and I am using it to show the events
that occurred on that day. Also, I am using it to portray the actual formation of the empire.
Wilhelm IV, Friedrich. Proclamation of 1849, 1849. Speech. From: James Harvey Robinson,
ed., Readings in European History, 2 Vols., (Boston: Ginn and Co., 1904-1905), II:
571-575; Otto von Bismarck, The Man and Statesman, (New York, 1899), II:4851.
http://legacy.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/germanunification.asp (accessed January
11,
2015).
Wilhelm IVs proclamation of 1849 shows his reaction to the actions of the Frankfurt
Assembly. This source is useful because it will show more on the deterioration of the Frankfurt
Assembly as Germany went into a new era of unification.
Wilhelm IV, Friedrich . The Imperial Proclamation, January 18, 1871. Proclamation. From:
James Harvey Robinson, ed., Readings in European History, 2 Vols., (Boston:
Ginn and
Co., 1904-1905), II:571-575; Otto von Bismarck, The Man and Statesman,
(New York,
1899), II:48-51.
http://legacy.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/germanunification.asp (accessed
January 11,
2015).
The Imperial Proclamation is the document that officially stated that Germany was a
country, and it demonstrates the result of the unification process. I will use this document to
show the result of German unification and the effects it had on the people. This source was
written by Wilhelm IV himself, providing a quality first hand account on the matter.

Secondary Sources

Dorpalen, Andreas. "The German Historians and Bismarck." The Review of Politics 15, no. 01
(1953): 53-67. Accessed January 11, 2015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0034670500007427.
This article is an examination and evaluation of Bismarck and his policies, and the
significance of Bismarck's actions and policies. I will be using this source to gain an insight to
another opinion on how Bismarck forever changed Germany, and what his legacy created.
Eyck, Erich. Bismarck and the German Empire. London: Allen & Unwin, 1950.
Dr. Eyck's analysis of Bismarck and the German Empire provides a look at Bismarck
before he became prime minister, his time as a minister, the period of German unification, and
Bismarck's era as the Chancellor. Eyck also examines the question of where Bismarck should be
placed in history, on the side of good or the side of evil. I used this source to gain another
perspective on Bismarck and his actions while also obtaining more information on the events of
the unification.
Farmer, Alan, and Andrea Stiles. The Unification of Germany 1815-1919. 3rd ed. S.l.: Hodder
Headline, 2007.
This source provides a more brief look at the events and periods of the German
Unification. It examines Germany from the beginning of Bismarck's life until the end of
Bismarck's reign. I am using this source to get more information on the specific events in certain
stages of the unification.
Gerwarth, Robert. The Bismarck Myth Weimar Germany and the Legacy of the Iron Chancellor.
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2005.
Robert Gerwarth writes a study on the myth and legacy of Bismarck after his reign as
prime minister and Chancellor throughout the unification of Germany. His book provides insight
to how Bismarck made an impact on Germany, culturally and politically. I will use this book to
examine the legacy left behind by Bismarck, and the myth that surrounds this leader.
Kissinger, Henry A. "The White Revolutionary: Reflections on Bismarck." Daedalus 97, no. 3
(1968): 888-924. Accessed January 11, 2015. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20023844.
This source is a section of a volume titled "Philosophers and Kings: Studies in
Leadership," written by Henry Kissinger. Kissinger examines how Bismarck was able to alter the
history of his society as a statesman, and also reflects on Bismarck's leadership. I will be using
this source to further investigate the impact Bismarck had on Germany, and also to have another
perspective on Bismarck's actions for the unification of Germany.
Palmer, R.R, Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. "The Global Consolidation of Large Nation-States,
1859-1871." In A History of the Modern World. 10th ed. Vol. 2. New York, NY:
McGraw-Hill College, 2006. 529, 532.

This book contains a chapter section specifically on the unification of Germany and Otto
von Bismarck. I ma using this book to take excerpts to use in my website to help summarize the
information, and to get a better overview of the unification process.

Pflanze, Otto. Bismarck and the Development of Germany; the Period of Unification, 18151871. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1963.
Otto Pflanze provides an in depth study into the era of German unification and
Bismarck's leadership. Pflanze examines the various periods of the unification process and
Bismarck's involvement in the process. I will use this book mainly to obtain information on the
events of the unification process and to further look at the development of modern-day Germany.
Simon, Walter Michael. Germany in the Age of Bismarck,. London: George Allen and Unwin;,
1968.
In this collection of studies and documents, Simon provides a brief history of the events
leading up to, during, and after the unification of Germany. Beginning with the struggle for
power between Austria and Prussia, this source contains information and primary sources from
each period of German unification. I used this book to gain knowledge on the events of the
unification process, and also to obtain more documents from the era for primary information.
Williamson, D. G. Bismarck and Germany, 1862-1890. 3rd ed. London: Longman, 1998.
David G. Williamson provides an in depth guide to Bismarck and his role in German
Unification. Throughout the book, Williamson explains the events of the unification while giving
more information on Bismarck himself. The book also contains fifty primary sources of different
types form Bismarck and others involved in the unification of Germany. I used this book to
obtain background information on the events of the unification process while also being able to
look at sources from the era.